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Sample records for external radiation present

  1. Present and future prospects of external radiation cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuckas, K. P.; Aleknavicius, E.; Grybauskas, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the most applicable method in the treatment of cancer patients. Rapid advances in radiotherapy and imaging techniques allow improvement in definition of target margins, volumes, and organs at risk. Conformal radiotherapy using multileaf collimator was introduced towards the end of the 1980s. Further improvements in dose distribution were possible through intensity modulation radiation therapy based on the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators for creating the desired dose variation inside a radiation field. The dose of definite radiotherapy is limited by dose tolerance of organs or tissues at risk near the target. In the last 50 years radiotherapy modalities achieved rapid developments, particularly in field of treatment planning and dose distribution. The main goal of that development is to apply definite radiotherapy dose to target and minimize normal tissue irradiation, leaving the patient free of treatment related morbidity. (author)

  2. Adaptation of the present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation to radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Thompson, I. M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The present concept of dosimetric radiation protection quantities for external radiation is reviewed. For everyday application of the concept some adaptations are recommended. The check of the compliance with dose limits should be performed either by the comparison with values of the respective operational quantities directly or by the calculation of the protection quantity by means of the operational quantity, the appertaining conversion coefficient and additional information of the radiation field. Only four operational quantities are regarded to be sufficient for most applications in radiation protection practice. The term equivalent should be used in the connection dose equivalent only. Proposals are made for names of frequently used operational quantities which are denoted up to now by symbols only. (authors)

  3. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  4. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  5. Quality assurance in personal dosimetry of external radiation: present situation and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, N.

    2006-01-01

    Whole body personal dosimetry is well established for the individual monitoring of radiation workers. High quality radiation dosimetry is essential for workers who rely upon personal dosemeters to record the amount of radiation to which they are exposed. The mandate has been given to the Personal Dosimetry, (secondary standard dosimetry laboratories) S.S.D.L., (Malaysian institute for nuclear energy research) M.I.N.T. to assure the individual monitoring for radiation workers in Malaysia. In 2005, the S.S.D.L;-M.I.N.T. supply, process and read out of personal dosemeters of nearly 13,000 dosimeters monthly, whereby. 12,000 are films and 1,000 are T.L.D.s. The objective of individual monitoring is not limited to the measurement of doses delivered to individuals, but it should demonstrate that limits of exposure have not been exceeded and that working conditions have not unexpectedly deteriorated. Dosimetry measurements are an important component of radiation protection programs and must be of high quality. The exposure of workers to radiation must be controlled and monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements. S.S.D.L.-M.I.N.T; demonstrates that its performance is at an acceptable level by implementing overall system performance, as evidenced by the ISO 9001 certification of the Personal Dosimetry Service in 2002 and ISO/I.E.C. 17025 accreditation to the calibration laboratory in 2004. The certification and accreditation processes achieved the goal by formalizing the recognition of satisfactory performance, and providing evidence of this performance. Overall performances are assessed, personnel operating the system will be trained and are well qualified and all actions will be documented. The paper describes the overview of the Q.M.S. carried out at the S.S. D.L.-M.I.N.T.. During the implementation of Q.M.S. a few areas has been identified for future consideration. These include performance specification and type testing of dosemeters, which provide a

  6. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  7. External radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.; Storer, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many reviews of the subject of radiation carcinogenesis in general and of specific radiation-induced cancers. The aim of this article is not to give an exhaustive, and perhaps exhausting, review of all that has been published since the thorough treatise of Walburg in volume 4 of this series but rather to concentrate on the questions that still remain of importance and recent contributions to the answers. In the years since 1974 a vast amount of information has been reported, and the authors assess what gain there has been in knowledge. For example, it is in the 13 years since the last review that the great majority of data for the carcinogenic effects of neutrons has appeared. It is over 50 years since the discovery of the neutron, and yet knowledge of the carcinogenic effects of neutrons is far from adequate

  8. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  9. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  10. External dosimetry - Applications to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussot, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Dosimetry is the essential component of radiation protection. It allows to determine by calculation and measurement the absorbed dose value, i.e. the energy amounts deposited in matter by ionizing radiations. It deals also with the irradiation effects on living organisms and with their biological consequences. This reference book gathers all the necessary information to understand and master the external dosimetry and the metrology of ionizing radiations, from the effects of radiations to the calibration of radiation protection devices. The first part is devoted to physical dosimetry and allows to obtain in a rigorous manner the mathematical formalisms leading to the absorbed dose for different ionizing radiation fields. The second part presents the biological effects of ionizing radiations on living matter and the determination of a set of specific radiation protection concepts and data to express the 'risk' to develop a radio-induced cancer. The third part deals with the metrology of ionizing radiations through the standardized study of the methods used for the calibration of radiation protection equipments. Some practical exercises with their corrections are proposed at the end of each chapter

  11. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat many types of cancer. it is a local treatment, where a machine aims radiation at your cancer. Learn more about different types of external beam radiation therapy, and what to expect if you're receiving treatment.

  12. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  13. Radiation myelopathy (case presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangheli, M.; Lisnic, V.; Plesca, S.; Odainic, O.; Chetrari, L.

    2009-01-01

    The radiotherapy is one of the most widely spread and commonly used method in treating tumors of different localization. A detailed analysis of benefits and possible side effects along with evaluation of the risk factors allows preventing one of the most difficult complication, and namely the radiation myelopathy. The delayed form of such a disease is distinguished by a pronounced unfavorable prognosis. The presented case provoked the discussion of difficulties in performing differential diagnosis, as well as the importance of determining the localization of vulnerable tissues as regards the target organ exposed to radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. Environmental external radiation at some Bulgarian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Gelev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the environmental radiation background are important from several points of view. First, they permit to estimate the exposure of humans to natural radiation background as a function of different geographical and geophysical parameters. Second, such studies can give also relevant information concerning the consequences of human activities on the presence of ionizing radiation and its sources in the environment. Our both institutions have started since 2000 year common studies in the field of environmental radiation background and its variation with the locality considered. First we have decided to compare the measuring methods used. They were compared on the territory of the Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE BAS), particularly in the surroundings of IRT 2000 research reactor. Further, they were compared also at the monitoring station on the territory of INRNE BAS. Finally, the studies were enlarged to the Moussala Observatory of the Institute at Rila Mountains. Several measuring instruments were used to characterize external environmental radiation exposure: Environmental radiation dose rate meter NB 3201 developed in the Czech Republic with a plastic scintillator with small NaI-TL crystal used to compensate the energy dependence to low energy photons; MDU-Liulin semiconductor spectrometer with Si-diode as the sensitive element able to characterize the radiation with both low and high LET; Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) CaSO 4 :Dy, powder of this TLD material was filled to an Al dose. Results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed. A good agreement of the results obtained was observed, also when compared to the results of other experimental groups. (authors)

  15. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W.M.

    1960-01-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material

  16. Report on emergency exposure to external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochin, E E; Rock Carling, Ernest; Court Brown, W M [Medical Research Council, Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations, London (United Kingdom); and others

    1960-12-01

    The Medical Research Council has continued a study of the effects on the health of persons in the neighbourhood of atomic energy installations should there be a release of radioactive material as a result of fires or other incidents. The Council's Committee on Protection against Ionizing Radiations has already reported (Medical Research Council, 1959) on the maximum permissible dietary contamination for iodine 131, strontium 89, strontium 90 and caesium. 137, since it was considered that for the members of the public normally resident in the area affected ingestion of contaminated food would generally be the limiting source of hazard after any such accident and that intake by inhalation, or radiation from the exterior, would become of importance only in rather special circumstances The present report deals with the problem of exposure from the exterior, namely, from external sources of beta and gamma radiation. This exposure might be derived from two sources, one of relatively short duration from the passage of a cloud of radioactive material, the other of longer duration from deposited material.

  17. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  18. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen's discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks

  19. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  20. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  1. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, E [Mevaterapia Medical Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author).

  2. Simulation and radiation treatment in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that in order to obtain a uniform dose in the treated volume as defined in ICRU 50, there should be a 10% maximum difference between maximum and minimum dose values in treatment planning. Clinical target volume (CTV) should be related to external areas of body sections where tumour is located. These areas are important because different radiation beams enter through them. Therefore, verification of the planning target volume (PTV) through the external areas is highly significant. In this work we point out the importance of controlling that PTV is irradiated as planned considering some error sources usually found in radiotherapy practice with equipment that has been intensively used for a long time. Moreover, I think this experience will be helpful for those centers around the world where radiation treatment is carried out with reconditioned units. (author)

  3. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT

  4. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  5. Externalities and the Coase Theorem: A Diagrammatic Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halteman, James

    2005-01-01

    In intermediate microeconomic textbooks the reciprocal nature of externalities is presented using numerical examples of costs and benefits. This treatment of the Coase theorem obscures the fact that externality costs and benefits are best understood as being on a continuum where costs vary with the degree of intensity of the externality. When…

  6. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  7. Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments. Advanced training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Boehm, J.; Doerschel, B.

    1999-02-01

    Between February 24 and 26, 1999, the Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V. held an advanced training course in Tabarz/Thuringia on the subject 'Dosimetry of external radiation: Recent developments'. The following subject matters were dealt with: New concepts and measurands; Present national and international rules; Measurement of the body dose; Exposure conditions at workplaces; and Present state of dosimetric metrology. In correspondence with the subject, the course was organized by the working group 'Dosimetry of external radiation'. Target groups of the course were persons bearing responsibility in the radiation protection sector and interested persons with basic knowledge of this field. The present report comprises the written versions of lectures delivered at the meeting. (orig.) [de

  8. [External cephalic version of breech presentation at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Susanne; Berge, Lillian N; Børdahl, Per E; Egeland, Thore; Henriksen, Tore; Håheim, Lise Lund; Øian, Pål

    2005-03-03

    External cephalic version could be an alternative to either vaginal delivery or caesarean section in breech presentation at term. A systematic literature review about external cephalic version in breech presentation. The numbers of breech presentation delivered by caesarean section could probably be reduced in Norway by offering version, but this would not affect perinatal mortality.

  9. Restenosis Prevention Using Photon External Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    During transluminal coronary angioplasty, the balloon procedure is designed to crush the plaque and to support the weakened arterial wall by using the stent (an expandable metallic mesh). This procedure often tears the arterial wall as well. Some of the cells in the blood vessel respond to this injury by initiating repair which often leads to restenosis (reclosing) of the artery. In many cases restenosis occur despite the stent which become incorporated into the poliferative tissue that form around the lesion. But if the lesion is treated with radiation (8-30 Gy) the restenosis effect is inhibited. In this paper, the Adjoint Monte Carlo (AMC) method is used for external radiation treatment planning of the stent volume (the volume covered by the stent during a full cardiac cycle), while minimizing the damage to the organs at risk (OAR) and surrounding healthy tissue

  10. XXXIX Days of Radiation Protection. Proceedings of Presentations and Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The publication has been set up as a proceedings of presented presentations and posters on the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. In this proceedings totally 55 presentations and posters are included. The Conference consists of following sections: (I) Radiation protection, consequences of implementation of the EU2013/59 directive in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic); (II) Radiation protection in the application of ionizing radiation in medicine; (III) Dosimetry and metrology of external and internal irradiation; (IV) Natural sources of ionizing radiation, national radon programs; (V) Nuclear energy, the concept of decommissioning of nuclear power plants in terms of radiation protection; (VI) Use of standards of radiation protection in emergency management; (VII) Biological effects of radiation and estimation of irradiation risk.

  11. External cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, F.; Sanusi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology guidelines state that all uncomplicated breech Presentation should be offered external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version and all such women should be briefed about the risks and benefits of external cephalic version before undertaking the procedure. To ascertain the acceptability of external cephalic version before elective caesarean section for breech Presentation by pregnant ladies and see whether they were adequately informed about the risks and benefits. The clinical audit was registered with the audit department at Watford general hospital and written Consent for the access of medical records was obtained. A retrospective view of 86 accessible medical records out of Total 110 elective breech caesarean sections was done over a period of one year. This retrospective study was conducted at the gynaecology and obstetrics department at Watford general hospital, Watford United Kingdom. Written consent for the access of medical records was obtained. All women who under went elective caesarean section due to breech presentation were included in the study. Out of a total of 110 elective breech caesarean sections performed, the data on 86 cases was selected for the final analysis. The information gathered included patient's profile, whether patient was informed of risks and benefits of external cephalic version, recognition of obstetric risk factors, external cephalic version performed and its success. Out of total 86 caesarean sections 46 were suitable for external cephalic version of whom 37 cases were offered external cephalic version. Among 37 patients who were offered external cephalic version only 15 patients accepted (22 declined) the procedure. Moreover, it was found that the documentation of risk/benefit explanation of the procedure was inadequate. External cephalic version was not successful in any of the patient. Causes for

  12. Monitoring of external background radiation level in Asa dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An external background ionizing radiation study has been carried out within the Asa Dam Industrial Layout of Ilorin in Kwara State. The study was carried out in 5 stations within the industrial area using two Digilert Nuclear Radiation Monitors. The study has revealed that the external background ionizing radiation is ...

  13. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  14. External radiation exposure control system in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    The external exposure control systems in KEK and CERN are discussed to find out good practices and unreasonableness of radiation control in accelerator facilities, which plays an important role in optimizing national and/or site specific radiological regulations, referring to relevant ICRP publications. Personal dose limits and radiation area classifications were analyzed and their reasonableness were explored. Good example of supervised areas, area classification based on realistic assumptions on working time etc are found. On the other hand, unreasonable systems, that are often attributed to the national regulation or ideas presented in the old publications are also found. (author)

  15. Influence of external action and structural factors on radiation blistering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Chernov, I.I.; Fomina, E.P.; Korshunov, S.H.; Polsky, V.I.; Skorov, D.M.; Yakushin, V.L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of experimental results is presented, pertaining to radiation blistering of a considerable number of materials (stainless steels, alloys with high nickel content, alloys of refractory metals) under helium ion irradiation with energies of 20-100 keV under conditions corresponding to the plasma-wall interaction: bombardment at various angles of incidence and cyclic irradiation in a wide spectrum of ion incidence angles; influence of external action, including thermocyclic; influence of preceding neutron and proton irradiation. It has been shown that external factors have a complex influence on blister parameters and erosion coefficients of materials. A study has been carried out on the influence of aluminium coatings, alloying additions, phase state of material and microstructure on the nature and degree of surface erosion. Complex influence of element and phase composition, as well as microstructural changes during heat treatment and welding on radiation erosion have been established. (orig.)

  16. Online external beam radiation treatment simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza-Lup, Felix G.; Sopin, Ivan; Zeidan, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective and widely accepted form of treatment for many types of cancer that requires extensive computerized planning. Unfortunately, current treatment planning systems have limited or no visual aid that combines patient volumetric models extracted from patient-specific CT data with the treatment device geometry in a 3D interactive simulation. We illustrate the potential of 3D simulation in radiation therapy with a web-based interactive system that combines novel standards and technologies. We discuss related research efforts in this area and present in detail several components of the simulator. An objective assessment of the accuracy of the simulator and a usability study prove the potential of such a system for simulation and training. (orig.)

  17. External radiotherapy. Particle accelerator - Radiation protection: medical sheet ED 4246

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    After having indicated the required authorizations for the use of external radiotherapy installations, this document presents the various aspects and measures related to radiation protection of workers when performing such treatments. It presents the concerned personnel, describes the operational process, indicates the associated hazards and the risk related to ionizing radiation, and describes how the risk is to be assessed and how exposure levels are to be determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and monitored areas, personnel classification, and choice of the dose monitoring method). It describes the various components of a risk management strategy (risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation and the personnel, training and information, prevention and medical monitoring). It briefly presents how risk management is to be assessed, and mentions other related risks

  18. External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.

  19. External cephalic version facilitation for breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2001-01-01

    Tocolytic drugs to relax the uterus as well as other methods have been also used in an attempt to facilitate external cephalic version at term. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of routine tocolysis, fetal acoustic stimulation, epidural or spinal analgesia and transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term on successful version and measures of pregnancy outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Date of last search: April 2001. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing routine versus selective tocolysis; fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions versus dummy or no stimulation; epidural or spinal analgesia versus no regional analgesia; or transabdominal amnioinfusion versus no amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by the reviewer. In seven trials, routine tocolysis was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version (relative risk 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.87). There were no significant differences between non-cephalic presentations at birth. Caesarean sections were reduced (relative risk 0.85, confidence interval 0.72-0.99). Fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version at term (relative risk 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.60). With epidural or spinal analgesia, external cephalic version failure, non-cephalic births and caesarean sections were reduced in one trial but not the other. The overall differences were not statistically significant. No randomised trials of transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term were located. Routine tocolysis appears to reduce the failure rate of external cephalic version at term. Although promising, there is not enough evidence to evaluate the use of fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal

  20. The treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu Wangyang; Liu Yulong

    2009-01-01

    Radiation dermatitis is often seen and is often a complication of radiation therapy of tumors. It is characterized by poor healing, stubborn relapse, and carcinogenesis.. The treatment include drug, physical therapy and surgery. This article describes the treatment progress of radiation dermatitis from external exposure. (authors)

  1. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Sana

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  2. Present status of radiation education in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana [Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1999-09-01

    Radioisotopes and Radiation are being widely used in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry for the benefit of people throughout the world. At the same time the use of radiation sources can do harm to man and environment. In order to ensure the satiety against radiation hazards and safe use of radiation, proper education, training, knowledge and awareness are essential. Like other achieve economic development through application f count rues Bangladesh is flying to in agriculture, food, industry, power; health or medi of isotopes and radiation technology cine. Basic education about radiation is incorporated in the school curriculum. Courses on radiation are also given in college and university education. Research organizations, universities carry out research and development works on different disciplines using radiation and radioisotopes. Seminars, workshops, conferences, takings on isotopes and radiation are also being organized. In 1993 Government of Bangladesh passed the Nuclear Satiety and Radiation Control Act 1993 for see use of radiation. The present paper win cover the radiation education, research and development works on radiation, applications of radiation in agriculture, medicine and industry, personal safety and radiation protection against radiation hazard and rules and regulations of the nuclear safety and radiation control act practised in Bangladesh. (author)

  3. Anesthesia for pediatric external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, Jennifer T.; Halperin, Edward C.; Hertz, Caryn M.; Schulman, Scott R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: For very young patients, anesthesia is often required for radiotherapy. This results in multiple exposures to anesthetic agents over a short period of time. We report a consecutive series of children anesthetized for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods: Five hundred twelve children ≤ 16 years old received EBRT from January 1983 to February 1996. Patient demographics, diagnosis, anesthesia techniques, monitoring, airway management, complications, and outcome were recorded for the patients requiring anesthesia. Results: One hundred twenty-three of the 512 children (24%) required 141 courses of EBRT with anesthesia. Anesthetized patients ranged in age from 20 days to 11 years (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 ). The frequency of a child receiving EBRT and requiring anesthesia by age cohort was: ≤ 1 year (96%), 1-2 years (93%), 2-3 years (80%), 3-4 years (51%), 4-5 years (36%), 5-6 years (13%), 6-7 years (11%), and 7-16 years (0.7%). Diagnoses included: primary CNS tumor (28%), retinoblastoma (27%), neuroblastoma (20%), acute leukemia (9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (6%), and Wilms' tumor (4%). Sixty-three percent of the patients had been exposed to chemotherapy prior to EBRT. The mean number of anesthesia sessions per patient was 22 ± 16. Seventy-eight percent of the treatment courses were once daily and 22% were twice daily. Anesthesia techniques included: short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (21%), inhalation only (20%), ketamine (19%), propofol only (12%), propofol induction + inhalation maintenance (7%), ketamine induction + inhalation maintenance (6%), ketamine or short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (6%). Monitoring techniques included: EKG (95%), O 2 saturation (93%), fraction of inspired O 2 (57%), and end-tidal CO 2 (55%). Sixty-four percent of patients had central venous access. Eleven of the 74 children with a central line developed sepsis (15%): 6 of the 11 were anesthetized with propofol (55%), 4 with a

  4. FREQUENCY OF MALASSEZIA SPP. IN DOGS PRESENTING EXTERNAL OTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The external otitis is defined as an inflammation of the dog external ear canal and it is considered a common disease in dogs. It is a disease of multifactorial etiology, where one of the main microrganisms associated to the illness is the Malassezia ssp. Therefore, this work aimed to determine the frequency of Malassezia spp. by auricular cytology in dogs that present clinical signs of external otitis. Were used 23 dogs attended in a veterinary clinic located in Sinop-MT. The material was collected using a dry swab, where each extremity was inserted in one of the auditory canal (right and left, which was rotated, removed from the ear and rolled on the glass slide. First the glass slide was microscopically observed (objective 4X, for viewing mites, and then, the sample was fixed by heat and stained with Panoptic. Once stained, the glass slide was examined (objective 40X and 100X. Among the 23 dogs evaluated, 60.9% were positive for Malassezia spp., 8.7% were positive for the Otodectes cynotis mite, and also 30,4% of the animals showed mixed infection with Malassezia ssp. and bacteria. With this study, it can be concluded that Malassezia ssp. was found more frequently in at the auditory canal of dogs with that presents external otitis, associated or acting alone, indicating the importance of this yeast in cases of otitis.

  5. External radiation exposure after deposition of man-made radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.

    1991-01-01

    The first step in assessing the external radiation exposure of the population is the determination of the gamma dose rate over meadows, which are used as reference points for various reasons. The second step is the description of external radiation exposures in urban and rural environments. The relation to the radiation exposure in a meadow is a function of the radionuclide distribution, i.e. the type of deposition. Finally, a simple method of calculating external radiation exposure is developed on the basis of recent findings. The method is compared with the method used in the UNSCEAR report for calculating radiation exposures after Chernobyl and with the method described in the AVV (General Administrative Regulation) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  6. 33. Days of Radiation Protection. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    The publication has been set up as presentations of the conference dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation for different activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The main conference topics are focused on the current problems in radiation protection and radioecology. On the web-page totally 103 presentations or posters are published. The Conference consists of the following sections: (I) Effects of ionizing radiation (radiology, health effects, risk factors); (II) General aspects of radiation protection (recommendations and legislative in radiation protection); (III): Dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation (metrology, instrumentation, use of computational methods); (IV) Radiation protection in nuclear power industry (working environment in the nuclear industry, the impact on the environment, nuclear power shutdown management); (V) Emergency management (emergencies, accidents, waste); (VI) Radiation load and protection in diagnostics, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology (burden on patients, staff, size of population exposure from medical sources of ionizing radiation, security, and quality control, optimization); (VII) Natural sources of radiation in workplaces and the environment (radon and other radionuclides, the risk estimation, optimization); (VIII) Education (new trends in education of radiation experts, medical physicists and stake-holders).

  7. Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Travis, Larry D.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    The superposition T-matrix method is used to compute the scattering of unpolarized light by semi-external aerosol mixtures in the form of polydisperse, randomly oriented two-particle clusters with touching components. The results are compared with those for composition-equivalent external aerosol mixtures, in which the components are widely separated and scatter light in isolation from each other. It is concluded that aggregation is likely to have a relatively weak effect on scattering and radiative properties of two-component tropospheric aerosols and can be replaced by the much simpler external-mixture model in remote sensing studies and atmospheric radiation balance computations

  8. Measurement of man's exposure to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    After outlining briefly the rationale for personnel radiation monitoring with integrating detectors, a review is presented of some developments which have taken place in personnel and environmental dosimetry during the past 3.5 years. The results of a pilot field experiment concerning the stability of film and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) in four Latin-American countries are summarized. It shows that film dosimeters should be used only with caution, and in locations with a moderate climate. A survey is being conducted on the current status and trends in personnel monitoring, involving detailed questioning of over 150 laboratories in about forty countries to obtain information on the type of service and detectors, evaluation and recordkeeping, additional applications, problem and development areas, intercomparisons, practical experiences with different systems, administrative and legal aspects, etc. According to the preliminary results, the trend is away from photographic film and towards mostly automatic TLD systems, not only in the industrialized countries but also in several of the larger and more advanced developing countries. The need for higher quality standards and frequent performance tests under realistic conditions is emphasized. Differences in the requirements for personnel and []stationary environmental dosimeters are outlined. As evidenced by the results of a recent international intercomparison of such dosimeters under laboratory and field conditions, involving 56 dosimeter sets from eleven countries, reasonably accurate results can be obtained with several TLD systems including LiF, CaSO 4 :Dy, and CaF 2 :Mn; however CaF 2 :Dy is less reliable than the others and film is not adequate at all. Transit doses were found to be erratic and frequently high. Limitations in the assessment of population doses from stationary detector readings are discussed. (auth)

  9. Radiative decay of coupled states in an external dc field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal'chikov, V.; Sokolov, Y.; Yakovlev, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two theoretical aspects of the interference of atomic states in hydrogen which comes from the application of an external electric field F to the 2s metastable state. The radiative corrections to the Bethe-Lamb formula and anisotropy contribution to the angular distribution, which arises from interference between electric-field-induced E1-radiation and forbidden M1-radiation, are analysed

  10. Radiative decay of coupled states in an external dc field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal' chikov, V. [National Research Inst. for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Sokolov, Y. [Kurchatov Inst., Russian Research Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    This paper examines two theoretical aspects of the interference of atomic states in hydrogen which comes from the application of an external electric field F to the 2s metastable state. The radiative corrections to the Bethe-Lamb formula and anisotropy contribution to the angular distribution, which arises from interference between electric-field-induced E1-radiation and forbidden M1-radiation, are analysed.

  11. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually increase that exposure to significant levels, from the point of view of radiological protection. The presence of natural radionuclides in building materials may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling of their rooms. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, known the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in the walls of an hypothetical standard room. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Assessment of doses was performed through the application of photon transport model, taking in account self-absorption and radiation buildup. As the external dose due to a particular radionuclide is proportional to its activity concentration, results are presented as dose factors, defined as a ratio of absorbed dose (nGy.h -1 ) to the activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ), for each radionuclide. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, taking in account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains. Sensitivity of the model was estimated by varying four of its input parameters within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving all other parameters at fixed selected values. The parameters studied and respective ranges of variation were: for thickness, 5 to 60 cm; for density, 0.5 to 4 g.cm -3 ; for the room length, 1.5 to 10 m

  12. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  13. External exposure due to natural radiation (KINKI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A field survey of exposure rates due to natural radiation has been conducted throughout the Kinki district of Japan during both September and October 1973. In each location, measurements of exposures at one to fifteen sites, one of where contained 5 stations at least, were made. A total of 143 sites were measured. Observations were made using a spherical ionization chamber and several scintillation surveymeters. The spherical plastic ionization chamber of which inner diameter and wall thickness are 200 mm and 3 mm (acrylate) respectively has adequate sensitivity for field survey. The chamber was used as a standard of apparatus, but it is difficult to use the apparatus in all locations only by the apparatus, so that a surveymeter with a NaI(Tl) 1''phi x 1'' scintillator was used for regular measurements. Two types of surveymeters, the one with a 2''phi x 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillator and the other with a 3''phi x 3'' NaI(Tl) scintillator, were used as auxiliary devices. Both the chamber and the surveymeter were used in 20 sites and their readings were compared for drawing a relationship between them. Practically the direct reading of the surveymeter were reduced into the corresponding value of the plastic chamber through the relationship of linear proportion. Systematic error at calibration ( 60 Co) and reading error (rodoh) of the plastic chamber were within +-6% (maximum over all error) and within +-3.5% (standard error for 6μ R/hr) respectively. Reading error of the surveymeter is about +-3% (standard error for 6μ R/hr). Measurements in open bare field were made at one meter above the ground and outdoor gamma-rays exposure rates (μ R/hr) were due to cosmic rays as well as terrestrial radiation, as it may be considered that the contribution of fallout due to artificial origin was very small. (J.P.N.)

  14. External radiation therapy in early stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is controversial. Numerous options are available, however, comparison of results is difficult in view of the insufficiency of phase III randomized trials comparing alternative treatment strategies. These options include such strategies as no curative therapy (so-called watchful waiting), radiotherapy (external and/or internal), cryotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. Clearly, a broad spectrum of clinical approaches. When reported experiences involving radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are compared, surgical patients tend to be younger, of earlier stage, of higher performance status, and have lower pre-therapy PSA. These prognostic factors influence the probability of disease control, and since patient selection can have a profound impact on results reporting, these issues need to be carefully controlled. A review of patients who are potentially candidates for surgery at the University of Michigan treated with conformal therapy external beam treatment, indicates that these relatively early patients are doing well. These issues will be elaborated upon further during the presentation

  15. Small--radiation-amplitude dynamical voltage model of an irradiated, externally unbiased Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdory, R.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is presented for the nonequilibrium voltage states of an irradiated Josephson junction shunted by an external resistor but with no external current or voltage biasing. This device, referred to as a free-running Josephson junction, is modeled in a small--radiation-amplitude, deterministic regime extending the previous work of Shenoy and Agarwal. The time-averaged induced voltage is treated as a dynamical variable, the external radiation is modeled as a current source, and the induced junction-radiation vector potential, with and without a mode structure, is treated to first order in the driving currents. A dynamical equation for the time-averaged induced voltage yields a (nonequilibrium) steady-state relation between the time-averaged induced voltage and the incident radiation amplitude valid for a wide range of voltages, including zero. Regions of bistability occur in the voltage--versus--incident-amplitude curves, some of which are dependent on the external resistor. The zero-voltage state breaks down, as the external radiation amplitude is increased, at a critical value of the incident-radiation amplitude inversely proportional to the external resistance

  16. SCROLL, a superconfiguration collisional radiative model with external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Klapisch, M.

    2000-01-01

    A collisional radiative model for calculating non-local thermodynamical-equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra of heavy atoms in hot plasmas has been developed. It takes into account the numerous excited an autoionizing states by using superconfigurations. These are split systematically until the populations converge. The influence of an impinging radiation field has recently been added to the model. The effect can be very important. (author)

  17. tion using external beam radiation in gynaecological cancers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    The purpose of the modified technique is: (i) to accurately assess the lower extent of the disease and define the lower border of the external radiation field in both the anteropos- terior/ posteroanterior (AP/PA) and lateral fields; and (ii) to decrease the field size and reduce treatment-related side-effects. Methods and materials.

  18. Improving external cephalic version for foetal breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, H; Mertens, H J M M

    2013-01-01

    If success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) increases, the rate of primary caesarean sections -declines. The aims of this retrospective cohort study were to evaluate the ECV and to identify factors associated with the success rate of ECV for breech presentation at term. The second aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of labour of all patients with a foetus in breech near term. All women with a foetus in breech near or at term were included. Logistic regression analyses were -performed to identify the association between patient characteristics and success rate of ECV. The overall rate of successful ECV's was 19%. Foetal and maternal complications after ECV were negligible. BMI, type of breech and amount of amniotic fluid were significantly correlated with a successful ECV. The rate of primary caesarean sections for the group of patients who underwent an ECV was lower than the rate in the group who did not (52.9% vs. 79.6%). The rate of spontaneous deliveries was increased after ECV (36% versus 12%). After successful ECV the rate of spontaneous deliveries was 75%; after unsuccessful ECV 26.8%. The overall rate of successful ECV was low (19%). BMI, type of breech and amount of amniotic fluid were significantly correlated with a successful ECV. The rate of primary caesarean sections was significantly lower in patients with ECV (52.9% versus 79.6%). The rate of spontaneous deliveries was significantly higher (36% -versus 12%).

  19. External cephalic version for breech presentation at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, B.; Hassan, L.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the success rate of External Cephalic Version (ECV) at term and its effects on measures of pregnancy outcome. A total of 40 patients were offered ECV over a period of fourteen months. All singleton breech presentations with an otherwise normal antenatal course between 36-41 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included contraindications to ECV i.e. multiple pregnancy, oligohydramnios, growth retardation, antepartum hemorrhage, rupture of membranes toxemias of pregnancy, non-reassuring fetal monitoring pattern, previous uterine scar, bad obstetric history, any contraindication to vaginal delivery, labour and patient wishes after thorough counseling. Overall success rate of the procedure and its effect on maternal and fetal outcome was determined. Significance of results was determined using Chi-square test. A total of 40 patients were recruited for the trial. Overall success rate was 67.5% with only 30% being primi-gravida (p<0.05). Multi-gravida showed higher success rate of 80%. Following successful ECV, spontaneous vaginal delivery was attained in 77.7% (n=21), while caesarean section was performed due to various indications in about 6 cases (p<0.05). Following failed version, 61.5% (n=8) had elective C/S and only 5 delivered vaginally. Route of delivery did not affect the perinatal outcome except for congenital abnormalities. Following successful ECV, there was only one stillbirth. Overall live births associated with successful version was 96.2% (p<0.05), while in failed version, there were no fetal deaths. ECV at term appears to be a useful procedure to reduce the number and associated complications of term breech presentation. It is safe for the mother and the fetus and helps to avoid a significant number of caesarean sections. (author)

  20. Explanation of nurse standard of external exposure acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuling; Jiang Enhai; Sun Feifei; Zhang Bin; Wang Xiaoguang; Wang Guilin

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Nurse Standard of External Exposure Acute Radiation Sickness has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. Based on the extensive research of literature, collection of the previous nuclear and radiation accidents excessive exposed personnel data and specific situations in China, this standard was enacted according to the current national laws, regulations, and the opinions of peer experts. It is mainly used for care of patients with acute radiation sickness, and also has directive significance for care of patients with iatrogenic acute radiation sickness which due to the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation pretreatment. To correctly carry out this standard and to reasonably implement nursing measures for patients with acute radiation sickness, the contents of this standard were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  1. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  2. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  3. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  5. The assessment of personal dose due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Young, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental basis of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) is discussed and a number of considerations in the measurement of thermoluminescence described, with particular reference to CaSO 4 :Dy. The steps taken to convert a thermoluminescence measurement to an exposure and then an absorbed dose are outlined. The calculation of effective dose equivalents due to external exposure to γ-radiation in a number of situations commonly encountered in a uranium mine is discussed. Factors which may affect the accuracy of external dose assessments are described

  6. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Akiko; Okuno, Hideji; Noguchi, Keisuke; Komatsuzaki, Atsushi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  7. External cephalic version for breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Kulier, Regina; West, Helen M

    2015-04-01

    Management of breech presentation is controversial, particularly in regard to manipulation of the position of the fetus by external cephalic version (ECV). ECV may reduce the number of breech presentations and caesarean sections, but there also have been reports of complications with the procedure. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of ECV at or near term on measures of pregnancy outcome. Methods of facilitating ECV, and ECV before term are reviewed separately. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Trials Register (28 February 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised trials of ECV at or near term (with or without tocolysis) compared with no attempt at ECV in women with breech presentation. Two review authors assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted the data. We included eight studies, with a total of 1308 women randomised. The pooled data from these studies show a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in non-cephalic presentation at birth (average risk ratio (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29 to 0.61, eight trials, 1305 women); vaginal cephalic birth not achieved (average RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.62, seven trials, 1253 women, evidence graded very low); and caesarean section (average RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.82, eight trials, 1305 women, evidence graded very low) when ECV was attempted in comparison to no ECV attempted. There were no significant differences in the incidence of Apgar score ratings below seven at one minute (average RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.37, three trials, 168 infants) or five minutes (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.36, five trials, 428 infants, evidence graded very low), low umbilical vein pH levels (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.44, one trial, 52 infants, evidence graded very low), neonatal admission (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.34, four trials, 368 infants, evidence graded very low), perinatal death (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.64, eight trials, 1305 infants

  8. Natural external radiation level and population dose in Hunan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the natural external radiation level in Hunan Province is reported. The measurements were performed with FD-71 scintillation radiometers. On the basis of measurements at about 1,600 locations, the contribution from cosmic radiation is found to be 3.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , and the average absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial γ-radiation for outdoors, indoors and roads are determined to be 9.2, 13.1 and 9.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The γ-radiation indoors is markedly higher than that outdoors by a factor of 1.42. The lowest γ-radiation level is found in the sedimentary plain around Donting Lake, while the highest absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation are observed in some areas with exposed granites. The indoor γ-radiation in brick houses is markedly higher than that in wooden houses. Tarred roads have evidently lower radiation level than sand-gravel roads or concrete roads. The annual effective dose equivalents to the population from cosmic and terrestrial sources are 0.256 and 0.756 mSv, respectively, with a total value of 1.012 mSv

  9. Dosimetry services for internal and external radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) sets radiation dose limits for the operation of nuclear facilities and the possession of prescribed substances within Canada. To administer these regulations the AECB must be satisfied that the dosimetry services used by a licensee meet adequate standards. Licensees are required to use the Occupational Dosimetry Service operated by the Bureau of Radiation and Medical Devices, Department of National Health and Welfare (BRMD) to determine doses from external sources of radiation, except where a detailed rationale is given for using another service. No national dosimetry service exists for internal sources of radiation. Licensees who operate or use a dosimetry service other than the BRMD must provide the AECB with evidence of the competence of the staff and adequacy of the equipment, techniques and procedures; provide the AECB with evidence that a quality assurance program has been implemented; and send individual dose or exposure data to the National Dose Registry. (L.L.)

  10. External cephalic version for breech presentation before term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Eileen K; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-07-29

    External cephalic version (ECV) of the breech fetus at term (after 37 weeks) has been shown to be effective in reducing the number of breech presentations and caesarean sections, but the rates of success are relatively low. This review examines studies initiating ECV prior to term (before 37 weeks' gestation). To assess the effectiveness of a policy of beginning ECV before term (before 37 weeks' gestation) for breech presentation on fetal presentation at birth, method of delivery, and the rate of preterm birth, perinatal morbidity, stillbirth or neonatal mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ECV attempted before term (37 weeks' gestation) or commenced before term, compared with a control group of women (in breech presentation) in which either no ECV attempted or ECV was attempted at term. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-RCTs or studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked for accuracy. Studies were assessed for risk of bias and for important outcomes the overall quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Five studies are included (2187 women). It was not possible for the intervention to be blinded, and it is not clear what impact lack of blinding would have on the outcomes reported. For other 'Risk of bias' domains studies were either at low or unclear risk of bias.One study reported on ECV that was undertaken and completed before 37 weeks' gestation compared with no ECV. No difference was found in the rate of non-cephalic presentation at birth (risk ratio (RR) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 1.69; participants = 102). One study reported on a policy of ECV that was initiated before term (33 weeks) and up until 40

  11. Low radiation doses - Book of presentations (slides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    This document brings together all the available presentations (slides) of the conference on low radiation doses organised by the 'research and health' department of the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Ten presentations are available and deal with he following topics: 1 - Cyto-toxicity, geno-toxicity: comparative approach between ionizing radiations and other geno-toxic agents (F. Nesslany, Institut Pasteur, Lille); Succession of events occurring after a radio-induced DNA damage (D. Averbeck, IRSN/CEA); Importance of stem cells in the response to ionizing radiations (J. Lebeau, CEA); Relation between energy deposition at the sub-cell scale and early biological effects (C. Villagrasa, IRSN); Natural history of breast cancer: predisposition, susceptibility with respect to irradiation (S. Rivera, IGR); Pediatrics scanner study and the EPI-CT project (M.O Bernier, IRSN); What future for an irradiated cell: survival or apoptosis? (E. Sage, Institut Curie); Differential effect of a 137 Cs chronic contamination on the different steps of the atheromatous pathology (T. Ebrahimian, IRSN); Variability of the individual radiosensitivity (S. Chevillard, CEA); What definitions for individual sensitivity? (A. Schmidt, CEA); Low doses: some philosophical remarks (A. Grinbaum, CEA)

  12. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  13. Review of retrospective dosimetry techniques for external ionising radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsbury, E. A.; Bakhanova, E.; Barquinero, J. F.; Brai, M.; Chumak, V.; Correcher, V.; Darroudi, F.; Fattibene, P.; Gruel, G.; Guclu, I.; Horn, S.; Jaworska, A.; Kulka, U.; Lindholm, C.; Lloyd, D.; Longo, A.; Marrale, M.; Monteiro Gil, O.; Oestreicher, U.; Pajic, J.; Rakic, B.; Romm, H.; Trompier, F.; Veronese, I.; Voisin, P.; Vral, A.; Whitehouse, C. A.; Wieser, A.; Woda, C.; Wojcik, A.; Rothkamm, K.

    2011-01-01

    The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. (authors)

  14. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, G.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.; Dupuis, O.; Orain, I.; Crehange, G.

    2010-01-01

    The esophagus is a musculo-membranous tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. Due to its anatomical location, it can be exposed to ionizing radiation in many external radiotherapy indications. Radiation-induced esophageal mucositis is clinically revealed by dysphagia and odynophagia, and usually begins 3 to 4 weeks after the start of radiation treatment. With the rise of multimodality treatments (e.g., concurrent chemoradiotherapy, dose escalation and accelerated fractionation schemes), esophageal toxicity has become a significant dose-limiting issue. Understanding the predictive factors of esophageal injury may improve the optimal delivery of treatment plans. It may help to minimize the risks, hence increasing the therapeutic ratio. Based on a large literature review, our study describes both early and late radiation-induced esophageal injuries and highlights some of the predictive factors for cervical and thoracic esophagus toxicity. These clinical and dosimetric parameters are numerous but none is consensual. The large number of dosimetric parameters strengthens the need of an overall analysis of the dose/volume histograms. The data provided is insufficient to recommend their routine use to prevent radiation-induced esophagitis. Defining guidelines for the tolerance of the esophagus to ionizing radiation remains essential for a safe and efficient treatment. (authors)

  15. Adenocarcinoma of the rectum treated by radical external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catton, Charles N; Brierley, James D; Cummings, Bernard J; Wong, C Shun; Keane, Thomas J; O' Sullivan, Brian; Goodman, Phyllis

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the long-term survival and response rates of patients with primary rectal cancer to radical radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1978 and 1987, 229 patients were treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital with radical external radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Patients were treated with radiation either because they were considered to have unresectable tumors, were medically unfit, or refused surgery, or for a combination of these factors. Doses ranged from 40 Gy in 10 fractions by a split course over 6 weeks to 60 Gy in 30 fractions in 6 weeks. The most commonly prescribed treatment was 52 Gy target absorbed dose in 20 daily fractions over 4 weeks. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 27%; for patients with mobile tumors, it was 48%, partially fixed 27%, and fixed tumor 4%. Forty-eight of the 97 patients (50%) with mobile tumors, 11 of the 37 patients (30%) with partially fixed tumors, and 7 of the 77 patients (9%) with fixed tumors had clinically complete tumor regression following radiation. Of these, 18 of the mobile, 6 of the partially fixed, and 5 of the fixed tumors later relapsed locally. Fifty patients had salvage surgery after failing to achieve complete remission or for local relapse, with a 5-year actuarial survival rate of 42% from the time of surgery. Conclusion: Although radiation therapy can cure some patients with mobile or partially fixed rectal adenocarcinomas who refuse or are unsuitable for surgery, local control remains a problem; salvage surgery should be considered in patients who relapse or fail to go into complete remission and who are fit to undergo surgery. For patients with fixed rectal cancers, high-dose external-beam radiation should be part of a planned preoperative regimen or be palliative in intent.

  16. Present status of radiation utilization in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1994-01-01

    Present development of radiation utilization in Thailand covers two main areas, i.e. (1) production and utilization of radioisotopes and (2) radiation processing and technology. Radioisotope production from 2 megawatts Thai Research Reactor (TRR1/M1) is being studied, directed toward expanding the varieties of radioisotopes, improvement of quality, and technological development on quantity producing to meet the total national needs. However a large amount of radioisotopes is also imported mainly for industrial and medical applications. Radioisotopes and radiations are utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy from 30 hospitals and institutions. X-ray photographing, X-ray computer tomography and others are typical use for medical examination purposes, while Co-60 gamma rays and electron beam are in used for curing. Since 1972, Thailand has been participated to the IAEA/RCA Industrial Project, through the liaison of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), and increases the awareness of industry to the economic benefits through the uses of nuclear technology. More than 60 companies are using radioisotopes for gauging, examination purposes and production controls, while these radioisotopes are mostly imported. Nuclear techniques in agriculture are addressed concerns with optimizing fertilizer application, determination soil-water-nitrogen fixation relationships, improving animal health and reproduction, measurement of toxic residues, appropriated food preservation techniques and breeding plant for better yield and disease resistance. The eradication of fruit flies by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) with gamma rays has been successfully applied in northern and middle part of Thailand. The progress and present status of radiation utilization and processing in Thailand will be introduced. (author)

  17. Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Hoving, Marjanke A.; Links, Thera P.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Weeme, Cees A. ter; Canrinus, Alof A.; Szabo, Ben G.; Pott, Jan-Willem R.

    2003-01-01

    For diagnosing radiation optic neuropathy (RON) ophthalmological and imaging data were evaluated from 63 acromegalic patients, irradiated between 1967 and 1998. Two patients developed RON: one patient in one optic nerve 10 years and another patient in both optic nerves 5 months after radiation therapy. RON is a rare complication after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly, which can occur after a considerable latency period

  18. Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.

  19. Radiation Damage Theory: Past, Present and Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashev, Aleksandr; Golubov, Stanislav I.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts of many scientists for more than a half of a century have resulted in substantial understanding of the response of various materials to irradiation. The theory has contributed significantly to this process but has not acquired a status allowing it to play a decisive role in creating radiation-resistant materials. Moreover, some theoretical predictions are in contradiction with observations, which indicates that something important has escaped attention. In the present paper, the current theoretical framework and experimental data are analyzed to elucidate the reasons for such a situation. A way of developing a predictive theory is proposed.

  20. Outline of recent studies on dosimetry for external radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Iwai, Satoshi.

    1995-01-01

    On the opportunity of adopting the new basic recommendation of ICRP in 1990, the research on the method of evaluating external radiation exposure dose has become to be carried out actively. In this recommendation, the definition of the dose used for radiation protection was changed largely, accordingly, the necessity to prepare the dose conversion factor based on the new definition and so on has arisen. Also in Japan, the research for this purpose has been carried out, and in January, 1995, the workshop on the recent method for evaluating external radiation exposure dose was held at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this report, the contents discussed at the workshop and the outline of the recent studies on this subject are described. As the international trend of dose evaluation, the recommendation of ICRP in 1990, the ICRU report 51 and the ICRP publication 71 by the joint ICRP/ICRU task group are introduced. In Japan, the studies have been advanced centering around the reassessment of dose conversion factors for photons, electrons and neutrons. The dose evaluation for photons, electrons and neutrons, and the dose evaluation around high energy accelerators are explained. Many problems to be solved still remain as the subjects of research for hereafter. (K.I.)

  1. Studies of workers exposed to low doses of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1991-04-01

    Currently, several epidemiologic studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to low levels of radiation are being conducted, and include studies of workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. This paper focuses on studies that evaluate the possible adverse effects resulting from external exposure to radiation. The radiation risk estimates that have been used to establish radiation protection standards for workers and others have been obtained mainly from studies of persons exposed at high doses and dose rates. However, questions remain with regard to the extrapolation process that has been necessary for estimating low-level radiation risks. Occupational studies provide a direct assessment of risk based on data on persons exposed at the actual levels of interest. If current risk estimates are correct, these studies have very little chance of detecting risk, but can still be used to provide useful upper limits on risks. The studies are also adequate to detect serious underestimation of risks. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in the lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but pre-implantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  3. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group (i.e., greater than or equal to 20 rem) than in th lowest group (<5 rem). In multiple regression analysis, intake dose (proportional to alpha-particle dose to ovaries) but not duration of employment (relevant to external gamma-ray dose to ovaries) was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but preimplantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  4. Review of personal monitoring techniques for the measurement of absorbed dose from external beta and low energy photon radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul

    1986-01-01

    The techniques available at present for personal monitoring of doses from external beta and low energy photon radiation are reviewed. The performance of currently used dosimetry systems is compared with that recommended internationally, and developments for improving the actual performance...

  5. Dose evaluation for external exposure in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal exposures including emergency and accidental are categorized into external exposure and internal contamination, although both of these may be associated with external contamination. From a point of view of lifesaving in the abnormal exposures, it is primarily important to evaluate radiation dose of exposed persons as soon as possible. This report reviews the status of early dosimetry in the accidental exposures and discusses the optimum methodology of the early dose determination for external exposures in abnormal exposures. Personal monitors generally give an indication of dose to an exposed person only at a single part of the body. The data obtained from the personal monitors should be interpreted with care and in the light of information about the circumstances of exposure. In most cases, the records of environmental monitors or the survey with area monitors provide valuable information on the radiation fields. In the some cases, the reconstruction of the abnormal exposure is required for the dose evaluation by means of phantom experiments. In the case of neutron exposures, activation products in the body or its components or personnel possession can be useful for the early dosimetry. If the dose received by the whole body is evaluated as being very high, clinical observations and biological investigations may be more important guide to initial medical treatment than the early dosimetry. For the dose evaluation of general public, depending on the size of abnormal exposure, information that could be valuable in the assessment of abnormal exposures will come from the early dose estimates with environmental monitors and radiation survey meters. (author)

  6. An implantable radiation dosimeter for use in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, Charles W.; Ruslander, David M.; Rini, Christopher J.; Mann, Gregory G.; Nagle, H. Troy; Black, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    An implantable radiation dosimeter for use with external beam therapy has been developed and tested both in vitro and in canines. The device uses a MOSFET dosimeter and is polled telemetrically every day during the course of therapy. The device is designed for permanent implantation and also acts as a radiographic fiducial marker. Ten dogs (companion animals) that presented with spontaneous, malignant tumors were enrolled in the study and received an implant in the tumor CTV. Three dogs received an additional implant in collateral normal tissue. Radiation therapy plans were created for the animals and they were treated with roughly 300 cGy daily fractions until completion of the prescribed cumulative dose. The primary endpoints of the study were to record any adverse events due to sensor placement and to monitor any movement away from the point of placement. No adverse events were recorded. Unacceptable device migration was experienced in two subjects and a retention mechanism was developed to prevent movement in the future. Daily dose readings were successfully acquired in all subjects. A rigorous in vitro calibration methodology has been developed to ensure that the implanted devices maintain an accuracy of ±3.5% relative to an ionization chamber standard. The authors believe that an implantable radiation dosimeter is a practical and powerful tool that fosters individualized patient QA on a daily basis

  7. An intercomparison of Canadian external dosimetry processors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The five Canadian external dosimetry processors have participated in a two-stage intercomparison. The first stage involved dosimeters to known radiation fields under controlled laboratory conditions. The second stage involved exposing dosimeters to radiation fields in power reactor working environments. The results for each stage indicated the dose reported by each processor relative to an independently determined dose and relative to the others. The results of the intercomparisons confirm the original supposition: namely that the average differences in reported dose among five processors are much less than the uncertainty limits recommended by the ICRP. This report provides a description of the experimental methods as well as a discussion of the results for each stage. The report also includes a set of recommendations

  8. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  9. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  10. Internal and external radiation exposures of Fukushima residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-01-01

    The soil at Fukushima prefecture and its outskirts was heavily contaminated with radioactive materials from the troubled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the residents suffered risk from internal and external radiation exposure. At first, the average dose of internal radiation exposure was estimated to be several mSv based upon the results of Chernobyl nuclear disaster. But the result of massive measurements using whole body counters shows that the average quantity of internal radioactive cesium is less than that at the Cold Water period. In the meantime, someone shows exposure dose much higher than the average. The distribution of these abnormal doses is called 'Long Tail'. One must pay attention to the long tail at the assessment of the internal radiation exposure by Fukushima nuclear disaster. The main origin of the long tail is related to frequency eating of special food. It is thus important to find persons situated in the long tail and give them guidance on the meals. (J.P.N.)

  11. Decreased sexual capacity after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer impairs quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgason, Asgeir R.; Fredrikson, Mats; Adolfsson, Jan; Steineck, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess to what extent patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer experience change in sexual functioning and to what extent this effects quality of life. Methods and Materials: Information was provided by 53 men treated with radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Assessment was made with the ''Radiumhemmets Scale of Sexual Functioning,'' which measures sexual desire, erectile capacity, orgasm, and to what extent a decrease in any of these aspects of sexual functioning affects quality of life. Function before treatment was assessed retrospectively. Results: Sexual desire diminished among 77% after treatment. The erection stiffness decreased in 77%. Before external radiation therapy, 66% had an erection usually sufficient for intercourse. Half of the men lost this ability after treatment. Of those retaining orgasm after treatment, 47% reported a decreased orgasmic pleasure and 91% a reduced ejaculation volume. Of all men, 50% reported that quality of life had decreased much or very much due to a decline in the erectile capacity following external radiation therapy. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that external radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with a reduction in sexual desire, erectile capacity, and orgasm functions. In a majority of patients this reduces quality of life. Previously, we may have underestimated the importance an intact sexual function has for the quality of life in this patient category of elderly men

  12. Present status and possibilities of radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, E [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenklinik; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Poliklinik)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the current methodical possibilities of radiation therapy within the limits of interdisciplinary oncology is given. Especially new forms of fractionation and current projects to augment the effect of radiation are discussed. The question of fast neutrons, electroaffine substances and local hyperthermia are dealt with.

  13. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Merkle, J.M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death (YLL) due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud (CL) and due to the skin and clothes contamination (SK). The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on ground (GR). Three nuclides, 131 I , 137 Cs and 239 Pu with extremely wide range of the half-life are considered to examine its possible influence on the calculated YLL values. For each of these nuclides, the YLL is found as a decreasing function of the age at exposure and presented graphically in this paper. Another negative correlation is established between the fully averaged YLL and the duration of the nuclide's half-life has been found for protracted exposure (GR). On the other hand, the YLL for the short-term external exposures (CL and SK) practically does not depend on the nuclide's half-life. In addition, a weak YLL dependence of the dose was commented. (author)

  14. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Jagoš J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud and due to the skin and clothes contamination. The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on the ground (groundshine. Three nuclides, 131I, 137Cs, and 239Pu, and with the extremely wide range of half-life are considered in order to examine their possible influence on the calculated values of years of life lost. For each of these nuclides, the number of years of life lost has been found as a decreasing function of the age at the expo sure and presented graphically in this paper. For protracted exposures, the fully averaged number of years of life lost is negative correlated with the nuclide’s half-life. On the other hand, the short-term external exposures do not depend on the nuclide’s half-life. In addition, a weak years of life lost dependence of the dose has been commented.

  15. Fertility of women after exposure to internal and external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Fertility was examined in 199 women exposed to internal and external radiation while employed in the radium watch-dial painting industry in Illinois between 1916 and 1929. In women with at least one live birth, mean log live-birth rate was significantly lower in the highest (estimated) ovarian-dose group than in the lowest group. In multiple regression analysis, intake dose but not duration of employment was a statistically significant predictor of log live-birth rate. There was no evidence for an increase in fetal deaths with increasing ovarian dose level (rem). This suggests that the findings on live-birth rate may not involve post-implantation dominant lethal mutations, but preimplantation losses could not be evaluated. Some possible explanations for these findings are discussed

  16. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  17. External radiation levels in installations of nuclear technology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maletta, Paulo Guilherme M.; Filipetto, Joao; Wakabayashi, Tetsuaki; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2005-01-01

    The radiological protection is a basic activity of nuclear technology center so that can carry through its activities with security, having to be planned and executed with total effectiveness. One of the basic tools of the radiological protection is the adoption of monitoring programs, that have as objective generality to evaluate the radiological conditions of the workstation and to assure that these conditions are acceptable safe for the displayed individuals, either workers or members of the public, as established in the basic norms of radiological protection. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN, first institution in Brazil, created in 1952 to entirely dedicate the related works to the nuclear area, to own 39 building, of which they are kept the Triga Reactor, Irradiation Gamma Laboratory, Reject Laboratory, Calibration Dosemeters Laboratory and others. In such installations, radioactive materials are produced, handled, processed and stored, being necessary the levels of external radiation ambient monitoring. As part of the radioprotection plan, monitoring 63 points on strategically located in the external areas to the building of CDTN, using characterized and calibrated thermoluminescence dosemeters. This work describes the dose distribution of the points, the doses evaluation procedure and the 4 results carried through between 2001 and 2004. The data demonstrate the attendance to the level of security established in the basic norm, what it contributed for the operation licensing of to the IBAMA. (author)

  18. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Fear for external cephalic version and depression : Predictors of successful external cephalic version for breech presentation at term?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciliacus, Emily; van der Zalm, Marieke; Truijens, Sophie E.; Hasaart, Tom H.; Pop, Victor J.; Kuppens, Simone M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Objective was to determine whether fear for external cephalic version (ECV) and depression are associated with the success rate of ECV in women with a breech presentation at term. Methods Prospective study conducted in the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven between October 2007 and May 2012.

  20. The breech presentation and the vertex presentation following an external version represent risk factors for neonatal hip instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J E; Odén, A

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of hip-joint instability and the frequency of hip dislocation requiring treatment in neonates who had been lying in the breech presentation and were delivered vaginally after an external version or by caesarean section, and to compare them with neonates who were naturally in the vertex presentation. Breech presentations without ongoing labour were subjected to an attempted external version and, in cases where this proved unsuccessful or where labour had started, to deliver by caesarean section. None of the breech presentations was vaginally delivered. The anterior-dynamic ultrasound method was used to assess the hip-joint status of the neonates. Out of 6,571 foetuses, 257 were in breech presentation after 36 wk of pregnancy. Sixty-two were vaginally delivered following an external version to vertex presentation and 195 were delivered by caesarean section, 75 of these following unsuccessful attempts to perform a version. Treatment for congenital hip-joint dislocation was performed on 0.2%. Out of the breech presentations, 1.0% of those delivered by caesarean section were treated, while in those with vaginal delivery following an external version the treatment frequency was 3.2%. No case of late diagnosed hip dislocation was recorded. Significant differences in frequency of hip-joint instability and treatment were found between (i) neonates delivered in breech presentation and those delivered with vertex presentation, (ii) infants delivered in vertex presentation, naturally or after successful version, and (iii) those delivered by caesarean section with or without attempted external version and those delivered with vortex presentation. Breech presentation predisposes to increased hip instability. The instability is present prior to delivery and is certainly not a primary result of delivery forces. Both breech and vertex presentations following an external or spontaneous version should be considered as risk

  1. External gamma radiation dose studies in the proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.; Reddy, K.; Reddy, C.; Reddy, K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radiation sources contribute the largest component to the total effective dose received by the human population. Among these sources, natural background gamma radiation shares a noteworthy amount. The present study aims at the establishment of baseline environmental gamma radiation data in the environs of proposed uranium mining areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. To this end, a systematic study has been undertaken using Thermoluminescence (T.L.) dosimeters and G.M. (Geiger - Muller) tube based survey meter. These levels are estimated both indoors and outdoors in the study area covering about 23 villages surrounding the proposed mining sites. The estimated external gamma radiation levels (air kerma) varied from 0.605 to 4.39 mGy.y -1 . The mean indoor to outdoor radiation level ratio is found to be 1.1 ± 0.1. The estimated mean equivalent doses due to external background radiation in the villages of the study area range from 1.03 to 2.83 mSv.y -1 with a mean of 2.34 ± 0.39 mSv.y -1 . (authors)

  2. External gamma radiation survey for oil wellheads in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Rafat M.; Mously, Khalid A.; Cowie, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is known to be associated with oil and gas extraction. As part of a comprehensive NORM management strategy, Saudi Aramco needed to determine the extent of NORM contamination associated with their oil and gas operations. As part of that strategy, this study focused on external gamma survey of oil producing wellheads at various locations. The study aimed to: 1-) Identify wellheads with elevated gamma radiation dose rate; 2-) Specify the exact locations of the high dose rates on the wellheads; 3-) Identify the radioisotopes responsible for the high dose rates; and 4-) Propose worker protection requirements during maintenance. The majority (∼92%) of the surveyed wellheads showed no enhanced gamma dose-rate above background level. From the remaining ∼8%, only a few wellheads showed dose rates between 1,000-3,700 n Sv/h. The study revealed that NORM contamination tends to accumulate at turns of the pipes, around pipe diameter changes, the joints, the back of valves, and at the base of the wellhead. Also, for a given location, NORM build up on the interior of pipework varies over time and continues to migrate down stream until it reaches the Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSP). There NORM is expected to accumulate and reside in the form of sludge. Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed that 226 Ra and its progeny are responsible for the high radiation dose rates detected. It was concluded that NORM will not pose significant radiation hazards to workers as long as the tubing and piping are not opened. (author)

  3. External radiation assessment in a wet phosphoric acid production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Perez-Moreno, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ppmasb@us.es; Martin, J.E.; San Miguel, E.G. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    226,228}Ra activity concentrations in the material fluxing during the process (the most important radionuclides from the dosimetric point of view) and the external dose rates. Furthermore, any general dependence of the origin of the rock (i.e., on their radioactive contents) on the external effective dose rate measured has not been observed. These latter findings could be a consequence of three effects: (1) a variable radiation shielding at the different points along the process, (2) a changing geometry of irradiation (from a rock pile up to a thin-layered pulp passing through a solid mass inside pipes and deposits), and (3) the existence of a 'memory effect', or background contamination in the installation equipment due to the presence of radionuclide-enriched scales and sludges in pipes and deposits.

  4. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. The Study of External Radiation Dose for Radiation Worker at PRSG-BATAN Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarningsih; Mashudi; A Lilik W; Yosep S

    2012-01-01

    The study of External radiation dose for radiation worker at PRSG-BATAN Serpong has been carried out. The sample is taken from the System Reactor division (BSR), Operation Reactor division, (BOR) Safety division UPN, UJM and head of PRSG by setting Thermoluminescence Dosemeter (TLD) on the chest, then is detected by a tool TLD reader model 6600. The aim of this study is to evaluate the occupational exposure dose that has been accepted by the radiation worker for the last five years. The result in average doses at BSR is 0,99 mSv, BOR is 3,27 mSv, at BK is 0,69 mSv and UPN + UJM + head of PRSG is 0,03 mSv. The result highest doses at BSR is 6,58 mSv, BOR is 28,94 mSv, BK is 4,24 mSv, and UPN UJM Head of PRSG is 0,52 mSv. Dose interval radiation worker at PRSG BATAN ttd - 28,98 mSv. To overall the external personal dose acceptant for radiation worker at PRSG BATAN one below maximum permissible dose acceptant that allowed by BAPETEN, that is 20 mSv in average every year during five years. (author)

  6. [External cephalic version in cases of breech presentation: renaissance of a well-known procedure?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Callies, R; Kuhn, U; Willruth, A; Kimmig, R

    2009-01-01

    About 3-4% of all pregnant women will have a fetus presenting by the breech at term. External cephalic version offers the opportunity to reduce the rate of caesarean sections caused by breech presentation. We analysed retrospectively 51 cases of external cephalic version at our clinic. External cephalic version was performed 51 times between 37 and 41 weeks of pregnancy. External cephalic version was successful in 32/51 cases (62,7%) with a consecutive rate of vaginal delivery of 71,9%. The best results were seen at 37 weeks of pregnancy with 81,25% of successful versions followed by 76,9% of vaginal deliveries. Complications were rare. There was just 1 case of emergency caesarean section due to persisting fetal bradycardia. External cephalic version is an effective and safe treatment to enable vaginal delivery of cephalic presentation. For this operation, 37 weeks of pregnancy can be considered the best time. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Modeling of external radiation from the transport of radionuclides across a canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Van Etten, D.; Chen, I-li.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is an 800-million electron volt, l mA intensity linear proton accelerator used for studying subatomic particles at relativistic velocities. Routine operation of the accelerator results in the formation of short-lived air activation products, primarily in the beam stop section of LAMPF. This study presents the results of monitoring and modeling external radiation levels from LAMPF emissions at three locations during 1984. Measured radiation exposures are presented for all three locations during a 49-day period. Hourly radiation levels are calculated for all sites and compared with the prevalent wind patterns during the study period. Predicted daily levels are compared with measured values at all of the sites. Accuracy of the model is compared for day and night conditions. Annual model predictions are also compared with TLD measurements

  8. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  9. Measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations required for revised radiation protection regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Kojima, Noboru; Hayashi, Naomi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Radiation protection regulations based on the 1990 recommendations of ICRP have been revised and will take effect from Apr., 2001. The major changes concerning on the measurement and assessment of doses from external radiations are as follows. (1) Personal dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent stated in ICRP Publication 74 are introduced as quantities to be measured with personal dosimeters and survey instruments, respectively. (2) For multiple dosimetry for workers, the compartment weighting factors used for a realistic assessment of effective dose are markedly changed. In advance of the introduction of the new radiation protection regulations, the impacts on workplace and personal monitoring for external radiations by these revisions were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) A new ambient dose equivalent to neutrons is higher with a factor of 1.2 than the old one for moderated fission neutron spectra. Therefore, neutron dose equivalent monitors for workplace monitoring at MOX fuel for facilities should be recalibrated for measurement of the new ambient dose equivalent. (2) Annual effective doses of workers were estimated by applying new calibration factors to readings of personal dosimeters, worn by workers. Differences between effective doses and effective dose equivalents are small for workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX fuel. (author)

  10. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  11. Present status of radiation-pasteurization apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Keigo

    2006-01-01

    Electron beams with the energy less than 10 MeV can be utilized to destroy directly DNA of microorganism or indirectly via OH radicals produced from water which may diffuse toward the DNA. The article summarizes the features of radiation pasteurization in general, using X-rays or electron beams, followed by stating the advantage claimed for electron beam treatment compared to X-ray treatment. The article explains various types of electron-beam accelerators now used for pasteurization and food preservation. For this purposes some specific apparatus are introduced with which food irradiation facilities should be equipped, for example beam scanning systems and sample transport systems with an automatic switch for door open-shut. The objects of each type of food to be irradiated and necessary dose range are tabulated. Finally, some recent problems regarding food irradiation are discussed: possible radioactivity induced by irradiation, use of methyl bromide instead of irradiation, etc. (S. Ohno)

  12. Radiation processing dosimetry - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Since the two United Nations Conferences were held in Geneva in 1955 and 1958 on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy and the concurrent foundation of the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1957, the IAEA has fostered high-dose dosimetry and its applications. This field is represented in industrial radiation processing, agricultural programmes, and therapeutic and preventative medicine. Such dosimetry is needed specifically for pest and quarantine control and in the processing of medical products, pharmaceuticals, blood products, foodstuffs, solid, liquid and gaseous wastes, and a variety of useful commodities, e.g. polymers, composites, natural rubber and elastomers, packaging, electronic, and automotive components, as well as in radiotherapy. Improvements and innovations of dosimetry materials and analytical systems and software continue to be important goals for these applications. Some of the recent advances in high-dose dosimetry include tetrazolium salts and substituted polydiacetylene as radiochromic media, on-line real-time as well as integrating semiconductor and diamond-detector monitors, quantitative label dosimeters, photofluorescent sensors for broad dose range applications, and improved and simplified parametric and computational codes for imaging and simulating 3D radiation dose distributions in model products. The use of certain solid-state devices, e.g. optical quality LiF, at low (down to 4K) and high (up to 500 K) temperatures, is of interest for materials testing. There have also been notable developments in experimental dose mapping procedures, e.g. 2D and 3D dose distribution analyses by flat-bed optical scanners and software applied to radiochromic and photofluorescent images. In addition, less expensive EPR spectrometers and new EPR dosimetry materials and high-resolution semiconductor diode arrays, charge injection devices, and photostimulated storage phosphors have been introduced. (author)

  13. Present status of radiation processing in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Crosslinking of insulating materials including cables, tubes, sheets, pipes and polymer foam, curing of coating, surface treatment and other processes developed recently will be presented. Future prospects in this field will be discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  15. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Eric S., E-mail: epaulson@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  16. Dyslexic adults can learn from repeated stimulus presentation but have difficulties in excluding external noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Beattie

    Full Text Available We examined whether the characteristic impairments of dyslexia are due to a deficit in excluding external noise or a deficit in taking advantage of repeated stimulus presentation. We compared non-impaired adults and adults with poor reading performance on a visual letter detection task that varied two aspects: the presence or absence of background visual noise, and a small or large stimulus set. There was no interaction between group and stimulus set size, indicating that the poor readers took advantage of repeated stimulus presentation as well as the non-impaired readers. The poor readers had higher thresholds than non-impaired readers in the presence of high external noise, but not in the absence of external noise. The results support the hypothesis that an external noise exclusion deficit, not a perceptual anchoring deficit, impairs reading for adults.

  17. Relationships between the operator's radiation protection expert and the radiation protection expert belonging to an external company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravelotte, D.

    2008-01-01

    The radiation protection expert (PCR in French for Personne Competente en Radioprotection) is a central actor in the organization of radioprotection. Such a person is required within radioprotection departments of basic nuclear installations as well in external companies intervening in these installations. After having recalled that relationship between these both experts is promoted by the legal framework, the author describes how this relationship is planned in the Paluel French nuclear power station. He indicates the type of data and information concerning the power station activities which are exchanged between them. He also presents the actions which have been defined to promote this relationship

  18. Problems and the present status of radiation educational curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Tadashi; Muraishi, Yukimasa; Mikado, Shogo; Watanabe, Tomohiro

    1999-01-01

    To examine teaching curriculum for radiation education requires a collective and extensive consideration on various subjects from many fields. The present study has been made from 4 points of view, namely 'physics', physics experiment', 'chemistry', and 'general science'. In 'physics', a curriculum in which learning about radiation followed by learning Newtonian mechanics was examined. Some group experiments taking radiation as the subject, a curriculum including radiation and radioactivity in high school chemistry course and general science are proposed and discussed briefly. (S. Ohno)

  19. Implementation of a system for external audits beam radiation therapy in terms of reference no

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, Jose Luis; Dominguez, Lourdes; Alert Silva, Jose; Alfonso Laguardia, Rodolfo; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Rodriguez Machado, Jorge; Morales Lopez, Jorge Luis; Silvestre Patallo, Ileana

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made.This paper presents our experience in implementing a external audit system for radiotherapy beam in no reference conditions with the use of CIRS and a summary of the measurements with him made. Centers were audited with external beam high-energy Co-60, 6 MV and 15 MV and were considered 4 treatment planning systems (TPS): AMEPLAN, Theraplan Plus, Precise Plan and MIRS to calculate doses prescribed in each test case. All measurements were acquired by the audit team using the anthropomorphic phantom CIRS, Semiflex chamber PTW 31010 and PTW electrometer STATES. The implementation and development of the external audits of beams radiotherapy in terms of 'no reference' has brought an improvement in both clinical aspects of treatment and the radiation safety and the quality control, has given us greater confidence and for this reason we believe has become essential. (Author)

  20. Radiation protection of the public: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical development of radiation protection standards for the public, the present system in the United States for limiting radiation exposures of the public primarily by means of environmental radiation standards for specific practices or sources, and recent developments that may affect future standards and policies for radiation protection of the public. The radiobiological and epidemiological basis for radiation protection standards and policies is emphasized. Difficulties associated with the current regulatory framework are discussed, and proposal for addressing these difficulties are presented. 16 refs., 1 tab

  1. External ophthalmomyiasis presenting to an emergency department: corneal findings as a sign of Oestrus ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhossein, Yaghoubi; Behrouz, Heydari

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to determine the frequency of opthalmyomyiasis externa and the ocular findings of disease in Southern Khorasan. All patients referred to the emergency department of Valiaser hospital during the year 2011 with external ophthalmomyiasis were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis was made according to clinical findings and the presence of Oestrus ovis larvae. There were 18 cases of external ophthalmomyiasis in the emergency department of Valiaser hospital in 2011. Most cases had the common signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, except for three males who were referred with respective complaints of red eye, foreign body sensation, and swelling around the eyelids after contact injury the previous day; corneal infiltration was present in three cases. The visual acuity among the three cases that had peripheral corneal involvement was 20 / 30 in both eyes. The bulbar conjunctiva showed chemosis in all cases and a ropy pattern discharge that was clinically compatible with external ophthalmomyiasis. However, in one case, microscopic slit lamp examination did not show Oestrus ovis larvae. The frequency of external ophthalmomyiasis was high in this region. Although external ophthalmomyiasis usually manifests as allergic conjunctivitis, coronary-like corneal infiltration may be considered in the differential diagnosis of external ophthalmomyiasis or toxic insult.

  2. External exposure from gamma radiation in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation doses received by workers in a high ore grade uranium mine are compared to those of other radiation workers and the need to be able to calculate the exposure rate from an ore body is indicated. The uranium-238 decay chain is presented and particular reference is made to the main gamma emitters and secular equilibrium of the members of the chain. Difficulties in dealing with a self attenuating volume source, in which scattering is important, are pointed out and traditional methods of solution are mentioned. It is shown that in the special case of an infinite ore body a simple solution may be obtained using the energy conservation principle. A straightforward method for calculating the exposure rate from an arbitrarily shaped ore body is given and corrections due to air attenuation, different soil types and possible lack of secular equilibrium are dealt with. The gamma ray spectrum from the ore is discussed with specific reference to the selection of suitable exposure monitors and the calculation of transmission through shields

  3. A Route to Chaotic Behavior of Single Neuron Exposed to External Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peihua; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jiazhong

    2017-01-01

    Non-linear behaviors of a single neuron described by Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuron model, with external electromagnetic radiation considered, is investigated. It is discovered that with external electromagnetic radiation in form of a cosine function, the mode selection of membrane potential occurs among periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions as increasing the frequency of external transmembrane current, which is selected as a sinusoidal function. When the frequency is small or large enough, periodic, and quasi-periodic motions are captured alternatively. Otherwise, when frequency is in interval 0.778 electromagnetic radiation. The frequency apparently plays a more important role in determining the system behavior.

  4. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  5. Present status of quality assurance system for radiation therapy in the national hospital and sanatorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kotaka, Kikuo; Terui, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the precision of radiation therapy and structure of radiation oncology, the state of quality assurance (QA) system for external radiation therapy in Japanese national hospitals and sanatoriums were investigated, by a questionnaire method. The questionnaire included the equipments, the personnel, and a frequency in quality assurance check of each radiation therapy facilities. The results clarified that real photon energy of megavoltage equipment was measured in only 57% of 58% institutions; frequency of the dose monitor calibration was suboptimal; personnel scale was markedly insufficient; some treatment-related apparatus was inappropriately arranged between institutions. Based on these results, it was considered that the precision of radiation therapy and its QA state could not be improved without personnel sufficiency. In the present situation, we should consider the arrangement of treatment facilities in each area and specialization of radiation therapy between institutions. (author)

  6. The effective dose equivalent from external and internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren

    1989-01-01

    The various sources of low-level ionizing radiation are discussed and compared in terms of mean effective dose equivalent to man. For the most nonoccupationally exposed individuals, natural sources given the dominating contribution to the effective dose equivalent. The size of this contribution is strongly dependent on human activities. Natural sources contribution on average 2.4 mSV per year, of which half is due to irradiation of lungs and airways from short lived radon daughters present in indoor air. In Sweden this radon daughter contribution is considerably higher and contributes a mean of 3 mSv per year, thus giving a total contribution from natural radiation of about 4 mSV per year. In extreme cases, radon daughter contributions of several hundreds of mSv per year may be reached. Medical exposure, mainly diagnostic X-rays, contributes 0.4-1 mSv per year both in Sweden and as a world average. The testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere has given 1-2 mSv to each person in the world as a mean. The contribution from the routine operation of nuclear reactors is insignificant. The reactor accident in Chernobyl resulted in widely varying exposures of the European population. The average for Sweden is estimated to be 0.1 mSv during the first year and about 1 mSv during a 50-year period. For groups of Swedes who eat a considerable amount of game this contribution will be 10 times higher, and for the Lapps who breed reindeer in the most contaminated areas, typical values of 20-70 mSv and extreme values of about 1 Sv may be reached in 50 years. This means that the Chernobyl reactor accident for several years will be their dominating source of irradiation

  7. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  8. Radiation pollution: present and future perplexities about human rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Raj; Bharti, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Out of the several pollutions included in environmental pollution, the radiation pollution is also a part of this, which is most damageable and serious for the society. Historical evidences reveal about the devastating effects of radiation pollution on human being. No form of pollution exists in the world which influences the human race with its devastating affects for more than one generation except radiation pollution. The radiation pollution affects human health in several ways. It is a man made problem and also affects human rights of masses for which state are responsible ultimately. The radiation pollution affects a big spectrum of human rights. The sources of radiation pollution and its impact on human health may be different according to the sources. These sources may be classified as electronic goods, Nuclear tests, Nuclear war, Reactors and thermal plants etc. Although we have some legal provisions to handle the problem of radiation pollution but there is no specific laws available for the protection and promotion of human rights from radiation pollution in the lights of international human rights principles. At present, there is no human right oriented policy framework is available to protect and promote the human rights of the radiation pollutions sufferers. The paper explores Present and Future Perplexities about Human Rights. It also tells about the available legal framework, state obligations and judicial responses for radiation pollution. The paper concludes with some suggestions in the light of present and future perplexities about human rights. (author)

  9. A new programmable zone dosimeter for operational monitoring and measurement of external gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Acosta, Rene; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Mesa Perez, Guillermo; Fernandez Llanez, Sandra; Tamayo Garcia, Jose Antonio; Alonso Villanueva, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The detection and the measurement of the nuclear radiations have turn into an important item in the nuclear detectors application and specifically the Geiger Muller ones. Coming from theirs high detection sensibility, robust construction and relative simplicity of the associated circuit, the Geiger Tubes are still one of the most widely used detectors in all the application areas regarding physics and nuclear investigations A new design instrument is presented to be measures the ambient dose of external (gamma) radiation since 10 mSv/h. It consists of three elements: Geiger-Muller detector, the electronic board for the acquisition and control and the application software. The instrument communicates trough a USB interface to the Personal Computer only for adjust calibration parameters. The software was developed in the C programming language using PICC4, 08 compilers. (author)

  10. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and interfaces with external data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, G.M.; Cress, T.S.; Melton, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the Department of Energy's major field project in support of its global change research program. Its objective is to improve the performance of cloud and radiation models and parameterizations in general circulation models (GCMs) used for climate research. The data produced by ARM will be handled and maintained to satisfy the research needs of the program and to be accessible and usable by the general research and academic communities. In addition to data from field instrumentation, ARM Science Team needs include a substantial amount of data from outside the ARM Program (''external data''), which will be acquired and provided routinely through the ARM data system. With respect to data archival and sharing, the ARM Program reflects the objectives delineated by the US Global Change. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize the conceptual designs embodied in the ARM data system and the status of its implementation

  11. Interventions to help external cephalic version for breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2004-01-01

    Breech presentation places a fetus at increased risk. The outcome for the baby is improved by planned caesarean section compared with planned vaginal delivery. External cephalic version attempts to reduce the chances of breech presentation at birth, but is not always successful. Tocolytic drugs to relax the uterus as well as other methods have been used in an attempt to facilitate external cephalic version at term. To assess the effects of routine tocolysis, fetal acoustic stimulation, epidural or spinal analgesia and transabdominal amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term on successful version and measures of pregnancy outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (September 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2003) were searched. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing routine versus selective or no tocolysis; fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions versus dummy or no stimulation; epidural or spinal analgesia versus no regional analgesia; or transabdominal amnioinfusion versus no amnioinfusion for external cephalic version at term. The reviewer assessed eligibility and trial quality. In six trials, routine tocolysis with beta-stimulants was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version (relative risk (RR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 0.87). The reduction in non-cephalic presentations at birth was not statistically significant. Caesarean sections were reduced (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.99). In four small trials, sublingual nitroglycerine used as a tocolytic was associated with significant side-effects, and was not found to be effective. Fetal acoustic stimulation in midline fetal spine positions was associated with fewer failures of external cephalic version at term (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.60). With epidural or spinal analgesia, external cephalic version failure, non-cephalic births and caesarean sections were

  12. Moessbauer radiation dynamical diffraction in crystals being subjected to the action of external variable fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskii, V.G.; Skadorov, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamical theory is developed of the Moessbauer radiation diffraction by crystals being subjected to an variable external field action. Equations describing the dynamical diffraction by nonstationary crystals are obtained. It is shown that the resonant interaction between Moessbauer radiation and shift field induced in the crystal by a variable external field giving rise to an effective conversion of the incident wave into a wave with changed frequency. (author)

  13. ''Use of synchrotron radiation in France: present status and perspectives''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, P.

    1996-01-01

    LURE (laboratory for the use of electromagnetic radiation) plays an important role as a research center, as a synchrotron radiation producer and as a leading pole about new light source studies. The necessity to maintain LURE at a high level of technological competitiveness implies to build a new facility called SOLEIL. This article describes the present equipment of LURE, its activity fields and draws the prospect of synchrotron radiation in France. (A.C.)

  14. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  15. External cystic rectal duplication: an unusual presentation of rectal duplication cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, I; Karaman, A; Arda, N; Cakmak, O

    2007-11-01

    Duplications of gastrointestinal tract are rare anomalies, and rectal duplications account for five percent of the alimentary tract duplications. We present an unusual case of rectal duplication, which was located externally in a newborn female, and discuss the types of distal hindgut duplications.

  16. Estimation of effective dose to public from external exposure to natural background radiation in saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The effective dose values in sixteen cities in Saudi Arabia due to external exposure to natural radiation were evaluated. These doses are based on natural background components including external exposure to terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The importance of evaluating the effective dose to the public due to external exposure to natural background radiation lies in its epidemiological and dosimetric importance and in forming a basis for the assessment of the level of radioactive contamination or pollution in the environment in the future. The exposure to terrestrial radiation was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The exposure from cosmic radiation was determined using empirical correlation. The values evaluated for the total annual effective dose in all cities were within the world average values. The highest total annual effective dose measured in Al-Khamis city was 802 μSv/y, as compared to 305 μSv/y in Dammam city, which was considered the lowest value

  17. Monitoring and assessment of individual doses of occupationally exposed workers due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaw, S. T.

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to external radiation occurs in many occupations. Any exposure to ionizing radiation has the tendency to change the biochemical make-up of the human body which may result in biological health effects of ionizing radiation. This study reviews the monitoring and assessment of external radiation doses in industrial radiography using thermoluminescence and direct reading dosimeters. Poor handling procedures such as inadequate engineering control of equipment, safety culture, management, and inadequate assessment and monitoring of doses are the causes of most of the reported cases of exposure to external radiation in industrial radiography. Occupational exposure data in industrial radiography from UNSCEAR report 2008 was discussed and recommendations were made to regulatory authorities, operating organizations and radiographers. (au)

  18. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  19. External radiation in spinal cord compression in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.H.; Ayyagiri, S.; Dutta, T.K.; Gupta, B.D.; Gulati, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    The place of radiotherapy in 14 cases of spinal cord compression in multiple myeloma is outlined. The modalities of treatment and the role of surgery and radiation as decompression methods are emphasised. Complete recovery is seen in 50 percent of the patients in this small group with judicious combination of surgical and/or radiation decompression. Chemotherapy as systematic treatment must be given in all the cases after decompression procedures. It is suggested that reactive oedema after irradiation is only speculative and radiation alone as primary treatment may be recommended in selected cases. (author)

  20. External radiation in spinal cord compression in multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G H; Ayyagiri, S; Dutta, T K; Gupta, B D; Gulati, D R [Post-Graduate Inst. of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1978-02-01

    The place of radiotherapy in 14 cases of spinal cord compression in multiple myeloma is outlined. The modalities of treatment and the role of surgery and radiation as decompression methods are emphasised. Complete recovery is seen in 50 percent of the patients in this small group with judicious combination of surgical and/or radiation decompression. Chemotherapy as systematic treatment must be given in all the cases after decompression procedures. It is suggested that reactive oedema after irradiation is only speculative and radiation alone as primary treatment may be recommended in selected cases.

  1. Fluxon interaction with external rf radiation in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.; Olsen, Ole H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1993-01-01

    . It is shown that due to excitation of a standing linear wave by the driving force, the fluxon motion is strongly influenced by a periodic (averaged) potential similar to the Peierls-Nabarro potential in a discrete chain. This effective potential decreases in the direction of the boundary where the external rf...

  2. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  3. Dose control for external radiation; Kawalan dos untuk sinaran luar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: time and distance limitation, shielding, effects of radiations i.e. alpha particles, beta particles, x-ray, gamma ray, neutron. half value layer, design of shields and operation of shielding.

  4. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Adult bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargos, P.; Mamou, N.; Dejean, C.; Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Kantor, G.; Huchet, A.; Italiano, A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation tolerance for bone tissue has been mostly evaluated with regard to bone fracture. Main circumstances are mandibula osteoradionecrosis, hip and costal fracture, and patent or radiologic fractures in the treated volume. After radiation therapy of bone metastasis, the analysis of related radiation fracture is difficult to individualize from a pathologic fracture. Frequency of clinical fracture is less than 5% in the large series or cohorts and is probably under-evaluated for the asymptomatic lesions. Women older than 50 years and with osteoporosis are probably the main population at risk. Dose-effect relations are difficult to qualify in older series. Recent models evaluating radiations toxicity on diaphysa suggest an important risk after 60 Gy, for high dose-fraction and for a large volume. (authors)

  5. National congress of radiation protection - Book of presentations (slides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    This document brings together all the available presentations (slides) of the 9. French national congress of radiation protection. The congress comprised 9 tutorial sessions and 13 ordinary sessions. The tutorial sessions covered the following topics: T1 - Fukushima accident's consequences on terrestrial environment; T2 - The efficient dose: use and limitations in the industrial and medical domains; T3 - Revision of the NFC 15-160 standard relative to radiological facilities; T4 - Medical implants and low frequency electromagnetic fields; T5 - Report from the working group on radiological zoning; T6 - Incidents in medical environment; T7 - ADR: European agreement about the international road transport of dangerous goods; T8 - Cigeo project: industrial geologic disposal facility; T9 - Dose control in medical imaging: what progress since 2010? The ordinary sessions gathered fifty-nine presentations dealing with the following subjects: 1 - effects of ionising radiations on man and ecosystems; 2 - radiation protection regulation and standards; 3 - radiation protection in incident, accident and post-accident situation; 4 - radiation protection of populations and ecosystems; 5 - Radiation protection and society; 6/11 - Radiation protection of patients; 7/8 - Eye lens irradiation and dosimetry; 9 - Non-ionising radiations; 10/12 - Radiation protection in professional environments; 13 - advances in dosimetry and metrology

  6. Permissible dose from external sources of ionizing radiation. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 59

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-09-24

    The Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was formed in 1929 upon the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards, and with the cooperation of the leading radiological organizations. The small committee functioned effectively until the advent of atomic energy, which introduced a large number of new and serious problems in the field of radiation protection. The present report deals primarily with the protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from external sources. An attempt has been made to cover most of the situations encountered in practice. However, it has not always been possible to make recommendations in quantitative terms. In such cases the recommendations are intended to serve as practical guides. The recommendations are based on presently available information and cannot be regarded as permanent. For this reason and on general grounds it is strongly recommended that exposure to radiation be kept at the lowest practicable level in all cases.

  7. Permissible dose from external sources of ionizing radiation. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1954-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection was formed in 1929 upon the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, under the sponsorship of the National Bureau of Standards, and with the cooperation of the leading radiological organizations. The small committee functioned effectively until the advent of atomic energy, which introduced a large number of new and serious problems in the field of radiation protection. The present report deals primarily with the protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation from external sources. An attempt has been made to cover most of the situations encountered in practice. However, it has not always been possible to make recommendations in quantitative terms. In such cases the recommendations are intended to serve as practical guides. The recommendations are based on presently available information and cannot be regarded as permanent. For this reason and on general grounds it is strongly recommended that exposure to radiation be kept at the lowest practicable level in all cases

  8. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Yamamura, Hideki; Nakano, Atsuhiro.

    1995-01-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 μmol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 μg/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 μg/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositide-mediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis. (author)

  9. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, M; Yamamura, H; Nakano, A

    1995-09-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 mumol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 micrograms/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 micrograms/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositidemediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis.

  10. Lithium delays the radiation-induced apoptotic process in external granule cells of mouse cerebellum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inouye, Minoru; Yamamura, Hideki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine; Nakano, Atsuhiro

    1995-09-01

    Proliferating cells of the external granular layer (EGL) in the developing cerebellum are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. We examined the effect of lithium, an inhibitor of intracellular signaling, on the manifestation of radiation-induced apoptosis. Newborn mice were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma-irradiation alone, or first were treated with lithium (10 {mu}mol/g, SC) then given 0.5 Gy irradiation 2 hr later. The EGL was examined histologically for apoptosis at various times after treatment. Apoptotic cells increased rapidly, peaked (about 14%) 6 hr after irradiation, then decreased gradually to the control level by 24 hr. Prior treatment with lithium delayed the manifestation of apoptosis, the peak appearing at 12 hr. The disappearance of dead cells was delayed for about one day. The lithium concentration in the whole brain increased rapidly, being 30 {mu}g/g at the time of irradiation and remaining at more than 40 {mu}g/g for 40 hr. Lithium is reported to inhibit guanine-nucleotide binding to G proteins as well as phosphoinositide turnover. Of the variety of lesions induced by radiation, DNA double strand breaks are the most important source of cell lethality. The present findings, however, suggest that cyclic AMP-mediated and/or phosphoinositide-mediated signaling systems regulate radiation-induced apoptosis. (author).

  11. Developmental transitions in presentations of externalizing problems among boys and girls at risk for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Litrownik, Alan J; Thompson, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Roesch, Scott C; Hussey, Jon M; Block, Stephanie; English, Diana J; Dubowitz, Howard

    2015-02-01

    The present study examined the impact of children's maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems ("well adjusted," "hyperactive/oppositional," and "aggressive/rule-breaking") and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A "defiant/deceitful" group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children.

  12. The background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of external γ radiation on the process of 71 Ge-decay counting in proportional counters in SAGE experiment of solar neutrino flux measurement is examined. One determines the systematic error of SAGE result, connected with radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters, and the background counting rate of proportional counters from γ radiation of passive and active shield [ru

  13. Examination of the component of the scattered radiation by external monitor chamber using the EGS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Y.; Tabushi, K.; Kito, S.

    2005-01-01

    The output beams of the liner accelerator are radiated by an accelerated electron and a dose rate usually fluctuates. The variation affects the shape of a dose distribution in dosimetry. The external monitor chamber is often used for monitoring the variation. Generally the external monitor chamber is set above the water phantom. Therefore, if the irradiation field is small, the scattered radiation due to the external monitor chamber may affect a measurement dose. This work is to examine the component of the scattered radiation generated by external monitor chamber, and to investigate the effect on measurement dose using the EGS4 code and the Klein-Nishina formula. The shapes and the peak energies were corresponding to the spectra of EGS4 and the Klein-Nishina formula. Therefore the main interaction at the external monitor chamber is Compton scatter. The effect of the scattered radiation and the change of the dose distribution were few. However the dose decreased to about 1% under the position of the external monitor chamber. Therefore we should pay the attention to the distance between the external monitor chamber and the measurement chamber. (author)

  14. Fear for external cephalic version and depression: predictors of successful external cephalic version for breech presentation at term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliacus, Emily; van der Zalm, Marieke; Truijens, Sophie E; Hasaart, Tom H; Pop, Victor J; Kuppens, Simone M

    2014-03-12

    Objective was to determine whether fear for external cephalic version (ECV) and depression are associated with the success rate of ECV in women with a breech presentation at term. Prospective study conducted in the Catharina Hospital Eindhoven between October 2007 and May 2012. Participants fulfilled The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) questionnaire and expressed their degree of fear on a visual analogue scale from one to ten before ECV. Obstetric factors were evaluated as well. Primary outcome was the relation between psychological factors (fear for ECV and depression EDS scores) and ECV success rate. Secondary outcome was a possible relation between fear for ECV and increased abdominal muscle tension. The overall success rate was 55% and was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in nulliparous women (44.3%) compared with parous women (78.0%). Fear for ECV and depression EDS-scores were not related with ECV success rate. Parity, placental location, BMI and engagement of the fetal breech were obstetric factors associated with ECV outcome. There was no relation between fear for ECV and abdominal muscle tone. Fear for ECV and depression were not related with ECV success rate in this study. Engagement of the fetal breech was the most important factor associated with a successful ECV. The Eindhoven Breech Intervention Study, NCT00516555.

  15. Research plan for external radiation protection research 1994/95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A broad outline of the research financed by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute but performed outside the Institute. The fiscal year 94/95 is the last year of a three year research plan, and has a budget of about 21 MSEK (close to 3 MUSD). 9.5 MSEK is spent on research connected to nuclear power, 4.1 MSEK on other radiation protection and 3.3 MSEK on participation in the research program of the European Union. Short descriptions of the different areas are given in the report

  16. Assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy departments after inspections performed by the ASN 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Vincent; Marchal, Carole

    2009-10-01

    This report proposes an assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy. It is based on inter-regional syntheses of inspections performed by the ASN in external radiotherapy departments during 2008. It addresses 6 main themes related to patient radiation protection: human and material resources, organisation of medical physics, training in patient radiation protection, mastering of equipment (maintenance, internal quality controls of medical devices), safety and care quality management (formalization of the patient care process and definition of responsibilities, patient identity control, treatment preparation, and treatment execution), and risk management (a priori risk analysis, declaration, recording and internal processing of dysfunctions, improvements of care quality and safety management system)

  17. External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels

  18. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1985 from LAMPF [Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility] emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Chen, Ili; Van Etten, D.M.

    1987-11-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) continued to measure external radiation levels during 1985 caused by radionuclides emitted from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during this study. A more complex finite model, which takes into account the contribution of radiation at a receptor from different locations of the passing plume, was also tested. Monitoring results indicate that, as in 1984, a persistent wind up the Rio Grande Valley during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest external radiation levels to occur to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. However, because of increased turbulent mixing during the day, external radiation levels are generally much less during the day than at night. External radiation levels during 1985 show approximately a 75% reduction over 1984 levels. This resulted from a similar percentage reduction in LAMPF emissions caused by newly implemented emission controls. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer time periods. Comparison of predicted and measured hourly values indicates that the model generally tends to overpredict during the day and underpredict at night. 9 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  19. Radiation education in Poland. The present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goraczko, W.

    1999-01-01

    The necessity for the continued education about radiation (both in nuclear science and the technical application of radioisotopes) in the educational systems is obvious. For many years this subject has been part of a students education in physics as well as nonphysical areas of study, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, ecology and agriculture. Unfortunately in the wake of the disaster at Chernobyl, a number of negative factors have resulted that have undermined both educations in this crucial area and financial investment in Polish radiation institutes. Some sociologists have termed this behavior/viewpoint 'radio-phobia phenomena'. Might I be so bold as to recoin it as 'nuclear related paranoia' since it has caused a general breakdown in rational, 'cause and effect analysis' even within respectable scientific circles, including prominent radio biologists, who now accept radiation only as a destructive factor in biological and human life. The most important factor in this campaign will be the promotion and presentation of radiation in simple-understandable terms through the following outlets, (popular articles, TV programs, objective classroom presentation and so on), designed to be easily understandable to society as a whole. In this support is to be found in some governmental and independent organization, which do attempt to show radiation as bio-positive, human friendly and an economically indispensable factor for the future. However our fight with the so-called coal lobby' will continue to be difficult. Help by international organizations such as the I.A.E.A. will not suffice in this battle. In this article the author tries to describe the Polish education system and statistical data showing the present status of radiation science, radiation education and the quantity of students and experts in the field. As a nuclear physicist and specialist in radiation protection, lecturer and an Inspector of Radiation Protection, he provides insights from his own

  20. External exposure rates from terrestrial radiation at Guarapari and Meaipe in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinami, N.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.

    2000-01-01

    Recently epidemiological and cytogenetic studies on inhabitants living in high background radiation areas have been carried out in order to examine health effects of exposure to low dose radiation. Guarapari and Meaipe are towns built on the monazite sand region along the Atlantic coast in Brazil, which is one of the widely known high background radiation areas in the world. As an initial step toward studies on health effects of high background radiation on inhabitants living in Guarapari and Meaipe, we surveyed absorbed dose rates in air in these towns with a portable NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in September 1998. Sand and soil were also sampled there so as to determine the concentrations of Th-232 and Ra-226 in them. In Guarapari and Meaipe, dose rates in the streets ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 μ Gy/h except for a few places such as near the Areia Preta beach and Meaipe beach. Dose rates inside houses were lower than 0.2 μ Gy/h except that two houses attained a dose rate of 0.4 μ Gy/h. Our effective dose rate from external terrestrial irradiation (outdoors and indoors) was 0.17 μ Sv/h on the average, during the period of our three day stay in Guarapari and Meaipe. From comparison of our present values with those observed in the 1960s, which were cited in UNSCEAR reports, it is indicated that dose rate levels have decreased clearly in downtown, while the levels have scarcely changed in beaches and unpaved beach streets which have not been developed yet. This fact suggests that the natural radiation environment of Guarapari and Meaipe has varied with urbanization which brought paved streets, and changes in the structure and building materials of houses. A detailed survey is necessary in order to evaluate present absorbed dose rates in air in this area. (author)

  1. Present status of standards relating to radiation control and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kentaro

    1996-01-01

    Japanese and international standards related to radiation control and radiation protective management are presented focusing on the forming condition, significance, current situation, and their relationship. Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) is quite useful in the field of atomic energy as well as other fields in terms of optimization and rationalization of the management. JIS includes JIS Z 4001 Atomic Energy Terminology which corresponds to internationl standards ISO 921 Nuclear Glossary, and JIS Z 4005 Medical Radiation Terminology, covering about 500 articles, which corresponds to IEC 788 Medical Radiology-Terminology. The first standards regarding radiation protection was established in X-ray Film Badge, which is included in the field of personal dosimeter, in 1956. Currently, 36 JIS has been established in the field of radiation management dosimeter and 3 are under arrangement. As for radiation protective supplies, 9 JIS has been established so far. Before proposal of JIS, investigation had been conducted to improve, simplify, and standardize the standards of radiation dosimetric technique, dosimeters, dosimetric procedures, and improvement. In this article, the results of material surface contamination monitoring and body surface monitoring conducted in Atomic Energy Safety Association and Radiation Dosimetry Associationare reported, and ISO and IEC are also treated. (S.Y.)

  2. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdiac, P.; Mineur, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the following article, we will discuss general issues relating to acute and late gastric's radiation toxicities. The tolerance of the stomach to complete or partial organ irradiation is more un-appreciated than for most other organs. We consulted the Medline database via PubMed and used the key words gastric - radiotherapy - toxicity. Currently, 60 Gy or less is prescribed in gastric radiation therapy. Acute clinical toxicity symptoms are predominantly nausea and vomiting. Although there is a general agreement that the whole stomach tolerance is for doses of 40 to 45 Gy without unacceptable complication, it is well established that a stomach dose of 35 Gy increases the risk of ulcer complications. (authors)

  3. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, A.; Doyen, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Courdi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute skin toxicity is frequent during radiation therapy and can lead to temporary arrest of the treatment. Chronic toxicity can occur and conduct to cosmetic problems. Alopecia is the most frequent toxicity concerning hair and is most of the time reversible. Several factors linked to patients influence skin toxicity, such as under-nutrition, old age, obesity, smoking, skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, failure of DNA reparation. Skin, hair and nail toxicities depend also on radiation schedule. Acute toxicity is greater when dose per fraction increases. Chronic and acute toxicities are more often when total dose increases. Under 45 Gy, the risk of severe skin toxicity is low, and begins above 50 Gy. Skin toxicity depends also on the duration of radiotherapy and split course schedules are associated with less toxicities. Irradiation surface seems to influence skin toxicity but interaction is more complex. Reirradiation is often feasible in case of cancer recurrence but with a risk of grade 3-4 toxicity above all in head and neck cancer. The benefit/risk ratio has to be always precisely evaluated. Permanent alopecia is correlated with the follicle dose. Modern techniques of radiation therapy allow to spare skin. (authors)

  4. External beam radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medini, Eitan; Medini, Allen; Gapany, Markus; Levitt, Seymour H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy for carcinoma of the soft palate aims to achieve loco-regional control with normal speech, nasal function, swallowing mechanism, and minimal side effects such as nasal speech and regurgitation of food into the nasopharynx. In this report we present our results of radiotherapy in the treatment of 24 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate were treated at the Veterans Administration Medical Center Minneapolis, MN, between February 1977 and May 1992. Of the 24 patients 2 had T1, 19 T2, 1 T3, and 2 had T4 lesions. Nineteen patients did not have clinical nodal disease, stage (N0), 1 had N1, 2 N2, and 2 N3 disease (Table 1). All the patients were treated by 4 MeV linear accelerator. A 1.75 Gy median dose was administered per fraction to a total of 70 Gy median dose. Bilateral opposed compensated shrinking fields technique was used. Results: The 3-year disease free survival rate after external beam radiation therapy was 100% (1 out of 1), 64.7% (11 out of 17), 100% (1 out of 1), and 0%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively. Salvage surgery for recurrent disease was successful in 57.1% (4 out of 7 patients). The ultimate 3-year disease free survival rate for the entire group, including surgical salvage, was 81% (17 out of 21). Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone in our institution resulted in tumor control and survival rates compare favorably to previously published reports in the literature. Surgery can be reserved as salvage procedure

  5. The system of personal monitoring and the evaluation of occupational exposure to external ionizing radiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Daniel; Castro, Ailza; Martinez, Ernesto; Pernas, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Personal monitoring of workers is recommended or required by the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. In our country the personal monitoring of external exposure to ionizing radiation is carried out by External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR). We have implemented an individual monitoring service based on thermoluminescence dosimetry system. The service includes whole body and extremity dosimeters. We have two systems; one is base on a manual Toledo TLD reader and the other on an automatic RADOS TLD system. This service is recognized by the National Regulatory Authority in the field of radiation protection and safety. We have implemented a quality assurance (QA) programme designed according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The papers deals with the presentation of these QA programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new dosimeters and equipment, issuing and processing of the dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. The papers also describe the results of occupational exposure for the different practices during 2006-2007 period. (author)

  6. Exposures from external radiation and from inhalation of resuspended material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Roth, P.; Golikov, V.; Balonov, M.; Erkin, V.; Likhtariov, I.; Garger, E.; Kashparov, V.

    1996-01-01

    In the modelling of external exposures due to cesium released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, gamma dose rates in air over open undisturbed sites are considered to be different according to the unsoluble fraction in the deposit. This is taken into account by forming different classes according to the distance from the Chernobyl NPP. The effect of the different migration behavior in these distance classes on the gamma dose rate in air is found to increase with time. Predictions of gamma dose rates in air are based on measurements of the nuclear weapons tests fallout. Various population groups in the CIS countries are defined according to their place of residence (rural or urban), their occupation or age (indoor resp. outdoor workers, pensioners, school-children, or preschool-children), and their kind of residence (wooden, brick, or multi-storey house). Model results for various population groups are compared with the results of TLD-measurements of individual external exposures. For the calculation of inhalation doses, the new ICRP model for the respiratory tract was used. The dose assessments were conducted for measured size resolved activity distributions of resuspended material, obtained at different locations and for several kinds of agricultural operations. Inhalation doses vary considerably with respect to different kinds of work. Tractor drivers receive much higher doses than other agricultural workers, especially when the cabin window of the tractor is open. Effective doses due to the inhalation of resuspended plutonium are assessed to be a few μSv per initial deposit of one kBq/m 2 . Inhalation doses from 137 Cs are usually smaller by an order of magnitude than the doses from Pu, provided a high solubility is assumed for resuspended Cs

  7. Unresectable Retiform Hemangioendothelioma Treated with External Beam Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Z. Hirsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH is an infrequently encountered vascular neoplasm of intermediate or borderline malignancy. Treatment of RH is controversial. We present a case of a 44-year-old Asian male presenting with an unresectable RH of the pelvis. The patient was treated with concurrent low-dose Cisplatin and External beam Radiation (4140cGy in 180cGy per fraction. This is the first report of a clinical complete response and a long-term local control of this rare tumor. This has significant clinical implication, since it gives the first evidence of treatment of this rare tumor using concurrent low-dose chemotherapy and radiation.

  8. Delayed effects of external radiation exposure: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Within months of Roentgen's discovery of X rays, severe adverse effects were reported, but not well publicized. As a result, over the next two decades, fluoroscope operators suffered lethal skin carcinomas. Later, case reports appeared concerning leukemia in radiation workers, and infants born with severe mental retardation after their mothers had been given pelvic radiotherapy early in pregnancy. Fluoroscopy and radiotherapy for benign disorders continued to be used with abandon until authoritative reports were published on the adverse effects of ionizing radiation by the U.S. NAS-NRC and the UK MRC in 1956. Meanwhile, exposure to the atomic bombs in Japan had occurred and epidemics of delayed effects began to be recognized among the survivors: cataracts, leukemia and severe mental retardation among newborn infants after intra-uterine exposure. No statistically significant excess of germ-cell genetic effects was detected by six clinical measurements, the F 1 mortality, cytogenetic studies or biochemical genetic studies. Somatic cell effects were revealed by long-lasting chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes, and somatic cell mutations were found at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes. Molecular biology is a likely focus of new studies based on the function of the gene for ataxia telangiectasia, a disorder in which children have severe, even lethal acute radiation reactions when given conventional doses of radiotherapy for lymphoma, to which they are prone. The tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki now provide incidence data that show the extent of increases in eight common cancers and no increase in eight others. The possibility of very late effects of A-bomb exposure is suggested by recent reports of increased frequencies of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cancers and certain causes of death other than cancer. 88 refs., 1 fig

  9. Occupational external radiation exposure in the GDR in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1980-01-01

    In 1976 a total of 36,794 occupationally exposed persons were monitored by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection, using film badges. The monthly over-exposures (more than 4 mGy) totalled 415. In 11 cases the monthly exposure exceeded 30 mGy and 6 annual exposure values were in the range of 50 to 120 mGy. An attempt has been made to assess the annual collective and annual per caput doses for the exposed population as a whole and some subgroups without completely summing up the individual exposure data. (author)

  10. Outline of manual on measurement and assessment of doses from external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Michio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tsujimura, Norio

    2001-03-01

    The external exposure part in the manual for measurement and assessment of doses from external radiation is described since the part is changed in accordance with the revision of the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazard due to Radioisotopes, Etc. The manual contains general remarks, control of external exposure and its methods, person monitoring, site monitoring, correction of instruments and storage of records. The 2nd and 3rd chapters are described in details, because which are considerably changed together with appendices concerning the operational quantity for measuring external dose, conversion coefficients, and correlations of 3 mm, 1 cm and 70 {mu}m dose equivalents. Making manuals unique to the individual offices, etc. is recommended in compliance with the above manual.(K.H.)

  11. Assessment of occupational exposures to external radiation - IAEA recommendation 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trousil, J; Plichta, J [CSOD, Praha (Czech Republic); Nikodemova, D [SOD, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The IAEA recommendation contains the guidance on: (1) establishing monitoring programmes; (2) the interpretation of results; (3) records keeping; (4) quality assurance. The objectives for workplace monitoring including the recommended methods are also involved. The choice of personal dosemeter depends not only on the type of radiation but also on the method of interpretation what will be used: (1) photon dosemeters giving information only on the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) - mostly TL or RPL dosemeters are used; (2) photon dosemeter of discriminating type giving, in addition to Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), some indication of radiation type and effective energy and detection of electrons - data which must be known for E calculation -mostly film badge is used; (3) extremity dosemeters giving information on Hp(0.07) - mostly TL dosemeters are used; (4) neutron dosemeters giving information on Hp(10) -track-etch or albedo dosemeters are used. The monitoring service should have quality assurance testing which is an organization`s internal system of procedures and practices which assures the quality of its service. This process may be part of the approval performance testing which is a part of approved procedures carried out be the authoritative organization in regular intervals. The approved monitoring service should perform the dose records keeping which serve the protection of the workers and these data are the part of the Register of the Professional Exposures which is mostly organized by the authoritative body. (J.K.).

  12. Assessment of occupational exposures to external radiation - IAEA recommendation 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trousil, J.; Plichta, J.; Nikodemova, D.

    1995-01-01

    The IAEA recommendation contains the guidance on: (1) establishing monitoring programmes; (2) the interpretation of results; (3) records keeping; (4) quality assurance. The objectives for workplace monitoring including the recommended methods are also involved. The choice of personal dosemeter depends not only on the type of radiation but also on the method of interpretation what will be used: (1) photon dosemeters giving information only on the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) - mostly TL or RPL dosemeters are used; (2) photon dosemeter of discriminating type giving, in addition to Hp(10) and Hp(0.07), some indication of radiation type and effective energy and detection of electrons - data which must be known for E calculation -mostly film badge is used; (3) extremity dosemeters giving information on Hp(0.07) - mostly TL dosemeters are used; (4) neutron dosemeters giving information on Hp(10) -track-etch or albedo dosemeters are used. The monitoring service should have quality assurance testing which is an organization's internal system of procedures and practices which assures the quality of its service. This process may be part of the approval performance testing which is a part of approved procedures carried out be the authoritative organization in regular intervals. The approved monitoring service should perform the dose records keeping which serve the protection of the workers and these data are the part of the Register of the Professional Exposures which is mostly organized by the authoritative body. (J.K.)

  13. External radiation exposure and radiotoxicity considerations in plutonium/uranium mixed-oxide fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.; Crosby, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear-reactor-produced plutonium emits significant electromagnetic and neutron radiations. In addition, because of its high specific alpha activity and its tendency to deposit in the lung and the soft tissues of the bone, plutonium presents a significant radiotoxicity hazard. Shielding, containment, and dosimetry techniques practiced at the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) have resulted in exemplary annual safety report statistics relevant to non-remote-handling plutonium operations. Whereas a few employees exceeded the NUMEC external exposure action level, no employee exceeded the Regulatory maximum permissible external exposure. In addition, a few employees were observed to have a lung burden in excess of the minimum sensitivity of an in vivo counting system, and one employee was observed by in vivo counting to have a lung burden in excess of the maximum permissible for a brief period. No employee was observed to have a body burden as indicated by a positive quarterly urinalysis result. Further, there were no serious incidents at the facility requiring immediate Regulatory notification, and there were no moderate incidents at the facility requiring 24-h Regulatory notification. However, there were a few reportable incidents at the facility requiring 30-day Regulatory notification, and there were a few minor incidents at the facility requiring the preparation of a NUMEC Incident Report. Details of this safety record are presented along with the health physics techniques that have contributed to the results

  14. Rectal necrosis following external radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, S.H.Q.; O'Kelly, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of radiation therapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the prostate. Since 1965, radical radiation therapy has been used at Memorial Hospital to treat primary carcinoma of the prostate. Small primary tumors are treated by implantation with radioactive iodine ( 125 I) seeds and larger tumors considered unsuitable for implantation are treated by external supervoltage beam therapy. Fifty patients had been treated by implantation and 30 by external beam therapy at the time of this report. None of the patients treated by implantation developed rectal symptoms. Proctitis developed in all patients treated by external radiation therapy and in half the patients chronic proctitis ensued, accompanied by the passage of mucus. The constant leaking of mucus through the anal sphincter produces irritation of the skin and intermittent attacks of pruritus ani, a discomfiting sequel. Apart from the proctitis, most patients tolerated treatment well, with one notable exception, in whom rectal necrosis developed. This case is described

  15. Radiation dose to laterally transposed ovaries during external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michael; Damilakis, John; Varveris, Haris; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiation dose to laterally transposed ovaries from external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Dose measurements were performed in a modified humanoid phantom using a 6 MV photon beam. The dependence of the ovarian dose upon the field size, the distance from the primary irradiation field and the presence of wedges or gonadal shielding was determined. For a tumor dose of 45 Gy, ovarian dose was 0.88-8.51 Gy depending on the field size employed and the location of the transposed ovary in respect to the treatment field. Positioning of 7 cm thick shielding reduced the dose to ovary by less than 19%. The use of wedges increased the ovarian dose by a factor up to 1.5. Accurate radiographic localization of the ovaries allows the use of the presented dosimetric results to obtain a reasonable prediction of the ovarian dose

  16. A Review of the New European Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, J.W.E. van; Alves, J.G.; Ambrosi, P.; Bartlett, D.T.; Currivan, L.; Fantuzzi, E.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the revised Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation as issued by the European Commission as Radiation Protection 160. These recommendations are aimed at all stakeholders in radiation protection dosimetry with an emphasis in the responsible technical staff of approved dosimetry services. This paper briefly touches each Chapter and ends with a more in depth section on the uncertainty evaluation of dose measurements. -- Highlights: ► Recommendations on all aspects of running an approved dosimetry service. ► Radiation protection framework. ► Metrology of personal dosimeters. ► QC and QA of individual monitoring

  17. Reproductive function of animals exposed to low-dose external γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izhevskij, P.V.; Krupitskaya, L.I.; Startsev, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic external γ-radiation effects on the reproductive function were simulated in male rats at doses equivalent to the dose obtained by the persons who participated in the liquidation of the Chernobyl poer plant accident aftereffects and by the population. The incidence of the pre-and postimplantation deaths was found increased in the progeny of males exposed to chronic external γ-irradiation at total doses of 158 and 237 Gy, though no strict dose dependence was observed

  18. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  19. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 1 with external genitalia involvement presentation of 4 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Savasta, Salvatore; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Lago, Carlos Míguelez; Cisternino, Mariangela

    2008-11-01

    Genitourinary neurofibromas with clitoral involvement in neurofibromatosis type 1 are rare, and even more infrequent are the neurofibromas involving genitalia in males. The most frequent presenting sign of neurofibroma in females is clitoromegaly with pseudopenis, and enlarged penis is the most common sign in males. Labium majus neurofibroma not associated with clitoral involvement is extremely rare. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of the neurofibromas has seldom been reported. We report 4 children, 3 girls and 1 boy, with plexiform neurofibromas involving the external genitalia. Three of the 4 patients had histologic confirmation of neurofibroma. Two girls with clitoral hypertrophy had a neurofibroma that infiltrated the clitoris and extended unilaterally to the lower bladder wall. One girl had a plexiform neurofibroma that affected a labium. One boy with asymmetric penile hypertrophy since 2 years of age and ipsilateral gluteal hypertrophy had plexiform neurofibromas that extended between the left lumbogluteal and penile regions, infiltrating the left rectum wall and bladder with compression of both structures, the left prostate, and the left half of the cavernous corpi with hypertrophy of this part and asymmetry of the penis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated in all patients that external genitalia and plexiform neurofibroma formed images of nondetachable structures. However, hermaphroditism was discarded by chromosomal study in all 3 girls before ratifying the diagnosis of external genitalia neurofibroma.

  1. Possible inducement of skin basaloma by external alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcova, M.; Sevc, J.; Thomas, J.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison was made of the latest data on the thickness of the epidermis and the resulting estimate of dose rates to its basal layer with the results of several years of clinical observation in uranium miners exposed over a long term to alpha radiation from a 222 Rn daughter product deposit on the skin. It was found that the average dose equivalent in the basal layer of the epidermis from deposited 222 Rn daughter products was within the region of tens of rem/year even under good hygienic conditions in the uranium mine, and accumulated doses may after several years of exposure reach several thousands rems. In the narrow selection of workers where statistical comparison was possible it appeared that the frequency of observed skin carcinomas, mainly basal carcinomas of the face, neck and hands, is significantly higher in miners working in underground mines as against expected incidence. (B.S.)

  2. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Dejean, C.; Sargos, P.; Kantor, G.; Huchet, A.; Mamou, N.; Loiseau, H.

    2010-01-01

    Plexopathies and peripheral neuropathies appear progressively and with several years delay after radiotherapy. These lesions are observed principally after three clinical situations: supraclavicular and axillar irradiations for breast cancer, pelvic irradiations for various pathologies and limb irradiations for soft tissue sarcomas. Peripheral nerves and plexus (brachial and lumbosacral) are described as serial structures and are supposed to receive less than a given maximum dose linked to the occurrence of late injury. Literature data, mostly ancient, define the maximum tolerable dose to a threshold of 60 Gy and highlight also a great influence of fractionation and high fraction doses. For peripheral nerves, most frequent late effects are pain with significant differences of occurrence between 50 and 60 Gy. At last, associated pathologies (diabetes, vascular pathology, neuropathy) and associated treatments have probably to be taken into account as additional factors, which may increase the risk of these late radiation complications. (authors)

  3. Radiation education in Poland. The present status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goraczko, W. [Technical Univ. Poznan, Radio- and Photochemistry Dept., Poznan, Piotrowo (Poland)

    1999-09-01

    The necessity for the continued education about radiation (both in nuclear science and the technical application of radioisotopes) in the educational systems is obvious. For many years this subject has been part of a students education in physics as well as nonphysical areas of study, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, ecology and agriculture. Unfortunately in the wake of the disaster at Chernobyl, a number of negative factors have resulted that have undermined both educations in this crucial area and financial investment in Polish radiation institutes. Some sociologists have termed this behavior/viewpoint 'radio-phobia phenomena'. Might I be so bold as to recoin it as 'nuclear related paranoia' since it has caused a general breakdown in rational, 'cause and effect analysis' even within respectable scientific circles, including prominent radio biologists, who now accept radiation only as a destructive factor in biological and human life. The most important factor in this campaign will be the promotion and presentation of radiation in simple-understandable terms through the following outlets, (popular articles, TV programs, objective classroom presentation and so on), designed to be easily understandable to society as a whole. In this support is to be found in some governmental and independent organization, which do attempt to show radiation as bio-positive, human friendly and an economically indispensable factor for the future. However our fight with the so-called coal lobby' will continue to be difficult. Help by international organizations such as the I.A.E.A. will not suffice in this battle. In this article the author tries to describe the Polish education system and statistical data showing the present status of radiation science, radiation education and the quantity of students and experts in the field. As a nuclear physicist and specialist in radiation protection, lecturer and an Inspector of Radiation Protection, he

  4. Requirements for the approval of dosimetry services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985: Pt. 1: External radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Guidance for dosimetry services on the requirements for approval by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is provided in three parts. This part sets out the procedures and criteria that will be used by HSE in the assessment of dosimetry services seeking approval in relation to external radiations (including accidents). (author)

  5. Levels of external natural radiation and doses to population in Heilongjiang province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Yicheng; He Yongjiang; Wang Lu

    1985-01-01

    The external natural radiation level in Heilongjiang Province was measured by using China-made FD-71 scintillation radiometers and RSS-111 high pressure ionization chambers. The doses of external radiation to population were also calculated. The population-weighted average value of the absorbed dose rate from terrestrial γ-radiation was 7.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for outdoors, and 10.8 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 for indoors. The population-weighted average absorbed dose rate in air from cosmic rays was 3.3 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 . The annual population-weighted average effective dose equivalent and the annual collective effective dose equivalent from the environmental γ-radiation were 620 μSv and 20.1 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively. The corresponding figures from cosmic rays were 260 μSv and 8.7 x 10 3 man.Sv, respectively

  6. Basic requirements of dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Ambrosi, P.

    1985-01-01

    A plea is made for detailed detector independent requirements for dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation. These requirements should have their origin in the fundamental aspects and concepts of radiation protection for workers, and should be something like a translation of the general principles of individual monitoring into a language easily understandable by producers and users. This work comprises a summary of the general objectives of individual monitoring and discussion of some relevant requirements for dosemeter systems. (orig.) [de

  7. Background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of external γ radiation on the process of counting 71 Ge decays in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux is considered. The systematic uncertainty in the SAGE result due to radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters is estimated. The background counting rate in the proportional counters that is caused by γ radiation from the enclosing shield is also determined

  8. Measurements of external radiation in United States dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a survey of terrestrial gamma radiation levels are reported for the United States. This database represents a total of 1074 measurements in and around 247 different dwellings in several different areas of the country. The absorbed dose rate in air outdoors was found to range between 14 and 118 nGy.h -1 and averaged 46.6. nGy.h -1 , while for indoors it ranged between 12 and 160 nGy.h -1 and averaged 37.6 nGy.h -1 . Apart from regional differences in the terrestrial gamma levels, variations of up to a factor of 2 can be seen in the same geographical area. Variations within a house are typically large, with basement living areas averaging 50% higher than second-floor areas. Houses of full brick construction had average indoor levels 50% higher than those for wood frame houses. The material used for interior wall construction was not found to strongly influence the indoor dose rates except for rooms containing brick, cinder block or stone. For wood frame houses, including those of brick veneer exteriors, a linear regression analysis indicates that the average indoor dose rate can be reasonably well predicted based on a constant, which relates to the building contribution, and a shielding factor for the outdoor dose rate. Using the data collected in this survey and the population weighted mean outdoor absorbed dose rate in air reported for the US, the corresponding mean indoor value is estimated to be 37 nGy.h -1 . This value is in the low end of the range reported for other countries and is about half the estimated worldwide average of 70 nGy.h -1 . (author)

  9. Hyperfractionated external radiation therapy in stage IIIB carcinoma of uterine cervix: a prospective pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Sergio L.; Ferrigno, Robson

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Brazil has one of the highest incidence of carcinoma of the cervix in the world. Half of the patients have advanced stages at the diagnosis. Due to this large number of patients we decided to conduct a prospective pilot study to investigate the tolerance to and survival rate with hyperfractionated external radiotherapy only in patients with Stage IIIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: Between January 1991 and December 1993, 23 patients underwent hyperfractionated external beam radiotherapy without brachytherapy. All cases were biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma of cervix clinically Staged as IIIB (FIGO). Hyperfractionation (HFX) was given with 1.2 Gy doses, twice daily at 6-h interval, 5 days/week, to the whole pelvis up to 72 Gy within 30 working days. Complications were evaluated by an adaptation of the RTOG Radiation Morbidity Scoring Table graded as 1 = none/mild; 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe. Results: Follow-up ranged from 27 to 50 months (median 40 months) on the 9 to 23 living patients at the time of the analysis in December 1995. There was no severe acute toxicity, but moderate acute reaction was high: 74%. The commonest site of complication was the intestine where severe late toxicity occurred in 2 of 23 (9%). Overall survival rate at 27 months was 48% and at 40 months was 43%. Discussion: There is little information in literature about HFX in carcinoma of the cervix. This is the third published study about it and the one that gave the highest total dose with external HFX of 60 x 1.2 Gy = 72 Gy. Theoretically, through the linear quadratic formula this schedule of HFX would be equivalent to 30 x 2 Gy = 60 Gy of standard fractionation, both treatments given in 30 working days. HFX schedules must be tested to establish their safety. Present results suggest being possible to further increase the total dose in the pelvis with hyperfractionated irradiation

  10. Present status and expected progress in radiation processing dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, A.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of radiation processing dosimetry including the methods used most widely in gamma- and electron processing as well as the new methods under development or introduction. The recent trends with respect to calibrationof routine dosimetry systems as well...

  11. Estimated Internal and External Radiation Exposure of Caregivers of Patients With Pediatric Neuroblastoma Undergoing 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangwon; Yoo, Seon Hee; Koh, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Current recommendations suggest that family members should participate in the care of children receiving in-hospital I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy for neuroblastoma. The present study aimed to measure the external radiation exposure and estimate the internal radiation exposure of caregivers during the hospital stay for I MIBG therapy. Caregivers received radiation safety instructions and a potassium iodide solution for thyroid blockade before patient admission. External radiation exposure was determined using a personal pocket dosimeter. Serial 24-hour urine samples were collected from caregivers during the hospital stay. Estimated internal radiation exposure was calculated based on the urine activity. Twelve cases (mean age, 6.2 ± 3.5 years; range, 2-13 years) were enrolled. The mean administered activity was 233.3 ± 74.9 (range, 150.0-350.0) mCi. The mean external radiation dose was 5.8 ± 7.2 (range, 0.8-19.9) mSv. Caregivers of children older than 4 years had significantly less external radiation exposure than those of children younger than 4 years (1.9 ± 1.0 vs 16.4 ± 5.0 mSv; P = 0.012). The mean estimated internal radiation dose was 11.3 ± 10.2 (range, 1.0-29.8) μSv. Caregivers receive both external and internal radiation exposure while providing in-hospital care to children receiving I MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma. However, the internal radiation exposure was negligible compared with the external radiation exposure.

  12. Factors associated with the success of external cephalic version (ECV) of breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, N; Lataifeh, I; Al-Khateeb, M; Zayed, F; Khriesat, W; Amarin, Z

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the predictors of success of ECV for breech presentation at term. A retrospective study was conducted over a 3-year period from 2005-2007, where 101 patients who had singleton breech presentation at term were undergoing external cephalic version (ECV) after 37 weeks of gestation at two major teaching hospitals in the North of Jordan. Comparative analysis was made between the successful ECV and unsuccessful ECV groups. The collected data were analysed by using statistical analysis Sudent's t-test and Mann-Whitney test as appropriate and on discrete results chi square or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. The differences were considered significant at a p value of breeches (74% vs 26%, p = 0.002), posterior placenta (38.6% vs 16.4%, p = 0.0001) and anterior fetal back (53.4% vs 34.8%, p = 0.03). Once turned the babies remained cephalic until delivery. All the 28 cases who had failed ECV had caesarean section. Among those who had a successful external cephalic version, the incidence of intrapartum caesarean section was only 8.2% which was lower than that of the average of both units caesarean rate (28%). There were no complications related to the ECV procedure in the study. Multiparity, flexed breech, posterior placenta, and anterior foetal back were the most favourable factors for successful ECV in our study. Moreover, with careful evaluation of individual predictors patient selection and success rates can be optimised.

  13. Present status of the radiative neutron capture mechanisms -nonstatistical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzosko, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The present status of our knowledge about neutron radiative capture mechanisms is described. In the first section there are given a review on mathematical description of the neutron capture cross section and possible sources of correlation effects. The point of lecture is the explanation of connections between the intermediate structures and correlation effects. In one of the sections the explanation of the bump in γ-ray spectra is discussed. The typical experimental results are presented. (author)

  14. External radiation monitoring in TAPS and RAPS environs (1980-81) using TLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of environmental external radiation monitoring using quarterly integrated TLD measurements are presented for environments of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) and the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) for the two year monitoring period (1980-81). The data fit into the unimodal log-normal distribution except for locations where gaseous radioactivity escaping from the plant makes a significant contribution. The average natural radiation background in TAPS and RAPS environment is estimated to be 59.6 +- 4.7 mR yr -1 and 65.1 +- 9.8 mR yr -1 respectively. Contribution from the plant superimposed over the natural level leads frequently to bi-normal distribution. The effect of stack-released gaseous radioactivity is seen in locations within 1.6 km of TAPS: for example Ghivoli village registered an excess of 9.3 mR yr -1 over the natural background. The quarterly background values indicate minor temporal and spatial variations which can be attributed to changes in natural as well as stack released radioactivity. (author)

  15. Acute care of radioactively contaminated or externally radiated personnel at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Practical advice is given concerning the treatment of persons injure at nuclear power plant accidents, in particular accidents resulting in contamination or external radiation of man. The folder is primarily directed to persons responsible for the local plannning and supervision of emergency care at the power plant. (L.E.)

  16. External cephalic version for breech presentation at term. A prospective interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jwadi, Saja A; Al-Ibrahim, Baraa L Humo

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the external cephalic version (ECV) procedure for the management of at term breech presenting fetuses. In this prospective, interventional study, 90 patients with uncomplicated breech presentations at or after 37 weeks' gestation were considered for ECV. This was performed in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq, between January 2011 and March 2012. The main outcome measure was assessed as the success rate of ECV attempt and the rate of cesarean section following a successful procedure. Parity, type of breech, placental location, and birth weight were evaluated as predictors of success. Also, any fetal or maternal complications during the procedure were evaluated. Data were analyzed by x2 test. Statistical significance was determined at a level of pbreech. There were no serious fetal or maternal complications associated with the attempt. With appropriate selection of patients, ECV is highly successful and is a safer alternative to vaginal breech delivery or cesarean delivery.

  17. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abo-Elmagd, M [National Institute for Standard, Radiation Measurements Department, P.O. Box 136 Giza code no. 12211 (Egypt); Metwally, S M [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); Elmongy, S A [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety, Cairo (Egypt); Salama, E [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt); El-Fiki, S A [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-02-15

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43{mu}Sv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively.

  18. External and internal exposure to natural radiations inside ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Elmagd, M.; Metwally, S.M.; Elmongy, S.A.; Salama, E.; El-Fiki, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Some ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara are closed for visit to undergo fixation processes. The workers inside these tombs exposed to natural radiations from natural Gamma emitters (external exposure) and inhale unknown radon doses (internal exposure) for long periods. The external exposure in all studied tombs is lower than the maximum recommended action level. The internal exposure in terms of annual effective dose in the south tomb is equal to 28.83mSv/year which highly exceed the recommended level (3-10mSv/year). In this tomb, the external exposure is equal to 21.43μSv/year. This reflects the hazards of radon over the other natural radiations in the closed area. Among the workers inside the studied tombs, the expected morality is equal to 0.0033%, 0.0199% and 0.0724% for the south entrance of Zoser pyramid, the Serapeum tomb, and the south tomb respectively. ctively

  19. A method to combine three dimensional dose distributions for external beam and brachytherapy radiation treatments for gynecological neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana, V.; Sahijdak, W.M.; Orton, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation treatment of gynecological neoplasms, such as cervical carcinoma, usually combines external radiation therapy with one or more intracavitary brachytherapy applications. Although the dose from external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy can be calculated and displayed in 3D individually, the dose distributions are not combined. At most, combined point doses are calculated for select points using various time-dose models. In this study, we present a methodology to combine external beam and brachytherapy treatments for gynecological neoplasms. Material and Methods: Three dimensional bio-effect treatment planning to obtain complication probability has been outlined. CT scans of the patient's pelvis with the gynecological applicator in place are used to outline normal tissue and tumor volumes. 3D external beam and brachytherapy treatment plans are developed separately and an external beam dose matrix and a brachytherapy dose matrix was calculated. The dose in each voxel was assumed to be homogeneous. The physical dose in each voxel of the dose matrix was then converted into extrapolated response dose (ERD) based on the linear quadratic model that accounts for the dose per fraction, number of fractions, dose rate, and complete or incomplete repair of sublethal damage (time between fractions). The net biological dose delivered was obtained by summing the ERD grids from external beam and brachytherapy since there was complete repair of sublethal damage between external beam and brachytherapy treatments. The normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability were obtained using the biological dose matrix based on the critical element model. Results: The outlined method of combining external beam and brachytherapy treatments was implemented on gynecological treatments using an applicator for brachytherapy treatments. Conclusion: Implementation of the biological dose calculation that combine different modalities is extremely useful

  20. External radiation as element of improvement infrared thermography measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is a very versatile non destructive technique which among other uses, can be applied to the study of moisture in buildings. However, this particular application can present some problems strictly related to the characteristics of the thermocamera device. In this case the available equipment works in the IR range of 2.5 to 5.6 μm. In this part of the spectrum, there exists a small and not very intense band of emission of the water molecules (approximately centered at 2.7 μm, in such a way that detection can be difficult through thermovision. In the present paper, a complementary technique to the IR thermography being able of favouring the emission of water on the mentioned band, has been developed. It enhances the capacity of detection of the instrument. Likewise, the process which takes place in the material has been numerically modelled.

    La termografía infrarroja es una técnica no destructiva, muy versátil, que, entre otras aplicaciones, tiene la de ser capaz de suministrar información en torno a la problemática de las humedades en la edificación. Sin embargo, esta aplicación concreta puede presentar algunos problemas directamente relacionados con las propias características de la termocámara utilizada. En el caso del presente trabajo el equipo de termografía infrarroja manejado trabaja en el rango del espectro IR comprendido entre 2,5 y 5,6 μm. En esta región del espectro existe una pequeña y no muy intensa banda de emisión de las moléculas de agua (aproximadamente centrada en 2,7 μm cuya detección puede no ser fácil a través de la termovisión. En el presente trabajo se ha desarrollado una técnica complementaria a la termografía infrarroja que es capaz de favorecer la intensidad de emisión del agua en la región del espectro antes mencionada. En definitiva, dicha técnica estimula la capacidad de detección de la termocámara. Adicionalmente, el proceso hídrico que tiene lugar en el

  1. External beam radiation for retinoblastoma: Results, patterns of failure, and a proposal for treatment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Carlos; Brady, Luther W.; Shields, Jerry A.; Shields, Carol L.; Potter, Patrick de; Karlsson, Ulf L.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Singh, Arun

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment results and patterns of failure following external beam radiation for retinoblastoma and propose treatment guidelines according to specific clinical variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 27 patients (34 eyes) with retinoblastoma who received external beam radiation as initial treatment at Hahnemann University Hospital from October 1980 to December 1991 and have been followed for at least 1 year. Of the 34 eyes, 14 were Groups I-II (Reese-Ellsworth classification), 7 were Group III, and 13 were Groups IV-V. Doses ranged from 34.5-49.5 Gy (mean 44.3 Gy, median 45 Gy) in 1.5-2.0 Gy fractions generally delivered through anterior and lateral wedged pair fields. Results: At a mean follow up of 35.2 months (range 12-93 months), local tumor control was obtained in 44% (15 out of 34) of eyes with external beam radiation alone. Salvage therapy (plaque brachytherapy, cryotherapy, and/or photocoagulation) controlled an additional 10 eyes (29.5%), so that overall ocular survival has been 73.5%. Local tumor control with external beam radiotherapy alone was obtained in 78.5% (11 out of 14) of eyes in Groups I-II, but in only 20% (4 out of 20) of eyes in Groups III-V. A total of 67 existing tumors were identified prior to treatment in the 34 treated eyes and local control with external beam radiation alone was obtained in 87% (46 out of 53) of tumors measuring 15 mm or less and in 50% (7 out of 14) of tumors measuring more than 15 mm. When analyzing patterns of failure in the 19 eyes that relapsed, a total of 28 failure sites were identified and consisted of progression of vitreous seeds in seven instances (25% of failure sites) recurrences from previously existing tumors in 10 instances (36% of failure sites) and development of new tumors in previously uninvolved retina in 11 instances (39% of failure sites). Conclusions: 1) We find that external beam radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in fractions of 1.5 to 2.0 Gy provides adequate tumor control

  2. The radiation performance standard. A presentation model for ionizing radiation in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaap, L.E.J.J.; Bosmans, G.; Van der Graaf, E.R.; Hendriks, Ch.F.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the so-called radiation performance standard (SPN, abbreviated in Dutch) the total radioactivity from building constructions which contributes to the indoor radiation dose can be calculated. The SPN is implemented with related boundary values and is part of the Building Decree ('Bouwbesluit') in the Netherlands. The model, presented in this book, forms the basis of a new Dutch radiation protection standard, to be published by the Dutch Institute for Standardization NEN (formerly NNI). 14 refs

  3. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Doses from external and internal radiation in Norway during the first year after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Kjoelaas, G.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, T.; Berthelsen, T.; Selnaes, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the estimation of monthly doses from external radiation from internal radiation due to ingestion of contaminated food is reported. The monthly doses is estimated for each municipality in Norway for the first 13 months after the Chernobyl accident (from May 1986 to June 1987). The estimation which has been elaborated from an extensive data material, shows that the dose rates from external radiation due to the Chernobyl fallout were for the country as a whole three times higher in the first month after the accident (May 1986) compared with the twelfth month (April 1987). The doses received from intake of radiocesium through food were small in the first three months, but reached almost the double of the doses from the external radiation the 9th month. The reduction in the dose from external radiation was primarily due to the physical half life of radiocesium and washout. The increase in the doses from radiocesium through intake of food was due to the time required for radiocesium to enter the food chain and the biokinetics of radiocesium in humans. There is no significant correlation between the ground activity levels and the activity levels observed in the food which is consumed in the same area. The average internal dose in the first year after the Chernobyl accident was estimated to 0.110 ± 0.006 mSv and the external dose to 0.070 ± 0.007 mSv as an average for the whole country. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Probe And Enhancement Of SBS Based Phonons In Infrared Fibers Using Waveguide Coupled External Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chung; Chong, Yat C.; Fong, Chee K.

    1989-06-01

    Interaction of GHz and MHz radiation with CO2 laser propagation in a silver halide fiber using sBs based phonon coupling is furthet investigated. The external signal serves to both probe and enhance laser generated sBs phonons in the fiber. Efficient coupling of microwave radiation into the fiber is accomplished by placing the fiber in a hollow metallic waveguide, designed and constructed to transmit the dominant mode in the 0.9-2.0 GHz band. MHz radiation is conveniently coupled into the fiber using the guided microwave radiation as carrier. Phonon emissions from the fiber under CO2 laser pumping are first established on a spectrum analyzer; low frequency generators ale then tuned to match these frequencies and their maximum interaction recorded. Such interactions are systematically studied by monitoring the amplitude and waveform of the reflected and transmitted laser pulse at various power levels and frequencies of the externally coupled radiation. A plot of reflected laser power versus incident laser power reveals a distinct sBs generated phonon threshold. Variouslaunch directions of the GHz and MHz radiation with respect to the direction of laser propagation are realized to verify theory governing sBs interactions. The MHz radiation and its associated phonons in the fiber are convenient tools for probing sBs related phenomenon in infrared fibers.

  6. Measurement and modeling of external radiation during 1984 from LAMPF atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Olsen, W.A.; Van Etten, D.; Chen, I.

    1986-07-01

    An array of three portable, pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) measured short-term external radiation levels produced by air activation products from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The monitoring was at the closet offsite location, 700-900 m north and northeast of the source, and across a large, deep canyon. A Gaussian-type atmospheric dispersion model, using onsite meteorological and stack release data, was tested during their study. Monitoring results indicate that a persistent, local up-valley wind during the evening and early morning hours is largely responsible for causing the highest radiation levels to the northeast and north-northeast of LAMPF. Comparison of predicted and measured daily external radiation levels indicates a high degree of correlation. The model also gives accurate estimates of measured concentrations over longer periods of time

  7. Determination of the radiation dose to the body due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, G.; Eckerl, H.

    1985-01-01

    Section 63 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance defines the basic requirement, determination of radiation dose to the body. The determination of dose equivalents for the body is the basic step in practical monitoring of dose equivalents or dose limits with regard to individuals or population groups, both for constant or varying conditions of exposure. The main field of monitoring activities is the protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Conversion factors between body doses and radiation quantities are explained. (DG) [de

  8. Measurement and evaluation of the external radiation level at reactor Kartini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atok Suhartanto; Suparno

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation of external radiation level at reactor Kartini in 2012 has been done. The purpose of this activity is to know the external radiation level as a result of the radioactive or radiation source usage, toward the operational of limit condition. The measurement is using survey meter Inspector 11086, factor of calibration 0.991 mR/h, at 9 locations is: Control room area, Thermal column facilities, Demineralizer, Beamport radiography facilities, bulk shielding Deck, Subcritical facilities, Reactor hall, Deck reactor and on the surface of reactor water tank . The highest room average measurement result in 9 working areas for 12 months continuously are at the reactor tank location is between 13.05±1.09 (xlO -2 mSv/hour) to 16.80±1.40 (x10 -2 mSv/hour), and the lowest measurement result in 1 location (control room) is 0.02±0.005 (x10 -2 mSv/hour) to 0.035±0.009 (x10 -2 mSv/hour). The Kartini reactor is involved in the control area which has potentially contaminated and has radiation exposure at the level of 6 mSv/year. Radiation Protection Officer that work in interval will received radiation exposure dosage of 8.4 mSv/year. This dosage is still below the Below Dosage Value which is recommended by, BAPETEN decree No, 4, 2013 about Protection and Radiation Safety in Nuclear Energy Application at 20 mSv/year. The result of the evaluation above shows that the external radiation which occurred in each area is still below the operational of limit condition that is written on the Kartini reactor safety analysis report, on document number: C7/05/B2/LAK/2010, revision 7. So that the workplace is safe for work monitored. (author)

  9. The Effect of External Radiation Therapy in management of malignant obstructive Jaundice due to Porta Hepatis metastasis from Stomach Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kwang Mo; Kim, Joon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Suh, Hyun Suk; Kim, Re Hwe

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Since 1983, authors have conducted a study to evaluate the effect of external radiation therapy an to determine affected factors in management of the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to porta hepatis metastasis from stomach cancer. Materials and methods : Thirty two patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to porta hepatis metastasis from gastric cancer were presented. We have analysed 23 patients who were treated with external radiation therapy of more than 3000 cGy. The radiation dose, disease extent at development of jaundice, total bilirubin levels before radiation therapy, differentiation of histology, combined treatment, intent of primary surgery, initial stage of gastric cancer were analyzed to determine affected factors in radiation therapy. External radiation therapy was delivered with a daily dose of 180-300 cGy. 5 times a week fractionation using 4 MeV linear accelerator. The radiation field included the porta hepatis with tumor mass by the abdominal ultrasonography or CT scan. In twenty three patients received more than 3000 cGy, total irradiation dose was ranged from 3000 cGy to 5480 cGy, median 3770 cGy. Among 23 patients, 13 patients were delivered more than equivalent dose of TDF 65(4140 cGy/23fx). Results : Among 23 patients, complete, partial and no response were observed in 13, 5, 5 patients, respectively. The median survival for all patients was 5 months. He significant prolongation of median survival was observed in complete responders(11 months) as compared to partial and no responders(5 months, 5 months, respectively). Out of 13 patients with complete response, 6 patients lived more than a year. Among 13 patients received more than 4140 cGy equivalent dose, complete, partial and no response were observed in 10, 2 and 1 patients, respectively. The median survival for all these patients was 9.5 months. The median survival for complete responders(10/13) was 11.5 months. Among 10 patients receiving less than 4140

  10. Mode of delivery following successful external cephalic version: comparison with spontaneous cephalic presentations at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Simone M I; Hutton, Eileen K; Hasaart, Tom H M; Aichi, Nassira; Wijnen, Henrica A; Pop, Victor J M

    2013-10-01

    To compare the obstetric outcomes of pregnant women after successful external cephalic version (ECV) (cases) with a large group of pregnant women with a spontaneously occurring cephalic fetal position at delivery (controls). We conducted a retrospective matched cohort study in a teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Delivery outcomes of women with a successful ECV were compared with those of women with spontaneously occurring cephalic presentations, controlling for maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, and onset of labour (spontaneous or induced). Exclusion criteria were a history of Caesarean section, delivery at < 35 weeks, and elective Caesarean section. The primary outcome was the prevalence of Caesarean section and instrumental delivery in both groups; secondary outcomes were the characteristics of cases requiring intervention such as Caesarean section or instrumental delivery. Women who had a successful ECV had a significantly higher Caesarean section rate than the women in the control group (33/220 [15%] vs. 62/1030 [6.0 %]; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the incidence of instrumental delivery (20/220 [9.1%] vs. 103/1030 [10%]). Comparison of characteristics of women in the cases group showed that nulliparity, induction of labour, and occiput posterior presentation were associated with Caesarean section and instrumental deliveries. Compared with delivery of spontaneous cephalic presenta-tions, delivery of cephalic presenting babies following successful ECV is associated with an increased rate of Caesarean section, especially in nulliparous women and women whose labour is induced.

  11. Systematic review of adverse outcomes of external cephalic version and persisting breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Natasha; Roberts, Christine L; Barratt, Alexandra; Bell, Jane C; Olive, Emily C; Peat, Brian

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes of both external cephalic version (ECV) and persisting breech presentation at term. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using Medline, Embase and All Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews databases. Data were extracted from studies that compared women who had an ECV from 36 weeks' gestation with a similar control group of women enrolled at the same gestational age, eligible for, but who did not have an ECV. Eleven studies with a total of 2503 women were included. Adverse outcomes related to ECV were rarely reported and in most studies there was no evidence that relevant outcomes were ascertained among similar women who did not have an ECV. There was no increased risk of antepartum fetal death associated with ECV, but numbers were small. There were no reported cases of uterine rupture, placental abruption, prelabour rupture of membranes or cord prolapse, but these outcomes were not examined among controls. Onset of labour within 24 h and nuchal cord was non-significantly higher among women who had an ECV compared with those with a persisting breech. Despite limited reporting and small numbers, the results of our review suggest that adverse maternal and fetal outcomes of both ECV and persisting breech presentation are rare. Only with improved reporting and collection of safety data on ECV and persisting breech presentation can we provide high-quality information to assist informed decision making by pregnant women with a breech presentation at term.

  12. Tolerance doses of cutaneous and mucosal tissues in ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) for external beam megavoltage radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Heather W; Roberts, Royce E; Latimer, Kenneth S; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen; Northrup, Nicole C

    2009-03-01

    Currently used dosages for external-beam megavoltage radiation therapy in birds have been extrapolated from mammalian patients and often appear to provide inadequate doses of radiation for effective tumor control. To determine the tolerance doses of cutaneous and mucosal tissues of normal birds in order to provide more effective radiation treatment for tumors that have been shown to be radiation responsive in other species, ingluvial mucosa and the skin over the ingluvies of 9 ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were irradiated in 4-Gy fractions to a total dose of either 48, 60, or 72 Gy using an isocentric cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. Minimal radiation-induced epidermal changes were present in the high-dose group histologically. Neither dose-related acute nor chronic radiation effects could be detected in any group grossly in cutaneous or mucosal tissue over a 9-month period. Radiation doses of 72 Gy in 4-Gy fractions were well tolerated in the small number of ring-necked parakeets in this initial tolerance dose study.

  13. Effects of external radiation fields on line emission—application to star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Williams, R. J. R. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Porter, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M., E-mail: mchatzikos@gmail.com [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Uccle (Belgium)

    2013-12-20

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  14. Present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yong-Tian

    1986-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in China started almost thirty years ago. At present there are 20 units producing more than 700 radioisotope products. This report outlines the present status and prospect of radiation and radioisotopes in some major areas. Remarkable achievements have been made in agriculture using nuclear technology. More than 70 new varieties or strains of cultivated plants have been bred by inducing mutation through irradiation. A new variety of silkworm bred by irradiation has unique characteristics such as high and stable yield. Application of radioisotopes in medical research and clinical practice began in 1956 and radionuclides have been progressively used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The most common radionuclide used in therapy is iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. Isotope-tracer technique and activation analysis play an important role in the study of traditional Chinese medicine. Isotope methods in China have been used in many industrial branches, such as textile, plastic and printing, but not very widely now. The nation has produced more than 2,000 sets of nuclear radiation measuring instruments, which become important parts of industrial automation control. The radiation processing research started in the end of 1950's. Food irradiation research has been going on in a good cooperation of different branches. Now China is planning to set up some plants to produce gamma irradiated disposal syringes and other medical devices. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Outlines of ICRP publication 74 and new dose conversion coefficients for external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Combined task group of ICRP and ICRU reported the ICRP Publication 74 (1996) which is a summary report of their collection, analysis and evaluation of many data and dose conversion coefficients. Concerning the new coefficients, the author described this review as follows: History until Publication 74. Doses recommended at present: for protection quantity, the mean absorption dose of organ and tissue, equivalent dose and effective dose and for operational quantity, the ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent and individual dose equivalent. Changes which can have an influence on the dose evaluation; introduction of radiation weighting factor (WR), changing of tissue weighting factor (WR), changing of the equation for Q-L relation and updating of physical data. New dose conversion coefficients; for photon, neutron and electron. Comparison of new and present coefficients; concerning the quality factor Q, particularly for neutron Q. New relations of protection and operational quantities; for field and individual monitoring. General conclusion of Publication 74. The Publication gives a certain direction for problems in evaluation of external exposure dose which have been discussed since the ICRP Fundamental Recommendation 1990 was issued. However, there still remain many problems especially in validity of the WR and of equation for Q-L relation. (K.H.)

  16. Natural radioactivity and external gamma radiation exposure at the coastal Red Sea in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclides which present in different beach sands are sources of external exposure that contribute to the total radiation exposure of human. In this work, superficial samples of beach sand were collected from the Red Sea coastline (Ras Gharib, Hurghada, Safaga, Qusier and Marsa Alam areas) and at 20 km on Qena-Safaga road. The distribution of natural radionuclides in sand beach samples was studied by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations of primordial and artificial radionuclides in samples that are collected from the coastal environment of the Red Sea were 19.2 ± 3 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 21.1 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 22.7 ± 2 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 1.0 ± 0.1 Bq kg -1 for 235 U, 11.6 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 13.0 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 228 Th, 12.4 ± 1 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th, 930 ± 32 Bq kg -1 for 40 K and 1.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs. The mean external gamma-dose rate was 62.5 ± 3.2 nSv h -1 , 54.4 ± 2.8 nGy h -1 Ra equivalent activity (Ra eq ) was 107 ± 5.8 Bq kg -1 , 0.86 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for representative level index (Iγ) and effective dose rate was 0.067 ± 0.003 mSv y -1 in beach sand red sea, in air due to naturally occurring radionuclides. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of multimodality treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. Special reference to intraoperative vs. external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Hideyuki; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Seo, Yousuke; Iguchi, Haruo; Wada, Susumu

    1999-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)+postoperative external beam radiation therapy (ERT) with chemotherapy and ERT alone with chemotherapy have been performed in our hospital for unresectable, especially locally advanced, pancreatic cancer. We compared the former method with the latter. Chemotherapy was performed together with radiation, using 5-FU, CDDP, and MMC. IORT+ERT was successful in only half of the treated patients, while ERT alone was successful in almost all of the patients. As a result, the doses of radiation were often shorter in patients treated by the former method compared to the latter method. Both methods, when completed for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (stage IVa), produced good effects on tumor markers, tumor size and pain. Furthermore, the latter method was better than the former in improving the survival time and quality of life (QOL). Therefore, ERT is a practical and useful method for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. (author)

  18. An examination of human factors in external beam radiation therapy: Findings and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.E. Jr.; Morisseau, D.S.; Persensky, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the contributing factors to human error in external beam radiation therapy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a series of human factors evaluations. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted visits to 24 radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of human-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. Representative findings and implications for improvement are discussed within the context of a dynamic model which holds that misadministration likely results from the unanticipated interaction of several necessary but singly insufficient conditions

  19. Uptake of external cephalic version for term breech presentation: an Australian population study, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Yu Sun; Roberts, Christine L; Nicholl, Michael C; Ford, Jane B

    2017-07-26

    The safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version (ECV) for term breech presentation has been demonstrated. Clinical guidelines recommend ECV for all eligible women, but the uptake of this procedure in the Australian healthcare setting is unknown. This study aimed to describe ECV uptake in New South Wales, the most populous state of Australia, during 2002 to 2012. Data from routine hospital and birth records were used to identify ECVs conducted at ≥36 weeks' gestation. Women with ECV were compared to women who were potentially eligible for but did not have ECV. Eligibility for ECV was based on clinical guidelines. For those with ECV, birth outcomes following successful and unsuccessful procedures were examined. In N = 32,321 singleton breech pregnancies, 10.5% had ECV, 22.3% were ineligible, and 67.2% were potentially eligible but did not undergo ECV. Compared to women who were eligible but who did not attempt ECV, those who had ECV were more likely to be older, multiparous, overseas-born, public patients at delivery, and to deliver in tertiary hospitals in urban areas (p < 0.01). Fewer women who underwent ECV smoked during pregnancy, fewer were morbidly obese, and fewer had a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, compared to those who were eligible. Caesarean section occurred in 25.9% of successful compared to 95.6% of unsuccessful ECVs. Infant outcomes did not differ by ECV success. The majority of women with a breech presentation did not receive ECV. It is unclear whether this is attributable to issues with service provision or low acceptability among women. Policies to improve access to and information about ECV appear necessary to improve uptake among women with term breech presentation. Improved data collection around the diagnosis of breech presentation, ECV attempts, and outcomes may help to identify specific barriers to ECV uptake.

  20. Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Schnelzer, M.; Sogl, M.; Walsh, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Laurier, D. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Paris (France); Nowak, D. [LMU Muenchen (Germany). Inst. for Occupational Medicine and Environmental Medicine; Marsh, J.W. [Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines. Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m{sup 3} (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure. Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present. The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

  1. Mortality from internal and external radiation exposure in a cohort of male German uranium millers, 1946-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Schnelzer, M.; Sogl, M.; Walsh, L.; Nowak, D.

    2015-01-01

    To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines. Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158,383 person-years at risk. Cumulative exposure to radon progeny in working level months (WLM) (mean = 8, max = 127), long-lived radionuclides from uranium ore dust in kBqh/m 3 (mean = 3.9, max = 132), external gamma radiation in mSv (mean = 26, max = 667) and silica dust was estimated by a comprehensive job-exposure matrix. Internal Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the linear excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative exposure. Overall, a total of 457, 717 and 111 deaths occurred from malignant cancer, cardiovascular diseases and non-malignant respiratory diseases, respectively. Uranium ore dust and silica dust were not associated with mortality from any of these disease groups. A statistically significant relationship between cumulative radon exposure and mortality from all cancers (ERR/100 WLM = 1.71; p = 0.02), primarily due to lung cancer (n = 159; ERR/100 WLM = 3.39; p = 0.05), was found. With respect to cumulative external gamma radiation, an excess of mortality of solid cancers (n = 434; ERR/Sv = 1.86; p = 0.06), primarily due to stomach cancer (n = 49, ERR/Sv = 10.0; p = 0.12), was present. The present findings show an excess mortality from lung cancer due to radon exposure and from solid cancers due to external gamma radiation in uranium millers that was not statistically significant. Exposure to uranium was not associated with any cause of death, but absorbed organ doses were estimated to be low.

  2. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  3. External evaluation of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group brachial plexus contouring protocol: several issues identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Myo; Carruthers, Scott; Zanchetta, Lydia; Roos, Daniel; Keating, Elly; Shakeshaft, John; Baxi, Siddhartha; Penniment, Michael; Wong, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate interobserver variability in contouring the brachial plexus (BP) using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-approved protocol and to analyse BP dosimetries. Seven outliners independently contoured the BPs of 15 consecutive patients. Interobserver variability was reviewed qualitatively (visually by using planning axial computed-tomography images and anteroposterior digitally reconstructed radiographs) and quantitatively (by volumetric and statistical analyses). Dose–volume histograms of BPs were calculated and compared. We found significant interobserver variability among outliners in both qualitative and quantitative analyses. These were most pronounced for the T1 nerve roots on visual inspection and for the BP volume on statistical analysis. The BP volumes were smaller than those described in the RTOG atlas paper, with a mean volume of 20.8cc (range 11–40.7 cc) compared with 33±4cc (25.1–39.4cc). The average values of mean dose, maximum dose, V60Gy, V66Gy and V70Gy for patients treated with conventional radiotherapy and IMRT were 42.2Gy versus 44.8Gy, 64.5Gy versus 68.5Gy, 6.1% versus 7.6%, 2.9% versus 2.4% and 0.6% versus 0.3%, respectively. This is the first independent external evaluation of the published protocol. We have identified several issues, including significant interobserver variation. Although radiation oncologists should contour BPs to avoid dose dumping, especially when using IMRT, the RTOG atlas should be used with caution. Because BPs are largely radiologically occult on CT, we propose the term brachial-plexus regions (BPRs) to represent regions where BPs are likely to be present. Consequently, BPRs should in principle be contoured generously.

  4. Risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip in breech presentation: the effect of successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeek, A F; De Hundt, M; Vlemmix, F; Akerboom, B M C; Bais, J M J; Papatsonis, D N M; Mol, B W J; Kok, M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of successful external cephalic version on the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requiring treatment in singleton breech presentation at term. Observational cohort study. Three large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with a singleton breech presentation of 34 weeks of gestation or more, who underwent an external cephalic version attempt. We made a comparison of the incidence of DDH between children born in breech presentation and children born in cephalic presentation after a successful external cephalic version. The incidence of DDH requiring either conservative treatment, with a harness, or surgical treatment. A total of 498 newborns were included in the study, of which 40 (8%) were diagnosed with DDH and 35 required treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.23-6.35) and successful external cephalic version (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09-0.95) were independently associated with DDH. A successful external cephalic version is associated with a lower incidence of DDH, although a high percentage of children born after a successful external cephalic version still appear to have DDH. A larger cohort study is needed to establish the definite nature of this relationship. Until then, we recommend the same screening policy for infants born in cephalic position after a successful external cephalic version as for infants born in breech position. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  5. T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John; Cunha, Rui M.G.; Hsu, I-Chow; Kornak, John; Zhao, Shoujun; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy and to investigate the relationship between imaging accuracy and time since therapy. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the study was HIPPA compliant. We identified 59 patients who underwent 1.5 Tesla endorectal MR imaging of the prostate between 1999 and 2006 after definitive external beam radiation therapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Two readers recorded the presence or absence of tumor on T2-weighted images. Logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 tables were used to determine the accuracy of imaging and investigate if accuracy differed between those imaged within 3 years of therapy (n = 25) and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (n = 34). Transrectal biopsy was used as the standard of reference for the presence or absence of recurrent cancer. Results: Thirty-four of 59 patients (58%) had recurrent prostate cancer detected on biopsy. The overall accuracy of T2-weighted MR imaging in the detection cancer after external beam radiation therapy was 63% (37/59) for reader 1 and 71% for reader 2 (42/59). For both readers, logistic regression showed no difference in accuracy between those imaged within 3 years of therapy and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (p = 0.86 for reader 1 and 0.44 for reader 2). Conclusion: T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging has low accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy, irrespective of the time since therapy. (author)

  6. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test....

  7. First branchial cleft sinus presenting with cholesteatoma and external auditory canal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sinasi; Karlidağ, Turgut; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Demirbağ, Erhan

    2003-07-01

    First branchial cleft abnormalities are rare. They may involve the external auditory canal and middle ear. We describe a 6-year-old girl with congenital external auditory canal atresia, microtia, and cholesteatoma of mastoid and middle ear in addition to the first branchial cleft abnormalities. Clinical features of the patient are briefly described and the embryological relationship between first branchial cleft anomaly and external auditory canal atresia is discussed. The surgical management of these lesions may be performed, both the complete excision of the sinus and reconstructive otologic surgery.

  8. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, Charles, E-mail: c.dupin@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (France); Lang, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France); Dessard-Diana, Bernadette [Department of Radiotherapy, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.9-243 cm{sup 3}) and 116 cm{sup 3} (range, 24-731 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas.

  9. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Charles; Lang, Philippe; Dessard-Diana, Bernadette; Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm 3 (range, 0.9-243 cm 3 ) and 116 cm 3 (range, 24-731 cm 3 ), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas

  10. A randomized trial of remifentanil for analgesia in external cephalic version for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Xue, Aiqin

    2016-12-01

    Although external cephalic version (ECV) can be effective for correcting the fetus in a cephalic presentation, it may be painful for the mother. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remifentanil for pain relief during ECV in China. In all, 152 Chinese parturients with singleton breech presentation were randomly divided into 2 groups, each with 76 patients. All 152 patients were assigned to receive either remifentanil (infused at 0.1 μg/kg/min and demand boluses of 0.1 μg/kg) or saline placebo. The study was performed between January 2012 and December 2015. Outcome measurements included the Numerical Rating Pain Scale score (0-10) after ECV, success rate for ECV, and maternal satisfaction after ECV. Adverse events were also evaluated. The study was completed by 146 patients. Remifentanil showed greater efficacy than placebo in decreasing the pain score immediately after ECV (remifentanil 4.6 ± 2.6 vs placebo 6.5 ± 2.7; P < 0.001). The success rate for ECV showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (remifentanil 56.5% vs placebo 39.5%; P = 0.04). Maternal satisfaction also showed a significant difference between the 2 groups (remifentanil 9.6 ± 1.4 vs placebo 6.4 ± 3.7; P < 0.001). However, the adverse events profiles were similar between both groups. The results of this study demonstrate that remifentanil is an effective intervention for reducing pain, achieving successful ECV, and increasing maternal satisfaction during ECV, and is generally well-tolerated without additional adverse effects.

  11. Remifentanil analgesia during external cephalic version for breech presentation in nulliparous women at term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Yi; Xu, Gui-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil for pain relief during external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation in nulliparous women at term. Methods: A total of 144 nulliparous women with singleton breech presentation were randomly divided into the intervention group and the placebo group, with 72 subjects in each group. The subjects in the intervention group received remifentanil (infused at 0.1 μg kg–1 min–1 with demand boluses of 0.1 μg/kg), whereas those in the placebo group were given saline placebo. This study was conducted from May 2013 to April 2016. The outcomes measures include pain (measured with the visual analog scale, VAS), success rate of ECV, maternal satisfaction for ECV, and adverse events. Results: A total of 137 participants completed the study. The intervention with remifentanil showed greater efficacy than did placebo in decreasing the VAS score immediately after ECV (intervention group 4.3 ± 2.2 vs placebo group 6.4 ± 2.5, P < 0.01). A significant difference in the ECV success rate was also found between the 2 groups (intervention group 56.9% vs placebo group 38.9%, P = 0.03). In addition, a significant difference in the satisfaction score was also detected (intervention group 9.3 ± 0.9 vs placebo group 6.7 ± 1.2, P < 0.01). The observed adverse events were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study shows that remifentanil could decrease pain, improve the ECV success rate, and improve satisfaction in nulliparous women at term during the period of ECV. Furthermore, it is also well tolerated with few adverse events. PMID:28296735

  12. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Di Trano, J.L.; Gisone, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  13. Protection against occupational exposure to ionizing radiations: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelalde, E.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2012, it is expected the approval and publication of the Directive of the European Parliament ad Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising rom physical agents (electromagnetic fields), replacing directive 2004/40/EC. The publication of new evidences related to exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health that have emerged in recent years has led to reconsideration by the Parliament, Council and European Commission, regarding to application of exposure limits for MRI clinical practice. The present review presents the principles governing the new Directive and some of the implications and actions to be taken on magnetic resonance imaging installations. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. Present status of fuel motion detection by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Makoto; Ara, Katsuyuki; Nakata, Hirokatsu.

    1978-05-01

    In reactor safety research, it is important to know transient fuel behavior under accidental conditions. Transient histories such as temperature and axial expansion of fuel and cladding and internal pressure of fuel rod are thus measured in experiments simulating accidents. If fuel motion could then be observed during and after fuel failure, this would greatly make for fuel behavior research. The present status is reviewed of fuel motion detections by radiations such as neutron, γ-ray and X-ray, including the principle and system. A neutron hodoscope among them is used already with practical results in in-reactor safety experiments of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. So, this is described in detail and its conceptual design as applied to the NSRR is presented. (auth.)

  15. Study of External Radiation Expose Dose on Hands of Nuclear Medicine Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Chul; Pyo, Sung Jae

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess external radiation exposed doses of body and hands of nuclear medicine workers who handle radiation sources, and to measure radiation exposed doses of the hands induced by a whole body bone scan with high frequency and handling a radioactive sources like 99m Tc-HDP and 18 F-FDG in the PET/CT examination. Skillful workers, who directly dispense and inject from radiation sources, were asked to wear a TLD on the chest and ring finger. Then, radiation exposed dose and duration exposed from daily radiation sources for each section were measured by using a pocket dosimeter for the accumulated external doses and the absorbed dose to the hands. In the survey of four medical institutions in Incheon Metropolitan City, only one of four institutions has a radiation dosimeter for local area like hands. Most of institutions uses radiation shielding devices for the purpose of protecting the body trunk, not local area. Even some institutions were revealed not to use such a shielding device. The exposed doses on the hands of nuclear medicine workers who directly handles radioactive sources were approximately twice as much as those on the body. The radiation exposure level for each section of the whole body bone scan with high frequency and that of the PET/CT examination showed that radiation doses were revealed in decreasing order of synthesis of radioactive medicine and installation to a dispensing container, dispensing, administering and transferring. Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences of radiation exposure doses of the hands before and after wearing a syringe shielder in administration of a radioactive sources. In this study, although it did not reach the permissible effective dose for nuclear medicine, the occupational workers were exposed by relatively higher dose level than the non-occupational workers. Therefore, the workers, who closely exposed to radioactive sources should be in compliance with safety

  16. Calculation of conversion coefficients for radiological protection against external radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankl, M.

    2001-01-01

    Calculations are essential for radiation protection practice because organ doses and effective doses cannot be measured directly. Conversion coefficients describe the numerical relationships of protection quantities and operational quantities. The latter can be measured in practical situations using suitable dosimeters. The conversion coefficients are calculated using radiation transport codes - usually based on Monte Carlo methods - that simulate the interactions of radiation with matter in computational models of the human body. A new generation of human body models, the so-called voxel models, are constructed from image data of real persons using suitable image processing systems, consequently, they represent the human anatomy more realistically than the so-called mathematical models. The numerical effects of realistic body anatomy on the calculated conversion coefficients can amount to 70% and more for external exposures. (orig.) [de

  17. Mortality among workers exposed to external ionizing radiation at a nuclear facility in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggs, L.D.; Cox-DeVore, C.A.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Reyes, M.

    1991-01-01

    In a cohort mortality study of white men employed by the Mound Facility (1947 through 1979), observed deaths did not exceed those expected based on US death rates for the overall cohort or for the subcohort monitored for external ionizing radiation. Among the radiation-monitored subcohort, mortality for workers with cumulative radiation doses of at least 10 mSv was not significantly increased when compared with mortality for coworkers with cumulative doses of less than 10 mSv. A significant dose-response based on a Mantel-Haenszel test of trend was observed for all leukemias. However, when a death from chronic lymphatic leukemia, a type of leukemia generally not regarded as radiogenic, was removed from the analyses, the strength of the dose-response was reduced

  18. Survey of external cephalic version for breech presentation and neuraxial blockade use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Sultan, Pervez; Dunn, Ashley; Carvalho, Brendan

    2016-11-01

    Neuraxial blockade may increase external cephalic version (ECV) success rates. This survey aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of neuraxial blockade used to facilitate ECV. We surveyed Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology members regarding ECV practice using a 15-item survey developed by 3 obstetric anesthesiologists and tested for face validity. The survey was e-mailed in January 2015 and again in February 2015 to the 1056 Society of Obstetric Anesthesiology and Perinatology members. We present descriptive statistics of responses. Our survey response rate was 322 of 1056 (30.5%). Neuraxial blockade was used for ECV always by 18 (5.6%), often by 52 (16.1%), sometimes by 98 (30.4%), rarely by 78 (24.2%), and never by 46 (14.3%) of respondents. An anesthetic sensory block target was selected by 141 (43.8%) respondents, and analgesic by 102 (31.7%) respondents. Epidural drug doses ranged widely, including sufentanil 5-25 μg; lidocaine 1% or 2% 10-20 mL, bupivacaine 0.0625% to 0.5% 6-15 mL, and ropivacaine 0.2% 20 mL. Intrathecal bupivacaine was used by 182 (56.5%) respondents; the most frequent doses were 2.5 mg used by 24 (7.5%), 7.5 mg used by 35 (10.9%), and 12 mg used by 30 (9.3%). Neuraxial blockade is not universally offered to facilitate ECV, and there is wide variability in neuraxial blockade techniques, in drugs and doses administered, and in the sensory blockade (anesthetic or analgesic) targeted. Future studies need to evaluate and remove barriers to allow for more widespread use of neuraxial blockade for pain relief and to optimize ECV success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. External cephalic version for singleton breech presentation: proposal of a practical check-list for obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraccolo, U; Graziani, C; Di Iorio, R; Corona, G; Bonito, M; Indraccolo, S R

    2015-07-01

    External cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation is not routinely performed by obstetricians in many clinical settings. The aim of this work is to assess to what extent the factors involved in performing ECV are relevant for the success and safety of ECV, in order to propose a practical check-list for assessing the feasibility of ECV. Review of 214 references. Factors involved in the success and risks of ECV (feasibility of ECV) were extracted and were scored in a semi-quantitative way according to textual information, type of publication, year of publication, number of cases. Simple conjoint analysis was used to describe the relevance found for each factor. Parity has the pivotal role in ECV feasibility (relevance 16.6%), followed by tocolysis (10.8%), gestational age (10.6%), amniotic fluid volume (4.7%), breech variety (1.9%), and placenta location (1.7%). Other factors with estimated relevance around 0 (regional anesthesia, station, estimated fetal weight, fetal position, obesity/BMI, fetal birth weight, duration of manoeuvre/number of attempts) have some role in the feasibility of ECV. Yet other factors, with negative values of estimated relevance, have even less importance. From a logical interpretation of the relevance of each factor assessed, ECV should be proposed with utmost prudence if a stringent check-list is followed. Such a check-list should take into account: parity, tocolytic therapy, gestational age, amniotic fluid volume, breech variety, placenta location, regional anesthesia, breech engagement, fetal well-being, uterine relaxation, fetal size, fetal position, fetal head grasping capability and fetal turning capability.

  20. Radiation chemistry - its Czechoslovak story and comments on general present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednar, J.

    1978-01-01

    The history is outlined of radiation chemistry in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and scientists contributing to the respective stages of its development are listed. Current trends of radiation chemistry in the world are indicated. (J.P.)

  1. External review systems for radiation oncology facilities - clinical audit versus other review systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Between 1996 and 1999 project team of ExPeRT, catalogued four external review systems of health care facilities in the European Union and countries associated with EU. Aim: The aim of this paper is a/ to identify and compare currently existing external review systems for radiation oncology facilities and b/ to distinguish main differences between clinical audit and other external evaluation models and c/ to identify where those models are currently used in European Union member states. Materials and Methods: Based on the literature review and the survey conducted between January and April 2007 among representatives of 67 national societies (for diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine) in European Union member states, the analysis of existing external review systems in radiation oncology was performed. Relevant information about purpose, scope and methodology of evaluation process for those systems were surveyed. Results: The response to the questionnaire was 72%. Only a few countries did not supply any reply in spite of repeated enquiries to several recipients. Six main categories of systems aiming at measuring the quality of service management and delivery were identified: professional peer review -based schemes, hospital accreditation, accreditation in terms of ISO standards, award seeking, certification by International Standards Organization, and clinical audit. Conclusions: Though the methodology and terminology of the five main external review systems differ, a constant movement towards collaboration and convergence of those models has been observed. Due to the social, political, and economical aspects of each European country, the different audit systems have been implemented either on voluntary or mandatory basis. (author)

  2. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan M; Macario, Alex; Carvalho, Brendan; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2010-01-21

    External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc.) was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery), utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) was used to determine cost-effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion to breech, successful second ECV trial, or adverse

  3. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External cephalic version (ECV is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc. was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery, utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion

  4. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad; Anbiaei, Robabeh; Zamani, Hanie; Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Ameri, Ahmad; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Seid Ratki, Kazem Razavi; Roknabadi, Alireza Momen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right-sided cancer. To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring) were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions) over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol) was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed) and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls)] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46). In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03) and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049) walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS) of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%), while in five of the controls (13.9%),(Odds ratio=1.3). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. The risk of radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormality in patients treated with CRT on the

  5. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  6. Abscess of the iliopsoas muscle associated external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Imazu, Hiroki; Matubara, Toshiki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Funabiki, Takahiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This paper deals with a case of abscess of the iliopsoas muscle, an intractable external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis in a 68-year-old man. There were previous histories of undergoing an A-C bypass operation for coronary stricture 10 years before; and undergoing aportial resection of the bladder with radiation therapy for urinary bladder cancer, followed by colostomy for hemorrhage and stricture of the rectum for radiation proctitis 2 years before admission. In April, 1997 when he had been treated at outpatient clinic, exhumation of pusfrom the sacurred that was diagnosed external fistula of the rectum on a fistulography and he was continuously treated on an ambulant basis. On November 17, 1997, the patient had a temperature 38.7deg C, the white blood cell count increased to 35 x 10{sup 4} /ml, inflammation reaction increased, and unconsciousness appeared. An emergency CT revealed retention of fluid in the retroperitoneum covering from the fistulation through the iliopsoas muscle to pelvis. An abscess of the iliopsoas muscle was diagnosed. It was determined that any operations under general anesthesia were impossible due to poor general condition, and an emergency incision drainage was performed under local anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient developed MRSA septicemia which demanded redrainage and strict general management, but he was successfully freed from the management. Although the intractable fistula in persistently present, he was discharged after a resection of sequestrum and is followed on an ambulant basis. (author)

  7. Radiation monitoring of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Network for air radioactivity monitoring was developed in the frame Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) since 1963. There are data available for many years for beta radioactivity of the air particulate and deposition. At present network consist from 26 monitoring points for measurement of dose rate and 3 monitoring points for aerosol monitors. Measuring instrument are placed in the professional stations of the selected parts of Slovakia. They are regularly verified and calibrated in the Slovak Institute for Metrology. Radiation monitoring in the SHMI is one part of the Environmental monitoring of Slovakia. All activities and operation of this system are financed from governmental budget of the Environmental monitoring. All information about this system are available on the web page http://enviroportal.sk/ in the part 'Informacny system monitoringu'. (authors)

  8. Radiation monitoring of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2009-01-01

    Network for air radioactivity monitoring was developed in the frame Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMI) since 1963. There are data available for many years for beta radioactivity of the air particulate and deposition. At present network consist from 26 monitoring points for measurement of dose rate and 3 monitoring points for aerosol monitors. Measuring instrument are placed in the professional stations of the selected parts of Slovakia. They are regularly verified and calibrated in the Slovak Institute for Metrology. Radiation monitoring in the SHMI is one part of the Environmental monitoring of Slovakia. All activities and operation of this system are financed from governmental budget of the Environmental monitoring. All information about this system are available on the web page http://enviroportal.sk/ in the part 'Informacny system monitoringu'. (authors)

  9. The philosophy, past and present of radiation protection in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation protection in radiotherapy can be effected not only by legal provisions, regulations and a sophisticated supervisory apparatus but also by a high level of radiation protection awareness among medical doctors and staff who are responsible for patient radiation protection, too. This awareness will have to be promoted by imparting knowledge and experience to and by those involved with therapeutical measures. However, any exaggeration when doing so will result in causing doctors to become irritated with legal supervision and will cause radiation protection practice to deteriorate. Positive implementation of radiation protection does not only involve the handling of lead and baryte but also the joy in doing something meaningful. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Present situation of occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imabori, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The present situation of the radiation exposure of workers, including both employes and subcontractors, in the nuclear power plants in Japan, is presented. Twenty seven nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction are tabulated with the name, the owner, the electric output and the commissioning year of each plant. The results of exposure of the workers in these plants are shown, classifying the dose rate into less than 0.5 rem, 0.5 - 1.5 rem, 1.5 - 2.5 rem, 2.5 - 5 rem and more than 5 rem, and the workers into employes and subcontractors. It is noted that the exposure dose of the subcontractors occupies about 88% of all exposure dose, and the exposure is concentrated during regular inspection period. The exposure dose of about 80% of the workers is less than 0.5 rem, and no one was irradiated more than 5 rem in a year. The total exposure dose, which has especially the tendency of increasing with extended maintenance period and decreasing during plant operation period, shows also the trend of increasing with the lapse of operation years. As for the point of view of whole exposure dose, the value is 0.06 -- 0.43 man-rem/10 6 kWh in 1976 FY. It is considered to be necessary to grasp the total exposure dose of each worker wandering from one plant to another, and the central registration center for the workers in radioactive environment was established in 1978. The whole exposure dose data of each worker are stored in the central computer in this center. This system is highly appreciated in radiation exposure management. The total exposure dose is related to the rate of utilization of nuclear plants, and it is expected to decrease with the decrease of plant outage. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Hormonal therapy with external radiation therapy for metastatic spinal cord compression from newly diagnosed prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, So; Hozumi, Takahiro; Yamakawa, Kiyofumi; Higashikawa, Akiro; Goto, Takahiro; Shinohara, Mitsuru; Kondo, Taiji

    2013-01-01

    Although hormonal therapy is effective for treatment of prostate cancer, its effect in the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) has not been established. The objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of conservative treatment of MSCC-induced paralysis resulting from prostate cancer for patients without a previous treatment history. We reviewed data from 38 patients with MSCC-induced paralysis from newly diagnosed prostate cancer who presented to our service between 1984 and 2010. Conservative treatment consisted of hormonal therapy with external radiation therapy (ERT). Patient demographic data, treatment details, involved spine MRI images, complications, and the course of neurologic recovery were investigated. Twenty-five patients were treated conservatively. Mean follow-up period was 36.8 months. Sixteen patients (two with Frankel B, 14 with Frankel C) were unable to walk at initial presentation. After initiating conservative treatment, 75% (12 of 16) of these patients regained the ability to walk within 1 month, 88% (14 in 16) did so within 3 months, and all non-ambulatory patients did so within 6 months. No one had morbid complications. Four patients who did not regain the ability to walk at 1 month were found to have progressed to paraplegia rapidly, and tended to have severe compression as visualized on MRI, with a delay in the start of treatment in comparison with those who did so within 1 month (21.0 vs. 7.8 days). Hormonal therapy associated with ERT is an important option for treatment of MSCC resulting from newly diagnosed prostate cancer. (author)

  12. Early radiation changes of normal dog brain following internal and external brain irradiation: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H.; Maruyama, Y.; Markesbery, W.; Goldstein, S.; Wang, P.; Tibbs, P.; Young, B.; Feola, J.; Beach, L.

    1984-01-01

    To examine radiation-induced changes in the normal brain, internal or external radiation was given to normal dog brain. Seven medium-sized dogs were used in this study. Two dogs were controls and an ice-pick (plastic implant applicator) was placed in the right frontal lobe for about 5 hours but no irradiation. Two dogs underwent Cs-137 brain implantation for 4 and 5 hours, respectively using an ice-pick technique. Two dogs were given internal neutron irradiation using the same technique of intracerebral ice-pick brachytherapy. One dog received an external photon irradiation using 6-Mev Linear Accelerator. Postmortem microscopic examination was made to study the early cerebral changes to irradiation in three dogs: one control with no irradiation; one received intracerebral Cesium implantation; and one external photon irradiation. Vascular change was the most prominent microscopic finding. There were hemorrhage, endothelial proliferation and fibrinoid changes of small vessel wall. Most of the changes were localized in the white matter and the cortex remained intact. Details (CT, NMR and histological studies) are discussed

  13. Changes of medullary hemopoiesis produced by chronic exposure to tritium oxide and external γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murzina, L.D.; Muksinova, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of a chronic effect of tritium oxide ( 3 HOH) and external γ-radiation by 137 Cs on medullary hemopoiesis was conducted in experiments on Wistar rats. 3 HOH was administered for 3mos., 37x10 4 Bk per lg per of body mass daily (the absorbed dose 10.8 Gy), external irradiation was given in correlated values of dose rates and integral doses. Bone marrow depopulation was 1.9 times as deeper in rats exposed to 3 HOH as compared to that in irradiated rats. This difference is caused by early and stable inhibition of erythropoiesis with the administration of the radionuclide. The integral index showing the injuring effect of tritium on erythropoiesis was 4 times as high as compared to that of external γ-irradiation by 137 Cs. The time course of value of the proliferative pool of bone marrow granulocytes with the exposure to 2 types of radiation was monotypic. Differences in maturing and functioning granulocytic pools were marked in early time of the experiment

  14. External cephalic version for breech presentation with or without spinal analgesia in nulliparous women at term: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Ginosar, Yehuda; Elchalal, Uriel; Sharon, Einav; Nokrian, Malka; Ezra, Yossef

    2007-12-01

    To compare the success of external cephalic version using spinal analgesia with no analgesia among nulliparas. A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed in a tertiary referral center delivery suite. Nulliparous women at term requesting external cephalic version for breech presentation were randomized to receive spinal analgesia (7.5 mg bupivacaine) or no analgesia before the external cephalic version. An experienced obstetrician performed the external cephalic version. Primary outcome was successful conversion to vertex presentation. Seventy-four women were enrolled, and 70 analyzed (36 spinal, 34 no analgesia). Successful external cephalic version occurred among 24 of 36 (66.7%) women randomized to receive spinal analgesia compared with 11 of 34 (32.4%) without, P=.004 (95% confidence interval [CI] of the difference: 0.0954-0.5513). External cephalic version with spinal analgesia resulted in a lower visual analog pain score, 1.76+/-2.74 compared with 6.84+/-3.08 without, Pexternal cephalic version success was 4.0-fold higher when performed with spinal analgesia P=.02 (95% CI, odds ratio [OR] 1.2-12.9). Complete breech presentation before attempting external cephalic version increased the odds of success 8.2-fold, P=.001 (95% CI, OR 2.2-30.3). Placental position, estimated fetal weight, and maternal weight did not contribute to the success rate when spinal analgesia was used. There were no cases of placental abruption or fetal distress. Administration of spinal analgesia significantly increases the success rate of external cephalic version among nulliparous women at term, which allows possible normal vaginal delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00119184 I.

  15. Randomized trial of anaesthetic interventions in external cephalic version for breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K S; Lee, S W Y; Ngan Kee, W D; Law, L W; Lau, T K; Ng, F F; Leung, T Y

    2015-06-01

    Successful external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presenting fetus reduces the need for Caesarean section (CS). We aimed to compare the success rate of ECV with either spinal anaesthesia (SA) or i.v. analgesia using remifentanil. In a double-phased, stratified randomized blinded controlled study we compared the success rates of ECV, performed under spinal anaesthesia (SA), i.v. analgesia (IVA) using remifentanil or no anaesthetic interventions. In phase I, 189 patients were stratified by parity before randomization to ECV, performed by blinded operators, under SA using either hyperbaric bupivacaine 9 mg with fentanyl 15 µg, i.v. remifentanil infusion 0.1 µg kg min(-1), or Control (no anaesthetic intervention). Operators performing ECV were blinded to the treatment allocation. In phase 2, patients in the Control group in whom the initial ECV failed were further randomized to receive either SA (n=9) or IVA (n=9) for a re-attempt. The primary outcome was the incidence of successful ECV. The success rate in Phase 1 was greatest using SA [52/63 (83%)], compared with IVA [40/63 (64%)] and Control [40/63 (64%)], (P=0.027). Median [IQR] pain scores on a visual analogue scale (range 0-100), were 0 [0-0] with SA, 35 [0-60] with IVA and 50 [30-75] in the Control group (P<0.001). Median [IQR] VAS sedation scores were highest with IVA [75 (50-80)], followed by SA, [0 (0-50)] and Control [0 (0-0)]. In phase 2, 7/9 (78%) of ECV re-attempts were successful with SA, whereas all re-attempts using IVA failed (P=0.0007). The incidence of fetal bradycardia necessitating emergency CS within 30 min, was similar among groups; 1.6% (1/63) in the SA and IVA groups and 3.2% (2/63) in the Control group. SA increased the success rate and reduced pain for both primary and re-attempts of ECV, whereas IVA using remifentanil infusion only reduced the pain. There was no significant increase in the incidence of fetal bradycardia or emergency CS, with ECV performed under anaesthetic

  16. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  17. External radiation therapy of prostatic carcinoma and its relationship to hormonal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Chitose; Ito, Koushiro; Nishi, Junko; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Hatanaka, Yoshimi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa.

    1995-01-01

    From 1980 to 1990, a total of 54 patients with prostatic carcinoma were treated with external radiation therapy at the Kumamoto National Hospital. Ten patients were classified as Stage B, 22 as Stage C, and another 22 as Stage D according to the American Urological Association Clinical Staging System. The 5-year survival for all 54 patients was 30%. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 67% for Stage B, 47% for Stage C, and 26% for Stage D. The 5-year survival was 43% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated immediately after the first diagnosis or with less than one year of hormonal therapy, while it was 0% for patients in whom radiation therapy was initiated after more than one year of hormonal therapy (p=0.01). The cause of intercurrent death was acute myocardial infarction in four patients and acute cardiac failure in one. Four of these patients received hormonal therapy for more than one year. The incidence of radiation-induced proctitis was not severe. This study suggests that long-term hormonal therapy prior to radiation therapy worsens the prognosis of patients with prostatic carcinoma. (author)

  18. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  19. Assessment of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamiak-Ziemba, J.; Doniec, J.; Kocznow, W.; Hawrynski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigations with determination of radioisotopes in urine led to detection of contamination with 99m Tc and radioactive iodine. The measurements and dosimetry of external radiation demonstrated that workers in laboratories of radioisotope diagnosis received a mean annual equivalent doses amounted less than 5% of the permissible dose for persons with occupational exposure. It was also established that external exposure was mainly responsible for this. The data about the levels of internal exposure in laboratories of nuclear medicine and radiotherapy demonstrated that introduction of a permanent central system of control of internal contamination of workers would be useless since the observation of the already accepted principles of radiological protection is sufficient for avoiding contamination. (author)

  20. Prostate biopsy after definitive treatment by interstitial iodine 125 implant or external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Higgins, E.M.; Schultheiss, T.E.; Ladaga, L.E.; Babb, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The response to definitive radiation therapy of localized carcinoma of the prostate by iodine 125 implantation or external beam radiotherapy was monitored by examining specimens from biopsies performed after treatment. We analyzed 126 biopsy specimens obtained 18 months or more after treatment: 71 were obtained from 109 patients treated by iodine 125 and 55 from 197 patients treated by external beam radiotherapy. Thereafter, the disease status of these patients was examined at minimum 3-year intervals. No significant statistical difference was found between the negative specimen rates of the 2 treatment modalities: 46 of 71 (65 per cent) after iodine 125 implantation and 39 of 55 (71 per cent) after external beam radiotherapy were negative. To analyze the predictive value of biopsy results 103 patients whose prostatic examination results were normal at biopsy or who showed regression of tumor size and tumor induration after radiation were evaluated. The biopsy results from all patients were combined for analysis. Of 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 16 (21 per cent) have had recurrent disease, compared to 17 of 26 (65 per cent) with positive biopsy specimens (p equals 0.00005). Of the 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 7 (9 per cent) had local disease recurrence, compared to 12 of 26 (46 per cent) with a positive biopsy specimen (p equals 0.0001). The value of a positive specimen to predict failure remained significant with patients stratified by pre-treatment clinical stage and grade of the disease. Our results show that patients with positive specimens from the prostate who had been judged clinically by rectal examination to have responded to radiation therapy had a significantly increased incidence of local and distant failure compared to patients who had negative biopsy specimens

  1. Hormonal changes after localized prostate cancer treatment. Comparison between external beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Maldonado, X; Trilla, E; Salvador, C; Lorente, D; Regis, L; Cuadras, M; Carles, J; Morote, J

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on the hypothalamic pituitary axis of 120 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP or EBRT exclusively. 120 patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. Ninety two patients underwent RP and 28 patients EBRT exclusively. We measured serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), free testosterone, and estradiol at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment completion. Patients undergoing RP were younger and presented a higher prostate volume (64.3 vs. 71.1 years, p<0.0001 and 55.1 vs. 36.5 g, p<0.0001; respectively). No differences regarding serum hormonal levels were found at baseline. Luteinizing hormone and FSH levels were significantly higher in those patients treated with EBRT at three months (luteinizing hormone 8,54 vs. 4,76 U/l, FSH 22,96 vs. 8,18 U/l, p<0,0001) while T and free testosterone levels were significantly lower (T 360,3 vs. 414,83ng/dl, p 0,039; free testosterone 5,94 vs. 7,5pg/ml, p 0,018). At 12 months FSH levels remained significantly higher in patients treated with EBRT compared to patients treated with RP (21,01 vs. 8,51 U/l, p<0,001) while T levels remained significantly lower (339,89 vs. 402,39ng/dl, p 0,03). Prostate cancer treatment influences the hypothalamic pituitary axis. This influence seems to be more important when patients with prostate cancer are treated with EBRT rather than RP. More studies are needed to elucidate the role that prostate may play as an endocrine organ. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation safety assessment of cobalt 60 external beam radiotherapy using the risk-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumenigo, C; Vilaragut, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Guillen, A.; Ramirez, M.L.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, M.; McDonnell, J.D.; Papadopulos, S.; Pereira, P.P.; Goncalvez, M.; Morales, J.; Larrinaga, E.; Lopez Morones, R.; Sanchez, R.; Delgado, J.M.; Sanchez, C.; Somoano, F.

    2008-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy is the only practice in which humans are placed directly in a radiation beam with the intention to deliver a very high dose. This is why safety in radiotherapy is very critical, and is a matter of interest to both radiotherapy departments and regulatory bodies. Accidental exposures have occurred throughout the world, thus showing the need for systematic safety assessments, capable to identify preventive measures and to minimize consequences of accidental exposure. Risk-matrix is a systematic approach which combines the relevant event features to assess the overall risk of each particular event. Once an event sequence is identified, questions such as how frequent the event, how severe the potential consequences and how reliable the existing safety measures are answered in a risk-matrix table. The ultimate goal is to achieve that the overall risk for events with severe consequences should always be low o very low. In the present study, the risk-matrix method has been applied to an hypothetical radiotherapy department, which could be equivalent to an upper level hospital of the Ibero American region, in terms of safety checks and preventive measures. The application of the method has identified 76 event sequences and revealed that the hypothetical radiotherapy department is sufficiently protected (low risk) against them, including 23 event sequences with severe consequences. The method has revealed that the risk of these sequences could grow to high level if certain specific preventive measures were degraded with time. This study has identified these preventive measures, thus facilitating a rational allocation of resources in regular controls to detect any loss of reliability. The method has proven to have an important practical value and is affordable at hospital level. The elaborated risk-matrix can be easily adapted to local circumstances, in terms of existing controls and safety measures. This approach can help hospitals to identify

  3. Randomized trial on external radiation therapy alone versus external radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy in early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma with a long term result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Li; Yuan Zhiyong; Xu Guozhen; Li Suyan; Xiao Guangli; Cai Weiming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare local control and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by intracavitary brachytherapy (BT) versus external beam radiotherapy alone (RT) for locally early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: From 1990 to 1997, 126 NPC patients staged T1 and T2 by 1992 Fuzhou Staging System (oropharynx, carotid sheath and soft tissue around cervical vertebral involvement excluded) were randomized into RT alone and RT followed BT groups. The two groups were comparable in age, gender, stage and pathology. The median follow-up was 112 months. T1 patients were randomized before the treatment into RT alone group of 66-70 Gy and RT plus BT with the dose of 56 Gy plus 10-16 Gy BT boost to the nasopharynx. For T2 patients, if MRI or CT showed no residual lesion in parapharyngeal space after 50 Gy, they were randomized into RT alone (median dose: 72 Gy) or RT of 66 Gy followed by 8-24 Gy BT boost (1-3 fractions over 1-3 weeks). Results: In RT group, 8 patients (13.1%) failed in primary site during the follow-up period, 7 (11%) in BT group. The 5-year local control rates was 86% for RT group and 88% for BT group (P=0.47). The 5-year overall survival rates were 83% and 84% (P=0.84), respectively. Ten patients (18%) in RT group (4 of grade I, 6 of grade II) and 7 patients (11%) in BT group (4 of grade I, 3 of grade II, P=0.31) developed radiation induced encephalopathy. The incidence of trismus was much lower in BT group than in RT group (26% versus 10%, P=0.02). No soft palate perforation or sphenoid necrosis were observed. Conclusion: Compared to conventional external beam radiotherapy, planned irradiation plus intracavitary brachytherapy not only can achieve similar local control and survival rates for locally early stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but also decrease irradiation dose and the trismus incidence. (authors)

  4. Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresl, John J.; Schild, Steven E.; Henning, George T.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Donohue, John; Pitot, Henry; Haddock, Michael G.; Nagorney, David

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer who received postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Curative resection followed by adjuvant combined modality therapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy was attempted in 21 consecutive gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 through 1997. All patients received concurrent 5-fluorouracil during EBRT. EBRT fields encompassed the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose of 54 Gy in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions). One patient received 15 Gy intraoperatively after EBRT. A retrospective analysis was performed for the end points of local control, distant failure, and overall survival. Results: After maximal resection, 12 patients had no residual disease on pathologic evaluation, 5 had microscopic residual disease, and 4 had gross residual disease. One patient had Stage I disease, and 20 had Stage III-IV disease. With median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2.6-11.5 years), 5-year survival for the entire cohort was 33%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with Stage I-III disease was 65% vs. 0% for those with Stage IV disease (p 54 Gy (microscopic residual, 3 patients; gross residual, 1 patient; negative but narrow margins, 2 patients) vs. 65% for the 15 who received a lower dose (3, gross residual; 2, microresidual; 10, negative margins). Conclusion: Patients with completely resected (negative margins) GBC followed by adjuvant EBRT plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had a relatively favorable prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 64%. These results seem to be superior to historical surgical controls from the Mayo Clinic and other institutions, which report 5-year survival rates of approximately 33% with complete resection alone. Both tumor stage and extent of resection seemed to influence survival and local control. More aggressive measures using current cancer therapies and integration

  5. Biochemical and morphological changes in rat lung tissue under the influence of external ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlenkova, N.Je.; Mamotyuk, Je.M.; Gusakova, V.A.; Kononenko, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    Single external x-ray exposure at minimum and mean lethal doses was established to cause a long activation of biochemical processes in the connective tissue of the rat lungs. Morphological and ultrastructure changes in the tissue of the lungs at early terms after x-ray and gamma-radiation exposure were due to development of destructive and degenerative reactions. The long-term changes were characterized by growth of connective tissue and formation of areas of fibrous changes in the structure of the lungs

  6. Measurement protocols for performance testing of dosimetry services for external radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In the Health and Safety Executive's ''Requirements for the Approval of Dosimetry Services under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985'', it is stipulated that dosimetry services seeking approval must show that they have successfully completed a performance test. The services must arrange for the tests to be carried out on application and thereafter every 18 months, by a laboratory which has received accreditation from the National Measurement Accreditation Service (NAMAS) for the whole performance testing activity. The performance tests must be carried out to published protocols and the purpose here is to provide protocols for external, whole body film and TLD dosimetry services, and for skin and extremity dosimetry services. (Author)

  7. Vestibular apparatus disorders after external radiation therapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, P.; Orecchia, R.; Sannazzari, G.L.; Magnano, M.; Albera, R.

    1992-01-01

    External irradiation of different head and neck cancers may involve parts of the ear. The vestibular function of 25 patients in which the inner ear was comprised in the irradiated volume was investigated by electronystagmography (ENG). Doses administered (3/5 with vertigo) showed vestibular abnormalities to ENG (44% of the total). Altered responses to specific test were as follows : 6 patients to the bithermal caloric stimulation, to pendular-sinusoidal 2, and the other 3 to both of them. Patients were evaluated 3 and 6 months after ending of the radiation therapy course. At the 1st evaluation, abnormalities to caloric test were noted in 3 patients (12%) and to sinusoidal rotary test in 1 patient (4%). At the second rates of abnormal response increased to 36 and 20% respectively. Vestibular disorders seemed to be scantely related to total radiation dose. Data of literature are discussed in order to identify possible implications on treatment planning. (author). 33 refs., 3 tabs

  8. Cytogenetic studies in women with menstrual disturbances, working in an environment of ionizing radiation (external irradiation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, G.; Dimcheva, M.; Kyncheva, V.

    1976-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes involved a sample of 30 female radiation workers with menstrual disorders from a total of 400 subjects (female physicians, laboratory technicians, and attendant personnel) included in dispensary polyclinic supervision records for a five-year period. Clinical conditions were distributed as follows: 16 patients, with oligomenorrhea; 8, with irregular bleedings; 3, with hypermenorrhea; 2, with a history of obstetric pathology; and 1, with ovarian cyst. Length of occupational experience in a radiation environment (external exposure) varied from 2 to 25 years; patient age, from 21 to 45 years. Chromosome anomalies were found in 17 of the 30 subjects investigated. Types of chromosome abnormalities detected: aneuploidy, fragments and gaps, and in one case, dicentric aberrations. Amounts of chromosome damage induced were shown to be related to years at risk. (A.B.)

  9. Present status of radiation application on irradiation service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Presently, it is in operation 6 gamma-ray facilities and 5 electron beam (EB) facilities for an irradiation service. New gamma-ray facility is under construction, and will be worked in August this year. These facilities are generally employed for crosslinking and decomposition of polymers, graft polymerization, improvement of semiconductor properties, sterilization of medical devices, laboratory-animals feed, packing materials and biotechnological devices. As for being feature one of EB facilities is employed only for improvement of polymers and semiconductors. Approximately 91% of gamma-ray sterilization of medical devices is processed in house, and 5 facilities are working in 4 firms. Other two firms have 4 EB facilities for sterilization. Therefore, the degree of dependence of irradiation service is low in the sterilization of medical devices. About 50% of medical devices are still sterilized by ethylene oxide gas (EOG). However, a part of laws has been amended successively from 5 years ago, and the regulation of EOG handling became harsh. Therefore, EOG sterilization will be gradually displaced in radiation sterilization. On the other hand, demand for sterilization of the packing materials has increased significantly, and various kinds of packing materials in food industry are sterilized by both gamma-rays and EB. Currently, novel PMMA dosimeter was developed and named Radix W. The dosimeter allows measurement of doses from 1 kGy to 150 kGy without influence of dose rates and irradiation temperature. The activities of irradiation service probably will continue to increase over future. (author)

  10. External resorption presenting as an intracoronal radiolucent lesion in a pre-eruptive tooth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1997-09-01

    A large intracoronal radiolucent lesion in an unerupted permanent molar was found during the routine assessment of a young male Caucasian prior to orthodontic treatment. The tooth was extracted. Histological examination indicated the lesion was caused by external resorption. The defect extended widely into the enamel and dentine, and was repaired in part by bone. The pulp chamber was not involved. The aetiology of these lesions is often obscure but in this case it appeared to have originated in the floor of two developmental pits on the occlusal surface of the tooth.

  11. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Jave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  12. Osteochondromas and growth retardation secondary to externally or internally administered radiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovici, Peter A. [UCSD Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Liebling, Melissa S. [Hackensack University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hackensack, NJ (United States)

    2007-03-15

    For over five decades, osteochondromas (exostoses) and associated growth retardation have been known to be caused by radiation damage to the growing skeleton.Patients can be divided into three exposure groups. Group I received external beam radiation therapy primarily for the treatment of childhood cancers (typical dose 3,500 cGy), and 6-20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation within the radiation portal. Group II consists of recently described patients who received total body irradiation in preparation for bone marrow transplant (typical dose: 800-1,200 cGy), and about 20% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation. Group III consists of 206 German children who in the 1940s and early 1950s received intravenous radioactive Peteosthor (Ra-224) to treat bone tuberculosis (estimated typical dose: 1,000-2,000 cGy), and 14% developed osteochondromas and growth retardation, among other benign and malignant sequelae. Combining these three exposure groups, osteochondromas and growth retardation develop in at least 6-20% of children who receive therapeutic radiation to their growing skeletons. (orig.)

  13. Summary of Building Protection Factor Studies for External Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, Michael B.; Kane, Jave; Nasstrom, John; Homann, Steve; Pobanz, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose assessments are used to help inform decisions to minimize health risks in the event of an atmospheric release of radioactivity including, for example, from a Radiological Dispersal Device, an Improvised Nuclear Device detonation, or a Nuclear Power Plant accident. During these incidents, radiation dose assessments for both indoor and outdoor populations are needed to make informed decisions. These dose assessments inform emergency plans and decisions including, for example, identifying areas in which people should be sheltered and determining when controlled population evacuations should be made. US dose assessment methodologies allow consideration of the protection, and therefore dose reduction, that buildings provide their occupants. However, these methodologies require an understanding of the protection provided by various building types that is currently lacking. To help address this need, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was tasked with (a) identifying prior building protection studies, (b) extracting results relevant to US building construction, and (c) summarizing building protection by building type. This report focuses primarily on the protection against radiation from outdoor fallout particles (external gamma radiation).

  14. Federal guidelines for estimating external exposure of radiation workers in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, K.; Kryuchkov, V.; Mark, N.K.; Szoeke, I.; Sneve, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of Russian federal guidelines for optimizing work procedures in terms of radiation protection for planned field work is presented. The general provisions, procedures and methods for applying the principles of optimization are provided in accordance with the Radiation Safety Standards (NRB-99/2009) and Basic sanitary rules of radiation safety (OSPORB-99/2010). Jobs in environments with actual or potential radiation hazards shall be planned on the basis of the principle of optimization in order to prevent unexpected exposure of the personnel. Control and optimization of dose to workers is a continuous process, which is carried out at various stages of radiation-hazardous work under constant involvement of the personnel in the planning procedure. Implementation of the principle of optimization should include considerations for human and organizational aspects for ensuring high level safety. The planning and optimization process includes education and training of personnel, estimation of radiation doses for the upcoming work, preparations for unplanned situations, and implementation of practical safety measures within the targeted radiation-hazardous works. The optimization principle is most important in the planning phase where uncertainties in planned exposure must be considered. Variability of radiation risks related to different scenarios (choices) can be managed by modern simulation technology, and use of advanced tools (software) for simulating planned activities and conditions in digital models including the environment (premises of an industrial complex) with dynamic visualization of the radiation exposure conditions. Existing hardware and emerging information technologies allow practical application of such techniques. Application of advanced information technology can reduce uncertainties related to the radiation environment by turning invisible radiation into directly perceivable risk information. In addition, virtual reality

  15. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  16. Estimation of dose from exposure to external radiation in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    1978-01-01

    Meteorological factors which influence the external radiation were analysed. Attention was paid to the relationship between the concentration of the radioactive aerosol and the outdoor radiation level. Twelve kinds of data were obtained at Kumatori Site of Kyoto University. The mean diurnal variation and annual variation of each factors were obtained from the data of 25 months periods from August 1974 to August 1976. Outstanding was the result that the outdoor gamma radiation varied just slightly in spite of the large variation of the airborne activities and others. It implies that the individual effect due to the factor would compensate and cancel each other. Otherwise the major contribution on the variation might distribute at random with respect to time. Contrary to the apparent independence of the outdoor gamma radiation level of the airborne activity, however, the partial correlation coefficient between them was not negligibly small. Analysis of each time series of individual data has revealed that the rainfall has the largest influence on the variation of the outdoor gamma radiation level particularly in its initial period. Airborne activity was also revealed to have a strong connection with the atmospheric stability and the wind velocity though it depends on the rainfall just a little. The atmospheric stability could be expressed by the vertical gradient of the atmospheric temperature which is strongest at the ''inversion''. However problem remains as to the nature of the wind. Which of the atmospheric turbulence and the prevailing wind corresponds to the wind here will have to be analysed referring to the large scale weather charts. Regression analysis showed that the atmospheric temperature was the essential cause of the variation of the radiation level. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation in Cuba in the period 2001-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Martinez H, E.; Castro S, A.

    2006-01-01

    The single radiological surveillance of the occupational exposure to external radiation sources in Cuba it is carried out by the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR). The data corresponding to the external exposure are presented. The service it covers to all the occupationally exposed workers (TOEs) of the country that work fundamentally the radiodiagnostic practices, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and research. The purpose of this work is to carry out an analysis of the occupational exposures of the TOE of the country starting of the results registered by the service of single radiological surveillance in the period 2001 to 2005, keeping in mind the indicators used by the UNSCEAR. The annual average effective dose (E) for each practice is shown. The obtained results showed that the values of annual average effective dose (E) its are bigger for the radiodiagnostic practices, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. In a general way, all the E values are inferior to 2.00 mSv. The number of TOEs that overcame the 20 mSv established as annual dose limit, it went inferior to 1% of the controlled total universe. (Author)

  18. Verification by the FISH translocation assay of historic doses to Mayak workers from external gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Darroudi, Firouz [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands); College of North Atlantic, Department of Health Science, Centre for Human Safety and Environmental Research, Doha (Qatar); Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Moquet, Jayne E.; Lloyd, David C.; Hone, Pat A.; Edwards, Alan A. [Public Health England, Chilton, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Fomina, Janna [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to apply the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay in combination with chromosome painting of peripheral blood lymphocytes for retrospective biological dosimetry of Mayak nuclear power plant workers exposed chronically to external gamma radiation. These data were compared with physical dose estimates based on monitoring with badge dosimeters throughout each person's working life. Chromosome translocation yields for 94 workers of the Mayak production association were measured in three laboratories: Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Leiden University Medical Center and the former Health Protection Agency of the UK (hereinafter Public Health England). The results of the study demonstrated that the FISH-based translocation assay in workers with prolonged (chronic) occupational gamma-ray exposure was a reliable biological dosimeter even many years after radiation exposure. Cytogenetic estimates of red bone marrow doses from external gamma rays were reasonably consistent with dose measurements based on film badge readings successfully validated in dosimetry system ''Doses-2005'' by FISH, within the bounds of the associated uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. The patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy: specificity and methods; La radioprotection du patient en radiotherapie externe: specificites et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvais March, H. [Hopital Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The daily use of high level radiation doses to fight against carcinomas has often led to consider radiation protection as a marginal problem, in this area. But the therapeutic advances, by increasing the life time and life quality have made the side effects unacceptable and revealed the appearance of radioinduced carcinomas. So, it is necessary to practice a patient radiation protection. The general principles of radiation protection are applicable to radiotherapy. (justification, optimization and dose limit, planning of the treatment, quality control of installations). (N.C.)

  20. Present status and future aspects of radiation oncology in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the infrastructure for radiotherapy in Korea was performed to establish a baseline plan in 2006 for future development. The data were obtained from 61 radiotherapy centers. The survey covered then number of radiotherapy centers, major equipment and personnel. Centers were classified into technical level groups according to the IAEA criteria. 28,789 new patients were treated with radiation therapy in 2004. There were 104 megavoltage devices in 61 institutions, which included 96 linear accelerators, two Cobalt 60 units, three Tomotherapy units, two Cyberknife units and one proton accelerator in 2006. Thirty-five high dose rate remote after-loading systems and 20 CT-simulators were surveyed. Personnel included 132 radiation oncologists, 50 radiation oncology residents, 64 medical physicists, 130 nurses and 369 radiation therapy technologists. All of the facilities employed treatment-planning computers and simulators, among these thirty-two percent (20 facilities) used a CT-simulator. Sixty-six percent (40 facilities) used a PET/CT scanner, and 35% (22 facilities) had the capacity to implement intensity modulated radiation therapy. Twenty-five facilities (41%) were included in technical level 3 group (having one of intensity modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy or intra-operative radiotherapy system). Radiation oncology in Korea evolved greatly in both quality and quantity recently and demand for radiotherapy in Korea is increasing steadily. The information in this analysis represents important data to develop the future planning of equipment and human resources

  1. Basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure. 3. rev. and enl. ed.; Berechnungsgrundlage fuer die Ermittlung von Koerper-Aequivalentdosen bei aeusserer Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarenio, O. (comp.) [Geschaeftsstelle der Strahlenschutzkommission beim Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on the basis for calculating body equivalent doses after external radiation exposure includes the following issues: introduction covering the scope of coverage and body equivalent doses for radiation protection, terminology, photon radiation, neutron radiation, electron radiation, mixed radiation fields and the estimation of body equivalent doses for skin surface contamination.

  2. TRUST. I. A 3D externally illuminated slab benchmark for dust radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K. D.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; Camps, P.; Juvela, M.; Kuiper, R.; Lunttila, T.; Misselt, K. A.; Natale, G.; Robitaille, T.; Steinacker, J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The radiative transport of photons through arbitrary three-dimensional (3D) structures of dust is a challenging problem due to the anisotropic scattering of dust grains and strong coupling between different spatial regions. The radiative transfer problem in 3D is solved using Monte Carlo or Ray Tracing techniques as no full analytic solution exists for the true 3D structures. Aims: We provide the first 3D dust radiative transfer benchmark composed of a slab of dust with uniform density externally illuminated by a star. This simple 3D benchmark is explicitly formulated to provide tests of the different components of the radiative transfer problem including dust absorption, scattering, and emission. Methods: The details of the external star, the slab itself, and the dust properties are provided. This benchmark includes models with a range of dust optical depths fully probing cases that are optically thin at all wavelengths to optically thick at most wavelengths. The dust properties adopted are characteristic of the diffuse Milky Way interstellar medium. This benchmark includes solutions for the full dust emission including single photon (stochastic) heating as well as two simplifying approximations: One where all grains are considered in equilibrium with the radiation field and one where the emission is from a single effective grain with size-distribution-averaged properties. A total of six Monte Carlo codes and one Ray Tracing code provide solutions to this benchmark. Results: The solution to this benchmark is given as global spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and images at select diagnostic wavelengths from the ultraviolet through the infrared. Comparison of the results revealed that the global SEDs are consistent on average to a few percent for all but the scattered stellar flux at very high optical depths. The image results are consistent within 10%, again except for the stellar scattered flux at very high optical depths. The lack of agreement between

  3. Implication of new CEC recommendations for individual monitoring for external radiation doses to the skin and the extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.

    1991-01-01

    A drafting group consisting of the above authors has assisted the CEC in revising the CEC document Technical Recommendations for Monitoring the Exposure to Individuals to External Radiation, EUR 5287, published in 1975. The paper highlights sections of the revised version relating particularly...... to irradiation of the skin and the extremities and focusses on problems connected to exposure to weakly penetrating radiations. Concepts of individual monitoring for external radiation exposures to the skin of the whole body and to the extremities are discussed and guidance is given as regards dose quantities...

  4. Problems with regard to occupational exposure of external personnel (section 15 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, W.

    2002-01-01

    The annual radiation dose to the group of external personnel working in nuclear facilities accounts for more than 39% of the total annual collective dose of all occupationally exposed persons in Germany. This is a fact causing problems for plant operators employing external personnel as well as the sending companies, with respect to compliance with the radiation protection regulations. The amended German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not really make things easier in this respect, but in fact is expected to aggravate the situation in the course of increasing globalisation in the industrial sector. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Risk of developmental dysplasia of the hip in breech presentation: the effect of successful external cephalic version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeek, A. F.; de Hundt, M.; Vlemmix, F.; Akerboom, B. M. C.; Bais, J. M. J.; Papatsonis, D. N. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kok, M. [=Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of successful external cephalic version on the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) requiring treatment in singleton breech presentation at term. Observational cohort study. Three large teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with a singleton breech

  6. Investigating Parental Acceptability of the Incredible Years Self-Administered Parent Training Program for Children Presenting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Latoya S.; Carlson, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This study takes an in-depth look at parental acceptability (i.e., the ability to meet parent needs) of an intervention that has shown strong empirical support for treating and preventing childhood conduct disorder. The authors obtained acceptability data from 30 parents of children ages 5 to 12 years presenting externalizing behavior problems…

  7. Protection against the ionizing radiations coming from external sources used in medicine: Part 1. Radiodiagnosis in medicine and dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the minimum requirements for the safety use of external sources of radiations in medical and dentistry radiodiagnosis. As a matter of fact, radiations produce noxious biological effects as: cancer, genetic damages, cataract and others. Those effects can be either avoided or limited, if we dose the exposure of radiation. The use of X-rays for diagnosis causes a massive exposure of population, that can be corrected by means of the application of rules settled down in this standard

  8. Pelvic control following external beam radiation for surgical Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, Stephen; Gal, David; Potters, Louis; Bosworth, Jay; Lovecchio, John

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if postoperative external pelvic radiation (EBRT), without vaginal brachytherapy, is sufficient to prevent vaginal cuff and pelvic recurrences in patients with surgical Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma (ACA). Methods and Materials: The records of 122 patients with surgical Stage I endometrial cancer were reviewed. There were 87 patients with ACA who received EBRT alone and are the subject of this study. Their radiation records were reviewed. All patients underwent exploration, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH BSO), and pelvic and paraaortic lymph node sampling. They were staged according to the FIGO 1988 surgical staging system recommendations. Postoperatively, pelvic EBRT was administered by megavoltage equipment using four fields, to a total dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy. Actuarial survival and disease free survival were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier Method. Results: Twenty-seven patients with Stage IA Grade 1 or 2 ACA with less than one-third myometrial invasion, who did not receive EBRT, and eight patients with histology other than adenocarcinoma (i.e., serous papillary, mucinous, etc.) were not included in the study. For the remaining 87 patients who are in the study group, the median follow-up was 52 months (range: 12-82 months). The 5-year overall survival for these 87 patients was 92%, with a disease-free survival of 83%. There were no tumor recurrences in the upper vagina or in the pelvis. Two patients developed small bowel obstruction (no surgery required), and one patient developed chronic enteritis. Conclusion: Adjuvant external pelvic radiation, without vaginal brachytherapy, prevents pelvic and vaginal cuff recurrences in surgical Stage I endometrial ACA

  9. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H E and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  10. Radiation retinopathy after external-beam irradiation: Analysis of time-dose factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Mendenhall, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the risk of radiation-induced retinopathy according to total radiation dose and fraction size, based on both retorspective and prospectively collected data. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 68 retinae in 64 patients received fractionated external-beam irradiation during the treatment of primary extracranial head and neck tumors. All patients had a minimum of 3 years of ophthalmologic follow-up (range, 3 to 26 years; mean, 9 years; median, 8 years). Twenty-seven eyes in 26 patients developed radiation retinopathy resulting in visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. The mean and median times to the onset of symptoms attributable to retinal ischemia were 2.8 and 2.5 years, respectively. Fourteen of the injured eyes developed rubeosis iridis and/or neovascular glaucoma. Radiation retinopathy was not observed at doses below 45 Gy, but increased steadily in incidence at doses ≥45Gy. In the range of doses between 45 and 55 Gy, there was an increased risk of injury among patients who received doses per fraction of ≥1.9Gy (p - .09). There was also a trend toward increased risk of injury among patients who received chemotherapy (two of two vs. four of ten in the 45-51 Gy range; p - .23). The lowest dose associated with retinopathy was 45 Gy delivered to a diabetic patient by twice-a-day fractionation. The data did not suggest an increased risk of radiation retinopathy with increasing age. The current study suggests the importance of total dose as well as dose per fraction, and adds support to a small body of literature suggesting that patients with diabetes mellitus or who receive chemotherapy are at increased risk of injury. A sigmoid dose-response curve is constructed from our current data and data from the literature. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Organic radiation chemistry--the present state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareava, V.V.; Kalyazin, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors pose the principal problems to be solved in organic radiation chemistry: 1) to derive from the structural formula of a given organic compound the composition of the products from its radiolysis under standard conditions; 2) to use a number of physicochemical properties of a given compound at the molecular and material levels to predict the variation in composition and fraction of products from the radiolysis of the compounds with a change in irradiation conditions, i.e., the parameters of the acting radiation and the state of the substance, to indicate the direction of the principal radiation chemical processes in complex mixtures of natural or technical origin. Having stated the problems, the authors attempt to show the level of understanding of the radiolysis of organic compounds, using aliphatic hydrocarbons as principal discussion subjects

  12. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Helle, Peter A.; Koper, Peter C.M.; Jansen, Peter P.; Hanssens, Patrick E.J.; Boeken Kruger, Cornelis G.G.; Putten, Wim L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In our center interstitial radiation has played an important role in the treatment of bladder cancer patients for over 40 years. Radium needles, that were initially used, were replaced by caesium needles in 1983, whereas the afterloading iridium wire technique was adopted in 1989. Patients with solitary tumors (T1, T2 and T3) with a surface diameter of < 5 cm are considered for interstitial radiation. In this study we report on the results of the afterloading iridium wire technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: From May 1989 to September 1993 interstitial radiation using iridium wires was part of the treatment in 46 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (37 T2, 9 T3). The mean age was 67 years. After transurethral resection of all visible tumor (if possible), in most cases 40 Gy (20 x 2.0 Gy, midplane dose) external beam radiation was delivered to the true pelvis, followed by 30 Gy interstitial radiation using iridium-192 wires covering the tumor area in the bladder. Results: After a median follow-up of 26 months, bladder relapses occurred in 7 patients. In 5 of them the tumor relapsed in the initial area, in 1 patient elsewhere in the bladder and in 1 patient tumor recurred in and outside the initial site. Recurrence was superficial (T1) in 4 patients. A relapse in the urethra was found once. Metastases developed in 13 patients, in 8 without bladder relapse. During the observation period 17 patients died, 13 due to bladder cancer. The actuarial bladder relapse-free survival at 4 years was 74% and 82% for T2 and T3 tumors, respectively. The actuarial distant metastases-free survival was 65% for both categories. No serious toxicity was recorded. Conclusion: In a selected group of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer transurethral resection in combination with external beam and interstitial radiation provides an excellent opportunity to preserve the bladder with a high chance of success. Development of

  13. Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, A.; Munir, M.; Khalil, A.; Masood, M.; Akhter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational exposure data of workers due to external sources of radiation in various medical practices such as nuclear medicine (NM), radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology (DR) in Pakistan were collected and analysed. Whole-body doses of workers were measured by film badge dosimetry technique during 2003-2007. Annual average effective dose in NM, radio-therapy and DR varied in the range of 1.39-1.80, 1.05-1.45 and 1.22-1.71 mSv, respectively, during 2003-2007. These values are quite low and well below the annual limit of 20 mSv averaged over a period of 5 consecutive years. Nobody received the radiation dose >50 mSv in any single year over a period of 5 consecutive years; therefore, no overexposure case has been detected. Decreasing trend of annual average dose values in aforementioned categories of work during 2003-2007 indicates the improvement of radiation protection status in medical field in Pakistan. (authors)

  14. Environmental external gamma radiation isodose map of Kinta and Batang Padang Districts, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.; Monawarah, N.M.Y.; Hng, P.W.; Sharifah Mastura, S.A

    2005-01-01

    The background radiation levels of any area, including those related to having deposit of NORM is important to be mapped out before being developed in order to assess their for potential radiological risk. A study was carried out map the environmental external gammas radiation dose rates in Kinta and Batang Padang Districts, Perak. The interpolation method in GIS was used to produce an isodose map based on prediction made from 13 different geological structure soil type combinations. Actual field measurements were carried using Sodium Iodine detectors. A predicted isodose map was plotted based on 5 dose rate classes, ranging from 0.16-0.57 Sv hr -1 . The area dose rates was increased to 5.00 Sv hr -1 once the dose rates contributed artificially by among plants to the study area was considered. Results also showed that the geosoil combination of steep land and acid intrusive rock areas radiates the highest dose rate levels (90.31 %) and most of these areas are in areas covered by hilly mountain. (Author)

  15. Present status of industrial utilization of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotopes, such as Co-60 and Cs-137, and accelerators for electrically generating radiations are widely used as radiation sources for industrial radiation exposure applications. It is estimated that about 100 electron accelerators are in use in Japan as of 1985 in the industrial and R and D fields while about 300 - 400 accelerators and more than 130 Co-60 irradiation systems have been installed over the world. In the field of materials development, accelerators are currently utilized for production of cross-linked, high-temperature resistant cable cladding, production of heat-shrinkable polymer materials, pre-crosslinking of rubber sheet for tier, production of expanded polyethylene, graft copolymerization for producing diaphragms for battery, electron-beam surface coating, and lithography for semiconductor manufacturing. In the field of environmental protection, accelerators are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from gas emission, sterilization and composting of sludge, and electron treatment of water. Radiations are also used for sterilization of medical instruments. In addition, high-energy ion beam irradiation has already come into practical use in the field of semiconductor manufacturing and metallic surface treatment. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Radiation processing. Present situation of the applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of radiation processings in Europe: sterilization, food irradiation, sewage treatment, cross-linking of polyethylenes, vinyl polychlorides, rubbers and polymers, electron beam drying of coatings on wood, plastics and paper, production of wood-plastic composites, polymerization of ethylene and vinyl monomers [fr

  17. Statistical Modeling of the Eye for Multimodal Treatment Planning for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Intraocular Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueegsegger, Michael B. [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bach Cuadra, Meritxell [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Signal Processing Laboratory - LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Amstutz, Christoph A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Rudolph, Tobias [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Aebersold, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H., E-mail: jens.kowal@artorg.unibe.ch [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Results: Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95% {+-} 2% for the sclera and cornea and 91% {+-} 2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3 {+-} 0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14 {+-} 2 s on a standard personal computer. Conclusions: Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes.

  18. Generalized concept for the estimation of body dose for radiation workers exposed to external #betta#-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Boehm, J.; Heinzelmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    In radiation protection monitoring the need exists for an estimation of body dose due to external #betta#-rays, for instance if the #betta#-dose rate at the working area is expected to be high according to the data of source activity or room contamination, the indicated dose values of a personal dosemeter exceed the operational limit for the organ or tissue depth of interest, or a person was exposed to a significant dose. On behalf of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Republic of Germany, a guideline is now under preparation which offers a standardized concept of the estimation of #betta#-doses in personnel monitoring. The calculation models discussed here will be used as a basis for any case of external #betta#-irradiation where, in connection with the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, the ICRP dose equivalent limits are reached or the dosemeter readings are not representative for an individual exposure. The generalized concept discussed in the paper relates to: the calculation of #betta#-dose on the basis of source activity or spectral particle fluence and takes into account the special cases of point sources, area sources and volume sources; the estimation of body dose on the basis of calculated data or measured results from area or personnel monitoring, taking into account the dose equivalent in different depths of tissue, in particular the dose equivalent to the skin, the lens of the eye and other organs; and finally the estimation of skin dose due to the contamination of the skin surface. Basic reference data are presented in order to estimate the dose equivalent of interest which varies significantly in the #betta#-radiation field as a function of the maximum #betta#-energy, distance to the source, size of the source, activity per area for surface contamination and activity per volume for air contamination

  19. Treatment of bulky stage IB and IIB cervical cancers with outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation and extrafascial hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nagell, J.R.; Maruyama, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Donaldson, E.S.; Hanson, M.B.; Gallion, H.H.; Powell, D.E.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    From January, 1977, to December, 1982, twenty-nine patients with bulky (>4 cms diameter) Stage IB or IIB cervical cancer were treated at the University of Kentucky Medical Center by a combination of out-patient neutron brachytherapy (Cf-252) and external pelvic radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy. Residual tumor was present in the hysterectomy specimens of 25 per cent. Complications during and following radiation therapy and surgery were minimal and included vaginal stenosis, proctitis, and hemorrhagic cystitis. The mean duration of hospitalization for surgery in these patients was 6.6 days (range 5-15 days) and postoperative morbidity was low. No patient required blood transfusion. Four patients developed urinary tract infections and two had superficial wound separations. Following treatment, patients were seen at monthly intervals for one year, every three months for two years, and every six months thereafter. No patient has been lost to follow-up. Two patients (7 per cent) developed tumor recurrence and have died of disease (1 of distant metastases; 1 local). The remaining 27 patients (93 per cent) are alive and well with no evidence of disease 24-89 months (mean 48 months) after therapy. No radiogenic fistulae or bowel obstruction were observed. These preliminary results suggest that the combination of outpatient neutron brachytherapy, external pelvic radiation, and extrafascial hysterectomy for patients with Stage IB and IIB cervical cancer is well tolerated. Complications associated with this treatment regimen have been minimal, and the recurrence rate is low. The duration of intracavitary neutron brachytherapy was short, and outpatient therapy was well received by patients

  20. Statistical modeling of the eye for multimodal treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Pica, Alessia; Amstutz, Christoph A; Rudolph, Tobias; Aebersold, Daniel; Kowal, Jens H

    2012-11-15

    Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95%±2% for the sclera and cornea and 91%±2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3±0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14±2 s on a standard personal computer. Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation protection in Bohunice NPP. Description of present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection (RP) at Bohunice NPP has reached the high international standard. The fact was approved by several independent international missions (OSART , WANO, WENRA, ...). A lot of modifications have been done in order to improve the standard of radiation protection. All the BSS requirements have been implemented into the plant regulations before the State Law No 290/1996 and 470/2000 came into the force. Internal audits are regularly performed at NPP in order to reveal potential deficiencies. In 2001 there were 4 such audits focused on quality assurance, software operation, LBB concept and limits and condition of safe operation. State Health Institute, the regulatory body in the radiation protection, performs the inspection at least ones a month. Good relationship with the inspectors of State Health Institute also contributes to the safe operation of the NPP. There were not any radiation accident. All anomalies or radiation events are investigated at a plant level. The results of root cause analysis and proposal of corrective actions are provided to IAEA and WANO databases for the distribution. The Radiation protection department of Bohunice NPP cooperates with the other Czech and Slovak NPPs. Regular meetings on radiation protection and lately also on emergency preparedness are organized. The cooperation is excellent. Occupational exposure is reviewed also with respect of ISOE data. Bohunice NPP (even with high dose burden caused by reconstruction of V1 NPP) can be found in the first half of world PWR speaking about the collective exposure per reactor. V2 NPP itself reaches the lowest collective exposure in the world. All doses are below the limits and kept ALARA. ALARA system has been established already in 1997 at Bohunice NPP and its results are obvious for example looking at dose results during the reconstruction works at V1 NPP. The operation of Bohunice NPP has negligible influence to its surroundings. The values of gas and liquid effluents move

  2. Assessment of population external irradiation doses with consideration of Rospotrebnadzor bodies equipment for monitoring of photon radiation dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides review of equipment and methodology for measurement of photon radiation dose; analysis of possible reasons for considerable deviation between the Russian Federation population annual effective external irradiation doses and the relevant average global value. Data on Rospotrebnadzor bodies dosimetry equipment used for measurement of gamma radiation dose are collected and systematized. Over 60 kinds of dosimeters are used for monitoring of population external irradiation doses. Most of dosimeters used in the country have gas-discharge detectors (Geiger-Mueller counters, minor biochemical annunciators, etc. which have higher total values of own background level and of space radiation response than the modern dosimeters with scintillation detectors. This feature of dosimeters is apparently one of most plausible reasons of a bit overstating assessment of population external irradiation doses. The options for specification of population external irradiation doses assessment are: correction of gamma radiation dose measurement results with consideration of dosimeters own background level and space radiation response, introduction of more up-to-date dosimeters with scintillation detectors, etc. The most promising direction of research in verification of population external irradiation doses assessment is account of dosimetry equipment.

  3. External exposure level from natural radiation and population dose in Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shanxiang; Li Fuzeng; Jiao Yufang

    1985-01-01

    The resultts of measurement of absorbed dose rate in air from natural gamma radiation in Gansu measured with FD-71 scintillation radiometers are reported in this paper. Sketch maps of distribution of absorbed dose rates from natural radiation in this province are also presented. The mean values of absorbed rates in air from terrestrial gamma radiation for outdoors and indoors are 0.7 mGy/a (range 0.32 to 1.11 mGy/a) and 1.02 mGy/a (range 0.73 to 1.4 mGy/a), respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from terrestrial gamma radiation to population in this province is estimated to be 1,14 mSv

  4. Long-term follow-up observation of patients with chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shenyong; Sun Wenji; Zhang Aizhen; Ye Anfang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To provide the clinical data and prognosis judgement, the authors observed the results and progression of 11 cases of chronic radiation sickness due to external irradiation treated with thymopeptide. Methods: The clinical symptoms, hematopoiesis, T lymphocyte percentage and chromosome aberration rate were used as the judgement indexes for recovery from the chronic radiation sickness. Results: Thymopeptide treatment greatly improved the neurasthenic syndrome and increased the T lymphocyte percentage (P 0.05), and improvement of neurasthenic syndrome occurred 3.5 years after they left radiation work or diminished the exposure level. 5 to 8 years after, bone marrow hematopoiesis also restored to the normal level. However, the chromosome aberration rate restored to the normal level 10 years after. Conclusion: According to the judgement criteria, the chronic radiation sickness due to external radiation exposure can recover and thymopeptide is a helpful and simple means to treat it

  5. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin; Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment

  6. Present status of application of radiation and radioisotopes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Anwar

    1984-01-01

    Bangladesh has proceeded with the atomic energy programme in three phases: (1) research and development using radiation and radioisotopes and application of the results, (2) building the infrastructure in nuclear technology and (3) production of electricity from nuclear sources and development of associated facilities. It has entered the second phase of the programme. The following main areas of research and application were referred to: agriculture, food preservation, medical sterilization and radiation biology, medicine, non-destructive testing, isotope hydrology, elemental analysis, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) methods, radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence (RIXFA) methods, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) methods, molecular absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, health physics, and future programme with research reactor. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Comparison between radioimmunotherapy and external beam radiation therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhao-Chong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 136 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Tang, Zhao-You; Yang, Bing-Hui; Liu, Kang-Da; Wu, Zhi-Quan; Fan, Jia; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Zhou, Jian [Liver Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Guo-Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital. Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2002-12-01

    It has previously been observed in animal studies that, at equivalent doses, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is 2.5 times more effective than multiple fractions of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in inhibiting tumour growth. In this study, we compared the use of RIT and EBRT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), treated during the past 10 years. Of 67 patients without extrahepatic involvement, 32 were treated with hepatic artery ligation combined with RIT (the RIT group) while 35 were treated with a combination of hepatic arterial chemo-embolisation and EBRT (the EBRT group). The patients in the RIT group received {sup 131}I-Hepama-1 monoclonal antibody, which was infused through the hepatic artery catheter. The patients in the EBRT group received transcatheter arterial chemo-embolisation and limited-field EBRT using a linear accelerator. Parameters observed include tumour response, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in serum, human anti-murine antibody (HAMA) assay, T lymphocyte subsets, survival rates, routine parameters, sequential resection rates and histopathological status of the resection specimens. The sequential resection rates were 53% (17/32) and 23% (8/35), and tumour response rates were 72% (23/32) and 86% (30/35) in the RIT and EBRT groups, respectively. The main side-effects in the RIT group were mild allergic reactions. The most common toxicity in the EBRT group was an increase in liver enzymes. The liver tissue in the target volume was injured by EBRT. The injured liver tissue revealed a low-attenuation area adjacent to the hepatic tumour within the target volume on follow-up computed tomography studies after EBRT. On pathological evaluation, the low-attenuation area revealed hyperaemia, distended hepatic sinusoids packed with erythrocytes and hepatic cell loss. The sequential resection specimens from both the RIT and the EBRT group showed residual cancer tissue located at the edge of the mass. The residual cancer cells presented as giant

  8. Summary of recorded external radiation doses for Hanford workers 1944--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschbom, R.L.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes recorded external radiation doses for the years 1944 through 1989 received by operations workers who were included in the Hanford Mortality Study. This study population includes all operations workers who were initially employed at the Hanford site from 1944 through 1978. Descriptive summaries are provided for both annual and cumulative whole body penetrating doses. Although the main emphasis of the report is on recorded whole body penetrating dose, summary tables are included for the components of whole body penetrating dose, non-penetrating dose, and extremity dose. Summaries are provided for the entire study population and for subgroups of the population defined by sex, age, number of years since first monitoring, and socioeconomic groups

  9. The value of external beam radiation in pathologic node positive prostate cancer: a multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Astrid D.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Althausen, Alex F.; Heney, Niall M.; Kaufman, Donald S.; Shipley, William U.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of local/regional treatment, particularly external beam radiation alone versus radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy in patients with pathologic node positive prostate cancer on survival. The effect of delayed vs. immediate endocrine therapy on patients treated with radiation alone was also examined. Methods: Medical records of all 116 patients who received their initial treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1980 and 1996 for adenocarcinoma of the prostate with pathologic confirmed nodal metastasis and no distant disease were reviewed. The mean follow up was 5.5 years. Disease specific survival, time to PSA failure on endocrine therapy, and time to first intervention were evaluated. PSA failure was defined as two consecutive post-nadir rises following the first use of endocrine therapy. Intervention was defined as any surgical or radiotherapeutic procedure required for relief of symptoms related to local/regional recurrence. Survival comparisons were made between any local/regional treatment vs. none, radiation therapy alone vs. prostatectomy with radiation therapy, and immediate vs. delayed endocrine therapy. The effect of the different treatment options on survival were compared using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models to simultaneously adjust for patient and tumor characteristics (tumor stage, Gleason grade, number of positive nodes) that might influence survival. Results: The combined patient population had a 5 year disease specific survival of 74% and a 10 year disease specific survival of 48%. The comparison groups for local/regional treatment had the following adjusted outcomes. In a subgroup analysis of patients with clinical T1-T2 and clinical T3-T4 disease, local/regional treatment continued to confer a disease specific survival advantage over no local regional treatment in both subgroups (p=0.05 and p=0.02, respectively). PSA failure on endocrine therapy was

  10. Phantom study of radiation doses outside the target volume brachytherapy versus external radiotherapy of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt; Persson, Essie; Westman, Gunnar; Persliden, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Brachytherapy is sometimes suggested as an adjuvant treatment after surgery of some tumours. When introducing this, it would be useful to have an estimate of the dose distribution to different body sites, both near and distant to target, comparing conventional external irradiation to brachytherapy. The aim of the present study was to determine radiation doses with both methods at different body sites, near and distant to target, in an experimental situation on an operated left sided breast cancer on a female Alderson phantom. Methods: Five external beam treatments with isocentric tangential fields were given by a linear accelerator. A specified dose of 1.0 Gy was given to the whole left sided breast volume. Five interstitial brachytherapy treatments were given to the upper, lateral quadrant of the left breast by a two plane, 10 needles implant. A dose of 1.0 Gy specified according to the Paris system was administered by a pulsed dose rate afterloading machine. Absorbed dose in different fixed dose points were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters. Results: Both methods yielded an absorbed dose of the same size to the bone marrow and internal organs distant to target, 1.0-1.4% of the prescribed dose. There was a trend of lower doses to the lower half of the trunk and higher doses to the upper half of the trunk, respectively, by brachytherapy. A 90% reduction of absorbed dose with brachytherapy compared to external irradiation was found in the near-target region within 5 cm from target boundary where parts of the left lung and the heart are situated. If an adjuvant dose of 50 Gy is given with the external radiotherapy and brachytherapy, the absorbed dose in a part of the myocardium could be reduced from 31.8 to 2.1 Gy. Conclusions: Near target, brachytherapy yielded a considerably lower absorbed dose which is of special importance when considering radiation effects on the myocard and lungs. We could not demonstrate any difference of

  11. Modeling of beams in a treatment planning system for external radiation with the help of external tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suero Rodrigo, M. A.; Marques Fraguela, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt a statistical analysis as directed Protocol Control Systems Quality Planning Radiation Therapy published by the Spanish Society of Medical Physics. Also performed an analysis with the parameter gamma (Low et al.), Which is represented on the graph, allowing an overview of the goodness of fit intuitively.

  12. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N. [National Radiation Protection Dept. Atomic Energy Organization (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabi, M. [Intenatinal atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 {mu}R/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 {mu}R/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 {mu}R/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  13. Estimation of delivered doses to the fetus in a external radiation therapy treatment of megavoltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggeri, Ricardo M.; Mairal, Liliana; Scarabino, Mara L.; Colombo, Soledad; Sardi, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    This work, stimulated by the entrance to our radiotherapy service several cases of central nervous system injury in pregnant patients, involves the estimation of doses to the fetus from the comparative analysis and verification of theoretical and experimental data. Um phantom was designed with the pregnant morphology about 28 weeks gestation, with inserts for waterproof ionization chamber in the head and abdominal area. From the scan of the anthropomorphic phantom were reproduced in 3D planner treatments comprised of pregnant patients, estimating the dose in the lesion and at different points in the abdominal area. With the phantom in the beam of radiation treatment conditions were measured with the camera dose at the same points of the abdomen mentioned and the isocenter of the injury. The dose was also measured on surface of the abdominal area with diode array to establish correlation with the measured dose ionization chamber calibrated with water. The work provided medical radiotherapists fundamental experimental data for elevated risk assessment framework for radiation protection of the fetus. It also set the reference calibration for in vivo dosimetry in the abdominal area in pregnant patients treated for external radiotherapy. The results obtained with the implemented dosimetry design will determine the procedures that will form the operating rules institution and thus how professionals working within it

  14. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N.; Sohrabi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 μR/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 μR/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 μR/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  15. What externally presented information do VRUs require when interacting with fully Automated Road Transport Systems in shared space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Louw, Tyron; Madigan, Ruth; Wilbrink, Marc; Schieben, Anna

    2018-03-31

    As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces. This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire-based study, delivered to 664 participants, recruited during live demonstrations of an Automated Road Transport Systems (ARTS; SAE Level 4), in three European cities. The questionnaire sought the views of pedestrians and cyclists, focussing on whether respondents felt safe interacting with ARTS in shared space, and also what externally presented travel behaviour information from the ARTS was important to them. Results showed that most pedestrians felt safer when the ARTS were travelling in designated lanes, rather than in shared space, and the majority believed they had priority over the ARTS, in the absence of such infrastructure. Regardless of lane demarcations, all respondents highlighted the importance of receiving some communication information about the behaviour of the ARTS, with acknowledgement of their detection by the vehicle being the most important message. There were no clear patterns across the respondents, regarding preference of modality for these external messages, with cultural and infrastructural differences thought to govern responses. Generally, however, conventional signals (lights and beeps) were preferred to text-based messages and spoken words. The results suggest that until these driverless vehicles are able to provide universally comprehensible externally presented information or messages during interaction

  16. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shiraishi, Takahiro [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Center for Frontier Medical Engineering, Chiba University (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-07-29

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  17. Optimization of transmission-scan time for the FixER method: a MR-based PET attenuation correction with a weak fixed-position external radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Kershaw, Jeff; Yoshida, Eiji; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Suga, Mikio; Obata, Takayuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-01-01

    In recent work, we proposed an MRI-based attenuation-coefficient (μ-value) estimation method that uses a weak fixed-position external radiation source to construct an attenuation map for PET/MRI. In this presentation we refer to this method as FixER, and perform a series of simulations to investigate the duration of the transmission scan required to accurately estimate μ-values.

  18. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  19. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  20. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  1. Impact of cradle immobilization on setup reproducibility during external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Krishnamurthy, Rupa

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the setup accuracy during fractionated radiation therapy for two patient groups with lung cancer treated with and without an immobilization cradle. Methods: Three hundred ninety-seven port films from 30 patients immobilized in the Alpha Cradle TM1 were compared with 329 port films from 30 patients who were not immobilized with the cradle. All patients were treated with curative intent for nonmetastatic lung cancer. The frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts were compared in the two groups using a two-tailed chi-square test. Initial port films taken on the first day of treatment, routine films taken usually weekly during radiation therapy, and requested films taken after a requested shift were considered separately. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made foam cradle that extended from above the head to the knees. Patients were generally treated with their arms above their heads, and treatment setup marks in the immobilized patients were placed on both the patients' skin and the immobilization cradle. For the noncradle patients, setup marks were placed only on the patients' skin. Results: For the routine films, the frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts was lower in immobilized patients than in the nonimmobilized group (p = 0.139). Most of this reduction was seen on oblique fields (p = 0.038). No benefits were seen among initial or requested films. The two groups were well balanced with regard to stage, age, field size, and total dose. Conclusions: The use of aggressive immobilization improves the setup reproducibility in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer, especially during treatment with oblique fields. This improvement in treatment accuracy might improve the therapeutic ratio

  2. External-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer. Long-term outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, C.V.; Calvo, F.A.; Lozano, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sansegundo, C.; Gonzalez-Bayon, L.; Alvarez, A.; Lizarraga, S.; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors in patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer (ORGC). From January 1995 to December 2012, 61 patients with ORGC [uterine cervix (52 %), endometrial (30 %), ovarian (15 %), vagina (3 %)] underwent IOERT (12.5 Gy, range 10-15 Gy), and surgical resection to the pelvic (57 %) and paraaortic (43 %) recurrence tumor bed. In addition, 29 patients (48 %) also received EBRT (range 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 42 months (range 2-169 months). The 10-year rates for overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) were 17 and 65 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no tumor fragmentation (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), time interval from primary tumor diagnosis to locoregional recurrence (LRR) < 24 months (HR 4.02; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.95; p = 0.02) retained significance with regard to LRR. Time interval from primary tumor to LRR < 24 months (HR 2.32; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.77; p = 0.04) showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. External-beam radiation therapy at the time of pelvic recurrence, time interval for relapse ≥24 months and not multi-involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with ORGC. As suggested from the present analysis a significant group of ORGC patients could potentially benefit from multimodality rescue treatment. (orig.)

  3. External-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer. Long-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, C.V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Radiomedicina, Service of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, F.A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lozano, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sansegundo, C. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Bayon, L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lizarraga, S. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The goal of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors in patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer (ORGC). From January 1995 to December 2012, 61 patients with ORGC [uterine cervix (52 %), endometrial (30 %), ovarian (15 %), vagina (3 %)] underwent IOERT (12.5 Gy, range 10-15 Gy), and surgical resection to the pelvic (57 %) and paraaortic (43 %) recurrence tumor bed. In addition, 29 patients (48 %) also received EBRT (range 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 42 months (range 2-169 months). The 10-year rates for overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) were 17 and 65 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no tumor fragmentation (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), time interval from primary tumor diagnosis to locoregional recurrence (LRR) < 24 months (HR 4.02; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.95; p = 0.02) retained significance with regard to LRR. Time interval from primary tumor to LRR < 24 months (HR 2.32; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.77; p = 0.04) showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. External-beam radiation therapy at the time of pelvic recurrence, time interval for relapse ≥24 months and not multi-involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with ORGC. As suggested from the present analysis a significant group of ORGC patients could potentially benefit from multimodality rescue treatment. (orig.)

  4. Present status of radiation treatment of animal feeds in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Iizuka, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the studies in Japan on the irradiation of laboratory animal diets and farm animal feedstuffs. From the microbiological inactivation curve of laboratory animal diets, the irradiation doses of 2.5 approximately 3.5 Mrad seem to be suitable for sterilization of animal diets. The absence of toxic effects on animals can be demonstrated by feeding studies. The elimination of salmonellae and other species of Enterobacteriaceae in feedstuffs could be achieved by irradiation with 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. The growth of moulds in feeds would not occur at this dose level. However, an adverse effect is observed on chicks fed with fatty diet irradiated at 3 and 6 Mrad. It is suggested that a promising application of radiation treatment to the feeding of farm animals is irradiation at low dose levels of 0.5 approximately 0.6 Mrad. (author)

  5. Noninvasive referencing of intraocular tumors for external beam radiation therapy using optical coherence tomography: A proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Steiner, Patrick; Kowal, Jens H.; Geiser, Dominik; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy is currently considered the most common treatment modality for intraocular tumors. Localization of the tumor and efficient compensation of tumor misalignment with respect to the radiation beam are crucial. According to the state of the art procedure, localization of the target volume is indirectly performed by the invasive surgical implantation of radiopaque clips or is limited to positioning the head using stereoscopic radiographies. This work represents a proof-of-concept for direct and noninvasive tumor referencing based on anterior eye topography acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A prototype of a head-mounted device has been developed for automatic monitoring of tumor position and orientation in the isocentric reference frame for LINAC based treatment of intraocular tumors. Noninvasive tumor referencing is performed with six degrees of freedom based on anterior eye topography acquired using OCT and registration of a statistical eye model. The proposed prototype was tested based on enucleated pig eyes and registration accuracy was measured by comparison of the resulting transformation with tilt and torsion angles manually induced using a custom-made test bench. Results: Validation based on 12 enucleated pig eyes revealed an overall average registration error of 0.26 ± 0.08° in 87 ± 0.7 ms for tilting and 0.52 ± 0.03° in 94 ± 1.4 ms for torsion. Furthermore, dependency of sampling density on mean registration error was quantitatively assessed. Conclusions: The tumor referencing method presented in combination with the statistical eye model introduced in the past has the potential to enable noninvasive treatment and may improve quality, efficacy, and flexibility of external beam radiotherapy of intraocular tumors

  6. [External cephalic version for breech presentation at term: an effective procedure to reduce the caesarean section rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojacono, A; Donarini, G; Valcamonico, A; Soregaroli, M; Frusca, T

    2003-12-01

    Although term breech presentation is a relatively rare condition (3-5% of all births), it continues to be an important indication for caesarean section and has contributed to its increased use. Risk of complications may be increased for both mother and foetus in such a situation. Vaginal delivery of a breech presenting foetus is complex and may involve many difficulties, so today there is a general consensus that planned caesarean section is better than planned vaginal birth for the foetus in breech presentation at term. External cephalic version is one of the most effective procedures in modern obstetrics. It involves the external manipulation of the foetus from the breech into the cephalic presentation. A successful manoeuvre can decrease costs by avoiding operative deliveries and decreasing maternal morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this obstetric manoeuvre to increase the proportion of vertex presentation among foetuses that were formerly in the breech position near term, so as to reduce the caesarean section rate. The safety of the version is also showed. From 1999 to 2002, 89 women with foetal breech presentation underwent external cephalic version at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Brescia University. The gestational age was 36.8+/-0.8 weeks. The following variables have been taken into consideration: breech variety, placental location, foetal back position, parity, amount of amniotic fluid and gestational age. Every attempt was performed with a prior use of an intravenous drip of Ritodrine, and foetal heart rate was monitored continuously with cardiotocogram. The success rate of the procedure was 42.7% (n=38). No maternal or foetal complication or side effects occurred, both during and after the manoeuvre, except a transient foetal bradycardia that resolved spontaneously. Only one spontaneous reversion of the foetus occurred before delivery. Of all the women that underwent a successful version

  7. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wijnmaalen (Arendjan); P.A. Helle (Peter); P.C.M. Koper (Peter); P.P. Jansen (Peter); P. Hanssens (Patrick); C.G.G. Boeken Kruger (Cornelis); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate the results of transurethral resection (TUR), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and interstitial radiation (IRT) with iridium-192, using the afterloading technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: From May 1989 until September

  8. ACR Appropriateness Criteria for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer, part II of II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: External beam radiation is a key component of the curative management of T1 and T2 prostate cancer. By combining the most recent medical literature, these Appropriateness Criteria can aid clinicians in determining the appropriate treatment delivery and personalized approaches for individual patients.

  9. Amnioinfusion for women with a singleton breech presentation and a previous failed external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diguisto, Caroline; Winer, Norbert; Descriaud, Celine; Tavernier, Elsa; Weymuller, Victoire; Giraudeau, Bruno; Perrotin, Franck

    2018-04-01

    Our trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of amnioinfusion for a second attempt at external cephalic version (ECV). This open randomized controlled trial was planned with a sequential design. Women at a term ≥36 weeks of gestation with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a first unsuccessful ECV were recruited in two level-3 maternity units. They were randomly allocated to transabdominal amnioinfusion with a 500-mL saline solution under ultrasound surveillance or no amnioinfusion before the second ECV attempt. Trained senior obstetricians performed all procedures. The primary outcome was the cephalic presentation rate at delivery. Analyses were conducted according to intention to treat (NCT00465712). Recruitment difficulties led to stopping the trial after a 57-month period, 119 women were randomized: 59 allocated to amnioinfusion + ECV and 60 to ECV only. Data were analyzed without applying the sequential feature of the design. The rate of cephalic presentation at delivery did not differ significantly according to whether the second version attempt was or was not preceded by amnioinfusion (20 versus 12%, p = .20). Premature rupture of the membranes occurred for 15% of the women in the amnioinfusion group. Amnioinfusion before a second attempt to external version does not significantly increase the rate of cephalic presentation at delivery.

  10. Characteristics of silicon diodes as patient dosemeters in external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, B.; Sorcini, B.

    1988-01-01

    Silicon diodes connected to an integrating instrument that are used to measure the entrance dose on patients undergoing radiation therapy have been investigated with special emphasis on practical clinical aspects. The variation of the diode response for different photon qualities with different field sizes and different irradiation situations including oblique fields, wedges, blocking filters giving different electron contamination have been measured. The diode response for the different situations met in clinical practice when using various electron energies have also been examined. The results from measurements for patients treated with high energy are presented. The study has shown that if the mean value of all measured entrance doses with the diode on a patient differ more than ±3% from the presented absorbed dose for 60 Co gamma radiation, a correction of the given dose should be made. The corresponding figure for high energy X-rays is ±5%. 23 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  11. Survival rate of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer without early postoperative external radiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saur, H.B.; Lerch, H.; Schober, O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of survival rates in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison with a review of literature are given. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid (354 female, 110 male, range: 6 to 84 years, median: 46.8 years; 275 patients with papillary and 190 with follicular cancer) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with ablative doses of radioiodine after thyroidectomy including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy in 27 patients. All patients passed an individual systematic follow-up according to risk: 'Low risk' pT≤3NxM0 vs. 'high risk' pT4 and/or M1. Early postoperative radiation was not included even in patients with local invasion (pT4). The corrected 5- and 10-year survival rates for papillary cancer are 0.91 and 0.91, for follicular cancer 0.94 resp. 0.78 (p=0.55), age (≤40 years 0.96 and 0.96, >40 years 0.90 and 0.80; p=0.008), gender (female 0.93 and 0.92, male 0.90 and 0.70; p=0.06) and invasion/distant metastases (pT4 and/or M1 0.83 and 0.71, other 0.97 and 0.97; p=0.0001). A systematic follow-up with an individually adapted standardized scheme is associated with high survival rates in patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Early diagnosis of recurrences, locoregional lymph node and distant metastases with early surgical treatment including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy and radioiodine therapy yield high survival even without external radiation. (orig./MG) [de

  12. The relationship between technical parameters of external beam radiation therapy and complications for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Keishiro

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to review retrospectively the clinical course of chronic rectal bleeding as a complication of external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer and to analyze the relationship between technical parameters of radiation therapy and the complications. Seventy-one patients with stages A2, B and C were treated with local-field radiotherapy (total dose 52.5-66 Gy, daily dose 2.0-3.28 Gy, field area 30-81 cm 2 , number of fields 3-15 ports, planning simulations X-ray or CT-based) between 1989 and 1998 at three institutions. The protocols were consistent during this same period at these institutions. Multivariate analysis revealed pretreatment PSA and Gleason sum to be statistically significant predictors of 5 year prostatic specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free rates in a median follow-up period of 42 months (range 12-119 months). The significant risk factors for higher grading of acute morbidity were a biological equivalent dose, α/β=10 (BED 10 ) ≥65 Gy, dose per fraction ≥3.0 Gy, field area ≥42 cm 2 , fewer ports and X-ray planning simulation. However, no parameter was associated with higher grading of late morbidity. Eleven patients (15.4%) experienced a late GI complication: grade 1 (4.2%), grade 2 (9.8%), grade 3 (1.4%). The median time to occurrence of rectal bleeding was 12 months after radiotherapy and the mean duration of morbidity was 11 months. Higher total dose and dose per fraction, larger field area, fewer ports and X-ray simulation increased the grades of acute morbidity. A majority of chronic rectal bleedings were transient and responded to conservative treatment. (author)

  13. Radiation optic neuropathy after megavoltage external-beam irradiation: Analysis of time-dose factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, J.T.; Bova, F.J.; Million, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy according to total radiotherapy dose and fraction size, based on both retrospective and prospectively collected data. Between October 1964 and May 1989, 215 optic nerves in 131 patients received fractionated external-beam irradiation during the treatment of primary extracranial head and neck tumors. All patients had a minimum of 3 years of ophthalmologic follow-up (range, 3 to 21 years). The clinical end point was visual acuity of 20/100 or worse as a result of optic nerve injury. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy developed in five nerves (at mean and median times of 32 and 30 months, respectively, and a range of 2-4 years). Retrobulbar optic neuropathy developed in 12 nerves (at mean and median times of 47 and 28 months, respectively, and a range of 1-14 years). No injuries were observed in 106 optic nerves that received a total dose of <59 Gy. Among nerves that received doses of ≥ 60 Gy, the dose per fraction was more important than the total dose in producing optic neuropathy. The 15-year actuarial risk of optic compared with 47% when given in fraction sizes ≥1.9 Gy. The data also suggest an increased risk of optic nerve injury with increasing age. As there is no effective treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy, efforts should be directed at its prevention by minimizing the total dose, paying attention to the dose per fraction to the nerve, and using reduced field techniques where appropriate to limit the volume of tissues that receive high-dose irradiation. 32 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer in Patients in Whom External Beam Radiation Is Not Possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtgar, Mohammed R.S.; Vaidya, Jayant S.; Tobias, Jeffrey S.; Wenz, Frederik; Joseph, David; Stacey, Chris; Metaxas, Marinos G.; Keller, Anke; Corica, Tammy; Williams, Norman R.; Baum, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following wide local excision of the primary tumor is the standard treatment in early breast cancer. In some circumstances this procedure is not possible or is contraindicated or difficult. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) when EBRT is not feasible. Methods and Materials: We report our experience with TARGIT in three centers (Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom) between 1999 and 2008. Patients at these centers received a single radiation dose of 20 Gy to the breast tissue in contact with the applicator (or 6 Gy at 1-cm distance), as they could not be given EBRT and were keen to avoid mastectomy. Results: Eighty patients were treated with TARGIT. Reasons for using TARGIT were 21 patients had previously received EBRT, and 31 patients had clinical reasons such as systemic lupus erythematosus, motor neuron disease, Parkinson's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, morbid obesity, and cardiovascular or severe respiratory disease. Three of these patients received percutaneous radiotherapy without surgery; 28 patients were included for compelling personal reasons, usually on compassionate grounds. After a median follow-up of 38 months, only two local recurrences were observed, an annual local recurrence rate of 0.75% (95% confidence interval, 0.09%-2.70%). Conclusions: While we await the results of the randomized trial (over 2,000 patients have already been recruited), TARGIT is an acceptable option but only in highly selected cases that cannot be recruited in the trial and in whom EBRT is not feasible/possible.

  15. Predictors of success of external cephalic version and cephalic presentation at birth among 1253 women with non-cephalic presentation using logistic regression and classification tree analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Eileen K; Simioni, Julia C; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-08-01

    Among women with a fetus with a non-cephalic presentation, external cephalic version (ECV) has been shown to reduce the rate of breech presentation at birth and cesarean birth. Compared with ECV at term, beginning ECV prior to 37 weeks' gestation decreases the number of infants in a non-cephalic presentation at birth. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate factors associated with a successful ECV procedure and to present this in a clinically useful format. Data were collected as part of the Early ECV Pilot and Early ECV2 Trials, which randomized 1776 women with a fetus in breech presentation to either early ECV (34-36 weeks' gestation) or delayed ECV (at or after 37 weeks). The outcome of interest was successful ECV, defined as the fetus being in a cephalic presentation immediately following the procedure, as well as at the time of birth. The importance of several factors in predicting successful ECV was investigated using two statistical methods: logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses. Among nulliparas, non-engagement of the presenting part and an easily palpable fetal head were independently associated with success. Among multiparas, non-engagement of the presenting part, gestation less than 37 weeks and an easily palpable fetal head were found to be independent predictors of success. These findings were consistent with results of the CART analyses. Regardless of parity, descent of the presenting part was the most discriminating factor in predicting successful ECV and cephalic presentation at birth. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Implication of new CEC recommendations for individual monitoring for external radiation doses to the skin and the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.; Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.

    1991-01-01

    A drafting group consisting of the above authors has assisted the CEC in revising the CEC document Technical Recommendations for Monitoring the Exposure to Individuals to External Radiation, EUR 5287, published in 1975. The paper highlights sections of the revised version relating particularly to irradiation of the skin and the extremities and focusses on problems connected to exposure to weakly penetrating radiations. Concepts of individual monitoring for external radiation exposures to the skin of the whole body and to the extremities are discussed and guidance is given as regards dose quantities and dosemeter calibration procedures. A method of quantifying the overall accuracy of the dose measurements as a result of the various uncertainty components connected with the dosimetry system is suggested and requirements on the accuracy of the dose measurements complying with the ICRP requirements on overall accuracy for individual monitoring are specified. Moreover, implications of the accuracy requirements for the design and type testing of the dosemeter are discussed. (author)

  17. External radiation dose from patients received diagnostic doses of 201 T1-Chloride and 99 Tc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadashzadeh, S.; Sattari, A.; Nasiroghli, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Patients receiving diagnostic doses of radiopharmaceuticals become a source of contamination and exposure for those who come in contact with them, such as nuclear medicine technologists, relatives and nurses. Therefore, the measurement of external radiation dose from these patients is necessary. In this study, the dose rates at distances of 10, 50 and 100 cm from 70 patients who received diagnostic amounts of 201 T1-Chloride and 99 Tc-MIBI was measures. The results showed that the maximum external radiation dose rates for 201 T1 and 99 Tc-MIBI were 18.4 and 75.0 μ Sv.h -1 , respectively, at 5 cm distance from the patients. The average radiation dose received by nuclear medicine technologists, considering their close contact during one working day was 12.5 ± 3.4μ Sv. The highest received dose was 22.7 μSv, which was well below the acceptable dose limit

  18. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  19. Conventional external beam radiation therapy and high dose rate afterloading brachytherapy as a boost for patients older than 70 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Salvajoli, Joao Vitor; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Ferrigno, Robson

    2005-01-01

    The treatment options for patients with non metastatic prostate cancer range from observation, radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy to various combination of some to all of them. Objective: we evaluated the impact on biochemical control of disease (bNED), acute and late intestinal (GI) and urological (GU) morbidity for a group of patients older than 70 years presenting initial or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) as a boost to conventional external beam radiation therapy (RT) at the Department of Radiation Oncology from Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: a total of 56 patients older than 70 were treated from March, 1997 to June, 2002. All patients had prior to HDRB a course of RT to a median dose of 45 Gy. HDRB doses ranged from 16 Gy to 20 Gy, given in 4 fractions. Results: the median age of the patients was 74.4 years (range 70-83) and the median follow-up 33 months (range 24 to 60). The 5-year actuarial bNED rate was 77%. Acute GU and GI morbidity G1-2 were seen in 17.8% and 7.1% of patients, respectively. Late G1 or G2 GU morbidity was seen in 10.7% of the patients, while late G3 morbidity was observed in 7.1% of the patients, represented by urethral strictures. Conclusion: this group of patients had similar bNED rates when compared to literature, with acceptable morbidity rates. (author)

  20. Consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness induced by external γ-rays(50 years of clinical follow-up)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, Nadezhda D.; Sumina, Margarita V.; Pesternikova, Valentina S.

    2002-01-01

    Health was analyzed for 673 workers of the first Russian nuclear facility. These nuclear workers had CRS induced by external overall exposure to γ -rays in high doses (total, 1.0-9.76 Gy). The study was focused on evaluation of the post-exposure recovery in most radiosensitive systems and organs, consequences and outcomes of chronic radiation sickness (CRS). The complex evaluation of peripheral blood data and results of bone marrow studies revealed a moderately pronounced bone marrow hypoplasia for 2% of cases and partial hypoplasia of granulocytopoiesis for 4.9% of cases (most patients aged over 70). The changes were clinically compensated and did not require any special treatment. Chromosome aberrations in somatic cells are still indicators of radiation past-exposures; their frequency has a correlation with total dose and 239 Pu incorporation. No high incidence of complications such as cerebrovasciular diseases (CVD) was revealed for CRS patients with high doses (total dose exceeded 4.0 Gy, maximum annual dose exceeded 2.0 Gy) and clinical symptoms of the early (up to 45 years) cerebral atherosclerosis (CAS). The retrospective analysis of clinical data for 370 CRS cases registered during 1950-60ss among workers with lower doses indicated that the moderately pronounced symptoms of CRS were formed at dose not less than 1.4 Gy accumulated during the first 1-2 years of work and annual dose, 0.73 Gy. Cardiovascular diseases prevailed followed by malignant neoplasms in the structure of death causes during 50 years of follow-up. Presented results for the cohort of individuals exposed in high doses can be used in health examination of those, who were involved in radiation accidents or exposure incidents

  1. PSA bounces after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and external beam radiation: Impact on definitions of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietman, Anthony L.; Christodouleas, John P.; Shipley, William U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounces after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and their impact on definitions of biochemical failure. Methods and Materials: Characteristics of bounce were calculated for all patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant androgen deprivation at our institution between 1992 and 1998 (preexclusion analysis). Calculations were repeated for the subgroup that satisfied additional inclusion/exclusion criteria (postexclusion analysis). The percentage of bounces scoring as false positives according to the ASTRO definition of biochemical failure was compared with those for three alternative definitions (Vancouver, Nadir-plus-two, and Nadir-plus-three) using McNemar's tests. Results: Thirty-nine percent (preexclusion cohort) and 56% (postexclusion cohort) of patients demonstrated a PSA bounce. Twenty percent (preexclusion analysis) and 25% (postexclusion analysis) of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition scored the smallest percentage of bounces as failure, but the difference between this definition and the ASTRO definition reached statistical significance in neither preexclusion nor postexclusion analyses (p ≥ 0.070). Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients treated by EBRT with neoadjuvant deprivation experienced a PSA bounce. A large percentage of these bounces scored as biochemical failure according to the ASTRO definition. The Nadir-plus-three definition is less vulnerable to this bias

  2. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  3. The role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Choi, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Sik [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on local failure-free survival rate (LFFS) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) invading the trachea. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced PTC invading the trachea were treated with surgical resection. After surgery, 21 patients received adjuvant EBRT and radioactive iodine therapy (EBRT group) and 35 patients were treated with radioactive iodine therapy (control group). The age range was 26–87 years (median, 56 years). The median follow-up period was 43 months (range, 4 to 145 months). EBRT doses ranged from 50.4 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Esophagus invasion and gross residual disease was more frequent in the EBRT group. In the control group, local recurrence developed in 9 (9/35, 26%) and new distant metastasis in 2 (2/35, 6%) patients, occurring 4 to 68 months (median, 37 months) and 53 to 68 months (median, 60 months) after surgery, respectively. Two patients had simultaneous local recurrence and new distant metastasis. There was one local failure in the EBRT group at 18 months after surgery (1/21, 5%). The 5-year LFFS was 95% in the EBRT group and 63% in the control group (p = 0.103). In the EBRT group, one late grade 2 xerostomia was developed. Although, EBRT group had a higher incidence of esophagus invasion and gross residual disease, EBRT group showed a better 5-year LFFS. Adjuvant EBRT may have contributed to the better LFFS in these patients.

  4. Automatic analysis of image quality control for Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) devices in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf

    2009-01-01

    On-board imagers mounted on a radiotherapy treatment machine are very effective devices that improve the geometric accuracy of radiation delivery. However, a precise and regular quality control program is required in order to achieve this objective. Our purpose consisted of developing software tools dedicated to an automatic image quality control of IGRT devices used in external radiotherapy: 2D-MV mode for measuring patient position during the treatment using high energy images, 2D-kV mode (low energy images) and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) MV or kV mode, used for patient positioning before treatment. Automated analysis of the Winston and Lutz test was also proposed. This test is used for the evaluation of the mechanical aspects of treatment machines on which additional constraints are carried out due to the on-board imagers additional weights. Finally, a technique of generating digital phantoms in order to assess the performance of the proposed software tools is described. Software tools dedicated to an automatic quality control of IGRT devices allow reducing by a factor of 100 the time spent by the medical physics team to analyze the results of controls while improving their accuracy by using objective and reproducible analysis and offering traceability through generating automatic monitoring reports and statistical studies. (author) [fr

  5. A novel coaxial Ku-band transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu, E-mail: lingjunpu@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Jiang, Tao [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel coaxial transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field is designed to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. By using a coaxial structure, the space-charge potential energy is suppressed significantly, that is good for enhancing efficient beam-wave interaction. In order to improve the transmission stability of the unmagnetized intense relativistic electron beam, a Pierce-like cathode is employed in the novel device. By contrast with conventional relativistic microwave generators, this kind of device has the advantages of high stability, non-guiding magnetic field, and high efficiency. Moreover, with the coaxial design, it is possible to improve the power-handing capacity by increasing the radial dimension of the Ku-band device. With a 550 keV and 7.5 kA electron beam, a 1.25 GW microwave pulse at 12.08 GHz has been obtained in the simulation. The power conversion efficiency is about 30%.

  6. A Case of First Branchial Cleft Fistula Presenting with an External Opening on the Root of the Helical Crus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background First branchial cleft anomalies (FBCA) are rare clinical entities of the head and neck. Typically, the tract of the FBCA begins in the external auditory canal and ends in the postauricular or submandibular region. Case Presentation We present a case of a 23-year-old man who had a first branchial cleft fistula with atypical opening on the root of the helical crus. Complete excision of the tract, including the cuff of surrounding cartilage, was performed. Histopathology revealed a fistular tract lined with squamous epithelium. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported of type I FBCA with an opening on the root of the helical crus. The low incidence and varied presentation often result in misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Conclusions In the patients with FBCA, careful recognition of atypical variants is essential for complete excision. PMID:29560006

  7. Contemporary Toxicity Profile of Breast Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation After Lumpectomy for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Jinhai; Giordano, Sharon H.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Smith, Grace L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We compared toxicities after brachytherapy versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in contemporary breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan healthcare claims, we identified 64,112 women treated from 2003 to 2012 with lumpectomy followed by radiation (brachytherapy vs EBRT). Brachytherapy was further classified by multichannel versus single-channel applicator approach. We identified the risks and predictors of 1-year infectious and noninfectious postoperative adverse events using logistic regression and temporal trends using Cochran-Armitage tests. We estimated the 5-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence of radiation-associated adverse events. Results: A total of 4522 (7.1%) patients received brachytherapy (50.2% multichannel vs 48.7% single-channel applicator). The overall risk of infectious adverse events was higher after brachytherapy than after EBRT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.34, P<.001). However, over time, the frequency of infectious adverse events after brachytherapy decreased, from 17.3% in 2003 to 11.6% in 2012, and was stable after EBRT at 9.7%. Beyond 2007, there were no longer excess infections with brachytherapy (P=.97). The overall risk of noninfectious adverse events was higher after brachytherapy than after EBRT (OR=2.27; 95% CI 2.09-2.47, P<.0001). Over time, the frequency of noninfectious adverse events detected increased: after multichannel brachytherapy, from 9.1% in 2004 to 18.9% in 2012 (Ptrend = .64); single-channel brachytherapy, from 12.8% to 29.8% (Ptrend<.001); and EBRT, from 6.1% to 10.3% (Ptrend<.0001). The risk was significantly higher with single-channel than with multichannel brachytherapy (hazard ratio = 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.69, P=.03). Of noninfectious adverse events, 70.9% were seroma. Seroma significantly increased breast pain risk (P<.0001). Patients with underlying diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and treatment with chemotherapy had increased

  8. Safety of {sup 90}Y Radioembolization in Patients Who Have Undergone Previous External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Abdelmaksoud, Mohamed H.K. [Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T.; Eclov, Neville C.; Chung, Melody P.; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Louie, John D. [Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Division of Interventional Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Previous external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is theoretically contraindicated for yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) radioembolization (RE) because the liver has a lifetime tolerance to radiation before becoming vulnerable to radiation-induced liver disease. We analyzed the safety of RE as salvage treatment in patients who had previously undergone EBRT. Methods and Materials: Between June 2004 and December 2010, a total of 31 patients who had previously undergone EBRT were treated with RE. Three-dimensional treatment planning with dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the liver was used to calculate the EBRT liver dose. Liver-related toxicities including RE-induced liver disease (REILD) were reviewed and classified according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.02. Results: The mean EBRT and RE liver doses were 4.40 Gy (range, 0-23.13 Gy) and 57.9 Gy (range, 27.0-125.9 Gy), respectively. Patients who experienced hepatotoxicity (≥grade2; n=12) had higher EBRT mean liver doses (7.96 ± 8.55 Gy vs 1.62 ± 3.39 Gy; P=.037), the only independent predictor in multivariate analysis. DVH analysis showed that the fraction of liver exposed to ≥30 Gy (V30) was the strongest predictor of hepatotoxicity (10.14% ± 12.75% vs 0.84% ± 3.24%; P=.006). All patients with V30 >13% experienced hepatotoxicity. Fatal REILD (n=2) occurred at the 2 highest EBRT mean liver doses (20.9 Gy and 23.1 Gy) but also at the highest cumulative liver doses (91.8 Gy and 149 Gy). Conclusions: Prior exposure of the liver to EBRT may lead to increased liver toxicity after RE treatment, depending on fractional liver exposure and dose level. The V30 was the strongest predictor of toxicity. RE appears to be safe for the treatment of hepatic malignancies only in patients who have had limited hepatic exposure to prior EBRT.

  9. Contemporary Toxicity Profile of Breast Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation After Lumpectomy for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Jinhai [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Giordano, Sharon H. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D. [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Grace L., E-mail: glsmith@mdanderson.org [Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: We compared toxicities after brachytherapy versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in contemporary breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using MarketScan healthcare claims, we identified 64,112 women treated from 2003 to 2012 with lumpectomy followed by radiation (brachytherapy vs EBRT). Brachytherapy was further classified by multichannel versus single-channel applicator approach. We identified the risks and predictors of 1-year infectious and noninfectious postoperative adverse events using logistic regression and temporal trends using Cochran-Armitage tests. We estimated the 5-year Kaplan-Meier cumulative incidence of radiation-associated adverse events. Results: A total of 4522 (7.1%) patients received brachytherapy (50.2% multichannel vs 48.7% single-channel applicator). The overall risk of infectious adverse events was higher after brachytherapy than after EBRT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.34, P<.001). However, over time, the frequency of infectious adverse events after brachytherapy decreased, from 17.3% in 2003 to 11.6% in 2012, and was stable after EBRT at 9.7%. Beyond 2007, there were no longer excess infections with brachytherapy (P=.97). The overall risk of noninfectious adverse events was higher after brachytherapy than after EBRT (OR=2.27; 95% CI 2.09-2.47, P<.0001). Over time, the frequency of noninfectious adverse events detected increased: after multichannel brachytherapy, from 9.1% in 2004 to 18.9% in 2012 (Ptrend = .64); single-channel brachytherapy, from 12.8% to 29.8% (Ptrend<.001); and EBRT, from 6.1% to 10.3% (Ptrend<.0001). The risk was significantly higher with single-channel than with multichannel brachytherapy (hazard ratio = 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.69, P=.03). Of noninfectious adverse events, 70.9% were seroma. Seroma significantly increased breast pain risk (P<.0001). Patients with underlying diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and treatment with chemotherapy had increased

  10. Radiology and radiation protection. Present-day problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, L.

    1978-01-01

    With the development of nuclear energy the present-day problems of radioprotection are studied in the light of new radiobiological knowledge. The following points are analysed in turn: radioprotection norms, the notion of acceptable risk; influence of dose rate and fractionation; the low-dose problem; relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and quality factor (Q.F.); the biological problem of long-term effects. The genetic risk due to accepted radioprotection norms is estimated. The part played by radioprotection organisations is underlined, with emphasis on the fact that radioactivity is the most strictly and effectively regulated of all industrial inconveniences. It is pointed out that medical irradiation is not subject to the legislations and regulations listed [fr

  11. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  12. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  13. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The authors determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentally exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individuals more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the above literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. The authors computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. The small number of cancers in the exposed population and the influence of increased levels of TSH, nonuniform irradiation of the thyroid, and thyroid cell killing at high dose make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from these studies. 14 references, 8 tables

  15. Efficacy of external fractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of meningiomas: a 20-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourel, Nicolas; Auque, Jean; Bracard, Serge; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Vignaud, Jean-Michek; Bey, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Background: This is a retrospective analysis of a series of meningiomas treated by radiotherapy. Materials and methods: From 1978 to 1997, 45 patients with intracranial meningiomas were referred for external fractionated radiotherapy at Centre Alexis Vautrin. All patients were given 50-70 Gy to the tumor bed (median: 56 Gy), 1.8-2 Gy per fraction. Results: Evaluation was performed in June 1999 using the Kaplan-Meyer actuarial method with a median follow-up of 30 months (range: 1-166), relapse-free survivals (RFSs) were 75% at 5 years and 67% at 8 years; overall survival (OS) was 74% at 5 and 8 years. For the 26 benign histologically documented lesions, RFSs were 95% at 5 years and 81% at 8 years; OS was 85% at 5 and 8 years. One major radiation-induced complication occurred in this series (decline of cognitive function). According to the indication of radiotherapy, we divided the series into four groups: postoperative irradiation after a first subtotal resection (11 patients), 5-year RFS was 90%; after first recurrence (±salvage surgery, 14 patients), 73%; after further recurrence (±salvage surgery, 11 patients), 67%; as exclusive treatment (nine patients), 80%. Atypical and malignant lesions (n=7) all relapsed before 24 months of follow-up, all patients but one died before 42 months. Age at the time of irradiation (≥60 vs. <60 years) and radiotherapy dose (≥60 vs. <60 Gy) did not influence local control or OS. Atypical and malignant lesions (WHO grades II and III) meningiomas had a worse outcome than benign lesions (WHO grade I, P<0.01). Conclusions: These results compare favorably with previously published data. External fractionated radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective. There is still a debate about the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of meningiomas: after subtotal resection, should radiotherapy be given postoperatively or at the time of progression? Should radiotherapy replace surgery when the risk of postoperative sequellae is high

  16. Evaluation of personal dose equivalent 'HP(d)' in a external individual monitoring system for X and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, C.; Antonio Filho, J.; Santos, M.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The good of individual monitoring for external radiation is the assessment of occupational exposure from X and γ radiations in order to assure that the radiological conditions of the workplace are acceptable, safe and satisfactory. The evaluation of radiations doses for workers must not exceed dose limits specified for workers, according to national regulatory agencies. Nowadays, there are two external monitoring systems in use, both based on ICRU definitions. In the conventional system, the workers doses are evaluated in terms of Hx. The personal dosimeter is worn over chest surface and it is calibrated in function of air kerma. In the new system, the workers doses are evaluated in terms of HP(d) and the personal dosimeter is calibrated in function of phantom doses. The aim of this paper is to adapt an external dosimetry laboratory (based on photographic dosimetry) to evaluate the personal dosimeters in terms of HP(d). In this way, a simple methodology, based on linear programming, was utilized. In this adaptation, calibration curves were obtained for radiation qualities (W and N series) described by International Organization for Standardization (ISO 4037-1, 1995). These calibration curves offer a better accuracy on dose determinations and energy below 140 keV, improving the quality of service rendered the society. (author)

  17. Survey and evaluation of the external research and development programme 1977-1983 of the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the external research programme of SSI is undertaken. The main research programme is in this report divided into five subprogrammes according to the main programmes of the Institute. This report covers research projects reported 1977-1983. An evaluation of the impact of the R and D programme is included in the report. The external R and D research programme of SSI has had an important impact on the radiation protection work in Sweden. The methods for evaluation of research programmes are also discussed in the report

  18. [External cephalic version in case of persisting breech presentation at term: motivations and women's experience of the intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, M; Guittier, M-J; Irion, O; Boulvain, M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of external cephalic version (ECV). From 2004 to 2008, 212 pregnant women between 34-37 weeks of gestation with fetus in breech presentation were included in a randomized clinical trial and 125 externals cephalic versions were studied. A success rate of 37.6%t was recorded. At 34 weeks of gestation, 80.6% of women were considering an ECV in the event of persistent breech position at 37 weeks. These women expressed the desire to give birth vaginally (52% versus 24.4%, P<0.001). In contrast, others women preferred an elective cesarean section to avoid the risk of a breech vaginal delivery. Women felt pain during the ECV and scored 60 on average using the analogical visual scale. Women rated on a verbal rating scale the ECV as severely painful to unbearable (68%), and as stressful (70%). Despite this, the majority of women would recommend ECV to their friends or would be willing to repeat it for themselves. ECV remains a scary and painful medical procedure. More research is needed to reduce the impact. The use of analgesic medication for this indication is controversial. Hypnosis could be an alternative to evaluate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Summary and recommendations of a National Cancer Institute workshop on issues limiting the clinical use of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms for megavoltage external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Smathers, James; Deye, James

    2003-01-01

    Due to the significant interest in Monte Carlo dose calculations for external beam megavoltage radiation therapy from both the research and commercial communities, a workshop was held in October 2001 to assess the status of this computational method with regard to use for clinical treatment planning. The Radiation Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, in conjunction with the Nuclear Data and Analysis Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, gathered a group of experts in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning and Monte Carlo dose calculations, and examined issues involved in clinical implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in clinical radiotherapy. The workshop examined the current status of Monte Carlo algorithms, the rationale for using Monte Carlo, algorithmic concerns, clinical issues, and verification methodologies. Based on these discussions, the workshop developed recommendations for future NCI-funded research and development efforts. This paper briefly summarizes the issues presented at the workshop and the recommendations developed by the group

  20. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  1. Can multiparametric MRI replace Roach equations in staging prostate cancer before external beam radiation therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girometti, Rossano; Signor, Marco Andrea; Pancot, Martina; Cereser, Lorenzo; Zuiani, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the agreement between Roach equations (RE) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in assessing the T-stage of prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and methods: Seventy-three patients with biopsy-proven PCa and previous RE assessment prospectively underwent mpMRI on a 3.0T magnet before external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Using Cohen’s kappa statistic, we assessed the agreement between RE and mpMRI in defining the T-stage (≥T3 vs.T ≤ 2) and risk category according to the National comprehensive cancer network criteria (≤intermediate vs. ≥high). We also calculated sensitivity and specificity for ≥T3 stage in an additional group of thirty-seven patients with post-prostatectomy histological examination (mpMRI validation group). Results: The agreement between RE and mpMRI in assessing the T stage and risk category was moderate (k = 0.53 and 0.56, respectively). mpMRI changed the T stage and risk category in 21.9% (95%C.I. 13.4–33-4) and 20.5% (95%C.I. 12.3–31.9), respectively, prevalently downstaging PCa compared to RE. Sensitivity and specificity for ≥T3 stage in the mpMRI validation group were 81.8% (95%C.I. 65.1–91.9) and 88.5% (72.8–96.1). Conclusion: RE and mpMRI show moderate agreement only in assessing the T-stage of PCa, translating into an mpMRI-induced change in risk assessment in about one fifth of patients. As supported by high sensitivity/specificity for ≥T3 stage in the validation group, the discrepancy we found is in favour of mpMRI as a tool to stage PCa before ERBT.

  2. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  3. Can multiparametric MRI replace Roach equations in staging prostate cancer before external beam radiation therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girometti, Rossano, E-mail: rgirometti@sirm.org [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia − via Colugna, 50–33100, Udine (Italy); Signor, Marco Andrea, E-mail: marco.signor@asuiud.sanita.fvg.it [Department of Oncological Radiation Therapy, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia, Piazzale S. M. della Misericordia, 15–33100, Udine (Italy); Pancot, Martina, E-mail: martypancot@libero.it [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia − via Colugna, 50–33100, Udine (Italy); Cereser, Lorenzo, E-mail: lcereser@sirm.org [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia − via Colugna, 50–33100, Udine (Italy); Zuiani, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.zuiani@uniud.it [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Santa Maria della Misericordia − via Colugna, 50–33100, Udine (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the agreement between Roach equations (RE) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in assessing the T-stage of prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and methods: Seventy-three patients with biopsy-proven PCa and previous RE assessment prospectively underwent mpMRI on a 3.0T magnet before external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Using Cohen’s kappa statistic, we assessed the agreement between RE and mpMRI in defining the T-stage (≥T3 vs.T ≤ 2) and risk category according to the National comprehensive cancer network criteria (≤intermediate vs. ≥high). We also calculated sensitivity and specificity for ≥T3 stage in an additional group of thirty-seven patients with post-prostatectomy histological examination (mpMRI validation group). Results: The agreement between RE and mpMRI in assessing the T stage and risk category was moderate (k = 0.53 and 0.56, respectively). mpMRI changed the T stage and risk category in 21.9% (95%C.I. 13.4–33-4) and 20.5% (95%C.I. 12.3–31.9), respectively, prevalently downstaging PCa compared to RE. Sensitivity and specificity for ≥T3 stage in the mpMRI validation group were 81.8% (95%C.I. 65.1–91.9) and 88.5% (72.8–96.1). Conclusion: RE and mpMRI show moderate agreement only in assessing the T-stage of PCa, translating into an mpMRI-induced change in risk assessment in about one fifth of patients. As supported by high sensitivity/specificity for ≥T3 stage in the validation group, the discrepancy we found is in favour of mpMRI as a tool to stage PCa before ERBT.

  4. Comparison of Fetomaternal Outcome between 47 Deliveries Following Successful External Cephalic Version for Breech Presentation and 7456 Deliveries Following Spontaneous Cephalic Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Friedl, Thomas; Schramm, Amelie; Reister, Frank; Janni, Wolfgang; Ebner, Florian

    2017-08-25

    Achieving a cephalic position after a successful external cephalic version (ECV) is desired to result in delivery and fetal outcomes that are similar to those of deliveries following spontaneous cephalic presentation. We performed a retrospective cohort study including patients with successful ECV following fetal breech position (ECV cohort, n = 47) or with a singleton spontaneous cephalic pregnancy at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (control group, n = 7,456) attempting a vaginal delivery between 2010 and 2013 at the University Hospital Ulm. The mode of delivery and fetal outcome parameters were compared between these 2 groups using nonparametric statistics. ECV cohort and control group did not differ with respect to maternal age, parity, gestational age at birth, and fetal gender. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to all parameters indicating fetal outcome. However, the rate of cesarean sections was higher after successful ECV compared to spontaneous cephalic presentation (27.7 vs. 12.8%, OR 2.615). While vaginal delivery is less likely to happen after a successful ECV compared to spontaneous cephalic singleton pregnancies, fetal outcome parameters showed no difference between the 2 groups. Physicians should be counseling and encouraging women to attempt ECV, as it is a safe and effective procedure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Treatment planning systems for external whole brain radiation therapy: With and without MLC (multi leaf collimator) optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiyono, T.; Budi, W. S.; Hidayanto, E.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy for brain malignancy is done by giving a dose of radiation to a whole volume of the brain (WBRT) followed by a booster at the primary tumor with more advanced techniques. Two external radiation fields given from the right and left side. Because the shape of the head, there will be an unavoidable hotspot radiation dose of greater than 107%. This study aims to optimize planning of radiation therapy using field in field multi-leaf collimator technique. A study of 15 WBRT samples with CT slices is done by adding some segments of radiation in each field of radiation and delivering appropriate dose weighting using a TPS precise plan Elekta R 2.15. Results showed that this optimization a more homogeneous radiation on CTV target volume, lower dose in healthy tissue, and reduced hotspots in CTV target volume. Comparison results of field in field multi segmented MLC technique with standard conventional technique for WBRT are: higher average minimum dose (77.25% ± 0:47%) vs (60% ± 3:35%); lower average maximum dose (110.27% ± 0.26%) vs (114.53% ± 1.56%); lower hotspot volume (5.71% vs 27.43%); and lower dose on eye lenses (right eye: 9.52% vs 18.20%); (left eye: 8.60% vs 16.53%).

  6. Treatment planning systems for external whole brain radiation therapy: With and without MLC (multi leaf collimator) optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiyono, T; Budi, W S; Hidayanto, E

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy for brain malignancy is done by giving a dose of radiation to a whole volume of the brain (WBRT) followed by a booster at the primary tumor with more advanced techniques. Two external radiation fields given from the right and left side. Because the shape of the head, there will be an unavoidable hotspot radiation dose of greater than 107%. This study aims to optimize planning of radiation therapy using field in field multi-leaf collimator technique. A study of 15 WBRT samples with CT slices is done by adding some segments of radiation in each field of radiation and delivering appropriate dose weighting using a TPS precise plan Elekta R 2.15. Results showed that this optimization a more homogeneous radiation on CTV target volume, lower dose in healthy tissue, and reduced hotspots in CTV target volume. Comparison results of field in field multi segmented MLC technique with standard conventional technique for WBRT are: higher average minimum dose (77.25% ± 0:47%) vs (60% ± 3:35%); lower average maximum dose (110.27% ± 0.26%) vs (114.53% ± 1.56%); lower hotspot volume (5.71% vs 27.43%); and lower dose on eye lenses (right eye: 9.52% vs 18.20%); (left eye: 8.60% vs 16.53%). (paper)

  7. Health risks (early, delayed and genetic) from the present radiation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    A general survey is given of the risks of early, delayed and genetic injuries from present radiation environment. Brief data is presented on some industrial and medical accidents. It is stated that in Norway there are 5-10 incidents per year in industrial radiography, none of which have led to radiation syndrome. Delayed radiation effects are discussed and figures quoted for risk due to mining, industrial and medical radiography and natural sources. Genetic effects are similarly discussed and genetically significant doses from similar sources are quoted. It is concluded that the health risk from the radiation environment is very small compared with other risks. (JIW)

  8. Phase II Radiation therapy oncology group trial of weekly paclitaxel and conventional external beam radiation therapy for supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Corey J.; Ruffer, James; Rhodes, Harker; Paulus, Rebecca; Murray, Kevin; Movsas, Benjamin; Curran, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) ± carmustine (BCNU) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but survival results remain poor. Preclinical studies indicate synergy between RT and paclitaxel (TAX) in astrocytoma cell lines. Phase I studies in GBM have demonstrated a maximum tolerated dose for TAX of 225 mg/m 2 /3 h/week x 6, during EBRT, with no exacerbation of typical RT-induced toxicities. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) therefore mounted a Phase II study to determine the feasibility and efficacy of conventional EBRT and concurrent weekly TAX at its MTD. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients with histologic diagnosis of GBM were enrolled from 8/16/96 through 3/21/97 in a multi-institutional Phase II trial of EBRT and TAX 225 mg/m 2 /3 h (1-3 h before EBRT), administered the first treatment day of each RT week. Total EBRT dose was 60 Gy (200 cGy/fraction), 5 days per week. A smaller treatment field, to include gross disease plus a margin only, was used after 46 Gy. Results: Sixty-one patients (98%) were evaluable. Median age was 55 years (range, 28-78). Seventy-four percent were ≥50 years. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Classes III, IV, V, VI included 10 (17%), 21 (34%), 25 (41%), and 5 (8%) patients, respectively. Gross total resection was performed in only 16%. There was no Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Hypersensitivity reactions precluding further use of TAX occurred in 4 patients. There were 2 instances of late neurotoxicity (4% Grade 3 or 4). Ninety-one percent of patients received treatment per protocol. Seventy-seven percent completed prescribed treatment (6 weeks). Of 35 patients with measurable disease, CR/PR was observed in 23%, MR in 17%, and SD in 43%. Seventeen percent demonstrated progression at first follow-up. Median potential follow-up time is 20 months. Median survival is 9.7 months, with median survivals for RPA classes III, IV, V, and VI of 16.3, 10

  9. WE-D-210-04: Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in View of Non-Invasive Dosimetry in External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callens, M; Verboven, E; Van Den Abeele, K [Department of Physics, Wave Propagation and Signal Processing, KU Leuven KULAK, Kortrijk (Belgium); D’Agostino, E [DoseVue NV, Hasselt (Belgium); Pfeiffer, H [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); D’hooge, J [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Bio-Medical Science Group, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA’s) based on gas-filled microbubbles encapsulated by an amphiphilic shell are well established as safe and effective echo-enhancers in diagnostic imaging. In view of an alternative application of UCA’s, we investigated the use of targeted microbubbles as radiation sensors for external beam radiation therapy. As radiation induces permanent changes in the microbubble’s physico-chemical properties, a robust measure of these changes can provide a direct or indirect estimate of the applied radiation dose. For instance, by analyzing the ultrasonic dispersion characteristics of microbubble distributions before and after radiation treatment, an estimate of the radiation dose at the location of the irradiated volume can be made. To increase the radiation sensitivity of microbubbles, polymerizable diacetylene molecules can be incorporated into the shell. This study focuses on characterizing the acoustic response and quantifying the chemical modifications as a function of radiation dose. Methods: Lipid/diacetylene microbubbles were irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam using dose levels in the range of 0–150 Gy. The acoustic response of the microbubbles was monitored by ultrasonic through-transmission measurements in the range of 500 kHz to 20 MHz, thereby providing the dispersion relations of the phase velocity, attenuation and nonlinear coefficient. In addition, the radiation-induced chemical modifications were quantified using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Results: UV-VIS spectroscopy measurements indicate that ionizing radiation induces the polymerization of diacetylenes incorporated in the microbubble shell. The polymer yield strongly depends on the shell composition and the radiation-dose. The acoustic response is inherently related to the visco-elastic properties of the shell and is strongly influenced by the shell composition and the physico-chemical changes in the environment. Conclusion: Diacetylene-containing microbubbles are

  10. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  11. A prospective study of the factors associated with the success rate of external cephalic version for breech presentation at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jorge; Melchor, Juan Carlos; Pijoán, José Ignacio; Cobos, Patricia; Fernández-Llebrez, Luis; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón

    2011-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation at term. A prospective analysis of 500 ECV maneuvers. The variables maternal age, maternal weight, body mass index, previous cesarean delivery, gestational age, parity, amount of amniotic fluid, placental location, and type of breech were studied using logistic regression analysis. The success rate of ECV was 52.2% (n=261). The variables significantly associated with success were parity, placental location, amount of amniotic fluid, and type of breech (Pbreech presentation had a 2.77-times higher success rate compared with a frank breech presentation (95% CI, 1.16-6.62). The area under the ROC curve showed a predictive ability of 73.6% (95% CI, 69.2%-77.9%) for these 3 variables. Parity, placental location, amount of amniotic fluid, and type of breech presentation were associated with the success rate of ECV. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New ICRU quantities for the environmental and individual monitoring. Standardization of individual dosemeters by using external beams of photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Delgado, A.; Granados, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities introduced by ICRU for the radiological monitoring are commented, specially those implied in individual protection against external photons. A procedure is proposed in order to standardize the individual dosemeters by using the kerma in air references of CIEMAT-JEN. The reference radiation beams are described in connection with ISO standards. Provisional values are selected for the appropriate conversion and correction factors. (Author) 23 refs

  13. Present status and legal countermeasures of electromagnetic radiation pollution in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qiu

    2007-01-01

    With the wide utilization of electronic technology, electromagnetic radiation has rapidly been one of the most serious pollution sources, causing corresponding disputes of pollution on the rise and the contradictions sharp increasingly because of the limited supply and research of law. The article analyses the characters and present status of electromagnetic radiation pollution, points out the inadequacy supply of relevant law and its reasons and presents legal countermeasures, that is: complying with present laws, establishing national standard systems, strengthening local legislation. The paper also presents the basic idea and principle of making 'Prevention Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution'. (authors)

  14. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4--5, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A.F.; Roussin, R.W. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  15. Deterministic methods in radiation transport. A compilation of papers presented February 4-5, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, A. F.; Roussin, R. W. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The Seminar on Deterministic Methods in Radiation Transport was held February 4--5, 1992, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Eleven presentations were made and the full papers are published in this report, along with three that were submitted but not given orally. These papers represent a good overview of the state of the art in the deterministic solution of radiation transport problems for a variety of applications of current interest to the Radiation Shielding Information Center user community.

  16. Birth defects in Norway by levels of external and food-based exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, R.T.; Irgens, L.M.; Skjaerven, R.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, P.; Strand, T.

    1992-01-01

    In Norway, external doses of radiation resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident were estimated from detailed measurements, including soil deposition patterns. Internal doses were estimated from measurements of radioactive cesium in meat and milk supplies. The doses were calculated as average monthly doses for each of 454 municipalities during 36 consecutive months after the accident in spring 1986. Prospectively collected data on all newborns listed in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway who were conceived in the period May 1983-April 1989 were used to assess possible dose-response relations between estimated external and food-based exposures and congenital malformations and some other conditions. A positive association was observed between total radiation dose (external plus food-based) and hydrocephaly, while a negative association was observed for Down's syndrome. However, an important conclusion of the study was that no associations were found for conditions previously reported to be associated with radiation, i.e., small head circumference, congenital cataracts, anencephaly, spina bifida, and low birth weight. Potential sources of bias, including exposure misclassification and incomplete ascertainment of cases, are discussed

  17. Brief Report: External Beam Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew S; Tang, Chad; Hong, Wan Xing; Park, Sujin; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Nelson, Geoff; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Bakerman, Isaac; Zhang, Wendy; Neofytou, Evgenios; Connolly, Andrew J; Chan, Charles K; Graves, Edward E; Weissman, Irving L; Nguyen, Patricia K; Wu, Joseph C

    2017-08-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein, we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by using a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals. Within several days of irradiation, teratomas derived from injection of undifferentiated hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated complete growth arrest lasting several months. In addition, EBRT reduced reseeding potential of teratoma cells during serial transplantation experiments, requiring irradiated teratomas to be seeded at 1 × 10 3 higher doses to form new teratomas. We demonstrate that irradiation induces teratoma cell apoptosis, senescence, and growth arrest, similar to established radiobiology mechanisms. Taken together, these results provide proof of concept for the use of EBRT in the treatment of existing teratomas and highlight a strategy to increase the safety of stem cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 2017;35:1994-2000. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Brief report: a cost analysis of neuraxial anesthesia to facilitate external cephalic version for breech fetal presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Brendan; Tan, Jonathan M; Macario, Alex; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Sultan, Pervez

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether neuraxial anesthesia to facilitate external cephalic version (ECV) increased delivery costs for breech fetal presentation. Using a computer cost model, which considers possible outcomes and probability uncertainties at the same time, we estimated total expected delivery costs for breech presentation managed by a trial of ECV with and without neuraxial anesthesia. From published studies, the average probability of successful ECV with neuraxial anesthesia was 60% (with individual studies ranging from 44% to 87%) compared with 38% (with individual studies ranging from 31% to 58%) without neuraxial anesthesia. The mean expected total delivery costs, including the cost of attempting/performing ECV with anesthesia, equaled $8931 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $8541-$9252). The cost was $9207 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $8896-$9419) if ECV was attempted/performed without anesthesia. The expected mean incremental difference between the total cost of delivery that includes ECV with anesthesia and ECV without anesthesia was $-276 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $-720 to $112). The total cost of delivery in women with breech presentation may be decreased (up to $720) or increased (up to $112) if ECV is attempted/performed with neuraxial anesthesia compared with ECV without neuraxial anesthesia. Increased ECV success with neuraxial anesthesia and the subsequent reduction in breech cesarean delivery rate offset the costs of providing anesthesia to facilitate ECV.

  19. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  20. Tocolysis for repeat external cephalic version in breech presentation at term: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Lawrence; Pandit, Meghana

    2005-05-01

    External cephalic version (ECV) reduces the incidence of breech presentation at term and caesarean section for non-cephalic births. Tocolytics may improve success rates, but are time consuming, may cause side effects and have not been proven to alter caesarean section rates. The aim of this trial was to determine whether tocolysis should be used if ECV is being re-attempted after a failed attempt. To determine whether tocolysis should be used if ECV is being re-attempted after a failed attempt. Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. UK teaching hospital. One hundred and twenty-four women with a breech presentation at term who had undergone an unsuccessful attempt at ECV. Relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for categorical variables and a t test for continuous variables. Analysis was by intention to treat. Incidence of cephalic presentation at delivery. Secondary outcomes were caesarean section and measures of neonatal and maternal morbidity. The use of tocolysis for a repeat attempt at ECV significantly increases the incidence of cephalic presentation at delivery (RR 3.21; 95% CI 1.23-8.39) and reduces the incidence of caesarean section (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.14-0.80). The effects were most marked in multiparous women (RR for cephalic presentation at delivery 9.38; 95% CI 1.64-53.62). Maternal and neonatal morbidity remain unchanged. The use of tocolysis increases the success rate of repeat ECV and reduces the incidence of caesarean section. A policy of only using tocolysis where an initial attempt has failed leads to a relatively high success rate with minimum usage of tocolysis.

  1. A retrospective analysis of 140 dogs with oral melanoma treated with external beam radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, David R; Ruslander, David M; Dodge, Richard K; Hauck, Marlene L; Williams, Laurel E; Horn, Birgitte; Price, G Sylvester; Thrall, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Despite the early notion that canine oral malignant melanoma is radioresistant, recent data suggest that external beam radiotherapy is effective in local tumor control. However, optimal fractionation schedules have not been established. The high rate of regional and distant metastasis is another problem that has hindered long-term control. The role of chemotherapy in the management of canine oral melanoma has also not been determined. In this study, data from 140 dogs irradiated at North Carolina State University were evaluated with the following objectives: (1) to compare the efficacy of three radiation therapy protocols (36 Gy, 9 Gy x 4 fractions; 30 Gy, 10 Gy x 3 fractions; or >45 Gy, 2-4 Gy x 12-19 fractions) for the treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma, (2) to identify any host or tumor factors influencing prognosis, and (3) to determine the impact of systemic chemotherapy on treatment outcome. Information regarding response to therapy, disease progression, and survival were determined from the medical records or from information obtained by telephone or mail survey. Relationships between host, tumor, and treatment variables and outcome measures (response, time to first event, and survival) were evaluated using Fisher's exact test (response) and the Cox regression model (time to first event and survival). The median time to first event for the 140 dogs was 5.0 months (95% C.I., 4-6 months) and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% C.I., 6-9 months). In the univariate analysis, the following variables were associated with increased time to first event and survival: (1) rostral tumor sublocation; (2) lack of bone lysis observed on skull imaging, and (3) microscopic tumor burden. In a multivariate analysis of 111 dogs with complete data for these variables, tumor sublocation, bone lysis, and tumor volume were identified as joint predictors of time to first event (p oral malignant melanoma; however, the optimal fractionation scheme has yet to be

  2. Effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotids present in the carrot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Lopez, Sergio Victor Hugo

    1997-01-01

    In the present work it was investigated the effect of the gamma radiation of cobalt 60 on the beta carotid's in the carrot (daucus carota), using for it three different radiation dose (100, 150 and 200 kilo-rad) and analyzing them by means of the liquid chromatography technique of high resolution (HPLC)

  3. External cephalic version for breech presentation at term: predictors of success, and impact on the rate of caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, O A; Mahmoud, M A; Abdel-Fattah, M M

    2013-02-01

    The incidence of caesarean section for breech presentation has increased markedly in the last 20 years. A prospective, interventional cohort study was carried out of the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) and its predictors of as well as its impact on the rate of caesarean section for vaginal breech delivery. All 128 women admitted during the study period to the obstetrics department of a tertiary care military hospital in Taif, Saudi Arabia with breech presentation at term, regardless of age and parity, who accepted ECV were recruited. ECV was successful in 53.9% of the women. Most of the women with successful ECV delivered normally (84.1%) and only 14.5% of them delivered by caesarean section. Conversely, normal vaginal delivery was reported among 8.5% of those who had spontaneous version with failed ECV and approximately two-thirds of them delivered by caesarean section (62.7%). Successful ECV reduced the breech and caesarean section rate.

  4. Human thyroid cancer induction by ionizing radiation: summary of studies based on external irradiation and radioactive iodines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    To provide a context for the Chernobyl thyroid cancer experience, a summary of the findings from other studies is given. The data on external radiation and thyroid cancer come primarily from studies of children irradiated for a variety of benign medical conditions and the Japanese atomic bomb cohort. Unfortunately, only small amounts of data are currently available on thyroid cancer following radioactive iodine exposure in childhood. In order to predict the risk of thyroid cancer in the Chernobyl experience, a number of radiation-related factors need to be considered: the magnitude of radiation risk from available studies; shape of the dose-response curve; variations in risk by gender, time since irradiation, and age at irradiation; the effects of dose fractionation or dose protraction. Other considerations pertaining to the frequency of thyroid cancer and its outcome are thyroid-tumor surveillance effects and background iodine intake. The data to date suggest that 131 I produces less thyroid cancer than a comparable dose of external radiation, but the Chernobyl experience will provide extensive new information on this issue. Principles are discussed as to how to maximize the scientific validity and informativeness of Chernobyl thyroid studies

  5. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Thyroid; Dose de tolerance des tissus sains: la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, O.; Giraud, P. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, universite Paris Descartes, 75 - Paris (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Henri-Mondor, universite Paris 12, 94 - Creteil (France)

    2010-07-15

    The thyroid is the most developed endocrine gland of the body. Due to its anatomical location, it may be exposed to ionizing radiation in external radiotherapy involving head and neck. This review aims to describe the thyroid radiation disorders, probably under-reported in the literature, their risk factors and follow-up procedures. The functional changes after external beam radiation consists mainly of late effects occurring beyond 6 months, and are represented by the clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Its incidence is approximately 20 to 30% and it can occur after more than 25 years after radiation exposure. Hyperthyroidism and auto-immune manifestations have been described in a lesser proportion. The morphological changes consist of benign lesions, primarily adenomas, and malignant lesions, the most feared and which incidence is 0.35%. The onset of hypothyroidism depends of the total dose delivered to the gland, and the irradiated. Modern techniques of conformal radiotherapy with modulated intensity could improve the preservation of the thyroid, at the expense of the increase in low doses and the theoretical risk of secondary cancers. (authors)

  6. Study of external exposure doses received by Cuban population due to terrestrial component of the environmental radiation sources; Estudio de las dosis por exposicion externa que recibe la poblacion cubana debidas a la componente terrestre de la radiacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Brigido Flores, Osvaldo [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Camaguey (Cuba); Hernandez Perez, Alberto [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Oriente, Holguin (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The work presents the results of the study carried out to evaluate the doses that the Cuban population receives for the external exposition to the terrestrial component of the environmental sources of radiation. Starting from the carried out measurements it was possible to estimate the doses effective representative annual stockings that the Cuban population receives for external exposition to the terrestrial radiation, considering the permanency in indoors and outdoors. The dose received due to this component was 180{+-}14 mSv/year. These values are in the range of those reported internationally. (author)

  7. [Fewer caesarean sections for breech presentation following external cephalic version according to a protocol in a special office visit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, S M I; Hasaart, T H M; van der Donk, M W P; Huibers, M; Franssen, M J; de Becker, B M J; Wijnen, H A A; Pop, V J M

    2008-06-07

    Identification of determinants affecting the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV) in breech presentation, and investigation of the impact of ECV--performed according to a standardized protocol in an outpatient clinic--on the mode of delivery. Retrospective analysis. In 2003 a standardized protocol of ECV was developed in the outpatient clinic for obstetrics of the Catharina Hospital in Eindhoven, the Netherlands; it was tested in 'version office visits'. Obstetric characteristics of all pregnant women who underwent attempts of ECV in the clinic from January 2004 until June 2006 during these sessions, and the subsequent births, were analysed. 85% of all ECVs were performed by the same hospital midwife and gynaecologist, in accordance with the protocol. ECV was successful in 96 of 209 pregnant women (46%). In 1 pregnant woman an emergency caesarean section was performed after ECV because of partial abruptio placentae. Nulliparity, incomplete breech presentation and low birth weight of the baby were associated with a lower success rate of ECV in this study. In the group with a successful ECV the percentage of caesarean deliveries was substantially lower (9 versus 83%; odds ratio: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.09-0.51). A regular team consisting of a hospital midwife and a gynaecologist working according to a standardized protocol for ECV in a case of breech presentation proved successful: the number of term breech presentations substantially diminished and therefore the percentage of caesarean sections was lower in the group in which ECV had been successful. This could have considerable impact on health care in the Netherlands in terms of reduced maternal morbidity and cost savings.

  8. Evaluation of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) combined with external radiation in an orthotopic rat model of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, M.; Thiesen, B.; Taymoorian, K.; Gneveckow, U.; Waldoefner, N.; Koch, M.; Scholz, R.; Lein, M.; Jung, K.; Loening, S.A.; Jordan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a new concept of cancer treatment based on AC magnetic field-induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Preliminary studies of MFH using nanoscaled aminosilan-coated magnetites have demonstrated the feasibility of minimally invasive MFH in the Dunning tumor model. Here we evaluated the effect of two sequential MFH treatments, combined with external radiation, in an orthotopic Dunning R3327-MatLyLu prostate cancer model. MFH led to a significant growth inhibition in this orthotopic model of the aggressive MatLyLu tumor variant. Furthermore, combined MFH and radiation with 20 Gy equally effective in inhibiting tumor growth as radiation with 60 Gy, suggesting a significant synergistic effect. Intratumoral deposition of magnetic fluids was found to be stable, allowing for serial MFH treatments without repeated injection. The optimal treatment schedules of this combination regarding temperatures, sequencing and fractionation need to be defined in further experimental studies. (author)

  9. Morfologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads caused by isolated and combined effects of external ionizing radiation and chemical factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shopova, V.; Nechev, Khr.; Sylovski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The test for recording morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoid heads and the genotoxic effect of isolated and combined treatment with the preparation chloracetophone and external ionizing radiation was applied on of mice line C 57 Bl. Evaluation of the morphologic anomalies in the spermatozoa rested upon two staining method, one of which helped to distinguish the acrosome. It was demonstrated that chloracetophone given in a single high dose (1/2 and 1/4 LD 50 ) was genotoxic. Ionizing radiation induced the expected positive effect. After combined application of 5x1/5 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 and 4 Gy irradiation dose, it was the effect of radiation that was recorded. Only in the group in which both noxious agents were combined in effective doses (1/2 LD 50 chloracetophone and 1 Gy) there was a tendency toward additive effect

  10. Radionuclide mobility in soils and its effect on the external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Hillmann, U.; Jacob, P.; Kretner, R.; Schimmack, W.; Tikhomirov, F.; Scheglov, A.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Loschilov, N.; Ivanov, Y.; Levchuk, S.; Kashparov, V.; Oreshich, L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to predict the gamma-dose rate of 137 Cs for a period of about 100 years after the Chernobyl accident, the present vertical distribution of radiocesium in several meadow soils in the Chernobyl area and in Germany was determined and the corresponding residence half-times of this radionuclide in the various soil layers were evaluated with a compartment model. The resulting residence half-times were subsequently used to calculate the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the soil as a function of time and finally to predict the external gamma-dose rates in air for these sites at various times. The results show that the time dependence of the relative gamma-dose rate in air D/D t=0 at both sites can be described by a two-term exponential equation. At a given time, the relative gamma-dose rate at the Chernobyl sites is always higher as compared to the German sites. This difference is the result of the slower vertical migration of 137 Cs at the Chernobyl sites

  11. Ionizing secondary radiation generated by analog radiological and digital coronary cine angiographic equipment. Influence of external protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez N, Alfredo; Farias Ch, Eric; Silva J, Ana Maria; Leyton L, Fernando; Oyarzun C, Carlos; Ugalde P, Hector; Dussaillant, Gaston; Cumsille G, Angel

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a know hazard of radiological procedures. Aim: to compare the emission of secondary ionizing radiation from two coronary angiographic equipments, one with digital and the other with analog image generation. To evaluate the effectiveness of external radiological protection devices. Material and methods: environmental and fluoroscopy generated radiation in the cephalic region of the patient was measured during diagnostic coronary angiographies. Ionizing radiation generated in anterior left oblique protection (ALO) and anterior right oblique protection (ARO) were measured with and without leaded protections. In 19 patients (group 1), a digital equipment was used and in 21 (group 2), an analog equipment. Results: header radiation for group 1 and 2 was 1194±337 and 364±222 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During fluoroscopy and with leaded protection generated radiation for groups 1 and 2 was 612±947 and 70±61μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). For ALO projection, generated for groups 1 and 2 was 105±47 and 71±192 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001). During filming the radiation for ALO projection for groups 1 and 2 was 7252±9569 and 1671±2038 μGray/h respectively (p=0.03). Out of the protection zone, registered radiation during fluoroscopy for groups 1 and 2 was 2800±1741 and 1318±954 μGray/h respectively (p≤0.001); during filming, the figures were 15500±5840 and 18961±10599 μGray/h respectively (NS). Conclusions: digital radiological equipment has a lower level of ionizing radiation emission than the analog equipment

  12. Complications of combined intraoperative radiation (IORT) and external radiation (ERT) of the upper abdomen: an experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz-Hector, S.; Brechenmacher, P.; Doerr, W.; Grab, J.; Kallfass, E.; Krimmel, K.; Kummermehr, J.; Sund, M.; Wilkowski, R.; Willich, N.; Zaspel, J.; Kraemling, H.-J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental model in the rabbit is presented which is suitable for analysis of clinically relevant, early side-effects of combined upper abdominal IORT and ERT. Fractionated ERT alone given through an upper abdominal a.-p. field including the entire stomach caused gastric ulcerations within ≤ 58 days. Latent times decreased with increasing dose and the ED 50 for occurrence of ulcers was 39 ± 3.3 Gy. Single doses of IORT of 20-40 Gy alone administered through a 2-cm diameter field localized on the coeliac axis and carefully excluding any intestinal mucosa caused neither gastric ulcerations nor other clinical symptoms. When ERT with 40 Gy was preceded by IORT with 20-40 Gy or by sham IORT, 13 out of 15 animals developed ulcers after latent times which in a life-table analysis were shown to be significantly shorter than after ERT alone. However, a statistically significant IORT dose-dependence of latent time or incidence of ulcers could not be demonstrated in the present experiment. The most significant histological changes were observed in the areas of gastric ulcers. Already during ERT, the mucosal epithelium was depleted and regenerative activity was evident in spite of ongoing fractionated irradiation. However, profound irregularities in glandular structure and distribution, as well as number of proliferating epithelial cells were still present in healed ulcers at 80 days. In summary, IORT to the coeliac artery did precipitate the development of gastric ulcers induced by subsequent ERT. On the one hand, the data indicate that the surgical procedure of IORT did contribute to this effect. On the other hand, IORT to the coeliac artery could cause transient, functional alterations in blood supply to the depending organs, i.e. the stomach, and could thus precipitate the development of radiation-induced ulcers

  13. Current External Beam Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Guidance: Does It Meet the Challenges of Emerging Image-Guided Technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan G.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional prescriptive quality assurance (QA) programs that attempt to ensure the safety and reliability of traditional external beam radiation therapy are limited in their applicability to such advanced radiation therapy techniques as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, inverse treatment planning, stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy, and image-guided radiation therapy. The conventional QA paradigm, illustrated by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40 (TG-40) report, consists of developing a consensus menu of tests and device performance specifications from a generic process model that is assumed to apply to all clinical applications of the device. The complexity, variation in practice patterns, and level of automation of high-technology radiotherapy renders this 'one-size-fits-all' prescriptive QA paradigm ineffective or cost prohibitive if the high-probability error pathways of all possible clinical applications of the device are to be covered. The current approaches to developing comprehensive prescriptive QA protocols can be prohibitively time consuming and cost ineffective and may sometimes fail to adequately safeguard patients. It therefore is important to evaluate more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods of industrial engineering to more optimally focus available QA resources on process components that have a significant likelihood of compromising patient safety or treatment outcomes

  14. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer

  15. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  16. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  17. Interventions for helping to turn term breech babies to head first presentation when using external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Catherine; Gyte, Gillian M L; Sinclair, Marlene; Dowswell, Therese; Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2015-02-09

    Breech presentation is associated with increased complications. Turning a breech baby to head first presentation using external cephalic version (ECV) attempts to reduce the chances of breech presentation at birth so as to avoid the adverse effects of breech vaginal birth or caesarean section. Interventions such as tocolytic drugs and other methods have been used in an attempt to facilitate ECV. To assess, from the best evidence available, the effects of interventions such as tocolysis, acoustic stimulation for midline spine position, regional analgesia (epidural or spinal), transabdominal amnioinfusion, systemic opioids and hypnosis, or the use of abdominal lubricants, on ECV at term for successful version, presentation at birth, method of birth and perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2014) and the reference lists of identified studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the above interventions with no intervention or other methods to facilitate ECV at term. We assessed eligibility and trial quality. Two review authors independently assessed for inclusion all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy and independently extracted the data using a specially designed data extraction form. We included 28 studies, providing data on 2786 women. We used the random-effects model for pooling data because of clinical heterogeneity between studies. A number of trial reports gave insufficient information to allow clear assessment of risk of bias. We used GradePro software to carry out formal assessments of quality of the evidence for beta stimulants versus placebo and regional analgesia with tocolysis versus tocolysis alone.Tocolytic parenteral beta stimulants were effective in increasing cephalic presentations in labour (average risk ratio (RR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 2.48, five studies, 459 women, low-quality evidence) and

  18. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  19. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants in the high background radiation areas in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external exposure to natural radiation in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control areas (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied in which the exposed individual doses were estimated from the environmental radiation doses measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. We analyzed the dose in the hamlets and the variation in the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and several hamlets of different dose levels in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we estimated individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows. The environmental radiation doses are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiations. The indoor radiation doses were due to exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and were about two times as large as the outdoor radiation doses. The difference between indoor and outdoor doses was not observed in CA. The occupancy factor was influenced by the age of individuals and by the season of the year. The occupancy factor was higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher dose rates of exposure to those age groups. A good correlation was observed between the dose assessed indirectly and that measured directly and the

  20. Remifentanil analgesia during external cephalic version for breech presentation in nulliparous women at term: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Yi; Xu, Gui-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil for pain relief during external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation in nulliparous women at term. A total of 144 nulliparous women with singleton breech presentation were randomly divided into the intervention group and the placebo group, with 72 subjects in each group. The subjects in the intervention group received remifentanil (infused at 0.1 μg kg min with demand boluses of 0.1 μg/kg), whereas those in the placebo group were given saline placebo. This study was conducted from May 2013 to April 2016. The outcomes measures include pain (measured with the visual analog scale, VAS), success rate of ECV, maternal satisfaction for ECV, and adverse events. A total of 137 participants completed the study. The intervention with remifentanil showed greater efficacy than did placebo in decreasing the VAS score immediately after ECV (intervention group 4.3 ± 2.2 vs placebo group 6.4 ± 2.5, P < 0.01). A significant difference in the ECV success rate was also found between the 2 groups (intervention group 56.9% vs placebo group 38.9%, P = 0.03). In addition, a significant difference in the satisfaction score was also detected (intervention group 9.3 ± 0.9 vs placebo group 6.7 ± 1.2, P < 0.01). The observed adverse events were similar between the 2 groups. This study shows that remifentanil could decrease pain, improve the ECV success rate, and improve satisfaction in nulliparous women at term during the period of ECV. Furthermore, it is also well tolerated with few adverse events.

  1. Presentation of the 2003 activity situation and radiation protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    The mission of I.R.S.N. concerns the metrology of ionizing radiation, the characterisation of exposure and the biological radiation effects, epidemiology, the management of data base, the means in emergency situation, the scientific networks for collaboration. The three directions of effort are: to improve the understanding of effects on man and ecosystems of chronic exposure of low level irradiation, prevention of risks linked to spiteful action, and the ability to answer in the case of radiological emergency, to contribute to evolution of practices in order to give the best possible expertise to workers at their occupational post or to patients in a medical frame. Three stakes emerge, the first one concerns the workers exposed to internal risks (inhalation of alpha emitters) and heterogenous external irradiation (doses at extremities), the second stake is the training of radiation protection actors, the third one is the knowledge of the history of doses received by workers and public because of ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  2. Dependence of radiation electric conductivity on intensity of external electric field in polymeric dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichkar, V P; Tyutnev, A P; Vaisberg, S E [Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR)

    1975-10-01

    The radiational conductivity (Gsub(p)) at different electric field potentials (E) for a number of low- and high-density polymers was investigated. In a number of cases temperature variations were introduced. Measurements were carried out also under conditions of a single impulse of high-power radiation dose. A relationship was obtained between Gsub(p) and E.

  3. Leaflet manual of external beam radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of the indications, evidences, and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim CH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chai Hong Rim, Won Sup Yoon Department of Radiation Oncology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University Medical College, Ansan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The use of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which was rarely performed due to liver toxicity with a previous technique, has increased. Palliation of portal vein thrombosis, supplementation for insufficient transarterial chemoembolization, and provision of new curative opportunities using stereotactic body radiotherapy are the potential indications for use of EBRT. The mechanism of EBRT treatment, with its radiobiological and physical perspectives, differs from those of conventional medical treatment or surgery. Therefore, understanding the effects of EBRT may be unfamiliar to physicians other than radiation oncologists, especially in the field of HCC, where EBRT has recently begun to be applied. The first objective of this review was to concisely explain the indications for use of EBRT for HCC for all physicians treating HCC. Therefore, this review focuses on the therapeutic outcomes rather than the detailed biological and physical background. We also reviewed recent clinical trials that may extend the indications for use of EBRT. Finally, we reviewed the current clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of HCC and discuss the current recommendations and future perspectives. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, liver neoplasm, external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, clinical trials, sorafenib, guidelines

  4. Present status and future trend of radiation chemistry and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho

    1977-01-01

    The recent reports or reviews on the results of basic study of radiation chemistry were introduced. Especially, vapor-phase radiation chemistry, electron behavior in liquid glass and molecular crystal were reviewed. The basic study of radiation chemistry which has attracted much attention contains the short-life pico-second pulse radiolysis, the study on the effect of LET and the study by ESR in the various fields. The present status of these studies were explained as well as the chemistry of positron e + and positronium Ps. As the studies of radiation chemistry in the field of macromolecules, radiation polymerization, degradation of polymer and the graft-polymerization were reviewed to discuss the prospective development and problem for its industrial application. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy

  6. Interventions for helping to turn term breech babies to head first presentation when using external cephalic version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Catherine; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Gyte, Gillian ML; Sinclair, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Background Breech presentation is associated with increased complications. Turning a breech baby to head first presentation using external cephalic version (ECV) attempts to reduce the chances of breech presentation at birth, and reduce the adverse effects of breech vaginal birth or caesarean section. Tocolytic drugs and other methods have been used in an attempt to facilitate ECV. Objectives To assess interventions such as tocolysis, fetal acoustic stimulation, regional analgesia, transabdominal amnioinfusion or systemic opioids on ECV for a breech baby at term. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 September 2011) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the above interventions with no intervention or other methods to facilitate ECV at term. Data collection and analysis We assessed eligibility and trial quality. Two review authors independently assessed for inclusion all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy and independently extracted the data using a designed data extraction form. Main results We included 25 studies, providing data on 2548 women. We used the random-effects model for pooling data due to clinical heterogeneity in the included studies in the various comparisons. The overall quality of the evidence was reasonable, but a number of assessments had insufficient data to provide an answer with any degree of assurance. Tocolytic drugs, in particular betastimulants, were effective in increasing cephalic presentations in labour (average risk ratio (RR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.85, eight studies, 993 women) and in reducing the number of caesarean sections (average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94, eight studies, 1177 women). No differences were identified in fetal bradycardias (average RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.89, three studies, 467 women) although the review is underpowered for

  7. Treatment of age-related subfoveal choroidal neovascularization by low-dose external radiation. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harino, Seiyo; Oshima, Yusuke; Tsujikawa, Kaoru; Oh, Ami; Sugimoto, Kiyoshi [Yodogawa Christian Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Murayama, Shigeyuki; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1997-04-01

    We applied low dose external beam radiation (6MV) to 17 eyes of 17 patients (Mean age 70.9 years, range 58-85) who had subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration. None of the cases were suitable for photocoagulation according to the Macular Photo-coagulation Study protocol, and no feeding vessels underlying choroidal neovascular membrane could be detected. Corrected visual acuity ranged from 0.02 to 0.6 before treatment. The patients were divided into two groups. One group of 11 eyes was treated with 10 Gy and the other group of 6 eyes with 21 Gy. Mean follow up period was 347{+-}89 (mean{+-}standard deviation) days in the 10 Gy group and 312{+-}100 days in the 21 Gy group. We evaluated the outcome as `effective` if no progression in neovascular membrane was found by ophthalmoscopic and angiographic examination. Only 3 eyes (21%) of patients in the 10 Gy group and 2 eyes (33%) in 21 Gy group showed any effect. Although the rate of progression in choroidal neovascular membrane was significantly smaller in the 10 and 21 Gy group than in the controls, the corrected visual acuity in the treated group was not improved over that of the controls. No serious complications were seen. Only one case showed a stabilized neovascular membrane in the control group of 7 patients. Although the present results seem to be worse than those in previous reports, the efficacy of this treatment still needs to be evaluated because no beneficial strategies in the treatment of subfoveal neovascularization have been established. (author)

  8. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige [Kinki Univ., Atomic Energy Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumi, Kusuo [Kinki Univ., Life Science Research Institute, Osaka (Japan); Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu [Health Research Foundation, Kyoto (Japan); Yuan Yongling [Labor Hygiene Institute of Hunan Prov. (China); Wei Luxin [Laboratory of Industorial Hygiene, Ministry of Health (China)

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. (2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  9. Dose measurement, its distribution and individual external dose assessments of inhabitants on high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Tatsumi, Kusuo; Nakai, Sayaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Yuan Yongling; Wei Luxin

    2001-01-01

    As a part of the China-Japan cooperative research on the natural radiation epidemiology, we have carried out a dose-assessment study to evaluate the external to natural radiation in the high background radiation area (HBRA) of Yangjiang in Guangdong province and in the control area (CA) of Enping prefecture since 1991. Because of the difficulties in measuring the individual doses of all inhabitants directly by the personal dosimeters, an indirect method was applied to estimate the exposed dose rates from the environmental radiation dose rates measured by survey meters and the occupancy factors of each hamlet. An individual radiation dose roughly correlates with the environmental radiation dose and the life style of the inhabitant. We have analyzed the environmental radiation doses in the hamlets and the variation of the occupancy factors to obtain the parameters of dose estimation on the inhabitants in selected hamlets; Madi and the several hamlets of the different level doses in HBRA and Hampizai hamlet in CA. With these parameters, we made estimations of individual dose rates and compared them with those obtained from the direct measurement using dosimeters carried by selected individuals. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The environmental radiation dose rates are influenced by the natural radioactive nuclide concentrations in building materials, the age of the building and the arrangement of the houses in a hamlet. There existed a fairly large and heterogeneous distribution of indoor and outdoor environmental radiation. The indoor radiation dose rates were due to the exposure from the natural radioactive nuclides in the building materials and they were about twice higher than the outdoor radiation dose rates. This difference was not observed in CA. 2) The occupancy factor was affected by the age of individuals and the seasons of a year. Indoor occupancy factors were higher for infants and aged individuals than for other age groups. This lead to higher

  10. Maternal outcomes of term breech presentation delivery: impact of successful external cephalic version in a nationwide sample of delivery admissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiniger, Carolyn F; Lyell, Deirdre J; Tsen, Lawrence C; Butwick, Alexander J; Shachar, BatZion; Callaghan, William M; Creanga, Andreea A; Bateman, Brian T

    2016-07-08

    We aimed to define the frequency and predictors of successful external cephalic version in a nationally-representative cohort of women with breech presentations and to compare maternal outcomes associated with successful external cephalic version versus persistent breech presentation. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a United States healthcare utilization database, we identified delivery admissions between 1998 and 2011 for women who had successful external cephalic version or persistent breech presentation (including unsuccessful or no external cephalic version attempt) at term. Multivariable logistic regression identified patient and hospital-level factors associated with successful external cephalic version. Maternal outcomes were compared between women who had successful external cephalic version versus persistent breech. Our study cohort comprised 1,079,576 delivery admissions with breech presentation; 56,409 (5.2 %) women underwent successful external cephalic version and 1,023,167 (94.8 %) women had persistent breech presentation at the time of delivery. The rate of cesarean delivery was lower among women who had successful external cephalic version compared to those with persistent breech (20.2 % vs. 94.9 %; p external cephalic version were also less likely to experience several measures of significant maternal morbidity including endometritis (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 0.36, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 0.24-0.52), sepsis (aOR = 0.35, 95 % CI 0.24-0.51) and length of stay > 7 days (aOR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.40-0.70), but had a higher risk of chorioamnionitis (aOR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.54-2.17). Overall a low proportion of women with breech presentation undergo successful external cephalic version, and it is associated with significant reduction in the frequency of cesarean delivery and a number of measures of maternal morbidity. Increased external cephalic version use may be an important approach to mitigate the high rate of

  11. Evaluation of Differences in Response of DOD Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Defense Threat Reduction Agency 8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS-6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201...Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited March 2014...Portable Instruments and Solid-State Detectors used by MEXT for Measurement of External Radiations with Attention to the Cosmic Radiation Component 5a

  12. EC-directive optical radiation - present state of consultation; EG-Richtlinie optische Strahlung - aktueller Beratungsstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipke, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The draft of a directive on the protection of workers from risks related to radiation in the range from 100 nm to 1 mm (Laser, UV-radiation) is discussed on EC-level. The European concept of regulations on occupational safety and health is outlined and put into reference with other directives on the protection against physical agents (vibrations, noise, electromagnetic fields). Building up on this the present state of consultation of a directive on optical radiation is represented, including major points of consideration. (orig.)

  13. Radiation sterilization of medical supplies: conceptions, regulations, present status and further developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peteu, Gh.

    1994-01-01

    A general view on the present stage and tendencies in the development of radiation sterilization of biomedical supplies is presented. Specific concepts in correlation with some regulations of the World Health Organization and of the National Public Health Authorities concerning the present state, the possibilities and criteria of development in our country, are discussed. Finally the present status of the design and execution of the project of two mobile and multipurpose irradiators is presented. (Author)

  14. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Brain and hypophysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, S.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Anticancer treatments-induced central nervous system neurotoxicity has become a major problem in recent years. Real advances in therapeutic results for cancer treatments have improved patients survival. Nowadays, central nervous system radiation therapy is widely prescribed, both for palliative and curative treatments in the management of malignant or benign tumors. Recent data on tolerance of normal central nervous system to radiation therapy are reviewed here, early and delayed radiation-induced effects are described and dose recommendations are suggested for clinical practice. (authors)

  15. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olorunda, A.O.; Aboaba, F.O.

    1978-01-01

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  16. Study on Public Exposure and External Radiation Level at Gamma Green House and around MINT Dengkil Complex Boarder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Ismail Sulaiman; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ahmad Bazlie Abdul Kadir; Noor Fadilla Ismail; Hassan Sham; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discussing on the measurement of external radiation and the dose level which is acceptable to the public around the Gamma Green House and the border between Malaysian Nuclear Agency and housing project developed by Mah Sing Group. This research is made to verify the level of safety, especially for civilians residing in this area and to ensure compliance with the limit that has been set by the authorities, AELB (BSS/2010). Measurement method used in this research by using survey meter, TLD and OSL. (author)

  17. [Mediator processes in the brain structures in the late periods after external and combined exposure to ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taĭts, M Iu; Dudina, T V; Kandybo, T S; Elkina, A I

    1990-01-01

    In experiments with mature Wistar male rats it was shown that X-radiation of 12.9 mCi/kg and the combined effect of X-rays and 131I of 6.5 mCi/kg changed the rate of mediator processes in the structures responsible for the hypothalamic function regulation. At remote times (6 months) following irradiation differences were observed in the discoordination of mediator interrelations associated with the peculiarities of the indirect effect of external and combined irradiation implemented via endocrine mechanism system.

  18. Coupling External Radiation Transport Code Results to the GADRAS Detector Response Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating gamma spectra is useful for analyzing special nuclear materials. Gamma spectra are influenced not only by the source and the detector, but also by the external, and potentially complex, scattering environment. The scattering environment can make accurate representations of gamma spectra difficult to obtain. By coupling the Monte Carlo Nuclear Particle (MCNP) code with the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) detector response function, gamma spectrum simulations can be computed with a high degree of fidelity even in the presence of a complex scattering environment. Traditionally, GADRAS represents the external scattering environment with empirically derived scattering parameters. By modeling the external scattering environment in MCNP and using the results as input for the GADRAS detector response function, gamma spectra can be obtained with a high degree of fidelity. This method was verified with experimental data obtained in an environment with a significant amount of scattering material. The experiment used both gamma-emitting sources and moderated and bare neutron-emitting sources. The sources were modeled using GADRAS and MCNP in the presence of the external scattering environment, producing accurate representations of the experimental data.

  19. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2003-01-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  20. Present status of radiation processing and its future development by using electron accelerator in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac An; Tran Tich Canh; Doan Binh [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology (VINAGAMMA), Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-02-01

    In Vietnam, studies on Radiation Processing have been carried out since 1983. Some results are applicable in the field of agriculture, health and foodstuff, some researches were developed to commercial scale and others have high potential for development by using electron accelerator. The paper offers the present status of radiation processing and also give out the growing tendency of using electron accelerator in the future. (author)

  1. Estimation of doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness from external occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Delin; Dai Guangfu

    1991-01-01

    The doses to patients with chronic radiation sickness who had engaged in diagnostic radiology have been estimated according to the radiation work load, type and capacity of X-ray equipment, protection conditions, data of nationwide survey on doses to X-ray workers in China, or the data of dose monitoring in working places. Based on the activities of radium sources, time taken up in performing radium therapy, distance to radium sources and radiation work load, the doses to patients who had engaged in radium therapy have been estimated. The results of estimated average doses for 29 cases of chronic radiation sickness are given. Their average red marrow dose, trunk dose and effective dose equivalent are 1.3 Gy, 1.2 Gy and 1.6 Sv, respectively

  2. External gamma radiation and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the German WISMUT uranium miners cohort study, 1946-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, M.; Dufey, F.; Sogl, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Walsh, L. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    It is currently unclear whether exposure of the heart and vascular system, at lifetime accumulated dose levels relevant to the general public (<500 mGy), is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, data from the German WISMUT cohort of uranium miners were investigated for evidence of a relationship between external gamma radiation and death from cardiovascular diseases. The cohort comprises 58,982 former employees of the Wismut company. There were 9,039 recorded deaths from cardiovascular diseases during the follow-up period from 1946 to 2008. Exposures to external gamma radiation were estimated using a detailed job-exposure matrix. The exposures were based on expert ratings for the period 1946-1954 and measurements thereafter. The excess relative risk (ERR) per unit of cumulative gamma dose was obtained with internal Poisson regression using a linear ERR model with baseline stratification by age and calendar year. The mean cumulative gamma dose was 47 mSv for exposed miners (86 %), with a maximum of 909 mSv. No evidence for an increase in risk with increasing cumulative dose was found for mortality from all cardiovascular diseases (ERR/Sv = -0.13; 95 % confidence interval (CI): -0.38; 0.12) and ischemic heart diseases (n = 4,613; ERR/Sv = -0.03; 95 % CI: -0.38, 0.32). However, a statistically insignificant increase (n = 2,073; ERR/Sv = 0.44; 95 % CI: -0.16, 1.04) for mortality from cerebrovascular diseases was observed. Data on smoking, diabetes, and overweight are available for subgroups of the cohort, indicating no major correlation with cumulative gamma radiation. Confounding by these factors or other risk factors, however, cannot be excluded. In conclusion, the results provide weak evidence for an increased risk of death due to gamma radiation only for cerebrovascular diseases. (orig.)

  3. Effects of external radiation in a co-culture model of endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, Frank; Leyh, Michaela; Ohmann, Elisabeth; Pohl, Fabian; Prantl, Lukas; Gassner, Holger G

    2013-01-01

    The inflammatory response clinically observed after radiation has been described to correlate with elevated expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by endothelial cells. Therapeutic compensation for this microvascular compromise could be an important approach in the treatment of irradiated wounds. Clinical reports describe the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to enhance wound healing, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) and human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) were cultured in a co-culture setting and irradiated with sequential doses of 2 to 12 Gy. Cell count was determined 48 h after radiation using a semi-automated cell counting system. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the supernatants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Irradiated HDMEC and ASC as well as non-irradiated co-cultures, HDMEC or ASC respectively were used as controls. Cell count was significantly reduced in irradiated co-cultures of HDMEC and ASC compared to non-irradiated controls. Levels of IL-6, FGF, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the supernatants of the co-cultures were significantly less affected by external radiation in comparison to HDMEC. The increased expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules by HDMEC after external radiation is mitigated in the co-culture setting with ASC. These in vitro changes seem to support the clinical observation that ASC may have a stabilizing effect when injected into irradiated wounds

  4. Comparison of parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents presenting with internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.

  5. Kikuchi Disease Presented with External Iliac Lymphadenitis in a 7-year-old Girl: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Oh, Mee Hye; Shin, Hyeong Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Kikuchi disease of the iliac lymph node is rare, and even more rare is lymphadenitis with abdominal pain caused by Kikuchi disease. We report the US and CT findings of Kikuchi disease of the external iliac node in a 7 year-old-girl who complained of fever and abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant

  6. Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma of the great vessels presenting as superior vena cava syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, K.S.; Zidar, B.L.; Wang, S.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with a pleomorphic intravascular leiomyosarcoma of the great vessels of the neck and mediastinum presented clinically with a superior vena cava syndrome. A latent period of 29 years elapsed between receiving orthovoltage radiation to the neck and right side of chest to treat recurrent ganglioneuroblastoma, and the appearance of a leiomyosarcoma and subsequent recurrences. The patient underwent partial resection of the tumor, received adjunct chemotherapy, and was shown to be free of disease by clinical tests and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 17 months after completion of chemotherapy. The criteria for the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcomas are reviewed in relation to the present case. The critical role of magnetic resonance imaging in both the diagnosis and continued follow-up of the patient is described. This would appear to be the first reported case of radiation-induced intravascular leiomyosarcoma of the great vessels of the neck and mediastinum presenting as a superior vena cava syndrome

  7. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  8. External radiation in Dolon village due to local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Fukutani, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, is known to be heavily contaminated by local fallout from the first USSR atomic bomb test in 1949. External radiation in Dolon was evaluated based on recent 137Cs data in soil and calculation of temporal change in the fission product composition. After fitting a log-normal distribution to the soil data, a 137Cs deposition of 32 kBq m-2, which corresponds to the 90th-percentile of the distribution, was tentatively chosen as a value to evaluate the radiation situation in 1949. Our calculation indicated that more than 95% of the cumulative dose for 50 y had been delivered within 1 y after the deposition. The resulting cumulative dose for 1 y after the deposition, normalized to the initial contamination containing 1 kBq m-2 of 137Cs, was 15.6 mGy, assuming a fallout arrival time of 3 h and a medium level of fractionation. Finally, 0.50 Gy of absorbed dose in air was derived as our tentative estimate for 1-year cumulative external dose in Dolon due to local fallout from the first USSR test in 1949.

  9. Studies on occupational exposure to external radiation at Fukuoka University Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Teiichi; Oshima, Yoshio; Ono, Yo

    1982-01-01

    This is a report of the yearly changes of exposure received by workers in radiological occupations at Fukuoka University Hospital from August 1973 to December 1980. The total number of the workers during this period involving diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and the other related fields included 153 physicians, 27 technicians, 29 nurses and 16 assistants. Out of 225 workers, only two angiographers and two involved in intracavitary radiation therapy received more than 500 mrem of the annual exposure dose. The highest dose was 610 mrem. The exposure doses have gradually decreased each year. The exposure of the workers has remarkably decreased to almost negligible since a remote afterloading system was installed for intracavitary radiation therapy. In no worker was any somatic effect of radiation detected in the periodical physical examinations, even in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. (author)

  10. Workplace monitoring of mixed neutron-photon radiation fields and its contribution to external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhmacher, H.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace monitoring is a common procedure for determining measures for routine radiation protection in a particular working environment. For mixed radiation fields consisting of neutrons and photons, it is of increased importance because it contributes to the improved accuracy of individual monitoring. An example is the determination of field-specific correction factors, which can be applied to the readings of personal dosemeters. This paper explains the general problems associated with individual dosimetry of neutron radiation, and describes the various options for workplace monitoring. These options cover a range from the elaborate field characterisation using transport calculations or spectrometers to the simpler approach using area monitors. Examples are given for workplaces in nuclear industry, at particle accelerators and at flight altitudes. (authors)

  11. Studies on occupational exposure to external radiation at Fukuoka University Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Teiichi; Oshima, Yoshio; Ono, Yo [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    This is a report of the yearly changes of exposure received by workers in radiological occupations at Fukuoka University Hospital from August 1973 to December 1980. The total number of the workers during this period involving diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and the other related fields included 153 physicians, 27 technicians, 29 nurses and 16 assistants. Out of 225 workers, only two angiographers and two involved in intracavitary radiation therapy received more than 500 mrem of the annual exposure dose. The highest dose was 610 mrem. The exposure doses have gradually decreased each year. The exposure of the workers has remarkably decreased to almost negligible since a remote afterloading system was installed for intracavitary radiation therapy. In no worker was any somatic effect of radiation detected in the periodical physical examinations, even in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood.

  12. Operational quantities for use in external radiation protection measurements. An investigation of concepts and principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of the Euratom Treaty the Commission of the European Communities is required to draw up basic standards for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. The basic standards lay down reference values for particular quantities; these values are required to be measured, and appropriate steps taken to ensure that they are not exceeded. To ensure that the basic standards are applied uniformly in the Member States, it is necessary to harmonize not only national laws but also measurement and recording techniques. As a practical contribution towards this objective, the Commission has since 1964 been conducting intercomparison programmes on operational radiation protection dosimetry. Effective monitoring against the dangers of ionizing radiation cannot be guaranteed unless the measuring instruments meet the necessary requirements, the quantities measured are those for which limit values have been laid down, and the instruments can be calibrated unequivocally. The differences between the concepts of quantity and unit of measurement in radiation protection were often unclear. In the light of developments at international level, the introduction of the international system of units of measurements (SI units) and the contents of ICRP Publication No 26, the services of the European Community responsible for radiation protection decided to review the whole question of quantities. The introduction of the 'index' quantities (absorbed dose index and dose equivalent index) was greeted with initial enthusiasm, but it soon became clear, on closer critical examination, that these too had major shortcomings. The Commission, in collaboration with experts from the Member States of the European Community, has therefore set out in this publication the various considerations and points of view concerning the use of these quantities in practical dosimetry. It is hoped that this publication will be of use to all

  13. Influence of external radiation on non-LTE opacities of Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2010-11-01

    In Laboratory Astrophysics, where astrophysics phenomena are scaled down to the laboratory, Xenon is commonly used. In most cases, astrophysical plasmas are not dense enough to warrant LTE. However, they are surrounded by radiation fields. Extensive detailed level computations of non-LTE Xe around Te = 100eV were performed with HULLAC [1], with different radiation temperatures and/or dilution factors. Generally, the effects are very important, even with small dilution factors. [4pt] [1] M. Klapisch and M. Busquet, High Ener. Dens. Phys.5, (2009) 105-9; Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.54, (2009) 210.

  14. Natural radiation external exposures levels in Chilean Sub-Antarctic and country stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuardo, E.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1983 gamma exposures levels, at 1,5 m above the soil are being investigated using TLD detectors. A network of 12 stations have been established from ARICA (18 deg 20' S latitude) in Northern Chile to YELCHO (64 deg 52' S latitude) in Antartic territory. One year monitoring period was used at Antartic stations and a four months period in the country. The main subject of this study is to assess the average background radiation levels along the territory which is relevant to get a reference level and specially an estimate of the average natural radiation contribution to the population dose in Southern Chile

  15. External Validation and Optimization of International Consensus Clinical Target Volumes for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Abhinav V. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wu, Tianming [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Smith, Norman D.; Steinberg, Gary D. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Liauw, Stanley L., E-mail: sliauw@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: International consensus (IC) clinical target volumes (CTVs) have been proposed to standardize radiation field design in the treatment of patients at high risk of locoregional failure (LRF) after radical cystectomy. The purpose of this study was to externally validate the IC CTVs in a cohort of postsurgical patients followed up for LRF and identify revisions that might improve the IC CTVs' performance. Methods and Materials: Among 334 patients with pT3 to pT4 bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy, LRF developed in 58 (17%), of whom 52 had computed tomography scans available for review. Images with LRF were exported into a treatment planning system, and IC CTVs were contoured and evaluated for adequacy of coverage of each LRF with respect to both the patient and each of 6 pelvic subsites: common iliac (CI) region, obturator region (OR), external and internal iliac region, presacral region, cystectomy bed, or other pelvic site. Revisions to the IC contours were proposed based on the findings. Results: Of the 52 patients with documented LRF, 13 (25%) had LRFs that were outside of the IC CTV involving 17 pelvic subsites: 5 near the CI CTV, 5 near the OR CTV, 1 near the external and internal iliac region, and 6 near the cystectomy bed. The 5 CI failures were located superior to the CTV, and the 5 OR failures were located medial to the CTV. Increasing the superior boundary of the CI to a vessel-based definition of the aortic bifurcation, as well as increasing the medial extension of the OR by an additional 9 mm, decreased the number of patients with LRF outside of the IC CTV to 7 (13%). Conclusions: Modified IC CTVs inclusive of a slight adjustment superiorly for the CI region and medially for the OR may reduce the risk of pelvic failure in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy.

  16. Present status and prospects of radioisotopes and radiation utilization in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiquni, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present status and prospects of RI and radiation utilization in Indonesia, which developed under the Government's assistance and supervision since the opening of the research reactor in 1965, was reviewed. Utilization of short half-life RI in various fields was described. Utilization in medicine, sterilization of medical supplies, the industrial world and hydrology was detailed. Annual changes in these fields were shown and tables were presented. The status of various types of radiation and RI utilization in Indonesia, which included nuclear analytical techniques in industry and various laboratories in agriculture, industry and biology, was reported. Finally, the plan of construction of a third research reactor was referred to. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Patients' and professionals' barriers and facilitators to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term, a qualitative analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A. N.; Vlemmix, F.; Fleuren, M. A H; Rijnders, M. E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, B.W.J.; van Zwieten, M.C.B.; Kok, M.

    Objective: external cephalic version (ECV) is a relatively simple and safe manoeuvre and a proven effective approach in the reduction of breech presentation at term. There is professional consensus that ECV should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation, but only up to 70% of

  18. Patients' and professionals' barriers and facilitators to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term, a qualitative analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A. N.; Vlemmix, F.; Fleuren, M. A. H.; Rijnders, M. E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Zwieten, M. C. B.; Kok, M. [=Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    external cephalic version (ECV) is a relatively simple and safe manoeuvre and a proven effective approach in the reduction of breech presentation at term. There is professional consensus that ECV should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation, but only up to 70% of women eligible

  19. Patients' and professionals' barriers and facilitators to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term, a qualitative analysis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Vlemmix, F.; Fleuren, M.A.H.; Rijnders, M.E.; Beuckens, A.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Zwieten, M.C.B. van; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: external cephalic version (ECV) is a relatively simple and safe manoeuvre and a proven effective approach in the reduction of breech presentation at term. There is professional consensus that ECV should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation, but only up to 70% of

  20. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  1. Radiological protection. Technical recommendations for monitoring the exposure of individuals to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Advice is given on the assessment of personal doses received by each worker. The objectives of individual monitoring programs and the requirements which personal dosemeters should satisfy are given. The paper is mainly concerned with assessment of doses due to photon and electron radiations

  2. Indoor External Radiation Risk in Densely Populated Regions of Southern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ife-Adediran, Oluwatobi O.; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B.

    2018-05-01

    It is known that certain types of building materials contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides; consequently, exposure to indoor background radiation is from the combined radioactivity from the soil as well as building materials; indoor exposures therefore have higher radiation hazard potentials than outdoor exposures in this regard and hence, need to be monitored. In this paper, an evaluation of background ionizing radiation from different buildings in Lagos and Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the exposure rate of the general public to indoor ionizing radiation. 630 in situ measurements from the different buildings were taken using a Geiger Muller counter (model GQ-320 Plus). The indoor dose rates (i.e., 50-120 nGy/h) were within the world average values while the Annual Effective Dose for most of the buildings were above the world average AED for indoor gamma exposure from building materials. The mean AED for Lagos and Ibadan due to indoor exposures were 0.37 and 0.39 mSv/y with Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk of 0.99E-3 and 1.05E-3, respectively.

  3. Outcomes of external cephalic version and breech presentation at term, an audit of deliveries at a Sydney tertiary obstetric hospital, 1997-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Natasha; Roberts, Christine L; Cameron, Carolyn A; Peat, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic information on outcomes of breech presentation is important for clinical decision-making. We aim to quantify adverse maternal and fetal outcomes of breech presentation at term. We conducted an audit of 1,070 women with a term, singleton breech presentation who were classified as eligible or ineligible for external cephalic version or diagnosed in labor at a tertiary obstetric hospital in Australia, 1997-2004. Maternal, delivery and perinatal outcomes were assessed and frequency of events quantified. Five hundred and sixty (52%) women were eligible and 170 (16%) were ineligible for external cephalic version, 211 (20%) women were diagnosed in labor and 134 (12%) were unclassifiable. Seventy-one percent of eligible women had an external cephalic version, with a 39% success rate. Adverse outcomes of breech presentation at term were rare: immediate delivery for prelabor rupture of membranes (1.3%), nuchal cord (9.3%), cord prolapse (0.4%), and fetal death (0.3%); and did not differ by clinical classification. Women who had an external cephalic version had a reduced risk of onset-of-labor within 24 h (RR 0.25; 95%CI 0.08, 0.82) compared with women eligible for but who did not have an external cephalic version. Women diagnosed with breech in labor had the highest rates of emergency cesarean section (64%), cord prolapse (1.4%) and poorest infant outcomes. Adverse maternal and fetal outcomes of breech presentation at term are rare and there was no increased risk of complications after external cephalic version. Findings provide important data to quantify the frequency of adverse outcomes that will help facilitate informed decision-making and ensure optimal management of breech presentation.

  4. American Brachytherapy Society Task Group Report: Combination of brachytherapy and external beam radiation for high-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Daniel E; Soni, Payal D; McLaughlin, Patrick W; Merrick, Gregory S; Stock, Richard G; Blasko, John C; Zelefsky, Michael J

    To review outcomes for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy (CMRT) utilizing external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with a brachytherapy boost. The available literature for high-risk prostate cancer treated with combined modality radiation therapy was reviewed and summarized. At this time, the literature suggests that the majority of high-risk cancers are curable with multimodal treatment. Several large retrospective studies and three prospective randomized trials comparing CMRT to dose-escalated EBRT have demonstrated superior biochemical control with CMRT. Longer followup of the randomized trials will be required to determine if this will translate to a benefit in metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival. Although greater toxicity has been associated with CMRT compared to EBRT, recent studies suggest that technological advances that allow better definition and sparing of critical adjacent structures as well as increasing experience with brachytherapy have improved implant quality and the toxicity profile of brachytherapy. The role of androgen deprivation therapy is well established in the external beam literature for high-risk disease, but there is controversy regarding the applicability of these data in the setting of dose escalation. At this time, there is not sufficient evidence for the omission of androgen deprivation therapy with dose escalation in this population. Comparisons with surgery remain limited by differences in patient selection, but the evidence would suggest better disease control with CMRT compared to surgery alone. Due to a series of technological advances, modern combination series have demonstrated unparalleled rates of disease control in the high-risk population. Given the evidence from recent randomized trials, combination therapy may become the standard of care for high-risk cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Ultrasonically guided 125iodine seed implantation with external radiation in management of localized prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Bak, M; Juul, N

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-three patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated) were treated with transperineal 125Iodine seed implantation (160 Gy) guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation (47.4 Gy). The observation time was six to sixty-eight months...... with a median follow-up of thirty-five months. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35 percent. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after one to two years, revealing still malignant histology in 12 (48%). Development of distant metastases occurred...

  6. Finding the breech: Influence of breech presentation on mode of delivery based on timing of diagnosis, attempt at external cephalic version, and provider success with version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Suzanne; Leeman, Lawrence; Yonke, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Breech presentation affects 3-4% of pregnancies at term and malpresentation is the primary indication for 10-15% of cesarean deliveries. External cephalic version is an effective intervention that can decrease the need for cesarean delivery; however, timely identification of breech presentation is required. We hypothesized that women with a fetus in a breech presentation that is diagnosed after 38 weeks' estimated gestational age have a decreased likelihood of external cephalic version attempted and an increased likelihood of cesarean delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study. A chart review was performed for 251 women with breech presentation at term presenting to our tertiary referral university hospital for external cephalic version, cesarean for breech presentation, or vaginal breech delivery. Vaginal delivery was significantly more likely (31.1% vs 12.5%; Pexternal cephalic version was offered, and subsequently attempted in a greater proportion of women diagnosed before 38 weeks. External cephalic version was more successful when performed by physicians with greater procedural volume during the 3.5 year period of the study (59.1% for providers performing at least 10 procedures vs 31.3% if performing fewer than 10 procedures, Pexternal cephalic version. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A series of Chinese mathematic phantom and study of its external radiation dosimetry character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Changran; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Da; Xie Qin

    2012-01-01

    On the discussion of effect on dosimetry by different races, different postures, and different weighting factors, a series of Chinese reference human including two genders and three postures were constructed in according with GBZ/T 200. With Monte-Carlo method, absorbed dose of each organ and effective dose of several energy and geometries were calculated. With different tissue weighting factors, difference can be found in lower energies with all geometries. Also different races and different postures can bring about the different doses with the shielding of human organs, especially for the lower energy. As a conclusion, corresponding situation should be considered in radiation protection, especially in radiology and complexity radiation field. (authors)

  8. Application of estimating effective dose from external radiation using two dosimeters during maintenance periods at KNPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2008-01-01

    The application of a two-dosimeter and its algorithm and a test of its use in an inhomogeneous high radiation field are described. The goal was to develop an improved method for estimating the effective dose during maintenance periods at Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The use of the method in domestic and international NPPs including USA, Canada and Japan was also investigated. The algorithms used by the Canadian Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and American ANSI HPS N13.41, Lakshmanan, NCRP, EPRI and Texas A and M University were extensively analyzed as two-dosimeter algorithms. The possibility of their application to NPPs was evaluated using data for each algorithm from two-dosimeter results for an inhomogeneous high radiation field during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. (author)

  9. Use of a concise prescription for specifying absolute dose distribution in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viggers, D.A.; Shalev, S.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation therapy dose distributions are usually calculated relative to some normalization point to which a prescribed dose in grays is to be delivered. Often the radiation therapist requests that the prescribed dose be delivered to some other point(s), such as the 90% isodose. Therefore the prescribed dose is not well defined. Furthermore, this procedure leaves the shape of the dose distribution unspecified. The authors have used a dose prescription specifying the volumes of target and nontarget tissue that must lie within dose limits stated in grays. These dose-volume limits determine the magnitude and shape of the dose distribution. The prescription is well defined while allowing the absolute dose at a chosen point to be adjusted so that the dose distribution satisfies the prescription

  10. Clinical Implications of TiGRT Algorithm for External Audit in Radiation Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei; Mohsen Saeb; Shahram Monadi; Iraj Jabbari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Performing audits play an important role in quality assurance program in radiation oncology. Among different algorithms, TiGRT is one of the common application software for dose calculation. This study aimed to clinical implications of TiGRT algorithm to measure dose and compared to calculated dose delivered to the patients for a variety of cases, with and without the presence of inhomogeneities and beam modifiers. Materials and Methods: Nonhomogeneous phantom as quality dose veri...

  11. Present status of radiation therapy in the conservative management of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papillon, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conservative treatment of rectal cancer may be a valid alternative to radical surgery in cases selected with regard to their very low probability of lymphatic spread. Beside the surgical modalities of local treatment, radiation therapy has gained a substantial place thaks to the use of intracavitary irradiation. In series of 310 cases of T 1 -T 2 tumors followed more than 5 years, the rate of death of cancer is 7.7% and the rate of local failures is 5%. The protocol is based on a short but intensive course of external beam irradiation (30 Gy over 12 days) followed 2 months later by intracavitary irradiation directed to the tumor bed. In a series of 71 patients (mean age 74 years) with selected T 2 or T 3 tumors larger than 4 cm, followed more than 3 years, the rate of death of cancer is 11% and the rate of death of intercurrent disease is 22%. At 5 years the rate of death of cancer is 16%. It is emphasized the necessity of a strict selection of cases by clinical means and endorectal sonography. This strategy must only be conceived as a teamwork of radiation therapists and sureons. (author). 36 refs.; 6 tabs

  12. External Beam Radiotherapy of Recurrent Glioma: Radiation Tolerance of the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminia, Peter, E-mail: p.sminia@vumc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology Section, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mayer, Ramona [EBG MedAustron GmbH., Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2012-04-05

    Malignant gliomas relapse in close proximity to the resection site, which is the postoperatively irradiated volume. Studies on re-irradiation of glioma were examined regarding radiation-induced late adverse effects (i.e., brain tissue necrosis), to obtain information on the tolerance dose and treatment volume of normal human brain tissue. The studies were analyzed using the linear-quadratic model to express the re-irradiation tolerance in cumulative equivalent total doses when applied in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2{sub cumulative}). Analysis shows that the EQD2{sub cumulative} increases from conventional re-irradiation series to fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) to LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The mean time interval between primary radiotherapy and the re-irradiation course was shortened from 30 months for conventional re-irradiation to 17 and 10 months for FSRT and SRS, respectively. Following conventional re-irradiation, radiation-induced normal brain tissue necrosis occurred beyond an EQD2{sub cumulative} around 100 Gy. With increasing conformality of therapy, the smaller the treatment volume is, the higher the radiation dose that can be tolerated. Despite the dose escalation, no increase in late normal tissue toxicity was reported. On basis of our analysis, the use of particle therapy in the treatment of recurrent gliomas, because of the optimized physical dose distribution in the tumour and surrounding healthy brain tissue, should be considered for future clinical trials.

  13. Development of the national register of radiation workers: subsystem for individual monitoring of external exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haitao; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Fu Yinghua; Fan Yaohua; Yue Baorong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To develop a national registry and reporting system of individual monitoring for workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Methods: In accordance with the relevant law, regulations, standards and the current health supervision practice for radiation workers in China, to ensure more effective collection of information on individual monitoring from all levels of service providers across the country and an easy query and analysis of the collected information for both service providers and administrative institutions, the register consisted of an offline-system and a web-based information system. The off-line system consisted of 8 tables, which could easily make annual and period monitoring reports, and upload individual monitoring data in compressed and encrypted format. Web-based system consisted of 6 modules, could easily make S customized tabulations of monitoring data and show 2 trend figures. SSLVPN secure remote access was used in the system. Arranged by the Ministry of Health, training courses provided to all individual monitoring service providers and provincial administrative institutions. Results: A new and individual-based national register and reporting system of individual monitoring for workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation was successfully developed, and would be officially run soon. Conclusions: The establishment and running of the register would be great improvement on the national radiological health reports and produce a far-reaching impact on the individual monitoring in China. (authors)

  14. External Beam Radiotherapy of Recurrent Glioma: Radiation Tolerance of the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sminia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas relapse in close proximity to the resection site, which is the postoperatively irradiated volume. Studies on re-irradiation of glioma were examined regarding radiation-induced late adverse effects (i.e., brain tissue necrosis, to obtain information on the tolerance dose and treatment volume of normal human brain tissue. The studies were analyzed using the linear-quadratic model to express the re-irradiation tolerance in cumulative equivalent total doses when applied in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2cumulative. Analysis shows that the EQD2cumulative increases from conventional re-irradiation series to fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT to LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS. The mean time interval between primary radiotherapy and the re-irradiation course was shortened from 30 months for conventional re-irradiation to 17 and 10 months for FSRT and SRS, respectively. Following conventional re-irradiation, radiation-induced normal brain tissue necrosis occurred beyond an EQD2cumulative around 100 Gy. With increasing conformality of therapy, the smaller the treatment volume is, the higher the radiation dose that can be tolerated. Despite the dose escalation, no increase in late normal tissue toxicity was reported. On basis of our analysis, the use of particle therapy in the treatment of recurrent gliomas, because of the optimized physical dose distribution in the tumour and surrounding healthy brain tissue, should be considered for future clinical trials.

  15. Results of a randomized clinical trial of external beam radiation to prevent restenosis after superficial femoral artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therasse, Eric; Donath, David; Elkouri, Stéphane; Lespérance, Jacques; Giroux, Marie-France; Oliva, Vincent L; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Louis; Perreault, Pierre; Gilbert, Patrick; Soulez, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of external beam radiation (EBR) in preventing restenosis after superficial femoral artery (SFA) stenting in comparison with a control group treated with SFA stenting only. In this Institutional Review Board-approved study, patients who provided written informed consent were randomly assigned to 0 Gy or 14 Gy of EBR to the stent site 24 hours after SFA stenting. The primary end point was the angiographic binary restenosis rate 2 years after stenting. Categorical and continuous end points were respectively analyzed using logistic regression models and Wilcoxon tests. End points expressed as time to event were analyzed using a log-rank test. The study included 155 patients, 46 women and 109 men (mean age, 66 years; range, 45-85 years). In the 0 and 14 Gy groups, binary restenosis was present, respectively, in 44% (34/77) and 68% (52/76; P = .003) 2 years after stenting. Stent thrombosis occurred in 13% (10/78) of the 0 Gy group and in 33% (25/77) of the 14 Gy group (P = .003). Target lesion revascularization at 2 years was 26% (25/78) in the 0 Gy group and 30% (23/77) in the 14 Gy group (P = .56). There were no significant differences in total walking distances change from baseline to 2 years (46 ± 100 and 26 ± 79 m, respectively, in the 0 Gy and 14 Gy group; P = .25). There were no procedure-related deaths and no major amputations. A single 14 Gy dose of EBR to the SFA stenting site did not prevent in-stent restenosis. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  17. Measurement of the natural radiation environment and its dependence on various parameters in Austria and assessment of the natural external and internal radiation dose of various population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, E.

    1978-06-01

    The natural mean values of natural radionuclides in the air and external gamma radiation were determined from measurements carried out in various parts of Austria and the mean values were used as a basis for the determination of body and organ doses. Moreover frequency distributions of several specific organ doses within various population groups were investigated. Measurements of natural air activity were carried out indoors and outdoors as well as gamma radiation at the following sites - Salzburg Town, Badgastein, Gastein Valley and Mallnitz and several other places at a line crossing the Alps from South to North (Corinthia, Schwarzach, Forstau, Hallein, Kuchl, Grodig and Voggenberg - Bergheim) and in 15 different mines in the Counties of Salzburg and Upper Austria. The methods of calculation of the radiation burden due to inhalation is published in the Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological and Environmental Effects of Low Level Radiation, IAEA, Chicago 1976, Vol. II pages 305-315. It can be concluded from the work that great local differences of some components occur even within relatively small areas. The radioactivity in the air shows great temporal differences at one and the same site. In addition radiation doses had to be calculated separately for various organs and tissues due to the inhomogeneous distribution of doses within the body. Also the estimation had to be made for a variety of individuals depending on sex, age, weight and various physiological states of activity. The highest doses to tissues from inhalation of natural radioactivity are the basal cells of the sigmental epithelium and subsigmental bronchi 4th - 9th generation in the lung model of Weibel. 46% of the population investigated received more than 0.5 rem per year, 25% more than 1.5 rem per year and 1.3% more than 3 rem per year. The different air activities in the living and working rooms are due to differences in the building materials and in the construction of houses

  18. Modelling the external radiation exposure from the Chernobyl fallout using data from the Swedish municipality measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Mattias; Tondel, Martin; Isaksson, Mats; Finck, Robert; Wålinder, Robert; Mamour, Afrah; Rääf, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl fallout and the subsequent deposition of radionuclides in Sweden, Swedish municipalities launched a measurement program to monitor the external radiation exposure. This program encompasses measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate 1 m above ground at selected locations, and repeats those measurements at the same locations at 7-month intervals. Measurement data compiled from the seven locations with the highest deposition were combined with data from aerial surveys since May 1986 of ground deposition of 137 Cs, high-resolution gamma spectrometry performed at four locations in May 1986, and measurements from fixed continuous air gamma rate monitoring stations from 28 April to 15 May 1986. Based on these datasets, a model of the time pattern of the external dose rate in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate from the Chernobyl fallout was developed. The decrease in the ambient dose equivalent rate could, on average, be described by a four-component exponential decay function with effective half-times of 6.8 ± 0.3 d, 104 ± 26 d, 1.0 ± 0.02 y and 5.5 ± 0.09 y, respectively. The predominant contributions to the external dose rate in the first month were from short-lived fission products superseded by 134 Cs and then 137 Cs. Integrated over 70 y and using extrapolation of the curve fits, our model predicts that 137 Cs contributes about 60% and 134 Cs contributes about 30% of the external effective dose at these seven locations. The projected time-integrated 70 y external effective dose to an unshielded person from all nuclides per unit total activity deposition of 137 Cs is estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.0.08 mSv/(kBq m -2 ). These results are in agreement with those found in Chernobyl contaminated Russian forest areas, and emphasize the usefulness of maintaining a long-term and regular measurement program in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  20. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  1. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-24

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  2. The Utility of PET/CT in the Planning of External Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calais, Jeremie; Cao, Minsong; Nickols, Nicholas G

    2018-04-01

    Radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy are the definitive treatment options for patients with localized prostate cancer. A rising level of prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy indicates prostate cancer recurrence, and these patients may still be cured with salvage radiotherapy. To maximize chance for cure, the irradiated volumes should completely encompass the extent of disease. Therefore, accurate estimation of the location of disease is critical for radiotherapy planning in both the definitive and the salvage settings. Current first-line imaging for prostate cancer has limited sensitivity for detection of disease both at initial staging and at biochemical recurrence. Integration of PET into routine evaluation of prostate cancer patients may improve both staging accuracy and radiotherapy planning. 18 F-FDG PET/CT is now routinely used in radiation planning for several cancer types. However, 18 F-FDG PET/CT has low sensitivity for prostate cancer. Additional PET probes evaluated in prostate cancer include 18 F-sodium fluoride, 11 C-acetate, 11 C- or 18 F-choline, 18 F-fluciclovine, and 68 Ga- or 18 F-labeled ligands that bind prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). PSMA ligands appear to be the most sensitive and specific but have not yet received Food and Drug Administration New Drug Application approval for use in the United States. Retrospective and prospective investigations suggest a potential major impact of PET/CT on prostate radiation treatment planning. Prospective trials randomizing patients to routine radiotherapy planning versus PET/CT-aided planning may show meaningful clinical outcomes. Prospective clinical trials evaluating the addition of 18 F-fluciclovine PET/CT for planning of salvage radiotherapy with clinical endpoints are under way. Prospective trials evaluating the clinical impact of PSMA PET/CT on prostate radiation planning are indicated. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. Facilitators and barriers to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term among health care providers in the Netherlands: a quantitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, Ageeth N.; Vlemmix, Floortje; Beuckens, Antje; Rijnders, Marlies E.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Kok, Marjolein; Fleuren, Margot A. H.

    2014-01-01

    guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines among

  4. Facilitators and barriers to external cephalic version for breech presentation at term among health care providers in the Netherlands: A quantitative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A.N.; Vlemmix, F.; Beuckens, A.; Rijnders, M.E.; Opmeer, B.C.; Mol, B.W.J.; Kok, M.; Fleuren, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 50-60% of the women receive an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines

  5. Material presented to advisory committee on reactor safeguards, subcommittee on extreme external phenomena, January 29-30, 1981, Los Angeles, California. Seismic safety margins research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Chuang, T.Y.; Cummings, G.E.; Dong, R.G.; Johnson, J.J.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The January 29-30, 1981, meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Subcommittee on Extreme External Phenomena, mark the close of Phase I efforts on the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Presentations at the meeting focused on results produced. These included computer codes, response computations, failure and release probabilities, data bases, and fragilities and parameter characteristics

  6. A Bizarre, Unexplained, and Progressive External Rotation of the Shoulder as a Presentation of a Metastatic Deposit in the Rotator Cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif El-Tawil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first reported case of a tumour deposit within the rotator cuff presenting as a bizarre, progressive, and fixed external rotation deformity of the shoulder. It is also the first reported case to our knowledge of an oesophageal primary metastasising to the rotator cuff.

  7. Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Japan by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Narita, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To recognize the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Japan, using a nationwide survey conducted by the Japan 3-D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy Group. Methods and Materials: The questionnaire was sent by mail to 117 institutions. Ninety-four institutions (80%) responded by the end of November 2005. Fifty-three institutions indicated that they have already started SBRT, and 38 institutions had been reimbursed by insurance. Results: A total of 1111 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer were treated. Among these patients, 637 had T1N0M0 and 272 had T2N0M0 lung cancer. Metastatic lung cancer was found in 702 and histologically unconfirmed lung tumor in 291 patients. Primary liver cancer was found in 207 and metastatic liver cancer in 76 patients. The most frequent schedule used for primary lung cancer was 48Gy in 4 fractions at 22 institutions (52%), followed by 50Gy in 5 fractions at 11 institutions (26%) and 60Gy in 8 fractions at 4 institutions (10%). The tendency was the same for metastatic lung cancer. The average number of personnel involved in SBRT was 1.8 radiation oncologists, including 1.1 certified radiation oncologists, 2.8 technologists, 0.7 nurses, and 0.6 certified quality assurance personnel and 0.3 physicists. The most frequent amount of time for treatment planning was 61-120min, for quality assurance was 50-60min, and for treatment was 30min. There were 14 (0.6% of all cases) reported Grade 5 complications: 11 cases of radiation pneumonitis, 2 cases of hemoptysis, and 1 case of radiation esophagitis. Conclusion: The current status of SBRT in Japan was surveyed.

  8. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  9. Growth and development over the first year of life of grandchildren of persons being exposed to occupational external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushkina, N.P.; Perminova, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Physical and psychomotor development of children whose grandparents were occupationally exposed to chronic external gamma-radiation at doses 0.1 to over 400 Gy was studied. Mean values of the major anthropometric parameters at first and over the first year of life, growth and mass increment rates were assessed, as well as body length growth per quarter, age of the doubling and tripling the body mass at birth, and age of the cross-over of the head and chest circumference values. Share of infants with the harmonic and dysharmonic development, of those small-for-date and large-for-date were estimated, and the psychomotor development and the rate of biologic maturation were assessed. No significant differences between studied parameters of the test group and the reference group were detected

  10. External radiation doses from deposed fly ash with a content of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1991-12-01

    Fly ash from coal fired power plants might be used as filling material below buildings used for habitation. The fly ash content of the radionuclides of potassium, thorium and radium can cause external exposure of the inhabitants to γ radiation emitted during the radioactive decay of those radionuclides. Methods for calculation of the γ dose rate in air at indoor and outdoor positions are described. The dependence of the air dose rate on the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the fly ash material and on the thickness of a covering layer of soil or sand is analysed. The effective annual dose to inhabitants are calculated for typical Danish housing conditions with the buildings placed on a layer of fly ash of infinite vertical and horizontal dimensions and covered by soil or sand of varying thickness. (au) 10 refs

  11. External meeting - Geneva University: Semileptonic and Radiative B-meson decays

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 4 April 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Semileptonic and Radiative B-meson decays by Dr Antonio Limosani / K2K, Japon The success of the B Factories at KEK and SLAC has furthered our knowledge of CP violation, a necessary ingredient for the creation of a matter-dominanted universe. Ever increasing data samples has ushered in a new era of precision CP measurements, in which the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is examined for signs of New Physics. One of the crucial pieces of information, surprisingly, comes not from CP violation but from studies of semileptonic decays of the B mesons. I will discuss how various measurements of semileptonic and radiative B decays combine together to provide a precision measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vcb| and to determine the value of s...

  12. Comparative study of different methods used in assessment of population exposure to external environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1979-08-01

    Doses received by individuals and population from terrestial radiation sources were estimated using three approaches, 1) measurements of dose rates, 2) calculations on the basis of spectrometric analysis of the soil or local radiation field and 3) integrating dosimeters. The 1st approach was carried out by means of pressurised ionization chambers, scintillation counters or GM counters properly calibrated, and also by supplying individuals with dosimetric or radiometric instruments. The data for calculation assessment was based on measurements of dose rates both outdoors and indoors and often taken from spectrometric analysis of natural radionuclide. Several equations and calculation factors have been derived and computer programs developed for calculating the concentration of radionuclides in question and for estimating dose rates in π or 2π geometries. Integrating measurements were carried out using TL dosimeters. To assess the reliability of the methods, comparative measurements were carried out at statistically representative number of locations using a wide choice of techniques. The detailed methods used and the equipment are described in the research programme as well as the results of the measurements. The most reliable results are these obtained when measurements are carried out over a long period of time, e.g. one year

  13. Development, external validation and clinical usefulness of a practical prediction model for radiation-induced dysphagia in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehing-Oberije, Cary; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Petit, Steven; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Vandecasteele, Katrien; De Neve, Wilfried; Dingemans, Anne Marie C.; El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph; Bradley, Jeff; Huang, Ellen; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Acute dysphagia is a distressing dose-limiting toxicity occurring frequently during concurrent chemo-radiation or high-dose radiotherapy for lung cancer. It can lead to treatment interruptions and thus jeopardize survival. Although a number of predictive factors have been identified, it is still not clear how these could offer assistance for treatment