WorldWideScience

Sample records for external environmental costs

  1. Internalizing external environmental costs of agriculture into product prices, Case study for milk and potatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    Society has to pay large amounts of money to compensate for the environmental damages caused by farm emissions. These external costs are not fully accounted for in product prices and internalization of these external costs into the cost price of agricultu

  2. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  3. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  4. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, G. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  5. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, A.W.; Mumford, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  6. Measuring the environmental benefits of hydrogen transportation fuel cycles under uncertainty about external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, Liliya; Gulli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ('oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine') in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ('natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell'). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove this ambiguity highlighting that the hydrogen pathway provides significant environmental benefits ,especially in densely populated areas, assuming 100% city driving.

  7. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  8. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  9. A geographically resolved method to estimate levelized power plant costs with environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Joshua D.; King, Carey; Gulen, Gürcan; Olmstead, Sheila M.; Dyer, James S.; Hebner, Robert E.; Beach, Fred C.; Edgar, Thomas F.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis we developed and applied a geographically-resolved method to calculate the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of new power plants on a county-by-county basis while including estimates of some environmental externalities. We calculated the LCOE for each county of the contiguous United States for 12 power plant technologies. The minimum LCOE option for each county varies based on local conditions, capital and fuel costs, environmental externalities, and resource availability. We considered ten scenarios that vary input assumptions. We present the results in a map format to facilitate comparisons by fuel, technology, and location. For our reference analysis, which includes a cost of $62/tCO_2 for CO_2 emissions natural gas combined cycle, wind, and nuclear are most often the lowest-LCOE option. While the average cost increases when internalizing the environmental externalities (carbon and air pollutants) is small for some technologies, the local cost differences are as high as $0.62/kWh for coal (under our reference analysis). These results display format, and online tools could serve as an educational tool for stakeholders when considering which technologies might or might not be a good fit for a given locality subject to system integration considerations. - Highlights: • We propose a method to add externalities to LCOE. • We present the least cost technology for every county in the US. • The cheapest technology depends on many characteristics of that locale. • We present online tools for users to change our assumptions. • Our tools are useful in discussing the impact of policy on the cost of electricity.

  10. Methodology of social and environmental external costs estimation in the Ukraine’s energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaieva Nataliia Veniaminivna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paper objective is analysis of the external costs assessment model for the eco-social damage, and/or human capital losses caused by environmental pollution from the energy enterprises in Ukraine. Using the given method, necessary initial socio-economic parameters were defined and used for calculating the social costs of capital health losses in Ukraine due to deterioration of the environment, and due to the negative impact of energy sector on the air quality for the period 2002-2013. On the proposed technique determines the range value of social losses due to the negative impact of energy on air quality in Ukraine excluding future external costs for years 2002 – 2013 ranges from 1.6 – 4.5% of GDP, and the range of values of taking into account future costs is 2.0 – 6.2% of GDP.

  11. Evaluating external costs of human health and environmental impacts using IAEA model SIMPACTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, Elena; Jelev, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    SIMPACTS (Simplified Approach for Estimating Impacts and External Costs of Electricity Generation) model developed at the International Atomic Energy Agency is a powerful and convenient tool for evaluating external costs induced by different energy sources. The model was developed for industrial countries and for developing countries as well where studies of alternatives of sustainable energy policies are conducted. The SIMPACTS allow the decision making factors involved in energy policy to have reasonable estimates of environment impacts and relating costs appealing to a rather low number of input parameters. The paper aims at analyzing by means of SIMPACTS the environmental impact produced by Cernavoda NPP operation in two cases: a) the impact of the Cernavoda NPP itself; b) the impact of an hypothetical coal based power plant of the same power level and located on the Cernavoda NPP site. The SIMPACTS modules AIRPACTS and NUCPACTS were applied to assess the impacts on human health, agricultural crops and building materials from exposure to routine atmospheric emissions and as well to quantify and value the adverse effects on human health due to routine atmospheric release of radionuclides from the NPP, via radioactive waste ground disposal or resulting from accidents in nuclear facility, respectively. The conclusion of this study based on SIMPACTS model application to assess the health effects and damage cost per year is that the Cernavoda NPP presents the lower health effects and damage cost comparing with power plants of other types

  12. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnowska, Lucyna; Frangopoulos, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion systems generate pollution that causes damages to the environment and the society. The objective of this work is to study the dispersion of pollutants and assess the environmental and social cost due to pollution from such a system. For this purpose, a pulverized coal power plant is selected. Using thermodynamic principles combined with empirical techniques, the quantities of pollutants emitted by the plant are estimated. Then, using the EcoSenseWeb software, which is based on the results of the ExternE project, the external environmental cost (externalities) of pollution is assessed. The plant is considered as located in four different cities in Poland and the externalities are calculated for each city separately. It is shown that the external environmental cost has a strong influence on the unit cost of electricity. In addition, the dispersion of pollutants is presented for the plant located in Olsztyn city. Furthermore, the plant is considered as located near the capitals of European countries and the environmental externalities are calculated for each city. The neighboring countries that are strongly affected by the plant in each particular city are identified. The sensitivity of the unit cost of electricity to certain important parameters is investigated. -- Highlights: ► The external cost of pollution has a significant impact on the cost of electricity. ► The results depend on the particular plant, location and level (local-global). ► Externalities make the installation of abatement equipment economical. ► The source location of emissions has a significant effect on the external cost. ► The transboundary pollution has a strong effect on the environmental cost.

  13. Accounting for external costs in a study of a Swedish district-heating system - An assessment of environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahlen, E.; Ahlgren, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    Sweden has historically had strict emission control by implementation of economic policy instruments with the aim of internalising the external costs of air pollution. This study aims to evaluate how well current Swedish policy instruments reflect the environmental costs associated with heat generation in several district-heating (DH) plants in the DH system of Goeteborg. Furthermore, it aims to simulate and evaluate the operation of the DH system based on its social cost-effectiveness which takes into account the DH system's private and external costs (non-internalised environmental costs). The study shows that the economic policy instruments do not fully internalise all external costs whereas for certain technologies, the costs in terms of taxes, emission permits, environmental fees, etc. are higher than the environmental costs caused by the pollutants, given the environmental cost estimates used in the study. The simulation results show that the deviating internalisation of external costs affects the economic ranking of the different plants within the studied DH system. The estimated loss in social-cost effectiveness of the operation of the DH system of Goeteborg is noticable but relatively small if compared to the variable heat generation costs for most of the studied DH plants.

  14. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  15. Energy tax harmonization in the European Union: a proposal based on the internalization of environmental external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.; Gulli, F.

    2002-01-01

    Energy tax harmonization is a crucial step towards the creation of a single market. In this article the possibility of achieving such an objective is discussed. The paper consists of two sections. In the first the European taxation on energy products is analysed. This analysis is useful in showing the differences that exist between the European countries that account for the difficulties met so far in the process of harmonization. In this respect we comment on the recent proposal of the Directive of the European Union, which lays down the obligation of minimum levels of taxation in all European member states. In the second section, after simulating the effects related to the adoption of a common environmental taxation (a first best solution based on the internalization of environmental external costs), we propose, as a second best solution, an excise tax harmonization model taking into consideration the specificity of each country and being, as far as possible, coherent with the environmental objective. This model proposes: the introduction of a minimum level of taxation on all products equal to the external cost due to the greenhouse effect (a common carbon tax); the possibility, given to the member states, of deviating from such minimum levels, in accordance with their specific requirements, internalizing in the price of the different products, by means of taxes additional to that CO 2 minimum, the external costs associated with other pollutant agents (the same in all countries); the opportunity, in case it should be necessary to exceed the entire external cost, for the member states to apply increases that are in accordance with the environmental objective. (author)

  16. Full environmental life cycle cost analysis of concentrating solar power technology: contribution of externalities to overall energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Cerrajero, E.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the use of Full Environmental Life Cycle Costing (FeLCC) methodology to evaluate the economic performance of a 50 MW parabolic trough Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant operating in hybrid mode with different natural gas inputs (between 0% and 30%). The

  17. External costs as a measure of environmental impact in the generation of electricity in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cel, W.; Czechowska-Kosacka, A.; Kujawska, Justyna; Wasąg, H.

    2018-05-01

    The depletion of natural resources, rising fossil fuel prices and growing environmental awareness, are leading to an increase in the popularity of renewable energy sources. In Poland, the share of energy derived from renewable sources continues to grow and now stands at 12.9% of the country’s gross electricity consumption. Energy from renewable sources in Poland is 60€ more expensive per MWh than energy from conventional sources. According to the European Climate and Energy Package, Poland is committed to increasing its share of renewable energy to 15% in 2020, and a further 5% by 2030. It is very important to ensure that the increase in the share of renewable energy will increase the price of energy for the end users. To convince the public of the need to incur greater costs in the purchase of “green” power, we should put forward arguments showing the benefits of its use. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the viability of support through a system of certification for renewable energy sources and also to estimate the potential increase in energy prices caused by raising RES contribution.

  18. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  19. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process. (author)

  1. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  2. Update of the external cost for environmental damage (for Flanders) with regard to air pollution and climatic change; Actualisering van de externe milieuschadekosten (algemeen voor Vlaanderen) met betrekking tot luchtverontreiniging en klimaatverandering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nocker, L.; Michiels, H.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebvre, W.; Buekers, J.; Torfs, R. [Unit Ruimtelijke Milieuaspecten, VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains a set of indicators for calculating external costs of air-polluting substances and greenhouse gases. The external costs of environmental damage relate to the damage to human health, eco systems, buildings and economy as a result of an activity. This leads to loss of welfare for inhabitants in Flanders and abroad for the current and future generations. The magnitude and evolution of the external or environmental damage cost resulting from air pollution is one of the indicators for the MIRA report that translates the state of the environment into consequences for man and economy. [Dutch] Dit rapport bevat een set van kengetallen voor de berekening van de externe kosten van luchtverontreinigende stoffen en broeikasgassen. De externe kosten of milieuschadekosten hebben betrekking op de schade aan menselijke gezondheid, ecosystemen, gebouwen en economie als gevolg van een activiteit. Dit leidt tot een verlies aan welvaart voor inwoners in Vlaanderen en het buitenland, voor deze en toekomstige generaties. De omvang en evolutie van de externe of milieuschadekosten ten gevolge van luchtverontreiniging ia 1 van de indicatoren voor het MIRA rapport die de toestand van het milieu vertaalt naar gevolgen voor mens en economie.

  3. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  4. External costs of electricity production: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutier, D.

    1995-01-01

    The external costs of energy use, or the environmental effects not included in the market pricing system, must at some point be borne by society. This paper argues that the true cost of energy, including the remedying or prevention of its environmetnal consequences, should be included in the price paid by the consumer as this is the only effective method of minimizing the burden of environmental damage. The difficulties of quantifying the value of such damage and internalising it within power prices is described with reference to work in a number of countries. (UK)

  5. Awareness of external costs - helps to improve environmental protection. The methodological convention for estimates of environmental externalities: the energy and transport sectors as examples; Externe Kosten kennen - Umwelt besser schuetzen. Die Methodenkonvention zur Schaetzung externer Kosten am Beispiel Energie und Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    Today, environmental policy has to face economic considerations more than in former times. By means of an economic valuation of environmental damage, it is possible to estimate the economic utility of environmental policy measures. This is important because today's environmental policy prevents tomorrow's environmental damage. At present, there is no other field where this fact has become as obvious as in climate policy. All recent publications have provided evidence that climate protection is worthwhile because the costs of climate protection measures are lower than those resulting from inactivity. Economic valuation means to weigh a number of choices and targets against each other. Valuation requires value judgements. How to define a damage event? How to weigh different goods which deserve protection against each other and damage occurring today against that occurring in the future? How to deal with uncertainty with regard to future returns and risks? These are only a few of the problems depending on value judgements that we have to face. This applies in general and not only in economic valuation. The Methodological Convention elaborated by the Federal Environment Agency addresses these problems. It has been the intention of the authors to explain and substantiate their value judgements and the criteria underlying the valuation of environmental damage (as well as that of environmental damage that has been avoided). Thus, the Federal Environment Agency wishes to make a contribution to transparency and consistency of decision-making in environmental policy. The principles of valuation suggested may be used for example to substantiate cost rates for external costs incurred by energy production and transport. The exemplary calculations have demonstrated that the internalization of environmental costs has been achieved in part only. Policy makers may choose different ways to gradually improve this situation. Internalization does not necessarily mean that

  6. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  7. The external costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the ExtrenE project (external costs of electricity) of the European Commission (EC). The damage caused by pollution has been calculated through analyses of the impact pathways which involve an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - monetary estimation chain. The results are introduced for various cycles of combustible fuels (with several technological variants), indicating the confidence intervals. The cost of the damage is particularly high for coal. For example, for the coal-fired power stations in France (with the emission levels of 1995) it is approximately equal to the sales price of electricity. For natural gas, the cost of damage is approximately one-third that of coal. On the other hand, the damage costs for nuclear fuel and most forms of renewable energy are low, at a maximum just a few percent of the electricity price. The greatest part of these costs arises from health impact, particularly premature death. In order to avoid the controversy inherent in making a monetary assessment of mortality, especially if this is imposed upon future generations, the reduction in life expectancy due to the various combustible cycles is also indicated and the risks of nuclear energy are put into perspective via several comparisons. (authors)

  8. Weighing environmental externalities: Let's do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Should we as a society adopt policies to internalize external environmental costs? Of course we should. But we should do it correctly. State public utility commissions (PUCs) that are using numerical 'externality adders' reflecting global and regional environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental quality. Alternative approaches for dealing with environmental damages or externalities exist that can lead utilities to take account of the environmental costs associated with the generation of electricity more effectively and at lower cost. This article discusses what an externality is and why the use of environmental adders by PUCs in the resource selection process, while well intentioned, is a bad idea. The author discusses how the most egregious errors associated with the use of adders can be corrected if PUCs insist on using them. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that state PUCs can pursue which will better serve the electricity customers they are supposed to protect and promote a cleaner environment at the lowest reasonable cost. The author emphasizes that this is not a debate about whether or not environmental costs should be factored into the investment and operating decisions of firms that produce pollution. Rather, it is about how it should be done and whether state PUCs are in a particularly good position to do it well, given their expertise, legal authorities, other responsibilities and scarce resources

  9. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher

  10. Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)

  11. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  12. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  13. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  14. Environmental externalities and alternative energy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will introduce and explain the economic concept of an open-quotes externalityclose quotes and how it applies to environmental issues. The theory was developed by economists more than a half century ago. Much of the current interest in the idea is aimed at its application to environmental issues in the regulated electric and gas utility industries. A good deal of this current interest began with the publication of the Pace University report on the Environmental Costs of Electricity. The report is widely cited but, unfortunately, seriously flawed. Two important examples of this will be shown later in this paper. The widespread interest in the application of the environmental externality concept apparently arose out of the desire of regulators and others to open-quotes level the playing fieldclose quotes for Demand Side Management (DSM) activities and renewables. The rapid growth of DSM over the past 10 to 15 years has occurred without any boost from externalities. By including the complete private and social costs of traditional electric generating technologies, it is thought that DSM and renewables will get an additional boost. Although current activity aims at the application of the environmental externality concept to the regulated utilities sector, it clearly has potential for much wider application. This issue will also be examined. The current status of various regulatory actions at the state level will be reviewed

  15. Tracking environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahutova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Tracking Environmental Costs and Investments in SAP will provide us with a managerial tool that will help us understand better the magnitude of the financial resources we are dedicating to environmental protection activities and investments. Environmental Cost Accounting is a new project in Slovenske Elektrarne that will be particularly valuable for the Company's environmental management initiatives, such as waste monitoring, cleaner production, eco-design and environmental management systems; its launch is expected in September. (author)

  16. External costs of electricity; Les couts externes de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabl, A. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 75 (France); Spadaro, J.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  17. Energy and externality environmental regional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, L.; Bianchi, A.; Peri, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental externalities in both territorial management and the direction of energy and environment, faces the difficulties arising from their calculation. The so-called MACBET regional model, which has been constructed for Lombardy, is a first brand new attempt to overcome them. MACBET is a calculation model to assess environmental and employment externalities connected to energy use [it

  18. Monetization of Environmental Externalities (Emissions from Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle BROSE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy from agriculture is today in the heart of sustainabledevelopment, integrating its key components: environment and climate change,energy economics and energy supply, agriculture, rural and social development.Each bioenergy production route presents externalities that must be assessed inorder to compare one bioenergy route to another (bioenergy route. The lack ofprimary and reliable data on externalities is, nevertheless, an important nontechnologicalbarrier to the implementation of the best (bioenergy routes. In thisarticle, we want to monetize one environmental externality from bioenergy:emissions (GHG: CO2, CH4, N2O, O3; CO, NOx, SO2, metal, and PM. We have tomonetize emissions on the basis of their effects on health, global warming, and soiland water quality. Emissions will be quantified through Life Cycle Analysis (LCAand ECOINVENT database. Impacts on health will be monetized on the basis ofmortality (number of life expectancy years lost multiplied by Value Of Life Year(VOLY and morbidity (number of ill persons multiplied by Cost Of Illness(COI. Impacts on global warming will be monetized by Benefits Transfers fromthe Stern Review and its critics. Finally, impacts on soil and water quality will bemonetized by Averting Behaviour or Defensive Expenses methods. Monetizationresults will be gathered, weighted, and incorporated in states and firms’ decisionmakingtools. They would enhance capacity of policy makers and managers tochose the best (bioenergy routes.

  19. External costs and taxes in heat supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Aasa; Gustavsson, Leif

    2003-01-01

    A systems approach was used to compare different heating systems from a consumer perspective. The whole energy system was considered from natural resources to the required energy services. District heating, electric heat pumps, electric boilers, natural-gas-, oil- or pellet-fired local boilers were considered when supplying heat to a detached house. The district heat production included wood-chip-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration plants. Electricity other than cogenerated electricity was produced in wood-chip- and natural-gas-fired stand-alone power plants. The analysis includes four tax scenarios, as well as the external cost of environmental and health damage arising from energy conversion emission based on the ExternE study of the European Commission. The most cost-efficient systems were the natural-gas and oil boiler systems, followed by the heat pump and district heating systems, when the external cost and taxes were excluded. When including the external costs of CO 2 emission, the wood-fuel-based systems were much more cost efficient than the fossil-fuel-based systems, also when CO 2 capture and storage were applied. The external costs are, however, highly uncertain. Taxes steer towards lowering energy use and lowering CO 2 emission if they are levied solely on all the fossil-fuel-related emission and fuel use in the systems. If consumer electricity and heat taxes are used, the taxes have an impact on the total cost, regardless of the fuel used, thereby benefiting fuel-based local heating systems. The heat pump systems were the least affected by taxes, due to their high energy efficiency. The electric boiler systems were the least cost-efficient systems, also when the external cost and taxes were included

  20. The valuation of external costs: An overview of issues and state actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caverhill, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The valuation of externalities helps determine the cost effectiveness of environmentally superior resources that would not be cost effective on a direct cost comparison to utility avoided costs. Explicitly monetizing externalities appears to be the best way to meet the criteria of consistency across resource options and pollutants and allowing selection of societally least-cost resources among a variety of resource types. Environmental costs should be defined so as not to exclude any potential external effects, including all environmental, social, and economic effects. For practical purposes, the definition could probably include only environmental externalities without materially affecting resource decisions in the foreseeable future for most North American utilities. More specifically, a comprehensive list of external costs should at least include emissions of pollutants such as SO 2 , CO, NO x , volatile organics, and greenhouse gases; thermal effluents; solid wastes; risk of catastrophic accidents; and for hydro projects, destruction of habitat and recreational areas, and mercury accumulation in reservoirs. Environmental effects should then be counted and valued, most commonly by damage costing or regulatory cost of control. Some utilities and other parties have proposed a market-based approach to valuing externalities, determining the marginal cost of controlling emissions by the market price of emissions allowances. Quantification of environmental costs, ensuring consistency among externality sources, and estimation of avoided externality costs are also discussed. Examples are presented of externality values selected in a number of areas of the USA. 11 refs., 5 figs

  1. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  2. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  3. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  4. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  5. The valuation of environmental externalities in energy conservation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernick, P.L.; Caverhill, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The determination of the full societal costs of energy usage must incorporate estimates of the environmental effects, or externalities, of energy production and delivery. An externality is any cost or benefit that is not reflected in the price paid by a utility or its customers for energy produced or consumed. The potential variety and scope of externality analyses are discussed. Four methods of externality valuation are briefly discussed to highlight the uses, strengths and pitfalls of each method. The use of pollutants' relative potency, polling of experts, direct estimation of costs, and implied valuation, are compared. The authors preferred method of valuation for near-term energy supply decisions, implied valuation, is discussed in detail. The distinguishing feature of the implied valuation technique is its use of the cost of control, rather than the direct cost of emissions. Only the most expensive required control measure is relevant to valuation of the external effects. The difficulties in applying implied valuation, such as the definition of the margin, the multiple effects of pollutants and the imperfect nature of the regulatory system, are also considered. The effect of environmental externalities on the benefits of conservation are summarized

  6. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  7. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  8. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  9. Down the slippery slop: Utility incorporation of environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, A.J.; Tempchin, R.S.; Mitnick, S.A.; Harron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Advocates of incorporating environmental externalities in electric utility decision-making have concentrated on new electric generating resources, with some success. Such public utility commission actions compel utilities to consider, explicitly, the cost of sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other emission of power-plants when comparing the economics of new generating resources with those of other resource options (e.g., demand-side management and gas-fired non-utility generator projects). This paper summarizes a study which estimated costs of incorporating externalities in utility system operations. We also present an analysis of the Tellus work in this area, and contrast Tellus' methodology, assumptions and results with our own. Estimates of the cost of incorporating externalities in system operations is rather large, in terms of the increased fuel and purchased power cost that ratepayers would have to bear. For the eight cases we examined, the incorporation of externalities caused fuel and purchased power cost to be 9.3 to 69.5 percent higher, relative to what it would have been under traditional generating unit commitment and dispatch. Furthermore, we believe that these estimates of fuel and purchased power cost increases are conservative. In particular, because our analyses focused on utility system operations in 1995, the key assumption about the fuel cost differential (i.e., coal versus natural gas) probably underestimates the differential in later years, significantly, when virtually all forecasters foresee faster cost escalation rates for gas. In general, the higher the fuel cost differential, the faster cost escalation rates for gas. In general, the higher the fuel cost differential, the greater the cost of an externality policy. Unless the record is set straight soon, the idea that incorporating externalities is virtually costless will further spread in the regulatory community and among government policy-makers

  10. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Meyer, H J; Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  11. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  12. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  13. Internalization of external costs for nuclear power in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Ionita, Gheorghe; Gheorghe-Sorescu, Antonius; Glodeanu, Florin

    2006-01-01

    A technology that competes against alternatives on a full cost basis is not sustainable - no matter how environmentally friendly is. Competitive performance, however, means more than lower costs. Additional factors as the following have to be considered as criteria ensuring a sustainable energy development: - environmentally compatibility - intergenerational compatibility - power demand compatibility - socio-political compatibility - geopolitical compatibility. Some factors are less difficult to express in al.) Recent Cold Fterms (e.g. the economic value of degraded public health) than others (e.g. the economic value of reliable supplies or lack of public acceptance) but their quantifications are fraught with uncertainty, vary greatly from location to location and cannot be generalized. Still, these factors often tilt the balance in favor or disfavor of a particular technology. From a public perspective, a set of costs called 'external costs' are important. By definition these costs are external to standard private sector cost accounting schemes. They are necessarily paid for, not as a cost of doing business, but by society. The concept of externalities has been referred to in the economic literature since early in the 20th century. In 1974, the Council of OECD recommended the application by governments of the 'Polluter Pays Principle', defined in the early 1970s as a means to allocate costs of pollution prevention and control measures to pollutants, and thereby to consumers of their products, rather than to society as a whole. The externality may be defined as 'a cost or benefit that is not included in the market price of a commodity because it is not included in the supply price or demand price. An externality is produced when the economic activity of one actor (or group of actors) has a positive or negative impact on the welfare function of another actor (or group of actors) and when the former fails to be fully compensated, or to fully compensate the latter

  14. Power generation choices: costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document from OECD deals with the choices between the different means of producing electricity: supply and demand trends, power generation choices, management of development and technologies, environmental impacts and costs around energy sources. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers of this volume. (TEC)

  15. External costs of electricity production: case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, Maja; Tomsic, Zeljko; Debrecin, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Because electricity production is one of the major sources of pollution, and at the same time is the most centralised one, environmental issues in power system operation and planning are gaining ever-increasing attention. It is very difficult to compare environmental impacts of various electricity generation technologies and fuel types because they are extremely divergent. The most widely accepted common denominator today is the so-called external cost by which a monetary value is associated with environmental damage. In this paper, damages to human health resulting from Croatian thermal power plants annual operation are presented. Stack emissions have been translated into ambient concentrations by atmospheric dispersion modelling. Existing data on relations between human health degradation and ground concentrations of the analysed pollutants have been used. Geographic information software has been used in order to account for spatially dependent data. Monetary values have been assigned to the estimated human health damage. External costs resulting from impact of Croatian thermal power plants airborne emissions on human health have been calculated. The total Croatian thermal power system external costs, resulting from impacts on human health, are presented and discussed

  16. Externality costs by resource. E. Renewable generation resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the environmental impacts associated with operation of renewable energy technologies. Renewable energy technologies currently supply 8% of US total energy usage and that figure is certain to grow. The rate of growth will depend heavily on the availability of research and development funds, and could reach 28% of US energy demands by 2030. Renewable generation resources include hydroelectric development, solar energy technologies, wind conversion facilities, and biomass fueled generation. A task force of personnel from five national laboratories recently concluded that renewable energy technologies generally have lower environmental impacts than do fossil fuel energy systems. The task force also stated that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of environmental impacts is needed and would strengthen the National Energy Strategy. This chapter summarizes some of the available literature on costing the environmental externalities associated with hydro, solar, wind, and biomass facilities. The less prevalent renewable energy technologies, including geothermal and ocean energy technologies, were not researched. The cost ranges identified are summarized in Table 1. The Table does not include a value for hydroelectric energy. The one study which attempted to value hydroelectric externalities was highly site-specific and has been criticized for having vastly overstated the value of the externalities

  17. External costs of electricity production under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Melchert, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a short introduction into the problems and questions surrounding the issue of external costs Chapter 2 presents the most important results of the studies under review and analysis in this work. Occasionally, minor discrepancies were found between the results given in the summary of a study and the data reported in the relevant chapters. Chapter 3 identifies and discusses differences in perspective between the studies under consideration. Chapter 4 analyses the most important premises and parameters adopted in the studies for the calculation of overall costs and net benefits of the different modes of electricity production. This serves to probe the reliability of the data, plausibility of the premises, and nature of the presupposed relationships. Chapter 5 examines the relationships of time assumed in the studies and gives a first comment on the more advanced Prognos study. Chapter 6, finally, offers a summarizing evaluation. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  19. Power generation choice in the presence of environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    This dissertation consists of an introductory part and six self-contained papers, all related to the issue of power generation choice in the presence of environmental externalities. Paper 1 provides a critical survey of a large number of electricity externality studies carried out during the last decades, and discusses a number of conceptual, policy-related and, in some cases, unresolved questions in the economic valuation of electricity externalities. These include: (a) the definition of externalities; (b) the choices of scope, relevant parameter input assumptions, and methodology; (c) the role of 'green' consumer demand in replacing external cost assessments; and (d) the behavioral assumptions and ethical principles underlying external cost valuation. Paper 2 focuses on explaining the variability of results among the external cost studies carried out so far by providing an econometric analysis of a large sample of externality studies. Most importantly, the paper concludes that an important explanation for the reported disparities can be attributed to the overall methodological choice employed. Paper 3 explores some of the ethical limits of environmental valuation, and analyzes what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different power sources. The main thesis of the paper is that the scope of electricity externalities where non-market valuation can be applied from an ethical point of view is likely to be narrower than commonly assumed. Papers 4 and 5 use the choice experiment method to estimate how the environmental impacts arising from hydroelectric production are perceived and valued by Swedish houseowning households and non-residential consumers. The basis of the choice exercise is taken in the criteria set up by the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation under which existing hydropower in Sweden can be labeled as 'green' electricity. Data are gathered using mail-out surveys to 1000 households and 845 private

  20. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Weili, Tian; Yumei, Wei; Yingxu, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 , and CO 2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  1. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  2. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  3. The avoided external costs of using wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markandya, A. [Harvard Inst. for International Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This article discusses the external costs of electricity generated by conventional fossil fuel sources, such as coal and nuclear power. It compares the costs of electricity generated with coal with that generated with wind. A measure of the benefits of wind energy is the difference between these two external costs. The methodology used for the estimation of the external costs, as well as the estimates of these costs, are taken from the EC ExternE study, financed by DGXII of the European Commission. The present author was a lead economist for that study. (author)

  4. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles.

  5. Review on studies for external cost of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    External cost is cost imposed on a third party when producing or consuming a good or service. Since the 1990s, the external costs of nuclear powered electricity production have been studied. Costs are a very important factor in policy decision and the external cost is considered for cost comparison on electricity production. As for nuclear fuel cycle, a chosen technology will determine the external cost. However, there has been little research on this issue. For this study, methods for external cost on nuclear power production have been surveyed and analyzed to develop an approach for evaluating external cost on nuclear fuel cycles. Before the Fukushima accident, external cost research had focused on damage costs during normal operation of a fuel cycle. However, accident cost becomes a major concern after the accident. Various considerations for external cost including accident cost have been used to different studies, and different methods have been applied corresponding to the considerations. In this study, the results of the evaluation were compared and analyzed to identify methodological applicability to the external cost estimation with nuclear fuel cycles

  6. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  7. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  8. Are there SO2 externality costs beyond the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inclusion of environmental externality costs in the selection of utility resources has become a reality in New York, Massachusetts, Nevada and California. Soon several other jurisdictions are likely to join these states in using environmental externality costs in decision-making. The consideration of environmental externalities are bound to profoundly affect utility decision-making in the future. So far attention has focused largely on air emission externalities of SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . However, the recent Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) will reduce SO 2 emissions from utilities by about 50 percent. With such a large reduction in SO 2 loading, the question has been raised as to the need to further consider SO 2 externality costs in decision-making. This paper comments on this issue. By using generation and emission data from New York utilities, the paper shows that SO 2 emission externalities exist even after complying with requirements of the CAAA

  9. External effects and social costs of road transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The article contains a welfare economic analysis of road transport's external effects. First, we discuss the definition of external effects. Applying this definition, it is concluded that road transport activities give rise to a wide range of external costs. However, there are no external benefits

  10. Environmental Externalities of Geological Carbon Sequestration Effects on Energy Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekens, K.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-03-01

    Geological carbon sequestration seems one of the promising options to address, in the near term, the global problem of climate change, since carbon sequestration technologies are in principle available today and their costs are expected to be affordable. Whereas extensive technological and economic feasibility studies rightly point out the large potential of this 'clean fossil fuel' option, relatively little attention has been paid so far to the detrimental environmental externalities that the sequestering of CO2 underground could entail. This paper assesses what the relevance might be of including these external effects in long-term energy planning and scenario analyses. Our main conclusion is that, while these effects are generally likely to be relatively small, carbon sequestration externalities do matter and influence the nature of future world energy supply and consumption. More importantly, since geological carbon storage (depending on the method employed) may in some cases have substantial external impacts, in terms of both environmental damage and health risks, it is recommended that extensive studies are performed to quantify these effects. This article addresses three main questions: (1) What may energy supply look like if one accounts for large-scale CO2 sequestration in the construction of long-term energy and climate change scenarios; (2) Suppose one hypothesizes a quantification of the external environmental costs of CO2 sequestration, how do then these supposed costs affect the evolution of the energy system during the 21st century; (3) Does it matter for these scenarios whether carbon sequestration damage costs are charged directly to consumers or, instead, to electricity producers?

  11. The external costs of electricity generation: a comparison of generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemiroglu, E [Economics for the Environment Consultancy, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Electricity generation, like any economic activity, leads to costs that can be grouped in two categories: (a) private or internal and (b) external. Private costs are those paid by the buyers and sellers of energy within the market system. The external costs, however, are not included in the market price mechanism as they accrue to third parties other than the buyer and the seller. External costs include environmental external costs and non-environmental external costs. There are two conditions for the existence of external costs: (a) market failure, or the inability of markets to account for the cost of environmental impacts of energy generation and the market structure and (b) government or policy failure, or the policies that cause private generators to pay either higher or lower costs than they would if these interventions did not exist. A third reason can be added for the existence of non-environmental externalities: energy security, or certain costs faced by society as a result of over-reliance on imported energy. Section A introduces the concept of external costs and benefits. Section B looks at the environmental externalities of energy generation. The procedure is to develop the methodology to estimate what are known as externality adders, i.e. a monetary value for the environmental costs and benefits associated with selected generation technologies, expressed in pence per kilowatt-hour. The result is an `adder` because, in principle, the sum can be added to the private cost of generating electricity to obtain a measure of the `full` or `social` cost. The selected generation technologies are conventional coal, wind power, small-scale hydro, energy crops, incineration of municipal solid waste and energy recovery from landfill. The data reported are based on the application of the technologies in Scotland, but the methodology can be applied anywhere. Section C takes a brief look at the non-environmental externalities including the general theory and evidence

  12. The external costs of electricity generation: a comparison of generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemiroglu, E.

    1995-01-01

    Electricity generation, like any economic activity, leads to costs that can be grouped in two categories: (a) private or internal and (b) external. Private costs are those paid by the buyers and sellers of energy within the market system. The external costs, however, are not included in the market price mechanism as they accrue to third parties other than the buyer and the seller. External costs include environmental external costs and non-environmental external costs. There are two conditions for the existence of external costs: (a) market failure, or the inability of markets to account for the cost of environmental impacts of energy generation and the market structure and (b) government or policy failure, or the policies that cause private generators to pay either higher or lower costs than they would if these interventions did not exist. A third reason can be added for the existence of non-environmental externalities: energy security, or certain costs faced by society as a result of over-reliance on imported energy. Section A introduces the concept of external costs and benefits. Section B looks at the environmental externalities of energy generation. The procedure is to develop the methodology to estimate what are known as externality adders, i.e. a monetary value for the environmental costs and benefits associated with selected generation technologies, expressed in pence per kilowatt-hour. The result is an 'adder' because, in principle, the sum can be added to the private cost of generating electricity to obtain a measure of the 'full' or 'social' cost. The selected generation technologies are conventional coal, wind power, small-scale hydro, energy crops, incineration of municipal solid waste and energy recovery from landfill. The data reported are based on the application of the technologies in Scotland, but the methodology can be applied anywhere. Section C takes a brief look at the non-environmental externalities including the general theory and evidence

  13. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  14. External costs of the urban solid wastes collect; Custos externos da coleta de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Cruz, Luiz Eduardo Reis da

    2002-07-01

    This work performs a comparison of the urban solid wastes collect through the use of two alternatives: traditional and selective collect, by using the social, operational and external costs (environmental and social). The work demonstrates that, nevertheless the initial costs of the selective collects are higher than the traditional collects, the traditional aggregated social costs are inversely proportional to the traditional collect.

  15. Inclusion of external costs: what are the possible approaches?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauduin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Failing to consider external environmental costs is a source of inefficiency in terms of public welfare. However, the economist who goes beyond this simple statement of fact and tries to remedy the situation is faced with a double-edged question. First, how can the individual behavior of the economic players be effectively oriented so as to be compatible with the collective requirements of air and water quality, landscaping, and so forth? And secondly, how can these requirements or social gains be measured against the cost of the corresponding environmental preservation measures? As concerns regulating individual behavior, the present article identifies the conditions under which one or another environmental policy may be preferable. There is no simple rule for choosing a given instrument, however, because of the frequently complex problems and the diversity of the contexts in which they arise. When it comes to putting a money figure on environmental quality, there are some original economic methods that can be proposed, and the principles of these are reviewed briefly. These methods may be of assistance in the debate and in the decision-making process; but then again, their difficulties and limitations should be kept in mind, and the necessary precautions should be taken. (author)

  16. Externality costs by emission. E. Particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fossil-fuel-fired electricity generating systems, particularly coal and oil-fired facilities, are significant emitters of particulate matter. The major components of particulate emissions from a power plant include ash, which is made up of heavy metals, radioactive isotopes and hydrocarbons, and sulfates (SO 4 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ), which are formed by reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in the atmosphere. The smallest ash particulates (including sulfates and nitrates) cause human respiratory effects and impaired visibility. Other effects may include materials damage due to soiling and possibly corrosion, damage to domestic and wild flora through deposition of particulates on foliage, and possible health effects on domestic animals and wild fauna. Several studies focus on the direct effects of high ambient levels of small particulates. This chapter reviews the available literature on the effects of particulate emissions on humans and their environment, and attempts to assign a cost figure to the environmental effects and human health impairments associated with particulate matter emissions. Specifically, this report focuses on the effects of particulates related to human health, visibility, flora, fauna and materials

  17. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Amiri, Shahnaz

    2007-01-01

    Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU's ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument. Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST. The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods

  18. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...

  19. Environmental benefits of DSM externalities and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempchin, R.S.; Goldsmith, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, political and regulatory initiatives have prompted the expansion of demand-side management (DSM) programs as a means of realizing environmental and economic benefits for both consumers and electric utilities. The Edison Electric Institute sponsored two recent studies to examine the effectiveness of this effort. A national survey of DSM program activity was conducted to determine the resultant air emissions reductions. Due to pervasive inconsistencies in data measurement and reporting, coupled with the number and degree of assumptions necessary to quantify state-by-state energy savings, scientifically verifiable estimates of these emissions reductions could not be developed. The second study, a review of the development and application of monetized environmental externalities, found that the current state regulatory practice of assigned monetary values to the environmental impacts of resource options is based on imcomplete data and applied in an imbalanced manner. Due to the complexity of assessing the direct impact costs of power generation, shadow prices derived from cost conditions have been developed to assign a dollar value per pound of pollutant. These alternative measures of cost, which vary by as much as 300,000 percent from direct impact costs, are applied only to electricity. This singluar focus placed a potential financial disincentive on electricity use, precludes a balanced assessment of all potential fuel choices and excludes any valuation of the considerable environmental and economic benefits of electric technologies

  20. Environmental costs of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.; Baumann, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are almost entirely benign in operation, and potential environmental hazards occur at the production and disposal stages. There are well established methods of monitoring and controlling potential hazards caused by the semiconductor materials used in PV modules such as silicon, copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride. The main environmental hazards of photovoltaics are connected to the production processes. These processes require an input of energy, and this energy is derived from the standard fuel mix of the nation in which production takes place. The production of PV systems therefore has associated with it, emissions of greenhouse and acidic gases. However, as the new thin film PV technologies come into production, and the scale of production increases, the energy input to PV systems will decrease considerably, with consequent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, to levels below that of other electricity generating technologies. (Author)

  1. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  2. The Implementation of Marginal External Cost Pricing in Road Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of issues that will become increasingly important nowthat the concept of marginal external cost pricing becomes more likely to be implementedas a policy strategy in transport in reality. The first part of the paper deals with thelong-run efficiency of marginal external cost pricing. It is shown that such prices notonly optimize short-run mobility, given the shape and position of the relevant demandand cost curves, but even more importantly, also optimally affect ...

  3. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  4. Environmental external radiation at some Bulgarian localities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Gelev, M.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the environmental radiation background are important from several points of view. First, they permit to estimate the exposure of humans to natural radiation background as a function of different geographical and geophysical parameters. Second, such studies can give also relevant information concerning the consequences of human activities on the presence of ionizing radiation and its sources in the environment. Our both institutions have started since 2000 year common studies in the field of environmental radiation background and its variation with the locality considered. First we have decided to compare the measuring methods used. They were compared on the territory of the Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE BAS), particularly in the surroundings of IRT 2000 research reactor. Further, they were compared also at the monitoring station on the territory of INRNE BAS. Finally, the studies were enlarged to the Moussala Observatory of the Institute at Rila Mountains. Several measuring instruments were used to characterize external environmental radiation exposure: Environmental radiation dose rate meter NB 3201 developed in the Czech Republic with a plastic scintillator with small NaI-TL crystal used to compensate the energy dependence to low energy photons; MDU-Liulin semiconductor spectrometer with Si-diode as the sensitive element able to characterize the radiation with both low and high LET; Thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) CaSO 4 :Dy, powder of this TLD material was filled to an Al dose. Results obtained are presented, analysed and discussed. A good agreement of the results obtained was observed, also when compared to the results of other experimental groups. (authors)

  5. Socio-Economic research on fusion SERF 3(2001-2003) External Costs of Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.; Cabal, H.

    2003-01-01

    Based on SEAFP project (Raeder et al, 1995) findings a preliminary assessment of environmental external costs associated to fusion power was performed under the framework of the first phase of the SERF (Socioeconomic Research on Fusion) project (Saez et al, 1999). This study showed very low external costs of fusion power compared with other traditional and new energy generating technologies. In order to update the assessment of externalities of fusion power, SERF2 project a new plant was included and an analysis of the key variables influencing the external cost was carried out. In the new phase of the SERF project, SERF3, three new additional plant models have been introduced with the aim of assessing the possibilities of silicon carbide to be used as structural material for fusion power plants. Furthermore, comparison of fusion external costs with those of other generation technologies in the state of technology development expected for 2050 has been also performed. (Author)

  6. Neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version: Cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasato, Kelly; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Salcedo, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    Neuraxial blockade (epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia) with external cephalic version increases the external cephalic version success rate. Hospitals and insurers may affect access to neuraxial blockade for external cephalic version, but the costs to these institutions remain largely unstudied. The objective of this study was to perform a cost analysis of neuraxial blockade use during external cephalic version from hospital and insurance payer perspectives. Secondarily, we estimated the effect of neuraxial blockade on cesarean delivery rates. A decision-analysis model was developed using costs and probabilities occurring prenatally through the delivery hospital admission. Model inputs were derived from the literature, national databases, and local supply costs. Univariate and bivariate sensitivity analyses and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess model robustness. Neuraxial blockade was cost saving to both hospitals ($30 per delivery) and insurers ($539 per delivery) using baseline estimates. From both perspectives, however, the model was sensitive to multiple variables. Monte Carlo simulation indicated neuraxial blockade to be more costly in approximately 50% of scenarios. The model demonstrated that routine use of neuraxial blockade during external cephalic version, compared to no neuraxial blockade, prevented 17 cesarean deliveries for every 100 external cephalic versions attempted. Neuraxial blockade is associated with minimal hospital and insurer cost changes in the setting of external cephalic version, while reducing the cesarean delivery rate. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  8. External Costs Associated with Electricity Generation in Lithuania: Impact of Ignalina NPP Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability and development have been founded on continuing growth in energy demand and distribution, and management of natural resources through proper allocation and efficiency. It is clear that the use of energy in all its forms and applications provides an enormous benefit to society. However, it is also associated with numerous environmental and social challenges, such as, e.g., the health effects of air pollution. These burdens are referred to as external costs, as they have not been included in the market price of energy. The purpose of externalities research is to quantify damages in order to allow rational decisions to be made that weigh the benefits of actions to reduce externalities against the costs of doing so. Ultimately, market failure could be reduced by internalization of the external costs during energy planning. The paper deals with the problems of external costs associated with electricity generation in Lithuania and evaluates the environmental impact related to increased atmospheric pollution when the first unit at Ignalina NPP will be closed in 2005. Simplified methodology for the evaluation of external costs based on Impact Pathway Approach developed by International Atomic Energy Agency was applied. Achieved results indicate that due to the increased atmospheric pollution the external costs associated with electricity generation in the case of the first unit closure at Ignalina NPP would amount to 130 million USD. (author)

  9. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. The external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-01-01

    The external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle has been evaluated in the particular context of France as part of the European Commission's ExternE project. All the steps in the fuel cycle which involve the use of cutting edge technology were taken into consideration, from mining of uranium ores to waste disposal, via construction, dismantling of nuclear power plants and the transport of radioactive materials. The general methodology adopted in the study, known as the 'Impact Pathway Analysis', is based on a sequence of evaluations from source terms to the potential= effects on man and the environment, and then to their monetary evaluation, using a single framework devised for all the fuel cycles considered in the ExternE project. The resulting external cost is in the range of 2 to 3 mEuro/kWh when no discount rate is applied, and around 0.1 mEuro/kWh when a discount rate of 3% is considered. Further developments have been made on the external cost of a nuclear accident and on the integration of risk aversion in its evaluation. It appeared that the external cost of a nuclear accident would be about 0.04 mEuro/kWh, instead of 0.002 mEuro/kWh without taking risk aversion into account. (authors)

  11. Internalizing the external costs of biogas supply chains in the Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Kraxner, F.

    2017-01-01

    In Italy biogas support schemes are being revised to include subsidies for the production of biomethane. Energy policies should foster environmentally optimal solutions, especially because social acceptance issues often arise in the case of biogas. In this paper we use the external cost methodology to quantify the environmental impact of airborne emissions associated with biogas-based energy vectors and their corresponding fossil substitutes These are evaluated at supply chain level and incorporated in a spatially explicit optimization model. The method is applied to northern Italy to compare the potential impact of alternative policy options. It is found that, while the external costs of biogas-based pathways are always lower than corresponding fossil fuel based pathways, the differences are generally so small that policies based on internalization of external costs alone would not lead to further development of biogas-based technologies. For all utilization pathways, consideration of local externalities leads to a less favourable evaluation of biogas-based technologies, which results in external costs even higher than the substituted fossil fuel if biogas is allocated to local heating. - Highlights: • A MILP model has been developed to optimize the economic and environmental performance of the biogas supply chain. • The external costs methodology has been included in the optimization process. • The emissions of the most relevant pollutants generated along the supply chain have been included in the assessment. • Different biogas utilization pathways have been considered.

  12. Long-dated evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.; Schneider, T.

    2002-09-01

    Since the middle of the years 1990, the European Commission developed an ''ExternE'' methodology to propose an homogenous evaluation of the sanitary and environmental external costs of the various energy sectors in Europe. This document discusses the taking into account of the long-dated and analyzes the interests and the limits of the monetary evaluation, in terms of external costs, of the nuclear choice. It is organized in three chapters: 1. a presentation and a discussion on the various evaluation of the ''ExternE'' methodology; 2. a description of the available methods for the monetary evaluation of the long-dated impacts and more particularly the analysis of the monetary values actualization principle; 3. highlighted of the impacts for which the monetary evaluations exist. (A.L.B.)

  13. Investment Timing When External Financing Is Costly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Uhrig-Homburg, Marliese

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the investment timing of firms facing two dimensions of financing constraints: Liquidity constraints and capital market frictions inducing financing costs. We show that liquidity constraints are not sufficient to explain voluntary investment delay. However, when additionally...... considering financing costs, we can explain both voluntary delay and acceleration of investment. More precisely, we find that investment thresholds are U-shaped in liquid funds. For high-liquidity firms, investment thresholds are decreasing (i.e. accelerated investment takes place) in either dimension...... of financing constraint. In contrast, investment thresholds are increasing (i.e. investment is further delayed) in either form of financing constraint for low-liquidity firms. For intermediate levels of liquidity, investment thresholds are U-shaped in market frictions....

  14. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  15. Weighing environmental externalities: How to do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.M. III; Burtraw, D.; Harrington, W.; Krupnick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on the procedure of incorporating monetary measures of external damages as address to private bids and ranking alternatives on the basis of their social costs. They assume that it will be possible to develop methods and models to calculate environmental damages for specific electricity supply options. They reject the use of marginal control cost as a proxy for marginal damages. The question they address here is whether the marginal damage from an increase in electricity supply is the correct adjustment or adder to private cost for least-cost utility planning. They show that arriving at the correct adder depends on both the form that the existing environmental regulations take - that is, whether pollution is controlled by taxation, tradable emissions permits, or direct regulation - and, in the case of an emissions tax, whether the degree of control of pollution is optimal, too strict, or not strict enough according to the criterion of economic efficiency. They make explicit the circumstances under which the correct adder will be equal to marginal damages, will be some other positive number, or zero, or even negative. If emissions reductions are achieved by direct regulation or command and control policies (CAC), then the correct adder is always just equal to marginal damages

  16. Life-cycle analysis and external costs in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas impacts in the US shows that against a baseline gasoline vehicle, the impact of including the full fuel cycle generally reduces the relative advantages of alternative transportation fuels. While a switch to diesel is estimated to save 30% as compared to gasoline, the savings from natural gas/LPG are (around 20%), for ethanol from corn (8%) and for battery electricity vehicles using power from coal (6%) are much smaller. This is largely due to the use of LCA rather than end-use comparisons. However, the results also show that there would be large savings from the use of ethanol from fuel cells using methanol (39%) or natural gas (50%), while ethanol from wood in a conventional engine appears to have the greatest savings (63%). In external costs of motor vehicle use, analysis results were presented for both air pollution and energy security impacts (including SPR, military expenditures, macro-economic costs and pecuniary costs) as well as water pollution, noise and congestion impacts. The results suggest that externalities amount to 1.2 US cents per mile travelled in gasoline powered vehicle. The most significant externality is related to air pollution. Costs associated with US defence, the SPR, and climate change are quite insignificant. The only other variable of significance is the impact on the economy, through the transfer of wealth outside the US (referred to as 'pecuniary externality') and the oil price shock impacts on the economy. A comparison of external costs and subsidies for different transportation modes in the US (gas or electric cars, transit bus, light rail, heavy rail) showed that subsidies available to public transit system greatly outweigh the benefit in reduced externalities avoided. In the comparison of social costs of transportation alternatives, differences in external cost, while not trivial, are outweighed by the differences in direct costs or in subsidies. (author)

  17. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  18. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  19. How environmental costs impact DSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of environmental costs of electricity generation into utility planning of demand side management (DSM) programs. The topics include approach and assumptions, overview of spreadsheet approach, results of the analyses, and the application of this approach to other areas of utility management such as new generation projects, sales of new generation capacity, and utility liability and management prudency

  20. Pricing landfill externalities: Emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The paper estimates landfill externalities associated with emissions, disamenities and transport. → Transport externalities vary from 24.22 to 31.42 Rands per tonne. → Costs of emissions (estimated using benefits transfer) vary from 0.07 to 28.91 Rands per tonne. → Disamenities (estimated using hedonic pricing) vary from 0.00 to 57.46 Rands per tonne. → Overall, external costs for urban landfills exceed those of a regional landfill. - Abstract: The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  1. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  2. The environmental costs of wind energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Llamas, P. [CIEMAT-IEE, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    This article summarizes the assessment of the environmental costs of the wind fuel cycle in Spain. It has been carried out within the ExternE project of the European Commission, and so it has been done following a site-, technology-specific methodology. The main impacts identified have been noise, and the loss of visual amenity. As a result some values for the external costs of wind energy have been obtained, which have shown to be much lower than those of conventional fuel cycles. It is also important to note that careful planning would avoid most of these costs. (author)

  3. Monetary value of the environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from biomass feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusiima, Jamil M.; Powers, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    This research is aimed at monetizing the life cycle environmental and health externalities associated with production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, switchgrass, and forest residue. The results of this study reveal current average external costs for the production of 1 l of ethanol ranged from $0.07 for forest residue to $0.57 for ethanol production from corn. Among the various feedstocks, the external costs of PM 10 , NO X , and PM 2.5 are among the greatest contributors to these costs. The combustion of fossil fuels in upstream fertilizer and energy production processes is the primary source of these emissions and their costs, especially for corn ethanol. The combined costs of emissions associated with the production and use of nitrogen fertilizer also contribute substantially to the net external costs. For cellulosic ethanol production, the combustion of waste lignin to generate heat and power helps to keep the external costs lower than corn ethanol. Credits both for the biogenic carbon combustion and displacement of grid electricity by exporting excess electricity substantially negate many of the emissions and external costs. External costs associated with greenhouse gas emissions were not significant. However, adding estimates of indirect GHG emissions from land use changes would nearly double corn ethanol cost estimates.

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  5. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  6. Welfare effects of the internalization of external cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Korteweg, J.A.; Derriks, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of passing through the cost of external effects such as accidents, environment and noise to traffic and transport have been mapped. In nine out of the ten examined variants this 'internalization' will lead to an increase in welfare in the Netherlands. Internalization leads to a decrease of external costs of over 100 million to more than 1.7 billion euros annually. Internalization also brings about collection costs, international transfers and logistic adjustments. The balance of these effects varies from a welfare loss of 20 million euros to a welfare increase of 1.2 billion euros annually. [nl

  7. External Costs of Transport in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark A.; McCubbin, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we report estimates of the external costs of transport in the United States.1 Generally, we cover road, rail, air, and water transport; passenger transport and freight transport; and congestion, accident, air pollution, climate change, noise, water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we were not able to find estimates for all cost categories; in particular, there are fewer estimates for freight transport than for passenger transport, fewer estimates for water transp...

  8. Theory and practice of internalization of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonus, H.

    1995-01-01

    External costs are those parts of total costs which bypass the market. To internalize them means to confront economic agents with the true costs and benefits of their economic activities. The concept of internalization does not really meet the requirements of preserving ecological equilibrium. Defining ecological constraints fits the needs much better. Implicit in ecological constraints are shadow prices. To let them emerge, markets for tradable emission permits would be appropriate. Carbon dioxide is used as an example. (author) 7 refs

  9. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J.

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs

  11. Environmental taxes and transaction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, Herman R.J. [Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-06-01

    A well-known tax policy principle in the case of environmental bads holds that optimality would apply to a special class of environmental taxes, the so called Pigovian or effluent taxes (or fees or charges). However, an interesting paradox arises here for effluent taxes are seldom chosen in practical policies by governments. An explanation for this discrepancy is that effluent taxes are generally supposed to bring about the highest amount of transaction costs in order to enforce this kind of tax. This would be caused by the fact that usually large numbers of agents are involved if effluents are taken as the principal tax base. Unfortunately this explanation seems to boomerang for it brings about an impossibility result: effluent taxes can never be first best taxes if transaction costs are allowed. Up till now theoretical economics has not paid much attention to this problem. In contrast this essay offers an explanation for the discrepancy and it shows why the impossibility theorem is a paradox. As soon as one allows for transaction costs in welfare analysis, one not only has to acknowledge that such costs are attached to the internalization device but also to the initial status quo. Moreover, the amount of transaction costs is not independent of the tax contracts themselves, neither are the benefits of regulation through taxation. Accordingly a more general welfare assessment of questions where it is optimal to levy environmental taxes shows that first best Pigovian taxes need not be effluent taxes (even if abatement is possible), although in some cases effluent taxes might still be the best policy option from an economic perspective. 31 refs.

  12. Transaction costs, externalities and information technology in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, B; Keen, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the economic issues which underpin the rationale for investment in information and communications technologies (ICTs). Information imperfections lead to significant transaction costs (search, negotiating and monitoring) which in turn confer a negative externality on parties involved in exchange. This divergence in private and social costs leads to a degree of resource misallocation (efficiency loss) which, uncorrected, results in a sub-optimal outcome. Traditional solutions to this problem are to rely upon direct government action to reduce the costs of transacting between market agents, or to employ tax/subsidy measures and other legislative action to achieve the desired market outcome. Three key policy questions are raised in the context of the NHS purchaser/provider relationship. Firstly, what is the optimum level of transaction costs; secondly, can ICTs assist in lowering the level of transaction costs to the optimum level; thirdly, who should bear the investment cost in reducing the level of transaction costs? The issue of property rights in different information systems is discussed and raises interesting policy questions about how much investment should be undertaken centrally rather than devolved to a more local level. In some ways this economic framework offers a post hoc justification of why different ICT systems have been introduced at various levels of the NHS. Essentially this reduces to the problem of externalities: providing good information confers a positive externality: not providing relevant, timely and accurate information confers a negative externality, by increasing further the level of transaction costs. The crucial role which ICT systems can play lies in attempting to reduce the level of transaction costs and driving the market towards what Dahlman has described as the transaction-cost-constrained equilibrium.

  13. Cost minimization of generation, storage, and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Lance Douglas; Brodie, Joseph; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    G) technology, and building heat) are modeled within the PJM Interconnection. The corresponding electric systems are then operated and constrained to meet the load every hour over four years. The total cost of each energy system is calculated, both with and without externalities, to find the least...... cost energy systems. Using today’s costs of conventional and renewable electricity and without adding any externalities, the cost-minimum system includes no renewable generation, but does include EVs. When externalities are included, however, the most cost-effective to system covers 50% of the electric...... load with renewable energy and runs reliably without need for either new conventional generation or purpose-built storage. The three novel energy policy implications of this research are: (1) using today’s cost of renewable electricity and estimates of externalities, it is cost effective to implement...

  14. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  15. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  16. Estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estlander, A.; Otterstroem, T.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the project is to develop a method for estimation of external costs of energy production in Finland. The purpose of the method is to take into account all the most important impacts on health, materials and the environment. The study will assess environmental effects of emissions from Finnish energy production on people and the environment locally (population centres), nationally (Finland) and globally. The different energy production forms to be included in the study are heat and electric energy generated with coal, natural gas, fuel oil and peat (not industry's energy production). Local and national environmental impact assessment is carried out within the Finnish borders. The economic influence of emissions (in particular greenhouse gases) originating outside Finland but with global impact will also be assessed, as far as Finland is concerned. When studying the amounts of emissions the whole fuel chain is taken into account: production, processing or transport, storage in the different stages of the chain of use, and end use. The main components under review are SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , H x C y , CO, particulates and a couple of heavy metals. In addition. the study considers ozone (O 3 ), which is formed in the atmosphere. The primary monetary valuation method used is the indirect monetarization. which is based on dose-response functions and the use of both market prices and willingness-to-pay assessments. The method to be developed during the project for monetary valuation of effects caused by emissions on health, materials and the environment can be utilized in further monetarization studies. The results of the work can used to assess the profitability of energy production plants and energy companies from the economic point of view

  17. Effects of internalising external production costs in a North European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, J.; Ramskov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of integrating national power markets is to improve the overall efficiency thereby making a potential for reducing electricity prices. However, efficiency is not necessarily improved if external environmental protection costs are neglected. In this paper, we analyse the effects of regulating an integrated power market by using environmental producer taxes based on external production costs. The analysis is based on an empirical equilibrium model for the North European power market. The results show that internalising costs will increase electricity producer prices by 40-50% in the period from 1995 to 2020. Further, demand for electricity will be reduced by 10%. We conclude, however, that in order to achieve the national Kyoto targets of reducing CO 2 emissions, further regulation is needed, such as national CO 2 taxes or cost efficient mechanisms like tradeable permits and joint implementation. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs...... suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy...... development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2...

  19. Environmental protection using social costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions and other residual wastes come from industrial production, commercial and household activities, and transportation. These wastes damage the environment, including human health. As economies grow, so does concern about balancing that growth with the desire for environmental protection. At issue is how much environmental protection we should have. We address this issue using the concept of social costing. The issue is discussed in the context of electric power generation. There is particular concern about the use of fossil fuels such as petroleum, the major fuel used in the Republic of China, and coal which is the most common fuel used in the U. S. Electric power generation is a major source of airborne pollutants such as SO 2 , NO x particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, CO, and CO 2 . It also results in liquid and solid wastes, and other effects such as changes in land use. To generate electric power, fuel (such as petroleum, coal or enriched uranium) or some other resource (e.g., wind or geothermal) is needed. A fuel cycle consists of a sequence of activities and processes involved in generating electric power. These activities include fuel extraction, treatment and processing; fuel conversion into electricity; transmission; waste disposal; and transportation of fuel and wastes between the different stages of the fuel cycle. Each stage results in emissions or other residuals. Several recent-studies have been about the environmental costs of electricity

  20. The evaluation of external costs from energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.; Valette, P.; Krupnick, A.; Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper outlines the progress of the joint EC-US Fuel Cycle study. This study seeks to provide a methodological framework for precisely the evaluation of external costs over the complete fuel cycle, from fuel extraction to decommissioning, conservation technologies, solar and wind power. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs

  1. External costs in the global energy optimization models. A tool in favour of sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Cuesta, H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is the analysis of the effects of the GHG external costs internalization in the energy systems. This may provide a useful tool to support decision makers to help reaching the energy systems sustain ability. External costs internalization has been carried out using two methods. First, CO 2 externalities of different power generation technologies have been internalized to evaluate their effects on the economic competitiveness of these present and future technologies. The other method consisted of analysing and optimizing the global energy system, from an economic and environmental point of view, using the global energy optimization model generator, TIMES, with a time horizon of 50 years. Finally, some scenarios regarding environmental and economic strategic measures have been analysed. (Author)

  2. External factors influencing the environmental performance of South African firms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peart, R

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the external factors that influence environmental performance of companies in South Africa, drawing on international and local literature. After considering factors within the natural, social, economic and institutional...

  3. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, A. [Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Faculty of Economics, Ryukoku University, Otsu (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership.

  4. Political Measures for Strategic Environmental Policy with External Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, A.; Tsujimura, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates an environmental policy designed to reduce the emission of pollutants under uncertainty, with the agent problem as an optimal stopping problem. We first analyze the two cases in which there are one agent and two competing agents by following Ohyama and Tsujimura (2005). When we consider a model of strategic agents, we need to analyze the external economic effect that is peculiar to an agent's environmental policy implementation. Then, to improve and resolve these external effects, we examine three alternative political measures, comprising an environmental subsidy, an environmental tax and an emission trading system. The results of the analysis indicate that the environmental subsidy and environmental tax promote environmental policy. However, they do not create an incentive to be the leader. On the other hand, an emissions trading system not only promotes environmental policy but also creates an incentive for leadership

  5. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG)

  6. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  7. LCA and external costs in comparative assessment of electricity chains. Decision support for sustainable electricity provision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, A.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of energy and electricity plays an important role in a country's economic and environmental performance and the sustainability of its development. Sustainable development of the energy and electricity sector depends on finding ways of meeting energy service demands of the present generation that are economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially acceptable and do not jeopardize the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and external cost valuation are considered to offer opportunities to assist energy policy in a comprehensive comparative evaluation of electricity supply options with regard to the different dimensions of sustainable energy provision as well as in the implementation of appropriate internalization strategies. The paper addresses life cycle assessment and external cost analysis carried out for selected electricity systems of interest under German conditions. Results from a comprehensive comparative assessment of various electricity supply options with regard to their environmental impacts, health risks, raw materials requirements as well as their resulting external cost will be summarised. The use of LCA based indicators for assessing the relative sustainability of electricity systems and the use of total (internal plus external) cost assessment as measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems will be discussed. Open problems related to life cycle analysis of energy chains and the assessment of environmental damage costs are critically reviewed, to illustrate how in spite of existing uncertainties the state of the art results may provide helpful energy policy decision support. The paper starts with some remarks on what the concept of sustainability in terms of energy systems means. (author)

  8. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  9. An inventory of measures for internalising external costs in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.; Van Grinsven, A.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Breemersch, T. [Transport and Mobility Leuven TML, Leuven (Belgium); Martino, A.; Rosa, C.; Parolin, R. [Trasporti e Territorio TRT, Brussels (Belgium); Harmsen, J. [Sustainable Transport and Logistics TNO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    This study provides an overview of all existing and close to implementation pricing policies in transport. It supported the European Commission with the evaluation of existing pricing policies in the light of Article 11.4 of the revised Eurovignette Directive. The study covers all existing pricing instruments in all transport modes in all EU Member States. In addition it includes data on revenues and administrative costs and some comparisons across Member States and transport modes. The most recent data have been gathered: data for 2010 and where possible 2011. Also the link with external and infrastructure costs is discussed, and where possible, high level comparisons have been made.

  10. The Externe project. Assessment of the external costs of the natural gas fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed bottom-up methodology for assessment of the external costs of energy has been developed by a multi-disciplinary, pan-European team as part of the European Commissions's JOULE Programme. The consequences of the generation of electricity from fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, in terms of damages to human health, buildings and the wider environment, have been assessed within a consistent framework. The potential application of the results in cost-benefit analysis, power system optimisation, emissions charging, etc. is also now under investigation. The analysis starts with definition of the fuel cycle, and specification of the technologies and locations to be considered. Results to date show that for typical modern examples of power plants burning different fossil fuels, externalities (including possible global warming effects) are lowest for gas-burning plant. (R.P.)

  11. Pricing environmental externalities in the power sector. Ethical limits and implications for social choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, Patrik; Sundqvist, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, a series of valuation studies have made attempts at estimating the external environmental costs of various power generation sources. The purposes of this paper are: (a) to explore some of the ethical limits of the economic valuation of environmental impacts; and (b) to analyze what the implications are of these limits for the social choice between different electric power sources. Environmental valuation based on welfare economic theory builds on restrictive behavioral foundations and can only partly model moral values, although such values are an essential part of people's preference towards the environment. In addition, public preferences are seldom exogenously given as is commonly assumed in economic theory, but are instead formed in public discourse. For this reason, the range of electricity externalities where economic valuation (and thus cost-benefit analysis) should be applied is likely to be narrower than often assumed. After analyzing the scope, methodology and the results of the so-called ExternE project, the paper concludes that many power generation externalities are either inherently 'new' or inherently 'complex'. In these cases, the initial challenge lies not in 'discovering' private preferences, but in specifying the conditions for public discourse over common ways of understanding what the pertinent issues are about. This implies that research on the environmental externalities of power generation must, in addition to refining the theory and the applications of existing non-market valuation techniques, also address the instruments and content of political and moral debate

  12. Parental knowledge is an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2015-02-01

    There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents' characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents' and children's genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should also focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. External costs of the nuclear fuel cycle. A scoping study to determine the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle in accordance with the EC/US methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D H

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of a scoping study to estimate the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle. This study was performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Community`s External Costs of Fuel Cycles project. The external costs of a fuel cycle are those costs which are excluded from the standard calculation of the cost of electricity. These costs are borne by society as a whole and include, in particular, the health and environmental costs which result from the operation of the facilities involved in a given fuel cycle. At present the uranium enrichment, electricity generation and interim storage stages of the nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands. These stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle have been studied in detail and the external costs associated with thse stages estimated using up-to-date site specific data. The other stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle do not currently take place in the Netherlands. In general the external costs associated with these stages have been estimated using data from the literature. Relatively few transports of radioactive materials associated with the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands and the external costs associated with all transports has been based on values in the literature. (orig.).

  14. External costs of the nuclear fuel cycle. A scoping study to determine the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle in accordance with the EC/US methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the results of a scoping study to estimate the external costs of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle. This study was performed within the framework of the Commission of the European Community's External Costs of Fuel Cycles project. The external costs of a fuel cycle are those costs which are excluded from the standard calculation of the cost of electricity. These costs are borne by society as a whole and include, in particular, the health and environmental costs which result from the operation of the facilities involved in a given fuel cycle. At present the uranium enrichment, electricity generation and interim storage stages of the nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands. These stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle have been studied in detail and the external costs associated with thse stages estimated using up-to-date site specific data. The other stages of the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle do not currently take place in the Netherlands. In general the external costs associated with these stages have been estimated using data from the literature. Relatively few transports of radioactive materials associated with the Dutch nuclear fuel cycle take place in the Netherlands and the external costs associated with all transports has been based on values in the literature. (orig.)

  15. Electric utility resource expansion planning using environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience of San Diego Gas ampersand Electric Company using environmental externalities in the expansion planning of its electrical system. This is the first time that this method of planning has been used in the electric utility industry in California. The paper reviews the conceptual development of the monetary values for environmental externalities and shows how the application of these values modifies the resource selection process. This paper should be of interest to professionals involved in policy issues relating to the use of environmental externalities as a means to improve the environment. The experience gained through this analyses should also benefit electric utility personnel involved in planning, and regulators interested in planning

  16. Cost minimization of generation, storage, and new loads, comparing costs with and without externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Lance; Brodie, Joseph F.; Kempton, Willett; Archer, Cristina L.; Budischak, Cory

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The study models a large regional transmission organization, with various amounts of renewable energy. • The cost of 86 million iterations of energy systems is calculated, with and without externalities. • When including externalities, society should implement 50% renewable energy. - Abstract: The goal of this research is to understand the economics of anticipated large-scale changes in the electric system. 86 million different combinations of renewable generation (wind and solar), natural gas, and three storage types (hydrogen storage, electric vehicles equipped with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, and building heat) are modeled within the PJM Interconnection. The corresponding electric systems are then operated and constrained to meet the load every hour over four years. The total cost of each energy system is calculated, both with and without externalities, to find the least cost energy systems. Using today’s costs of conventional and renewable electricity and without adding any externalities, the cost-minimum system includes no renewable generation, but does include EVs. When externalities are included, however, the most cost-effective to system covers 50% of the electric load with renewable energy and runs reliably without need for either new conventional generation or purpose-built storage. The three novel energy policy implications of this research are: (1) using today’s cost of renewable electricity and estimates of externalities, it is cost effective to implement 240 GW of renewable electricity to meet 50% of the total electric load; (2) there is limited need to construct new natural gas power plants, especially from a system-wide perspective; and (3) existing coal plants may still be useful to the energy system, and instead of being retired, should be repurposed to occasionally provide generation.

  17. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  18. System-wide impacts of environmental cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.; Kennedy, T.; Finnell, J.; Hoelscher, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a continuum of approaches to considering environmental externalities in the utility resource selection process. While photovoltaic (PV) technologies can play a role in reducing emissions, they are generally not cost-competitive with conventional technologies, even when cost estimates for environmental damages are introduced. Several approaches are explored to determine whether PV becomes more competitive when emission reduction strategies are considered on a regional basis. Finally, preliminary analysis was performed with the Midas utility planning model to develop emission credits based on PV's ability to displace emissions on a net system basis

  19. Sectoral Costs of Environmental Policy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercaemst, P.; Vanassche, S.; Campling, P.; Vranken, L.; Agnolucci, P.; Salmons, R.; Shaw, B.; Jantzen, J.; Van der Woerd, H.; Gruenig, M.; Best, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has launched a study on the 'Sectoral costs of environmental policy'. The overall aim of the study is to obtain a clearer picture of the impact of environmental policy in some of the industrial sectors most affected by environmental policy, taking into account the differences between sectors and Member States. Previous studies mainly focussed on the individual impact of one Directive, but in this study we will assess the cumulative costs attributable to the environmental policy in its entirety and attempt to identify synergies between individual policies. The project has the following main objectives: paint a clearer picture of the environmental costs for the selected industries; indicate the differences in costs between individual companies; indicate the differences in costs between Member States; demonstrate the drivers for environmental expenditures of the companies and differences between sectors and Member States; describe different types of environmental regulation (policy instruments) and their impact on environmental expenditures; evaluate the environmental performance of the industries and differences between companies/Member States; collect evidence for the impacts of environmental regulation (and associated costs) on the competitiveness of companies; and carry out an international comparison. The sectors selected are:oil supply chain; electricity production; steel industry; and textile and leather industry

  20. Long-dated evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear; L'evaluation des couts externes a long terme de la filiere nucleaire: interets et limites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dars, A.; Schneider, T

    2002-09-01

    Since the middle of the years 1990, the European Commission developed an ''ExternE'' methodology to propose an homogenous evaluation of the sanitary and environmental external costs of the various energy sectors in Europe. This document discusses the taking into account of the long-dated and analyzes the interests and the limits of the monetary evaluation, in terms of external costs, of the nuclear choice. It is organized in three chapters: 1. a presentation and a discussion on the various evaluation of the ''ExternE'' methodology; 2. a description of the available methods for the monetary evaluation of the long-dated impacts and more particularly the analysis of the monetary values actualization principle; 3. highlighted of the impacts for which the monetary evaluations exist. (A.L.B.)

  1. Environmental cost of distribution transformer losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgilakis, Pavlos S.

    2011-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency of electrical equipment reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contribute to the protection of the environment. Moreover, as system investment and energy costs continue to increase, electric utilities are increasingly interested in installing energy-efficient transformers at their distribution networks. This paper analyzes the impact of the environmental cost of transformer losses on the economic evaluation of distribution transformers. This environmental cost is coming form the cost to buy GHG emission credits because of the GHG emissions associated with supplying transformer losses throughout the transformer lifetime. Application results on the Hellenic power system for 21 transformer offers under 9 different scenarios indicate that the environmental cost of transformer losses can reach on average 34% and 8% of transformer purchasing price for high loss and medium loss transformers, respectively. That is why it is important to incorporate the environmental cost of transformer losses into the economic evaluation of distribution transformers.

  2. Exploring Eco-Costs and Externalities Absorption Policies and Procedures in the Context of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Raluca Guse

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of recent international studies reveal the scarcity of coherent entity-level estimation systems able to lead to an adequate identification and valuation of social and environmental performance, despite the large number of entities claiming their concern for the environmental impact of their business activities.The status quo is mainly caused by the lack of domain-specific accounting regulation, along with a general "information gap" in the field of the potential benefits eco-costs and externalities absorption may generate. Eco-costs and externalities absorption technologies for the costing model are still going through their experimental stages, aiming to reflect both the historicalpolitical context and the philosophical motivations of an organization's management and stakeholders. We held as appropriate (and the paper at hand will speak for the intent to promote this class of technologies for the Romanianbusiness environment, mainly by reviewing the relevant literature in the field and developing an eco-costing model able to provide cost levels consistent with the sustainable development goals.

  3. Externality costing for hydroelectric projects: Is it desirable? Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, L.

    1992-01-01

    The assignment of monetary values to environmental and social impacts of hydroelectric projects is discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the economic approach to externality costing are noted. The problem to be faced is that environmental externalities associated with a hydro project very often involve resources that have little or no relation with the market, such as disturbances of land not used for commercial activities. The valuation of externalities related to thermal power plants is examined to provide lessons for quantifying the externalities of hydro projects. One observation is that there is very little information on the real impacts of such phenomena as the release of greenhouse gases, making quantification of their effect difficult; another is that impacts from atmospheric emissions are well in excess of simple deterioration of material goods or recreational activities that have some relationship to the market. Applied to hydro projects, the lessons from these observations indicate that there are no exact and homogeneous measurement units for impacts of actions such as diking or alteration of wildlife habitats. One approach that has been tried is the contingent valuation method, which relies on asking respondents how much they would pay to avoid an impact or risk. This approach is criticized and it is suggested to experiment with a review of the tradeoffs between several possible environmental impacts defined in a precise manner

  4. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U.

    2001-01-01

    The paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enhanced by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs, may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, which is highly important for the decision-making process. The applications of multi-criteria analyses illustrate the sensitivity of the results to the range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in system ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support procedures for decision-making. (author)

  5. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto; Gantner, Urs

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss. conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enriched by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, highly important for the decision process. The applications of multi-criteria analysis illustrate the sensitivity of the results to a range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in systems ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support the decision process. (author)

  6. Standardized Cost Structure for the Environmental Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, B.; Melamed, D.; Guevara, K.; Mallick, P.; Bierman, G.; Marshall, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The underlying key to developing successful estimates, tracking project costs, and utilizing historical project cost information is the development of standardized and well-defined hierarchical listing of cost categories. Committees within the U.S. Federal agencies have pioneered efforts toward developing the Environmental Cost Element Structure (ECES), which is key in achieving these goals. The ECES was developed using an iterative process with input from federal agencies and industry. Experts from several disciplines participated including engineers, cost estimators, project/program managers, and contract personnel. The ECES benefits from an intense analytical effort, the knowledge gained from the maturation of the environmental industry, and incorporation of past user's experiences. Building upon this foundation, the E06 committee of the ASTM International has now fully developed and published a standard (ASTM 2150-04) that provides standardized cost categories with complete cost category definitions. This standard affords environmental and nuclear D and D project managers the opportunity to have a well defined hierarchical listing of their estimates and actual costs, readily adapted to performing summations and roll-ups, supported by a multi-level dictionary specifically defining the content of the cost elements as well as the summations. Owing to the dynamic nature of the environmental technologies, efforts need to be made to continue to update this standard by adding new technologies and methods as they are developed and employed in the field. Lastly, the Environmental Cost Element Structure that is embodied in this standard also presents opportunities to develop historical cost databases and comprehensive life cycle cost estimates and standardized cost estimating tools. (authors)

  7. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L.; Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V.

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs

  8. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs.

  9. Study of the environmental costs to nuclear power plants using the SIMPACTS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The nuclear energy presents advantages in comparison with other kinds of energy sources, when their externalities are evaluated. Externality is a term that represents the side effects of production of goods or services on other people not directly involved in the activity. The externalities can be identified and related to the term environmental cost. The environmental cost is a externality that somehow affects the environment, converted into economic terms, to then be compared with other costs of an action or enterprise. The environmental cost can be calculated through programs for that purpose, however for the nuclear area is the most used SIMPACTS, developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The motivation for this work arose from the need to have a complete assessment of environmental costs from nuclear power reactors, although it is known that this kind of form of energy generation show an advantage over others with regard to externalities. This work is the first step in implementing the program SIMPACTS in plant Angra 2 in order to calculate the environmental cost of their operation. The objective is to develop a methodology for calculating environmental cost for nuclear power reactors. SIMPACTS program will be used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a cost analysis of environmental and perform the calculation of environmental costs for Angra 2, with the aim of minimizing the environmental impacts of its operation. From an extensive literature search, is presented in this paper the methodology for calculating the environmental cost of the program SIMPACTS and some results of calculations with the environmental cost in international power reactors other power generation plants. (author)

  10. Study of the environmental costs to nuclear power plants using the SIMPACTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear energy presents advantages in comparison with other kinds of energy sources, when their externalities are evaluated. Externality is a term that represents the side effects of production of goods or services on other people not directly involved in the activity. The externalities can be identified and related to the term environmental cost. The environmental cost is a externality that somehow affects the environment, converted into economic terms, to then be compared with other costs of an action or enterprise. The environmental cost can be calculated through programs for that purpose, however for the nuclear area is the most used SIMPACTS, developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The motivation for this work arose from the need to have a complete assessment of environmental costs from nuclear power reactors, although it is known that this kind of form of energy generation show an advantage over others with regard to externalities. This work is the first step in implementing the program SIMPACTS in plant Angra 2 in order to calculate the environmental cost of their operation. The objective is to develop a methodology for calculating environmental cost for nuclear power reactors. SIMPACTS program will be used to identify the advantages and disadvantages of a cost analysis of environmental and perform the calculation of environmental costs for Angra 2, with the aim of minimizing the environmental impacts of its operation. From an extensive literature search, is presented in this paper the methodology for calculating the environmental cost of the program SIMPACTS and some results of calculations with the environmental cost in international power reactors other power generation plants. (author)

  11. Implicit environmental costs in hydroelectric development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.; Strand, J.

    1992-01-01

    The ranking of hydropower projects under the Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources is used to derive implicit government preferences for a number of environmental attributes described by ordinal scores for each project. Higher negative scores are generally associated with greater implicit willingness to pay to avoid the environmental damage tied to the attribute, caused by hydropower development. The total (ordinary economic and implicit environmental) cost for each project are derived, and the environmental costs per capacity unit are found to be on the same order as the economic costs, lower for projects ranked for early exploitation, and higher for projects to be saved permanently. An implicit long-run marginal cost curve for Norwegian hydropower development is derived, which is generally upward sloping, but not uniformly so. This can be due to the model specification problems or ranking inconsistencies, both of which are likely to be present. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. External cost of coal based electricity generation: A tale of Ahmedabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Diptiranjan; Shukla, Priyadarshi; Dhar, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Electricity production causes unintended impacts. Their exclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations. Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle analysis (LCA) on the production of electricity from conventional coal based electricity generation system has been performed in order to examine the environmental impacts of coal based electricity generating systems in the twin-city of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in western India. By using dose–response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned to estimate the damage to human health, crops and building materials. This study reveals that the health as well as on non-health impacts of air pollution resulting from coal based electricity generation may not be ignored both in absolute as well as economic value terms. Highlights: ► External cost from coal power generating systems has been calculated. ► We use LCA approach to monetize externalities. ► Geographic information software has been used to account for spatially dependent data. ► This study monetizes damages only to human health, crops, and building materials. ► We finally recommend policy directions to arrest this externality.

  13. Environmental costs of mercury pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, Lars D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science, Uppsala University, Villavaegen 16, S-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Goodsite, Michael E. [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry Research Group, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2500 and 1.1 million US$ kg{sup -1} Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective. (author)

  14. Economic evaluation of environmental externalities in China’s coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Qiong; Ma, Chunbo; Hu, Yanan; Luo, Kaiyan; Li, William

    2017-01-01

    Serious environmental externalities exist in China’s power industry. Environmental economics theory suggests that the evaluation of environmental externality is the basis of designing an efficient regulation. The purposes of this study are: (1) to identify Chinese respondents’ preferences for green development of electric power industry and the socio-economic characteristics behind them; (2) to investigate the different attitudes of the respondents towards pollution and CO_2 reduction; (3) to quantitatively evaluate the environmental cost of China’s coal-fired power generation. Based on the method of choice experiments (CE) and the 411 questionnaires with 2466 data points, we found that Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction and that the environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan per kWh. In addition, we found that the socio-economic characteristics of income, education, gender, and environmental awareness have significant impacts on respondents’ choices. These findings indicate that the environmental cost of coal-fired power generation is a significant factor that requires great consideration in the formulation of electric power development policies. In addition, importance should also be attached to the implementation of green power price policy and enhancement of environmental protection awareness. - Highlights: • Chinese respondents have willingness to pay premium for green development. • The environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan/kwh. • Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction. • Environmental awareness has significant impacts on respondents’ preferences. • Income, education and gender affect the evaluation results.

  15. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals

  16. The role of natural gas in assessing environmental cost of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1999-01-01

    The actual price of a resource is the results of its internal and external costs. Internal costs means the price paid by the users in order to utilise the resource. On the other hand, externals costs, which are associated with the resource, are not paid directly by the users, but they shall be paid for by the society of the future generations. The article presents methodologies and issues relevant to energy policy decisions, when it comes to evaluating and using environmental external costs of fossil fuel life, with particular consideration to the end-use phase. The results of published studies on environmental costs of energy sources and an analysis applied to the Italia case show that natural gas as a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. The range of values depends upon the technologies considered and on the assumptions adopted when assessment environmental damages [it

  17. Evaluation of the external costs of energy production in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the external costs of energy production at Helsinki metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa). The previously developed valorization method for effects on population centres is adjusted. All the main health, material and environmental effects will be taken into account in the research. The effects of emissions of the energy production of the Helsinki metropolitan area on concentrations of the impurities in the air and through them on human and environment will be evaluated. The estimates will be based on the relativistic fuels consumption and the emission data of Helsinki metropolitan area. Life-cycle reasoning will be applied so that the emissions of the main components of the fuels used in the metropolitan area will be included in the estimation. The cost-effectiveness of the investments will be estimated by comparing the environmental investments of energy boards with the external costs. The methods of this work can be applied to estimation of the profitability of energy production plants from the point of view of national economy also elsewhere in the country

  18. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnell, M.

    1993-11-01

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  19. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, R.; Cabal, H.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of eternality in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalisation are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalisation such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals resulted obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the Extern E Methodology in the EU . Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalisation of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in te market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs

  20. EVA – a non-linear Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    2006-01-01

    of the emissions. External cost estimates based on the Eulerian approach, on the other hand, are in mutual conformity. The existence of non-linear dynamics and possible thresholds, both in the atmospheric modelling and in the dose-response functions for health effects, need further attention and should......Integrated models which are used to account for the external costs of air pollution have to a considerable extent ignored the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric science. In order to bridge the gap between economic analysis and environmental modelling an integrated model EVA, based on a Eulerian...... for the final external cost estimates of the Eulerian approach is explored. Uncertainties in the health costs estimates are endemic in particular for mortality, but in order to achieve a common baseline the approach recommended by the OECD has been employed for the valuation part. This approach implies the use...

  1. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  2. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project 'Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland'. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people's otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  3. Estimation of the external cost of energy production based on fossil fuels in Finland and a comparison with estimates of external costs of wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Ekono Energy Ltd. and Soil and Water Ltd. participated in 1993 - 1994 in the SIHTI 2 research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry by carrying out the project `Estimation of the extremal cost of energy production in Finland`. The aim of the survey was to assess the external costs of Finnish energy production which are incurred by the environmental impacts of emissions during the life cycles of fossil fuels. To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on a local level (population centres), on a national level (Finland) and on a global level. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these impacts. The method was applied to the emissions in 1990. During the survey, the main emphasis was put on developing and applying indirect valuation methods. An indirect method proceeds through dose-response functions. The dose-response function links a certain emission quantity, concentration or deposition to the extent or intensity of the effect. When quantitative data on hazards is available, it is possible to carry out monetary valuation by means of market prices or people`s otherwise expressed willingness to pay (WTP). Monetary valuation includes many uncertainty factors, of which the most significant with regard to this study are the transferability of dose-response functions and willingness-to-pay values from different kinds of conditions, additivity of damage values, uncertainty factors and problems related to discounting

  4. Using wood products to mitigate climate change: External costs and structural change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, 831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    In this study we examine the use of wood products as a means to mitigate climate change. We describe the life cycle of wood products including forest growth, wood harvest and processing, and product use and disposal, focusing on the multiple roles of wood as both material and fuel. We present a comparative case study of a building constructed with either a wood or a reinforced concrete frame. We find that the production of wood building material uses less energy and emits less carbon than the production of reinforced concrete material. We compare the relative cost of the two building methods without environmental taxation, under the current Swedish industrial energy taxation regime, and in scenarios that incorporate estimates of the full social cost of carbon emission. We find that the inclusion of climate-related external costs improves the economic standing of wood construction vis-a-vis concrete construction. We conclude that policy instruments that internalise the external costs of carbon emission should encourage a structural change toward the increased use of sustainably produced wood products. (author)

  5. Minimising negative externalities cost using 0-1 mixed integer linear programming model in e-commerce environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyene Tetteh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the Internet boosts business profitability, without certain activities like efficient transportation, scheduling, products ordered via the Internet may reach their destination very late. The environmental problems (vehicle part disposal, carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen oxide [NOx] and hydrocarbons [HC] associated with transportation are mostly not accounted for by industries. Objectives: The main objective of this article is to minimising negative externalities cost in e-commerce environments. Method: The 0-1 mixed integer linear programming (0-1 MILP model was used to model the problem statement. The result was further analysed using the externality percentage impact factor (EPIF. Results: The simulation results suggest that (1 The mode of ordering refined petroleum products does not impact on the cost of distribution, (2 an increase in private cost is directly proportional to the externality cost, (3 externality cost is largely controlled by the government and number of vehicles used in the distribution and this is in no way influenced by the mode of request (i.e. Internet or otherwise and (4 externality cost may be reduce by using more ecofriendly fuel system.

  6. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  7. Biotype assessment and evaluation as a method to quantify the external costs related to surface brown coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrna, M.; Peleska, O.

    2009-01-01

    Externalities express the uncompensated effects of human individuals on each other and on nature. Externalities include costs and benefits which impact human individuals and environment and are not included in the costs and benefits of their creators and are often defined as the differences between social costs or revenues from economic activity and private costs or revenues. Surface brown coal mining can be characterized by a large range of adverse environmental effects. In order to compensate for the environmental damage caused by mining activities in the Czech Republic, various environmental fees paid by mining companies were introduced to the Czech legislation. The Hessian method of quantifying impacts on the environment is an expert methods that is appropriate for the evaluating environmental damage caused by large-scale impacts on landscape. This paper described the methodology of the Hessian method and its application to a selected opencast mine in north-western Bohemia called the Vrsany-Sverma mine. The paper also discussed current environmental charges in the Czech Republic. It was concluded that the calculated amount of environmental damage caused by surface mining balances the amount of environmental fees currently paid by mining companies. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  9. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  10. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies

  11. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  12. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ; ranging from 7% to 32% of overall costs. This illustrates the importance of taking external costs into account in comparing waste management alternatives, in order to reduce the likelihood of inappropriate decisions being made....

  13. Environmental costs connected to various types of waste; Miljoekostander knyttet til ulike typer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemo, Haakon

    1995-07-01

    The report estimates environmental costs (external impacts) from municipal waste through discharges into air, water and soil. We look at the wastes paper/cardboard, plastic, metal, wood and glass and give separate estimates for wastes at fillings with and without gaseous collection and combusted waste. The figure estimates are uncertain. Paper/cardboard at fillings without gas exhaust have the highest external impacts, about 2.5 pr. kg as the best estimate. The main reason is methane discharge. Plastic and wood at fillings also have high external impacts. These components ought to be combusted if the aim is low environmental costs. Metal and glass have external impacts beneath 0.01 pr. kg at the fillings. This is due to discharges from the fillings take long time and do not go into air. These components ought to be deposited if the aim is low environmental costs.

  14. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hao; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO 2 and NO x . Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society. The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the amended human capital (AHC) approach were applied for external costs estimation, which could provide the upper and lower bound of the external costs due to PM2.5. To fully understand the uncertainty levels, the external cost distribution was determined via Monte Carlo simulation based on the uncertainty of the parameters such as PM2.5 concentration, exposure-response coefficients, and economic cost per case. The results showed that the external costs were equivalent to around 0.3% (AHC, China's guideline: C 0  = 35 μg/m 3 ) to 0.9% (VSL, WHO guideline: C 0  = 10 μg/m 3 ) of regional GDP depending on the valuation method and on the assumed baseline PM2.5 concentration (C 0 ). Among all the health impacts, the economic loss due to premature deaths accounted for more than 80% of the overall external costs. The results of this study could help policymakers prioritizing the PM2.5 pollution control interventions and internalize the external costs through the application of economic policy instruments. - Highlights:

  15. Impact of a possible environmental externalities internalisation on energy prices: The case of the greenhouse gases from the Greek electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgakellos, Dimitrios A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the impact of the internalisation of environmental externalities on energy prices. In this context, its aim is to quantify the external cost of greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) generated during electricity production in the thermal power plants in Greece and to estimate the impact on the electricity production cost and on the electricity prices of a possible internalisation of this external cost by the producers. For this purpose, this paper applies the EcoSenseLE online tool to quantify the examined externalities. This research finds that the calculated external cost is significantly high (compared to the corresponding production cost) mainly in lignite-fired power plants. Specifically, a possible internalisation of this external cost would increase the production cost by more than 52% (on average), which, in turn, would affect similarly the electricity prices. This finding could be important for decision makers in the electricity sector to develop strategies for emission reduction and to develop environmental and energy policies. The general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work as it uses the standard method developed for the Externe project. Similarly, the data limitations as well as assumptions related to the costs and exclusions/ omissions of cost elements affect the results.

  16. The environmental cost in the mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria Rivera Antonio

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate and calculate the mining project, Environmental costs, besides the proper variables concerning the project. It is necessary to incorporate the distinct interrelations among the mining operation with the local and regional biophysics and. socio-economic environments existing in the project's area of influence

  17. Life cycle inventory and external costs of the gas fuel cycle. An overview of the main results and a brief comparison with other fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Wouters, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of a research project funded by the Belgian electricity utilities Electrabel/SPE, VITO made a life cycle inventory of the primary energy use and airborne emissions (including greenhouse gases, SO2 and NOx) of different fuels. Consequently, the impacts of these pollutants on human health, manmade and the natural environment are quantified and these impacts are valued in monetary terms. This analysis is based on the European ExternE methodology to estimate the external costs of energy. The LCI and external cost analysis confirm clearly that natural gas is a relative clean fossil fuel cycle. External cost are in the range of 1.2 to 2.6 EUROcent /kWh, which roughly corresponds from 30 % to 80 % of the private production costs. These results are introduced into a software module, which allows the utilities to compare economic costs and environmental benefits of different measures to reduce CO2 emissions. (author)

  18. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV):Tables with external costs of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).

  19. Environmental costs of transport; Liikenteen paeaestoekustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gynther, L.; Tervonen, J.; Hippinen, I.; Loven, K.; Salmi, J.; Soares, J.; Torkkeli, S.; Tikka, T.

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the estimated total environmental costs of airborne pollutants in road, rail and water transport in Finland and the unit costs of emissions used in socio-economic impact assessments of the transport system. The estimations are based on emission inventory for the year 2007 and the results are shown in prices of 2010. The study updates previous estimates dating back ten years. The total environmental cost of airborne pollutants in transport is estimated at 900 million euros. This is composed of 820 million euros attributable to fuel use and street dust, 54 million euros to the front end of fuel chains and 26 million euros to waste from water transport. The share of road transport in the total cost is 695 million euros, water transport 190 million euros and rail transport just under 15 million euros. The assessment covers the impacts of pollutants on health (increased mortality and morbidity) and flora (crop losses and decreased forest growth) as well as the cost of climate change. In addition to fuel emissions, also street dust is included in the analysis. In water transport the evaluation is extended to solid and liquid waste. In addition to fuel use, also other steps in the fuel chains, namely production, transport, refining and distribution, are covered by the study. The environmental unit costs of primary particles, sulphates and nitrates vary geographically and between different transport modes. The differences are particularly distinctive for particle emissions from road transport. The environmental unit costs of hydrocarbons and greenhouse gasses are the same for all transport modes in all traffic environments and all parts of the country. The impact assessment and monetary valuation of airborne pollutants was principally carried out by using the Impact Pathway Method. The method starts with an emissions inventory and estimation of the consequent pollutant concentrations followed by assessment of physical impacts, and finally monetary

  20. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  1. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohn Lise

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb emissions are assessed using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss in earnings, and on this basis damage costs per unit of Pb emission can be assessed. Methods Different types of models are here linked. It is relatively straightforward to establish the relationship between Pb emissions and consequent increase in air-Pb concentration, by means of a Gaussian plume dispersion model (OML. The exposed population can then be modelled by linking the OML-output to population data nested in geo-referenced grid cells. Less straightforward is to establish the relationship between exposure to air-Pb concentrations and the resulting blood-Pb concentration. Here an Age-Dependent Biokinetic Model (ADBM for Pb is applied. On basis of previous research which established links between increases in blood-Pb concentrations during childhood and resulting IQ-loss we arrive at our results. Results External costs of Pb airborne emissions, even at low doses, in our site are in the range of 41-83 €/kg emitted Pb, depending on the considered meteorological year. This estimate applies only to the initial effects of air-Pb, as our study does not address the effects due to the Pb environmental-accumulation and to the subsequent Pb re-exposure. These are likely to be between one and two orders of magnitude higher. Conclusions Biokinetic modelling is a novel tool not previously included when applying the IPA to explore impacts of Pb emissions

  2. Incorporating environmental externalities into the capacity expansion planning: An Israeli case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Nir; Soloveitchik, David; Olshansky, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Long term energy-environmental planning problems for the electricity sector. → Environmental considerations in the capacity expansion plan. → Modified version of WASP-IV as a multiple objective programming model. → Multi-objective analysis of trade-offs between costs and pollutants reduction. -- Abstract: In this paper we use the WASP-IV model and develop methodology to estimate the impact of several environmental externality costs on the electricity sector development plan. For this purpose, 22 cases were generated which were later on reduced to only seven non-dominated cases by considering this problem as a dynamic multiple objective programming model. The major impact of internalizing the external cost is on fuel use. In the electricity generation system more natural gas and less coal has been used. A cost benefit analysis (CBA) of three scenarios has been performed focusing on taxing only one pollutant while looking at its overall implication. The benefit cost ratio was about 4.5 while the net benefit was about 200 million USD (depending on the scenario). Multi-objective analysis among the different scenarios was carried in a dynamic setting. Seven scenarios appear in the non-dominated set. Out of them five appears in every year and those should have a higher weight placed on them by policy makers. Out of those five, two are a single tax on one pollutant. Thus, policy makers might want to consider a mixture of taxes but for the sake of simplicity can also use a simple one tax on a given pollutant.

  3. Health, environmental risks and externalities of nuclear and other energy systems of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A.P.; Demin, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Due to different reasons the structure of electricity production systems of Russia should be reconsidered and changed. In this reconsideration the results of comparative risk assessment (CRA) and external cost assessment (ECA) are needed. CRA and ECA study has been carried out in the frame of the research program of International Center of Environmental Safety of Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russia. Main directions of this study are: 1) developing CRA and ECA methodology and data base ; 2) performing CRA and ECA for nuclear and other energy systems. Some tendencies in development of electricity production systems in Russia and preliminary results of CRA and ECA are described. (author)

  4. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  5. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO 2 emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies

  6. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    health, it required to give a value to human life and to health damages. The results show as the largest costs are due to air pollution (38.0 % and accidents (28.2 %; noise amounts to 18.4 %, while less importance is assumed by congestion (10.6 % and greenhouse gas emissions (4.8 %. Moreover, the results show also as the amount of external costs overcomes 4 € billions per year and is equal about to 4.7 % of regional GDP; in particular, it is highlighted as the environmental costs (greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and noise overcome 60 % of total costs. The obtained results have shown as the external costs are significant respect to other costs of transportation systems and as they should be always evaluated when public funds are invested for improving transportation systems.

  7. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafaj, Peter; Kypreos, Socrates

    2007-01-01

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO x removal, and CO 2 scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO 2 over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO 2 mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control

  8. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...] Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic... draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation policy. DATES: Comments must be received by June 10, 2010...

  9. Audio Teleconferencing: Low Cost Technology for External Studies Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the benefits of audio teleconferencing for distance education programs and for business and government applications focuses on the recent experience of Canadian educational users. Four successful operating models and their costs are reviewed, and it is concluded that audio teleconferencing is cost efficient and educationally…

  10. Quantifying the Sensitivity of the Production of Environmental Externalities to Market-Based Interventions in the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2017-12-01

    The optimization function that governs the dispatching of power generators to meet electricity demand minimizes the marginal cost of electricity generation without regard to the environmental or public health damages caused by power production. Although technologies exist for reducing the externalities resulting from electricity generation at power plants, current solutions typically raise the cost of power production or introduce operational challenges for the grid. This research quantifies the trade-offs and couplings between the cooling water, greenhouse gas emissions, and air quality impacts of different power generating technologies under business as usual market conditions, as well as a series of market-based interventions aimed to reduce the production of those externalities. Using publicly available data from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) for power plant water use and emissions, a unit commitment and dispatch power market simulation model is modified to evaluate the production of environmental externalities from power production. Scenarios are developed to apply a set of fees for cooling water, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide emissions, respectively. Trade-offs between environmental performance, overall generation costs, and shifts in the power plants dispatched to meet demand are quantified for each power market simulation. The results from this study will provide insight into the development of a novel market-based framework that modifies the optimization algorithms governing the dispatching of electricity onto the grid in efforts to achieve cost-effective improvements in its environmental performance without the need for new infrastructure investments.

  11. Quantifying the external cost of oil consumption within the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of sustainability implies that the flow of services derived from the use of natural capital must be constant over time and should be obtained at a constant price. For a depletable resource such as oil, the future generations are highly impacted due to the consumption behavior of the current generation. Since the ultimate oil stock within the Earth declines with cumulative consumption, excessive consumption of oil now reduces the availability of oil for future needs. Moreover, since oil reserves are normally extracted in the order of ascending cost and descending quality, excessive consumption of relatively high-quality, cheap oil reserves by the current generation raises the cost at which future generations can meet their needs of oil and hence imposes an external cost on the future generations. This study aims to quantify the external cost of consuming a barrel of oil within the context of sustainable development. An option-pricing model is developed to quantify this external cost assuming that the external cost of consuming a barrel of oil now equals the value of the option to get a barrel of oil in the future at the same current cost. Then, the total cost of consuming a barrel of oil now, that should be used in lifecycle costing to design more sustainable products, is the summation of the oil price and the external cost

  12. Life cycle assessment of renewables: present issues, future outlook and implications for the calculation of external costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In principle, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is certainly appropriate for estimating external costs of renewables, since major environmental impacts of the latter are generated in phases of the life cycle other than use. In practice however, several issues still remain. They are related to the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data, to the frit technological development of renewable energy technologies (RET), to the existence of many different applications of the latter and to a strong dependency on local conditions. Moreover, a 'static' picture of present technologies is not enough for policy indications. Therefore some kind of dynamic LCA is needed. These LCA issues are reflected in the calculation of external costs. First, the paper discusses these issues on the examples of two main technologies, namely photovoltaic (PV) and wind. Second, it discusses the results of ExternE for these two specific technologies and gives an outlook for the future. Future needs for a better use of LCA as a support tool for the calcination of external costs are identified. Finally, a new research project funded by the European Commission focused on LCI of renewables is briefly introduced and presented. (author)

  13. Environmental damage costs in Iran by the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-Pour, Majid; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the energy supply and demand, this paper assesses the environmental damage from air pollution in Iran using the Extern-E study that has extended over 10 years and is still in progress in the European Union (EU) commission. Damage costs were transferred from Western European practice to the conditions of Iran by scaling according to GDP per capital measured in PPP terms. Using this approach, the total health damage from air pollution in 2001 is assessed at about $7 billion; equivalent to 8.4% of nominal GDP. In the absence of price reform and control policies, it is estimated that damage in Iran will grow to $9 billion by 2019, in the money of 2001. This is equivalent to 10.9% of nominal GDP, i.e. a larger percentage of a larger GDP. Of this total, $8.4 billion comes from the transport sector. The damage cost to the global environment from the flaring of natural gas, assessed on the basis of a carbon price of $10/ton CO 2 and found to be approximately $600 million per year. This is equal to a little less than 1% of current GDP. There are larger costs associated with recovery and use of such gas, but equally there are large potential benefits

  14. External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares Germany, China and Cambodia. The article points out that, despite huge differences in institutions and governance, unsustainable land use changes mostly have some patterns in common: The beneficiaries of land conversion are often well-organized actors, whereas the costs of land conversion are often shifted to poorly organized groups and to society as a whole. A sustainable land use policy has to look for a better coupling of benefits and costs of land use changes. In order to achieve this goal, the article suggests completing the planning law with a suitable economic framework.

  15. Generation choices as influenced by costs, risks and externalities -Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, L.

    1994-01-01

    Power generation in Germany is dealing with social acceptability, cost considerations, governmental decisions and protection legislation. In the future, political and sociological factors will become more and more important: social acceptability of the energy sources choice is the most significant factor decision as the future pattern of power generation. (TEC)

  16. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories

  17. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-07-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO 2 and NO x . Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society. The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the amended human capital (AHC) approach were applied for external costs estimation, which could provide the upper and lower bound of the external costs due to PM2.5. To fully understand the uncertainty levels, the external cost distribution was determined via Monte Carlo simulation based on the uncertainty of the parameters such as PM2.5 concentration, exposure-response coefficients, and economic cost per case. The results showed that the external costs were equivalent to around 0.3% (AHC, China's guideline: C 0  = 35 μg/m 3 ) to 0.9% (VSL, WHO guideline: C 0  = 10 μg/m 3 ) of regional GDP depending on the valuation method and on the assumed baseline PM2.5 concentration (C 0 ). Among all the health impacts, the economic loss due to premature deaths accounted for more than 80% of the overall external costs. The results of this study could help policymakers prioritizing the PM2.5 pollution control interventions and internalize the external costs through the application of economic policy instruments. Copyright © 2017

  18. Issues and major steps in a conceptual framework for environmental costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePape, D.; Kristjanson, E.R.; Onyebuchi, E.I.; Wojczynski, E.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of applying monetary values to environmental consequences as a means of integrating environmental considerations into utility resource planning is explored. The need for estimation and integration of environmental costs and benefits is becoming more important due to public concern over environmental degradation, rapidly increasing costs of mitigating environmental damage, increased liability for compensation for such damage, pressures to consider environmental externalities, and a corporate desire to operate responsibly. Manitoba Hydro established a task force to develop general approaches and specific techniques for evaluation and integration of environmental costs and benefits into utility planning. The utility's conceptual framework for monetizing and integrating environmental costs and benefits is described, including identification of potential environmental impacts, evaluation of environmental impacts, estimation of monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits, and integration of these costs and benefits into the resource planning process. Key issues that must be addressed to implement this conceptual framework include the need for earlier environmental impact assessments and the need for mitigation and compensation prediction methodologies. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. The external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle: implementation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Margerie, H.

    1995-08-01

    In 1991 the European Community and the US Department of Energy initiated a joint research project to assess the external costs of fuel cycles used to generate electricity. The intention of this project, called the EC-US External Costs of Fuel Cycles Project (ECFC), was to develop a conceptual approach, consistent methodology and identify future research in the assessment of the externalities. A second phase of the project continued in Europe (with a new name ''ExternE'') and expanded to include the implementation of the consistent methodology in various EC countries. This report presents the final results of the French Implementation for the nuclear fuel cycle. (author). 37 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs

  20. The external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle: implementation in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Margerie, H.

    1995-08-01

    In 1991 the European Community and the US Department of Energy initiated a joint research project to assess the external costs of fuel cycles used to generate electricity. The intention of this project, called the EC-US External Costs of Fuel Cycles Project (ECFC), was to develop a conceptual approach, consistent methodology and identify future research in the assessment of the externalities. A second phase of the project continued in Europe (with a new name ``ExternE``) and expanded to include the implementation of the consistent methodology in various EC countries. This report presents the final results of the French Implementation for the nuclear fuel cycle. (author). 37 refs., 11 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Externalizing Psychopathology and Mental Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John M.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed with the Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing. PMID:22506307

  2. The External Cost Evaluation of the Nuclear Severe Accident Using CVM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Lee, Byung Chul

    2006-01-01

    The external cost of energy can be defined as 'the cost not included in the energy market price', such as air pollution, noise, etc. Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of severe accident, the effect of risk aversion of the public against the severe accident must be addressed, because people are more concerned about low probability - high consequence events than about high probability - low consequence events having the same mean damage. It is generally recognized that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the average monetary value which corresponds in principle to the compensation of the consequences for each individual of the population affected by the accident. In this paper, the CVM (Contingent Valuation Method) is used to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of nuclear severe accidents in Korea

  3. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. N. Lindner and E. F. Dembowski

    1998-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  4. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  5. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  6. Tracking Dissipation Reduction, Externalities, Stability and Sustainability for Environmental Management of New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability requires stability, but in promoting economic development, modern economies and political systems reduce stabilizing dissipation by facilitating use and management of the environment through engineered mitigation of disturbances, which externalizes dissipation over the short to medium term. To quantitatively investigate the relationship between a range of environmental management approaches and sustainability, and the implications for Earth's future, we track the impact of management strategies on dissipation within the system and its externalities in a numerical model for the coupled economic, political/management and flooding dynamics of New Orleans. The model simulates river floods, hurricane storm-surge-induced floods, subsidence, and agent-based market interactions leading to development of port services, hotels, homes and labor relations. Flood protection decisions for levee construction based on the baseline case of cost-benefit analyses designed to prevent short-term economic loss from future floods qualitatively reproduce historical expansion of New Orleans and increases in levee height. Alternative management strategies explored include majority voting, consensus-based decision-making, and variations in discounting of costs and benefits. Enhanced dissipation is measured relative to optimal economic development without floods. The focus of modern economies on commodification is exploited to track dissipation as a scalar representing value or power, but this approach might not be applicable to more complicated traditional/indigenous cultures or cultures of resistance. For the baseline case, short-to-medium-term reductions in dissipation destabilize the coupled system, resulting in episodic bursts of externalized dissipation during flooding. Comparisons of results for a range of management options and generalizations of this approach for alternative cultural systems will be discussed.

  7. Scale Economies and Industry Agglomeration Externalities: A Dynamic Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Siegel; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    Scale economies and agglomeration externalities are alleged to be important determinants of economic growth. To assess these effects, the authors outline and estimate a microfoundations model based on a dynamic cost function specification. This model provides for the separate identification of the impacts of externalities and cyclical utilization on short- and long-run scale economies and input substitution patterns. The authors find that scale economies are prevalent in U.S manufacturing; co...

  8. Cost of generating tritium internal and external to a tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotzer, M.E.; Heck, F.M.; Steinke, K.C.

    1981-01-01

    The costs associated with producing tritium internal and external to a thorium-based tokamak hybrid are estimated for a number of scenarios and the resulting impact on the symbiotic system cost of electricity calculated. For tritium generation within the hybrid, both continuous and batch production is analyzed. For external production, the lithium-bearing blanket is replaced with thorium and the tritium is generated in the client fission reactors. Continuous tritium production within the hybrid is found to increase the cost of electricity from 1.4 to 4.0 mills/kW-h. Batch tritium production can increase the cost of electricity by 10 mills/kW-h. Producing tritium outside the hybrid, and thereby enhancing client support, increases the cost of electricity from 1.8 to 4.1 mills/kW-h

  9. Perspective on energy security and other non environmental externalities in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of the term externality to non environmental matters are often controversial and ambiguous. This paper argues that these externalities are also rarer or less important than sometimes alleged. The paper examines various potential energy security externalities and concludes that none of them are relevant to decisions regarding electric generation. Externalities may exist with regard to effects on local employment and the local infrastructure, although their importance is location specific and their measurement is highly subjective. In short, the consideration of this subset of externalities may confuse policy makers more than it helps them. (author). 15 refs

  10. Testing the role of external debt in environmental degradation: empirical evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Celebi, Aysem

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the role of external debt stock in Turkey, which has suffered from heavy (external and domestic) debt stock for many years. Annual data from 1960 to 2013 was analyzed using time series analysis in order to study this. The results confirm the validity of the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the case of Turkey. However, this study also found that Turkey's external debt stock did not influence the Turkish economy's long-term EKC behavior. Fortunately, the results suggest that there are important interactions among external debt stock, CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and real income; that is, changes in external debt volume precede changes in these aggregates' volumes.

  11. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  12. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion

  13. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...

  14. Integration of risk aversion in the evaluation of the external cost of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeckhoudt, L.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the external costs of fuel cycles used in the production of electricity are those imposed on society and environment that are not accounted for by the producers and consumers of energy. Within the evaluation of the external cost of the nuclear fuel cycle, the evaluation of a nuclear accident has to be addressed. For this purpose, the basic approach consists in calculating the expected value of various occident scenarios. the main criticism of this approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the average monetary value which corresponds in principle to the compensation of the consequences for each individual of the population affected by the accident. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for the integration of risk aversion, relying on the expected utility approach, as well as a numerical application based on the French data for the external cost of a nuclear accident. Although a huge range of values has been published for the relative risk aversion coefficient, it seems reasonable to adopt a value of 2 for the specific case of nuclear accident. This leads to an estimated multiplying coefficient approximately equal to 20 to be applied to the expected external cost of a nuclear accident corresponding to a release of about 1% of the core. In this case, the external cost of the nuclear accident is estimated to 0.046 mECU/kWh (i.e. about 50% of the total external costs of the nuclear fuel cycle estimated at 0.1 mECU/kWh with a 3% discount rate), instead of 0.0023 mECU/kWh without taking into account risk aversion. (authors)

  15. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  16. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China: Uncertainty analysis of multiple health impacts and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society....... The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well...... as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both...

  17. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  18. Approaching Environmental Cleanup Costs Liability Through Insurance Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael A

    1994-01-01

    .... Applying insurance industry principles to environmental cleanup costs liability will provide a firm foundation to reduce the risk of loss to the taxpayer, reduce cleanup costs, and stimulate private...

  19. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  20. Environmental Cost Accounting Information and Strategic Business Decision in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebipanipre Gabriel Mieseigha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining environmental cost accounting information and strategic business decision in Nigeria. The general assumption that conventional cost accounting does not have the ability to provide absolute information for evaluating the environmental behaviour of an organization and its economic consequences has motivated this study. Towards achieving this, secondary data was employed and a linear model was specified. Findings indicated that environmental cost accounting information as it relates to strategic business decision is valuerelevant. It was on this note that we recommended firms to constantly reposition their accounting system in order to provide information on environmental costs so that the true costs in an organization can be ascertained and properly allocated. Also, due attention should be paid to waste management costs, employee health costs, investment financing costs, compliance and environmental costs and all environmental related costs by manufacturing concerns since they influence strategic decision. Our study is one of those that have explored the issue of environmental cost accounting relevance in strategic business decision in the Nigerian context.

  1. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  2. Climate change in the framework of external costs of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the continuing controversies concerning external costs of energy systems, the Commission of the European Union and the US-Department of Energy initiated a common project, External Costs of Fuel Cycles. The purpose of this project is to develop methodologies for the assessment of site-specific external costs on a marginal basis using a damage-function approach. For the assessment of climate change itself physical models are available. Here, the PC-model IMAGE developed by RIVM has been used for the time period up to 2100. Beyond this year, the carbon cycle is modeled with a response function. For the derivation of damage costs, a linear relationship between the global temperature change and the damage costs has been assumed. Thus, damage costs in the range of 0.10 to 0.53 US-cents/kWh for a discount rate of 3% are assessed for typical German fossil energy systems. The highest uncertainties are attached to the discount rate, the range for the climate sensitivity, and the forms of the global warming damage function. These points also have the strongest influence on the results. Hence, future research should be directed to the further analysis of these points. 30 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Estimating the Costs and Benefits of EMU : The Impact of External Shocks on Labour Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belke, A.; Gros, D.

    1997-01-01

    Discussions of the economic costs and benefits of EMU usually take as their basis the optimum currency area (OCA) approach. This approach starts from the premise that when an external shock hits the economy, it is easier to adjust the exchange rate than domestic prices or wages. Most economists

  4. A Review of Last Mile Logistics Innovations in an Externalities Cost Reduction Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the recent scientific literature contributions on innovative strategies for last mile logistics, focusing on externalities cost reduction, is presented. Transport is causing problems in urban areas, in particular in freight transport: modern cities need solutions to reduce externalities costs such as congestion, pollution and others, which have increased in the last few years, especially due to the growth of goods delivery. Online sales and globalization lead to new trends in freight transport, and moreover, a larger quantity of goods is expected to be delivered in the next future. In this context, most of the delivered goods end up in the city centers. Last mile logistics is the least efficient stage of the supply chain and comprises up to 28% of the total delivery cost. Therefore, the improvement of last mile logistics and a significant externalities reduction are very important challenges for researchers. New technologies and transport means, innovative techniques and organizational strategies allow handling in a more effective way the last mile delivery in urban areas. Based on the Systematic Literature Review (SLR method, recent papers that significantly contributed, with original proposals, to the reduction of externalities in urban logistics are identified and analyzed in this work. Furthermore, a classification of the papers dealing with the externality reduction problem is presented. It is consistent with a general formulation proposed to evaluate external costs in urban area. The innovative contributions are classified into five main categories: innovative vehicles, proximity stations or points, collaborative and cooperative urban logistics, optimization of transport management and routing, innovations in public policies and infrastructures. The new paradigm of smart logistics is based on the combination of these concepts and on the proposed innovations.

  5. Social costs of energy consumption. External effects of electricity consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany. Soziale Kosten des Energieverbrauchs. Externe Effekte des Elektrizitaetsverbrauchs in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmeyer, O

    1988-01-01

    This study provides a first systematic quantification and conversion into monetary terms of the relevant social costs and benefits, in order to create a basis for corrective measures with respect to the use of wind power and the photovoltaic use of solar energy. Four main areas of social costs of energy systems are looked at in the study: Environmental costs, including the effect on human health. Inadequate consideration of the long-term shortage of resources in present-day market prices. Macroeconomic effects such as changes in the net product or employment. Subsidies via state agencies, which are made partly in the form of direct payments and partly in an indirect way in the form of state services. State subsidies in the area of research and development can be subsumed under the last point. In each of these main fields there is a multiplicity of separate external effects which are dealt with at length in a special chapter. (orig./UA) With 20 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  7. Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Greg M; Wilkinson, Melanie J; Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms struggle to reach key life history stages, or alternatively, die shortly after reaching life history stages if there are greater risks of mortality associated with costs to developing in novel environments. We used multiple populations from four ecotypes of an Australian native wildflower (Senecio pinnatifolius) in reciprocal transplants to explore how fitness tradeoffs arise across ontogeny. We then assessed whether the survival probability for plants from native and foreign populations was contingent on reaching key developmental stages. We found that fitness tradeoffs emerged as ontogeny progressed when native plants were more successful than foreign plants at reaching seedling establishment and maturity. Native and foreign plants that failed to reach seedling establishment died at the same rate, but plants from foreign populations died quicker than native plants after reaching seedling establishment, and died quicker regardless of whether they reached sexual maturity or not. Development rates were similar for native and foreign populations, but changed depending on the environment. Together, our results suggest that natural selection for environment-specific traits early in life history created tradeoffs between contrasting environments. Plants from foreign populations were either unable to develop to seedling establishment, or they suffered increased mortality as a consequence of reaching seedling establishment. The observation of tradeoffs together with

  8. External costs of PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Yin; Pizzol, Massimo; Xu, Linyu

    2017-01-01

    Some cities in China are facing serious air pollution problems including high concentrations of particles, SO2 and NOx. Exposure to PM2.5, one of the primary air pollutants in many cities in China, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and ultimately represents a cost for society....... The aim of this study is to assess health impacts and external costs related to PM2.5 pollution in Beijing, China with different baseline concentrations and valuation methods. The idea is to provide a reasonable estimate of the total health impacts and external cost due to PM2.5 pollution, as well...... as a quantification of the relevant uncertainty. PM2.5 concentrations were retrieved for the entire 2012 period in 16 districts of Beijing. The various PM2.5 related health impacts were identified and classified to avoid double counting. Exposure-response coefficients were then obtained from literature. Both...

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on the familial transmission of externalizing disorders in adoptive and twin offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Foster, Katherine T; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-10-01

    Twin-family studies have shown that parent-child resemblance on substance use disorders and antisocial behavior can be accounted for by the transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Most studies, however, include only biological parents and offspring, which confound genetic and environmental transmission effects. To examine the familial transmission of externalizing disorders among both adoptive (genetically unrelated) and biological relatives to better distinguish genetic and environmental mechanisms of transmission. Family study design wherein each family included the mother, father, and 2 offspring, including monozygotic twin, dizygotic twin, nontwin biological, and adoptive offspring. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate familial transmission effects and their genetic and environmental influences. Participants were recruited from the community and assessed at a university laboratory. A total of 1590 families with biological offspring and 409 families with adoptive offspring. Offspring participants were young adults (mean age, 26.2 years). Symptom counts of conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, and alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence. RESULTS There was a medium effect for the transmission of the general externalizing liability for biological parents (r = 0.27-0.30) but not for adoptive parents (r = 0.03-0.07). In contrast, adoptive siblings exhibited significant similarity on the general externalizing liability (r = 0.21). Biometric analyses revealed that the general externalizing liability was highly heritable (a2 = 0.61) but also exhibited significant shared environmental influences (c2 = 0.20). Parent-child resemblance for substance use disorders and antisocial behavior is primarily due to the genetic transmission of a general liability to a spectrum of externalizing disorders. Including adoptive siblings revealed a greater role of shared environmental influences on the general externalizing liability

  10. Estimating the environmental costs of electricity: an overview and review of the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.M. III

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the issues associated with environmental costing and the specific questions raised by the effort to measure the environmental costs of electricity. It focuses on three sets of issues. The first set is several conceptual issues in the valuation of environmental impacts in general. These issues are not unique to valuing the environmental impacts of electricity generation. However each of these issues has been highlighted in one way or another by the studies being discussed here. The second set of issues are specific to the design of studies of environmental effects of generating electricity. These issues are the selection of externalities for inclusion in the analysis, and whether and to what extent to include so called upstream and downstream impacts. The third set of issues involves policy implications of the results of the work that has been done to date. Factors considered include health effects of air emissions, damage to ecosystems, damage by CO 2 . 31 refs

  11. Do Internal and external environmental management contribute to the triple bottom line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Giovanni, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of both internal and external environmental management (EM) on the triple bottom line (TBL), which embraces environmental, economic, and social performance. Both direct and indirect effects are estimated in order to capture the overall

  12. Recognition of the Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuel Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı FINDIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment that is the natural residential area of live life is among the interests of the various sciences. Within the scope of accounting science, the concept of social awareness requires a social responsibility based approach and this causes some additional environmental costs emerged when interaction of business with their environment considered. In the Uniform Accounting Plan there exists a special account relating with monitoring, controlling and managing of environmental costs. This study deals with environmental accounting for enterprises and introduces determination and recognition of the environmental costs of fossil fuel plants that use coal as a fuel

  13. Environmental Parametric Cost Model in Oil and Gas EPC Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Abbaspour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the parameters that govern the environmental costs in oil and gas projects. An initial conceptual model was proposed. Next, the costs of environmental management work packages were estimated, separately and were applied in project control tools (WBS/CBS. Then, an environmental parametric cost model was designed to determine the environmental costs and relevant weighting factors. The suggested model can be considered as an innovative approach to designate the environmental indicators in oil and gas projects. The validity of variables was investigated based on Delphi method. The results indicated that the project environmental management’s weighting factor is 0.87% of total project’s weighting factor.

  14. Environmental costs and resource planning consequences: New England electric's rating and weighting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destribats, A.F.; Hutchinson, M.A.; Stout, T.M.; White, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    In mid 1989, the New England Electric System (NEES or Company) began an effort to reflect the potential environmental externalities of new resources in its long range planning process. Having examined several methods for incorporating externalities, including cost of control, the Company adopted a rating and weighting approach. Not strictly quantitative nor qualitative, the rating and weighting approach provided a means to apply an environmental score to all new resources considered for the Company's long range resource plan, NEESPLAN 1990. A maximum environmental cost penalty of fifteen percent was applied to the resource considered for inclusion in the plan that posed the highest amount of potential environmental degradation. All other resources received a smaller penalty that was based on the ratio of their environmental score to the highest score. Application of this penalty tended to improve the cost-effectiveness of demand-side programs and worsen some supply-side options' cost-effectiveness. Both the rating and weighting approach employed by NEES and its application in the long range planning process have been the subject of several critical reviews. Having stated that the advantages of the rating and weighting approach include its easy reviewability and flexibility to be modified as better information becomes available, the Company has subsequently revised the approach to address the comments made by reviewers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rating and weighting approach, its recent revisions, and the effect of the revised methodology on the Company's long range resource plan

  15. Environmental externality and inequality in China: Current Status and future choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sufang; Fan, Chunyang

    2014-01-01

    Along with China's rapid economic growth, the environmental externality in the country is getting more and more serious. China's environmental externality is accompanied by environmental inequality, which presents two characteristics: First, the health loss caused by environmental externality is concentrated in the elderly and children. We take Beijing as an empirical analysis to conclude that children (0–4 years old) are the largest group suffered from respiratory disease; while the seniors are the largest group suffered from cardiovascular disease. Second, China's environmental inequality is mainly caused by the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas/suburbs. The villagers in poor rural areas are the biggest victims. China's environmental inequality is reflected particularly by the phenomenon of “cancer villages” which has existed ever since the end of 1970s. Finally, policy recommendations are provided for reducing China's environmental externality and inequality. - The seniors and children are the biggest victims of air pollution, and the transfer of industries from urban to rural areas led to occurrence of “cancer villages” in China

  16. Changes in Energy Cost and Total External Work of Muscles in Elite Race Walkers Walking at Different Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwała Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess energy cost and total external work (total energy depending on the speed of race walking. Another objective was to determine the contribution of external work to total energy cost of walking at technical, threshold and racing speed in elite competitive race walkers.

  17. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil: a drawback of phosphorus fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; C.R. Smart, James; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    are exposed to cadmium through their diet causing potential adverse health impacts. Future scenarios for cadmium emissions to soil via agricultural applications of inorganic and organic fertilizers in Denmark were defined. A simplified fate and speciation model allowed the increase in soil cadmium......Abstract: In this study the Impact-Pathway Approach methodology was applied for monetary valuation of health impacts due to cadmium emitted to soil as a micro-pollutant present in phosphorus fertilizers. Due to the high persistency of cadmium in soil, and high soil-to-plant transfer rates, humans...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  18. External cost of coal based electricity generation:A tale of Ahmedabad city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Diptiranjan; Shukla, Priyadarshi; Dhar, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Electricity production causes unintended impacts.Theire xclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations.Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle ana......Electricity production causes unintended impacts.Theire xclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations.Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life......–response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned...

  19. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces. Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase. Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58 000 per province and $322 000 using internal facilitators ($86 000 for facilitator training in each of two phases plus $15 000 for SLMTA implementation in each province. Conclusion: Investing in training of internal facilitators will

  20. External Costs and Benefits of Energy. Methodologies, Results and Effects on Renewable Energies Competitivity; Costes y Beneficios Externos de la Energia. Metodologias, Resultados e Influencia sobre la Competitividad de las Energias Renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, R; Cabal, H; Varela, M [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    This study attempts to give a summarised vision of the concept of externally in energy production, the social and economic usefulness of its evaluation and consideration as support to the political decision-marking in environmental regulation matters, technologies selection of new plants, priorities establishment on energy plans, etc. More relevant environmental externalities are described, as are the effects on the health, ecosystems, materials and climate, as well as some of the socioeconomic externalities such as the employment, increase of the GDP and the reduction and depletion of energy resources. Different methodologies used during the last years have been reviewed as well as the principals results obtained in the most relevant studies accomplished internationally on this topic. Special mention has deserved the European study National Implementation of the ExternE Methodology in the EU. Results obtained are represented in Table 2 of this study. Also they are exposed, in a summarised way, the results obtained in the evaluation of environmental externalities of the Spanish electrical system in function of the fuel cycle. In this last case the obtained results are more approximated since have been obtained by extrapolation from the obtained for ten representative plants geographically distributed trough the Peninsula. Finally it has been analysed the influence that the internalization of the external costs of conventional energies can have in the competitiveness and in the market of renewable energy, those which originate less environmental effects and therefore produce much smaller external costs. The mechanisms of internalization and the consideration on the convenience or not of their incorporation in the price of energy have been also discussed. (Author) 30 refs.

  1. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruccelli, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.petruccelli@unibas.it

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  2. Internalisation of external costs in the Polish power generation sector: A partial equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudelko, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodical framework, which is the basis for the economic analysis of the mid-term planning of development of the Polish energy system. The description of the partial equilibrium model and its results are demonstrated for different scenarios applied. The model predicts the generation, investment and pricing of mid-term decisions that refer to the Polish electricity and heat markets. The current structure of the Polish energy sector is characterised by interactions between the supply and demand sides of the energy sector. The supply side regards possibilities to deliver fuels from domestic and import sources and their conversion through transformation processes. Public power plants, public CHP plants, industry CHP plants and municipal heat plants represent the main producers of energy in Poland. Demand is characterised by the major energy consumers, i.e. industry and construction, transport, agriculture, trade and services, individual consumers and export. The relationships between the domestic electricity and heat markets are modelled taking into account external costs estimates. The volume and structure of energy production, electricity and heat prices, emissions, external costs and social welfare of different scenarios are presented. Results of the model demonstrate that the internalisation of external costs through the increase in energy prices implies significant improvement in social welfare

  3. Comparing Cars--Environmental and Cost Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high school students are at an age when they are learning to drive. They often want to offer input when their parents decide on what vehicle to purchase, so the activity described in this article should have direct personal interest for them. It allows students to use technology and mathematics to determine the environmental impacts of…

  4. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies

  5. Environmental innovation and the cost of pollution abatement revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechet, Thierry [Center for Operations Research and Econometrics, Chair Lhoist Berghmans in Environmental Economics and Management, Louvain School of Management, Universite catholique de Louvain, Voie du Roman Pays 34, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Jouvet, Pierre-Andre [EconomiX, Universite de Nanterre (France); Center for Operations Research and Econometrics, Universite catholique de Louvain (Belgium)

    2008-04-01

    It is widely assumed in the literature that environmental innovation reduces the marginal cost of pollution abatement. In this paper we show that this is not necessarily the case and we provide some unexpected outcomes. (author)

  6. Monetary valorization of the sanitary and environmental impacts of a nuclear accident: synthesis of ''ExternE'' studies, interests and limits of complementary developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th.

    2002-09-01

    This document constitutes a synthesis of the various available methods for the monetary evaluation of the nuclear accidents impacts in order to reveal the already evaluated impacts, those which need complementary developments and those for which the monetary approach currently seems to come up against limits. It is based primarily on the approach realized by the ''ExternE'' project of the European Commission, consisting in the evaluation of the external costs of the nuclear energy industry. (A.L.B.)

  7. LIFE CYCLE COSTING DAN EKSTERNALITAS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK SAWIT DAN MINYAK ALGA DI INDONESIA (Life Cycle Costing and Externities of Palm and Algal Biodiesel in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Dwi Santoso

    2014-10-01

    perannya dalam mitigasi GRK yang turut memperbesar peluang sebagai bahan utama biodiesel di masa depan.   ABSTRACT The high cost of biodiesel production was to be an obstacle conversion to biodiesel fuel including Indonesia due to anticipate the energy crisis. The high cost of production due to the variable cost of production has not fully comparable reflect the overall potential contained in biodiesel. Potential biodiesel belonging to the commodity nature of the environment such as renewable biomass, low in land use, and environmentally friendly should be included in the calculation in order to obtain an objective comparison of the calculations.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding commodities to the structure of the production cost of biodiesel between palm oil and algal oil. Estimated value of the commodity by the method of benefit transfer method shows the value used is the approach gains willingness to pay (WTP. Environmental commodity values referenced from the calculation software Environmental Priority Strategy (EPS version 2000. For the case of Indonesia, the commodity value of the elasticity was infered EPS basis of comparison of income per capita of Sweden and Indonesia.The results stated that the analysis of life cycle costing (LCC applied by adding variable externalities can provide detailed information about the composition of biodiesel production costs and can be used as a method to get a total picture of the most competitive production costs from several sources. The analysis also concluded that the externality variables also affect the total cost of biodiesel production by up to 14%. Profitability analysis stated that the algal biomass for biodiesel production more secure and sustainable than palm biomass due to technical and non-technical constraints on the production of algal biomass more easier to treat but it also advantages role in GHG mitigation that helped widen the opportunities as the main ingredient of biodiesel in the futur

  8. Economic valuation of the environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Assmus, Gustavo

    1996-01-01

    The article tries about the restlessness ecological World cup born under the spectrum of an eventual environmental crisis and their serious consequences for the sustenance of the life in the earth, that which has put to the overdraft a series of fundamental errors to the interior of the classic considerations of the economy. For it, from the decade of the years 70 in the developed countries and from the 90 in those developing countries, it has been intensified the reflection notably around what is and it can be the economy of the well-being, closely related, not alone with the ecology but also with the emergence of the man's cultural phase that acts under new pertinent values to the environmental ethics

  9. HUBUNGAN STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN DAN EXTERNAL MONITORING TERHADAP AGENCY COST DAN ALIRAN KAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Ade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Capital credit was credit given by private/government public bank to solve theproblem of liquidation on companies. In a small company, inhibiting liquidation andinformation which was asymmetric influenced manpower recruitment, especially in managerlevel and it could make adverse selction problem. In agency theory, it was mentioned thatagency problem could appear if there was a different self-interest between (1 capital ownerand manager (2 capital owner and bank. This research was aimed to analyze if ownershipstructure and external monitoring had influence to agency cost and whether agency cost hadinfluence to cash flow. The samples of this research were small companies running inmanufatures, corporation, and which got capital credit. Samples taken were 101 companiesand the analyzes method used was SEM. This research concluded that agency cost was in smallcompanies that the manager was not the capital owner, but there was no indication of moralhazard.

  10. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  11. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  12. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  13. Industrial Environmental Monitoring — A Land Restoration Costs Tracking Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskakov, M.; Nurgaziyev, M.; Eleyushov, B.; Kayukov, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure in use in Kazakhstan for controlling the rehabilitation of sites damaged by subsurface operations. It sets out the legal requirements and a methodology for production environmental control in which a procedure is established for monitoring and impact assessment and for optimizing remediation approaches, taking into account the environmental impact and the associated costs of different options. (author)

  14. Genetic and Environmental Associations Between Procrastination and Internalizing/Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; du Pont, Alta; Hatoum, Alexander S; Hyun Rhee, Soo; Kremen, William S; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2017-09-01

    Recent work on procrastination has begun to unravel the genetic and environmental correlates of this problematic behavior. However, little is known about how strongly procrastination is associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and the extent to which shared genetic/environmental factors or relevant personality constructs (e.g., fear of failure, impulsivity, and neuroticism) can inform the structure of these associations. The current study examined data from 764 young adult twins who completed questionnaires assessing procrastination and personality and structured interviews regarding psychopathology symptoms. Results indicated that procrastination was positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing latent variables, and that these correlations were driven by shared genetic influences. Moreover, the association between procrastination and internalizing was accounted for by fear of failure and neuroticism, whereas the association between procrastination and externalizing was primarily explained by impulsivity. The role of procrastination in psychopathology is discussed using a framework that highlights common and broadband-specific variance.

  15. Valuing Externalities of Watershed Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in Mediterranean Basins: A Comparative Analysis of the Contingent Valuation and Replacement Cost Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Maria Del Carmen Almansa; Calatrava-Requena, Javier

    2002-01-01

    The methodology used for Economic Valuation of the Externalities generated by the Watershead Restoration and Erosion Control Projects in the Hydrographic Basins of the Mediterranean Slope, is based on the Replacement Cost Method. Environmental Economics, however, today offer us other methodological possibilities, whose application to the valuation of this type of project may prove to be of interest. It is the case of the Contingent Valuation Method used for the evaluation of the effects of th...

  16. Valuing environmental externalities from rice-wheat farming in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yao; Gu, Shu-zhong [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Dong-mei [Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Environmental externalities generated by agriculture are attracting considerable attention. However, most research has focused either on environmental services that agriculture provides as a distinct ecosystem or the negative environmental impacts that agriculture imposes. Therefore, there is a great need to re-evaluate the all-round environmental roles of agriculture, to optimize environmental performance of agriculture and non-trade concerns in World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. By valuing the environmental externalities of agriculture, this article aims to heighten awareness of the environmental roles of agriculture to stimulate its implication in agricultural policy-making. The study presents estimates of economic values of environmental externalities from rice-wheat farming system in Zhenjiang, in aspects of greenhouse gas emissions, non-point source pollution, carbon sequestration and water containing capacity. We provide a step-by-step analytic procedure, with each step including measurement of physical dimensions and monetary evaluation. The former is based on a large-scale literature review, which provided a vital foundation for the monetary valuation. The results reveal that the values of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural land, agricultural non-point source pollution, carbon sequestration by crop and soil, and the flood control function provided by agricultural land are estimated as: - US$3.61 x 10{sup 7} a{sup -1}, - US$4.59 x 10{sup 6} a{sup -1}, + US$2.30 x 10{sup 9} a{sup -1} and + US$2.21 x 10{sup 7} a{sup -1}, respectively. The net value of environmental externalities is as high as + US$2.28 x 10{sup 9} a{sup -1}, representing 17.87% of local GDP and 4.12 times the total agricultural output value in 2006. The results suggest that crops and soil in Zhenjiang are the most important carbon sinks, and that agriculture in Zhenjiang has huge positive environmental externalities, although both greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural

  17. Environmental degradation costs in electricity generation: The case of the Brazilian electrical matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Laura Araujo; Uturbey, Wadaed

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of including environmental degradation costs in the long-term planning of the Brazilian electricity sector. To this aim, environmental external costs associated to both hydro-power and thermal-power electricity generation are investigated. Monetary valuation methodologies are applied and environmental degradation costs, expressed in per kWh of generated energy, are obtained for the main types of generation sources of the Brazilian electricity matrix. Both local pollution due to particulate matter emissions and global warming effects are assessed. A classification of the sources from the point of view of their impact on the environment is given. Degradation costs associated to the installed capacity expansion in the Brazilian electricity sector during the time horizon 2007-2016 are estimated. These resulting costs represent lower boundary damage estimates associated only with the energy to be generated during the period. Results indicate that local pollution caused by a small number of plants could be even more costly to society than global warming and, also, show the importance of considering not only unitary damage costs but the participation of each source on the generated energy during the time horizon, as a guide to planning and policy making.

  18. Fuzzy ABC: modeling the uncertainty in environmental cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Borba, José Alonso; Murcia, Fernando Dal Ri; Maior, Cesar Duarte Souto

    2007-01-01

    In many cases, preventing pollution and environmental destruction is cheaper than remedying these damages. In this sense, environmental cost allocation enables a better visualization and analysis of a product's profitability. However, the environmental allocation process involves estimated information and assumes linearity between activity consumption and product that is not real in many cases. In order to handle this not-linearity, this research presents a methodology based on fuzzy logic co...

  19. Optimized electricity expansions with external costs internalized and risk of severe accidents as a new criterion in the decision analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Campo M, C.; Estrada S, G. J., E-mail: cmcm@fi-b.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The external cost of severe accidents was incorporated as a new element for the assessment of energy technologies in the expansion plans of the Mexican electric generating system. Optimizations of the electric expansions were made by internalizing the external cost into the objective function of the WASP-IV model as a variable cost, and these expansions were compared with the expansion plans that did not internalize them. Average external costs reported by the Extern E Project were used for each type of technology and were added to the variable component of operation and maintenance cost in the study cases in which the externalises were internalized. Special attention was paid to study the convenience of including nuclear energy in the generating mix. The comparative assessment of six expansion plans was made by means of the Position Vector of Minimum Regret Analysis (PVMRA) decision analysis tool. The expansion plans were ranked according to seven decision criteria which consider internal costs, economical impact associated with incremental fuel prices, diversity, external costs, foreign capital fraction, carbon-free fraction, and external costs of severe accidents. A set of data for the calculation of the last criterion was obtained from a Report of the European Commission. We found that with the external costs included in the optimization process of WASP-IV, better electric expansion plans, with lower total (internal + external) generating costs, were found. On the other hand, the plans which included the participation of nuclear power plants were in general relatively more attractive than the plans that did not. (Author)

  20. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. External costs of atmospheric Pb emissions: valuation of neurotoxic impacts due to inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Frohn, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The Impact Pathway Approach (IPA) is an innovative methodology to establish links between emissions, related impacts and monetary estimates. Only few attempts have so far been presented regarding emissions of metals; in this study the external costs of airborne lead (Pb) emissions are assessed...... using the IPA. Exposure to Pb is known to provoke impacts especially on children's cognition. As cognitive abilities (measured as IQ, intelligence quotient) are known to have implications for lifetime income, a pathway can be established leading from figures for Pb emissions to the implied loss...

  2. Fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand: Environmental and cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the world's energy crisis and environmental concerns, crop-based ethanol has emerged as an energy alternative, the use of which can help reduce oil imports as well as emissions of CO 2 and other air pollutants. However, a clear disadvantage of ethanol is its high cost over gasoline under the current pricing scheme that does not include externalities. The intent of this study is to perform a life cycle analysis comparing environmental and cost performance of molasses-based E10 with those of CG. The results show that although E10 provides reduction in fossil energy use, petroleum use, CO 2 and NO x emissions, its total social costs are higher than those of gasoline due to higher direct production costs and external costs for other air emissions, e.g. CH 4 , N 2 O, CO, SO 2 , VOC and PM 10 . An analysis of projection scenarios shows that technological innovations towards cleaner production help maximize ethanol's benefits whilst minimizing its limitations

  3. Power generation scenarios for Nigeria: An environmental and cost assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, H.; Mulugetta, Y.; Azapagic, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exploratory scenarios for the power sector in Nigeria are analysed in this paper using possible pathways within the Nigerian context and then compared against the Government's power expansion plan in the short to medium term. They include two fossil-fuel (FF and CCGT) and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios (SD1 and SD2). The results from the FF scenarios indicate this is the preferred outcome if the aim is to expand electricity access at the lowest capital costs. However, the annual costs and environmental impacts increase significantly as a consequence. The SD1 scenario, characterised by increased penetration of renewables, leads to a reduction of a wide range of environmental impacts while increasing the annual costs slightly. The SD2 scenario, also with an increased share of renewables, is preferred if the aim is to reduce GHG emissions; however, this comes at an increased annual cost. Both the SD1 and SD2 scenarios also show significant increases in the capital investment compared to the Government's plans. These results can be used to help inform future policy in the Nigerian electricity sector by showing explicitly the range of possible trade-offs between environmental impacts and economic costs both in the short and long terms. - Research Highlights: →The power sector in Nigeria is set to grow significantly in near future. →Power sector scenarios are constructed and studied using LCA and economic analysis methods and then compared against the Government's plans. →These include two fossil-fuel and two sustainable-development-driven scenarios. →The results explicitly show the trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs. →Following the fossil fuel paths will reduce capital costs but increase environmental impacts. The renewable energy paths will reduce some environmental impacts but increase the capital costs.

  4. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  5. Coming out ahead: the cost effectiveness of external cephalic version using spinal anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Breech presentation is encountered in 3 to 4% of term pregnancies and has been a significant driver of the increased rate of cesarean deliveries over the last 4 decades. External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended at term by most professional organizations in an effort to reduce the prospect of cesarean deliveries. The authors propose the use of regional anesthesia to increase efficacy and reduce cost in the care of patients who undergo ECV in an effort to convert a breech presentation to a vertex counterpart. Despite emerging evidence of the advantages, obstacles to more comprehensive implementation of this approach continue to exist, which include patient acceptance, provider experience, and safety concerns. The addition of tocolytics and use of regional anesthesia for secondary ECV efforts have also been considered as options to increase success and reduce cost. This is a commentary on http://www.ijhpr.org/content/3/1/5. PMID:24565024

  6. Saskatchewan external cost review : report prepared by a Joint Oil and Gas Industry - Saskatchewan Energy and Mines Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-11-01

    The external costs associated with the operating phase of oil and gas wells in Saskatchewan, were reviewed. The report identified external costs and compared their competitiveness with those of other producing jurisdictions. The profitability of the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan was also assessed in an effort to provide industry and government with an informational package for use for discussion purposes. The study showed that (1) the oil and gas industry has been a major force for economic growth within Saskatchewan, (2) the province will continue to face stiff competition from other jurisdictions for new oil and gas investment dollars, (3) the system used for determining and administering external costs vary widely from one jurisdiction to another, and (4) a number of external costs are not sensitive to well production rates or commodity price movements. tabs., figs

  7. Integrated framework for the external cost assessment of nuclear power plant accident considering risk aversion: The Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of accident costs within the social costs of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has garnered substantial interest. In particular, the risk aversion behavior of the public toward an NPP accident is considered an important factor when integrating risk aversion into NPP accident cost. In this study, an integrated framework for the external cost assessment of NPP accident that measures the value of statistical life (VSL) and the relative risk aversion (RRA) coefficient for NPP accident based on an individual-level survey is proposed. To derive the willingness to pay and the RRA coefficient for NPP accident risks, a survey was conducted on a sample of 1550 individuals in Korea. The estimation obtained a mean VSL of USD 2.78 million and an RRA coefficient of 1.315. Based on the estimation results in which various cost factors were considered, a multiplication factor of 5.16 and an external cost of NPP accidents of 4.39E−03 USD-cents/kW h were estimated. This study is expected to provide insight to energy policy decision-makers on analyzing the economic validity of NPP compared to other energy sources by reflecting the estimated external cost of NPP accident into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. - Highlights: •External cost assessment framework for NPP is proposed considering risk aversion. •VSL was derived from WTP for mortality risk reduction from hypothetical NPP accident. •RRA was derived to integrate public risk aversion into external cost of NPP accident. •Individual-level survey was conducted to derive WTP and RRA for NPP accident risk. •The external cost was estimated considering the direct cost factors of NPP accident.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan M; Macario, Alex; Carvalho, Brendan; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2010-01-21

    External cephalic version (ECV) is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc.) was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery), utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) was used to determine cost-effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion to breech, successful second ECV trial, or adverse

  9. Cost-effectiveness of external cephalic version for term breech presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background External cephalic version (ECV is recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to convert a breech fetus to vertex position and reduce the need for cesarean delivery. The goal of this study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, from society's perspective, of ECV compared to scheduled cesarean for term breech presentation. Methods A computer-based decision model (TreeAge Pro 2008, Tree Age Software, Inc. was developed for a hypothetical base case parturient presenting with a term singleton breech fetus with no contraindications for vaginal delivery. The model incorporated actual hospital costs (e.g., $8,023 for cesarean and $5,581 for vaginal delivery, utilities to quantify health-related quality of life, and probabilities based on analysis of published literature of successful ECV trial, spontaneous reversion, mode of delivery, and need for unanticipated emergency cesarean delivery. The primary endpoint was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in dollars per quality-adjusted year of life gained. A threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY was used to determine cost-effectiveness. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of ECV, assuming a baseline 58% success rate, equaled $7,900/QALY. If the estimated probability of successful ECV is less than 32%, then ECV costs more to society and has poorer QALYs for the patient. However, as the probability of successful ECV was between 32% and 63%, ECV cost more than cesarean delivery but with greater associated QALY such that the cost-effectiveness ratio was less than $50,000/QALY. If the probability of successful ECV was greater than 63%, the computer modeling indicated that a trial of ECV is less costly and with better QALYs than a scheduled cesarean. The cost-effectiveness of a trial of ECV is most sensitive to its probability of success, and not to the probabilities of a cesarean after ECV, spontaneous reversion

  10. Geostatistics and cost-effective environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous sites within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex have been contaminated with various radioactive and hazardous materials by defense-related activities during the post-World War II era. The perception is that characterization and remediation of these contaminated sites will be too costly using currently available technology. Consequently, the DOE Office of Technology Development has funded development of a number of alternative processes for characterizing and remediating these sites. The former Feed-Materials Processing Center near Fernald, Ohio (USA), was selected for demonstrating several innovative technologies. Contamination at the Fernald site consists principally of particulate uranium and derivative compounds in surficial soil. A field-characterization demonstration program was conducted during the summer of 1994 specifically to demonstrate the relative economic performance of seven proposed advanced-characterization tools for measuring uranium activity of in-situ soils. These innovative measurement technologies are principally radiation detectors of varied designs. Four industry-standard measurement technologies, including conventional, regulatory-agency-accepted soil sampling followed by laboratory geochemical analysis, were also demonstrated during the program for comparative purposes. A risk-based economic-decision model has been used to evaluate the performance of these alternative characterization tools. The decision model computes the dollar value of an objective function for each of the different characterization approaches. The methodology not only can assist site operators to choose among engineering alternatives for site characterization and/or remediation, but also can provide an objective and quantitative basis for decisions with respect to the completeness of site characterization

  11. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: the case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology

  12. Power generation choices: an international perspective on costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.; Moynet, G.

    1994-01-01

    In France, as in other countries, it is no longer possible to discuss issues relating to the power or electricity generating sector without taking account of a wide range of sociological, political and environmental factors. Given the uncertainty regarding either the short-or long-term impact of such factors, analysts can no longer rely on forecasts and need to adopt an approach based on the use of extremely wide-ranging scenarios. Many researchers are currently examining ways in which these factors might be incorporated into economic calculations in the form of externalities. Such externalities cannot be properly taken into account, however, until we have reliable methods and databases with which to quantify them. At present they are taken into account implicitly. Thus the extensive nuclear power programme launched by the French Government in the 1970s was aimed at securing advantages in both economic and environmental terms. These advantages may be seen today in the structure of France's energy supply. (authors). 1 tab

  13. Internal and external environmental factors affecting the performance of hospital-based home nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, J-W; Kwon, Y-D; Yoon, S-J; Hwang, J-I

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies on HNC services have been carried out by signifying their needs, efficiency and effectiveness. However, no study has ever been performed to determine the critical factors associated with HNC's positive results despite the deluge of positive studies on the service. This study included all of the 89 training hospitals that were practising HNC service in Korea as of November 2006. The input factors affecting the performance were classified as either internal or external environmental factors. This analysis was conducted to understand the impact that the corresponding factors had on performance. Data were analysed by using multiple linear regressions. The internal and external environment variables affected the performance of HNC based on univariate analysis. The meaningful variables were internal environmental factors. Specifically, managerial resource (the number of operating beds and the outpatient/inpatient ratio) were meaningful when the multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Indeed, the importance of organizational culture (the passion of HNC nurses) was significant. This study, considering the limited market size of Korea, illustrates that the critical factor for the development of hospital-led HNC lies with internal environmental factors rather than external ones. Among the internal environmental factors, the hospitals' managerial resource-related factors (specifically, the passion of nurses) were the most important contributing element. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Environmental dispatch: Minimum cost generation planning for acid rain compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, S.S.; Weinstein, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Passage of Public Law 101-549, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, requires reductions in SO 2 and NO x emissions from many power generation stations by 1995, and by an electric utility company's entire generation system by year 2000. Another option to reduce the total environmental emissions is to dispatch generating units with lower emission rates prior to dispatching units with high emission rates. This option may not lower the emission levels to the desired limits, but can reduce emissions. This is practical as long as the added operating cost is modest compared to the cost of alternatives to meet the same levels of emission reduction. This cost can be optimized to provide the best compromise between reduced emissions and operating cost increase. An environmental dispatch algorithm developed by Gilbert/Commonwealth for its eVOLVE-p trademark production costing program makes this optimization possible. The algorithm modifies the traditional economic dispatch order of utility generation to include the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The dispatch order is based on emissions in excess of Clean Air Act compliance limits. A cost is assigned to the excess emissions, and these costs are distributed to the individual generating units in proportion to their emission rates. This paper discusses how this environmental dispatch algorithm is applied for utility generation compliance planning

  15. 24 CFR 1000.22 - Are the costs of the environmental review an eligible cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the costs of the environmental review an eligible cost? 1000.22 Section 1000.22 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.22 Are the...

  16. Environmental externalities: An ASEAN application to coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1992-06-01

    Significant benefits to human health that result from emissions control programs may justify the costs of pollution control policies. Many scientists, economists, risk analysts, and policymakers believe that comparisons of the benefits with the costs of pollution control demonstrate that the US stationary source, air emissions control program is justified. This justification is based upon pronounced benefits to human health, especially from controlling suspended particulates and sulfur compounds. Market decisions are usually made on the basis of a consideration of traditional costs such as capital, operating and maintenance, fuel costs, and fixed charges. Social costs, which could be significant, are not incorporated explicitly into such decisions. These social costs could result in a net reduction in the welfare of individuals, and of society as a whole. Because these social costs and their effects are not represented in the price of energy, individual have no way to explicitly value them; hence, they remain unaccounted for in market decisions. By accounting for external costs, the selection of energy sources and production of energy products can lead to and equilibrium, where the total cost of energy and energy products, together with resulting social costs, can be brought to an economic minimum. The concept of an air emissions control program is of interest to the ASEAN countries (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) and their governments, especially if such a program could be justified in cost-benefit terms and shown to be directly applicable to ASEAN conditions. It is the intent of the effort described herein to demonstrate that technical options are available to control emissions from coal-based, electric power plants and that that costs of these options may be justified in cost-benefit terms

  17. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  18. Foreign direct investment, institutional development, and environmental externalities: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danny T; Chen, Wendy Y

    2014-03-15

    The question of how foreign direct investment (FDI) affects a host country's natural environment has generated much debate but little consensus. Building on an institution-based theory, this article examines how the institutional development of a host setting affects the degree of FDI-related environmental externalities in China (specifically, industrial sulfur dioxide emissions). With a panel data set of 287 Chinese cities, over the period 2002-2009, this study reveals that FDI in general induces negative environmental externalities. Investments from OECD countries increase sulfur dioxide emissions, whereas FDI from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan shows no significant effect. Institutional development reduces the impacts of FDI across the board. By focusing on the moderating role of institutions, this study sheds new light on the long-debated relationships among FDI, institutions, and the environments of the host countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The great environmental restoration cost estimating shootout: A blind test of three DOE cost estimating groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemen, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The cost of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has increased steadily over the last three years and, in the process, has drawn increasing scrutiny from Congress, the public, and government agencies such as the Office of Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office. Programmatic costs have been reviewed by many groups from within the DOE as well as from outside agencies. While cost may appear to be a universally applicable barometer of project conditions, it is actually a single dimensional manifestation of a complex set of conditions. As such, variations in cost estimates can be caused by a variety of underlying factors such as changes in scope, schedule, performing organization, economic conditions, or regulatory environment. This paper will examine the subject of cost estimates by evaluating three different cost estimates prepared for a single project including two estimates prepared by project proponents and another estimate prepared by a review team. The paper identifies the reasons for cost growth as measured by the different estimates and evaluates the ability of review estimates to measure the validity of costs. The comparative technique used to test the three cost estimates will identify the reasons for changes in the estimated cost, over time, and evaluate the ability of an independent review to correctly identify the reasons for cost growth and evaluate the reasonableness of the cost proposed by the project proponents. Recommendations are made for improved cost estimates and improved cost estimate reviews. Conclusions are reached regarding the differences in estimate results that can be attributed to differences in estimating techniques, the implications of these differences for decision makers, and circumstances that are unique to environmental cost estimating. (author)

  20. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  1. Internal and external influences on pro-environmental behavior: participation in a green electricity program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.F.; Moore, M.R.; Kotchen, M.J.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI

    2003-01-01

    This paper integrates themes from psychology and economics to analyze pro-environmental behavior. Increasingly, both disciplines share an interest in understanding internal and external influences on behavior. In this study, we analyze data from a mail survey of participants and non-participants in a premium-priced, green electricity program. Internal variables consist of a newly developed scale for altruistic attitudes based on the Schwartz norm-activation model, and a modified version of the New Ecological Paradigm scale to measure environmental attitudes. External variables consist of household income and standard socio-demographic characteristics. The two internal variables and two external variables are significant in a logit model of the decision to participate in the program. We then focus on participants in the program and analyze their specific motives for participating. These include motives relating to several concerns: ecosystem health, personal health, environmental quality for residents in southeastern Michigan, global warming, and warm-glow (or intrinsic) satisfaction. In a statistical ranking of the importance of each motive, a biocentric motive ranks first, an altruistic motive ranks second, and an egoistic motive ranks third. (author)

  2. The Cost Implications in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia of Early Versus Delayed External Cephalic Version in the Early External Cephalic Version 2 (EECV2) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rashid J; Gafni, Amiram; Hutton, Eileen K

    2016-03-01

    According to the Early External Cephalic Version (EECV2) Trial, planning external cephalic version (ECV) early in pregnancy results in fewer breech presentations at delivery compared with delayed external cephalic version. A Cochrane review conducted after the EECV2 Trial identified an increase in preterm birth associated with early ECV. We examined whether a policy of routine early ECV (i.e., before 37 weeks' gestation) is more or less costly than a policy of delayed ECV. We undertook this analysis from the perspective of a third-party payer (Ministry of Health). We applied data, using resources reported in the EECV2 Trial, to the Canadian context using 10 hospital unit costs and 17 physician service/procedure unit costs. The data were derived from the provincial health insurance plan schedule of medical benefits in three Canadian provinces (Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia). The difference in mean total costs between study groups was tested for each province separately. We found that planning early ECV results in higher costs than planning delayed ECV. The mean costs of all physician services/procedures and hospital units for planned ECV compared with delayed ECV were $7997.32 versus $7263.04 in Ontario (P < 0.001), $8162.82 versus $7410.55 in Alberta (P < 0.001), and $8178.92 versus $7417.04 in British Columbia (P < 0.001), respectively. From the perspective of overall cost, our analyses do not support a policy of routinely planning ECV before 37 weeks' gestation. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  4. Environmental and Cost Assessment of a Polypropylene Nanocomposite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roes, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303022388; Marsili, E.; Nieuwlaar, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073931373; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study on the use of a polypropylene (PP)/layered silicate nanocomposite as packaging film, agricultural film, and automotive panels. The study’s main question was “Are the environmental impacts and costs throughout the life cycle of nanocomposite products lower than those of

  5. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  6. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment

  7. Environmental cost/benefit analysis for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.R.

    1976-11-01

    This document presents a cost/benefit analysis of use of fusion power plants early in the 21st century. The first section describes the general formulation of the analysis. Included are the selection of the alternatives to the fusion reactor, selection of the power system cases to be compared, and a general comparison of the environmental effects of the selected alternatives. The second section compares the cumulative environmental effects from 2010 to 2040 for the primary cases of the power system with and without fusion reactors. The third section briefly illustrates the potential economic benefits if fusion reactors produce electricity at a lower unit cost than LMFBRs can. The fourth section summarizes the cost/benefit analysis

  8. Dual discounting in cost-benefit analysis for environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kula, Erhun; Evans, David

    2011-01-01

    Discounting has been a long-established intertemporal efficiency tool in cost-benefit analysis which focuses on project selection at communal level with a view to maximising the social welfare. However, with the relentless growth in environmental stress that, in good parts, stems from investment projects the established criterion in discounting appears to be inadequate especially when environmental issues are taken into consideration. This paper looks at how dual focus on efficiency and sustainability can be achieved by using dual discounting, i.e. discounting environmental benefits separately and differently from other costs and benefits and applies this alternative criterion to an afforestation scheme in the United Kingdom which contains carbon sequestration in addition to timber benefits.

  9. Environmental remediation cost in Fukushima area. Trial calculation using the unit cost factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujita, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform environmental remediation in Fukushima area in a swift and adequate way, it is necessary to obtain perspective of total cost and allocate resources adequately. At present such had not been fixed as what decontamination method should be applied to relevant contaminated places in Fukushima area or what disposition and processing process should be applied to radioactive soils and wastes produced by decontamination, it would be difficult to assess the cost exactly. But it would be better to calculate rough cost on trial and then upgrade the accuracy of the cost gradually based on latest knowledge. Cleanup subcommittee of AESJ utilized published process flow and unit cost and based on original proposed scenario: soils produced by decontamination were classified into intermediate storage facility and controllable processing place based on their contamination concentration and with limited reuse, rough estimated cost was obtained as 6 - 9 trillion yen for basic case. (T. Tanaka)

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  11. A business perspective on environmental risk and cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, U.V.

    1998-01-01

    The ways in which the petrochemical industry can enjoy successful business partnerships with environmental service companies was discussed. The petrochemical industry has traditionally viewed environmental service companies as an inherent cost in the context of risk management, and not in the context of business opportunity. Today, as environmental issues are integrated into business operations, there is a new potential for creating business opportunities in a number of operational areas, among them : (1) energy efficiency, (2) process efficiency, (3) waste minimization, (4) waste recycling, and (5) operational pooling. As environmental service companies became more competitive, they have become more attractive business partners. They are providing more diversified services and are better aligned with core competencies required to exploit business opportunities that are too small for major players in the oil,natural gas and petro-chemical industry. They also offer public recognition and financial upside for industry. Some examples of successful business partnerships along these lines are briefly described

  12. The external costs of low probability-high consequence events: Ex ante damages and lay risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Markandya, A.; Nickell, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical basis for characterizing key differences between two perspectives on how to estimate the expected damages of low probability - high consequence events. One perspective is the conventional method used in the U.S.-EC fuel cycle reports [e.g., ORNL/RFF (1994a,b]. This paper articulates another perspective, using economic theory. The paper makes a strong case for considering this, approach as an alternative, or at least as a complement, to the conventional approach. This alternative approach is an important area for future research. I Interest has been growing worldwide in embedding the external costs of productive activities, particularly the fuel cycles resulting in electricity generation, into prices. In any attempt to internalize these costs, one must take into account explicitly the remote but real possibilities of accidents and the wide gap between lay perceptions and expert assessments of such risks. In our fuel cycle analyses, we estimate damages and benefits' by simply monetizing expected consequences, based on pollution dispersion models, exposure-response functions, and valuation functions. For accidents, such as mining and transportation accidents, natural gas pipeline accidents, and oil barge accidents, we use historical data to estimate the rates of these accidents. For extremely severe accidents--such as severe nuclear reactor accidents and catastrophic oil tanker spills--events are extremely rare and they do not offer a sufficient sample size to estimate their probabilities based on past occurrences. In those cases the conventional approach is to rely on expert judgments about both the probability of the consequences and their magnitude. As an example of standard practice, which we term here an expert expected damage (EED) approach to estimating damages, consider how evacuation costs are estimated in the nuclear fuel cycle report

  13. The external costs of low probability-high consequence events: Ex ante damages and lay risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A J; Markandya, A; Nickell, E

    1994-07-01

    This paper provides an analytical basis for characterizing key differences between two perspectives on how to estimate the expected damages of low probability - high consequence events. One perspective is the conventional method used in the U.S.-EC fuel cycle reports [e.g., ORNL/RFF (1994a,b]. This paper articulates another perspective, using economic theory. The paper makes a strong case for considering this, approach as an alternative, or at least as a complement, to the conventional approach. This alternative approach is an important area for future research. I Interest has been growing worldwide in embedding the external costs of productive activities, particularly the fuel cycles resulting in electricity generation, into prices. In any attempt to internalize these costs, one must take into account explicitly the remote but real possibilities of accidents and the wide gap between lay perceptions and expert assessments of such risks. In our fuel cycle analyses, we estimate damages and benefits' by simply monetizing expected consequences, based on pollution dispersion models, exposure-response functions, and valuation functions. For accidents, such as mining and transportation accidents, natural gas pipeline accidents, and oil barge accidents, we use historical data to estimate the rates of these accidents. For extremely severe accidents--such as severe nuclear reactor accidents and catastrophic oil tanker spills--events are extremely rare and they do not offer a sufficient sample size to estimate their probabilities based on past occurrences. In those cases the conventional approach is to rely on expert judgments about both the probability of the consequences and their magnitude. As an example of standard practice, which we term here an expert expected damage (EED) approach to estimating damages, consider how evacuation costs are estimated in the nuclear fuel cycle report.

  14. The regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labanderia Villot, X.; Lopez Otero, X.; Rodriguez Mendez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the different regulatory instruments for the correction of energy-related environmental externalities. This objective is justified by the size and general occurrence of this type of externalities in contemporary societies. In this sense, we distinguish between three main generations of instruments: conventional regulations, market mechanisms and voluntary approaches. In all cases, some practical examples of their application are presented, albeit emphasizing the experience with the so-called market instruments and the results of hypothetical simulations for the Spanish case. As a general conclusion we underline the role of economic analysis in the design, choice and evaluation of those mechanisms, which also explains the structure and contents of the article. (Author)

  15. Cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Nakanishi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination strategies in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation dose. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, analysis of cost and effectiveness suggests that decontamination costs for agricultural areas account for approximately 80% of the total decontamination cost, of which approximately 60% is associated with storage. In addition, the costs of decontamination per person per unit area are estimated to vary greatly. Appropriate selection of decontamination methods may significantly decrease decontamination costs, allowing more meaningful decontamination in terms of the limited budget. Our analysis can help in examining the prioritization of decontamination areas from the viewpoints of cost and effectiveness in reducing the external dose. Decontamination strategies should be determined according to air dose rates and future land-use plans.

  16. Joint environmental and cost efficiency analysis of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Eric; Barnum, Darold

    2009-01-01

    Fossil-fuel based electricity generation produces the largest proportion of human-related carbon pollution in the United States. Hence, fuel choices by steam plants are key determinants of the industry's impact on national and global greenhouse gas emissions, and key foci for climate change policy. Yet, little research has been done to examine the economic and environmental tradeoffs among the different types of fuels that are used by these plants. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis procedure that incorporates the materials balance principle to estimate the allocations of coal, gas and oil inputs that minimize carbon emissions and costs. Using EIA 906 and FERC 423 data, the paper estimates cost/carbon tradeoffs facing two sets of plants: those that use coal and gas inputs, and those that use coal, gas and oil inputs. Findings for our three-input sample show that there would be a 79% increase in cost for moving from the cost-efficient point to the carbon efficient point, while there would be a 38% increase in carbon for moving from the carbon efficient point to the cost-efficient point. These conclusions indicate that, in general, the gap between efficient cost and efficient environmental production is wide, and would require substantial policy intervention, technological change or market adjustment before it could be narrowed. However, our examination of individual plants shows that what is true in general is often not true for specific plants. Some plants that are currently less efficient than those on the production frontier could produce the same amount of electricity with less carbon output and less fuel input. Additionally, many plants on the production frontier could improve both cost and carbon efficiency by changing their mixture of fossil-fuel inputs. (author)

  17. Environmental cost of using poor decision metrics to prioritize environmental projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, David J; Gibson, Fiona L

    2016-04-01

    Conservation decision makers commonly use project-scoring metrics that are inconsistent with theory on optimal ranking of projects. As a result, there may often be a loss of environmental benefits. We estimated the magnitudes of these losses for various metrics that deviate from theory in ways that are common in practice. These metrics included cases where relevant variables were omitted from the benefits metric, project costs were omitted, and benefits were calculated using a faulty functional form. We estimated distributions of parameters from 129 environmental projects from Australia, New Zealand, and Italy for which detailed analyses had been completed previously. The cost of using poor prioritization metrics (in terms of lost environmental values) was often high--up to 80% in the scenarios we examined. The cost in percentage terms was greater when the budget was smaller. The most costly errors were omitting information about environmental values (up to 31% loss of environmental values), omitting project costs (up to 35% loss), omitting the effectiveness of management actions (up to 9% loss), and using a weighted-additive decision metric for variables that should be multiplied (up to 23% loss). The latter 3 are errors that occur commonly in real-world decision metrics, in combination often reducing potential benefits from conservation investments by 30-50%. Uncertainty about parameter values also reduced the benefits from investments in conservation projects but often not by as much as faulty prioritization metrics. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  19. Preliminary comparative estimate of the environmental externalities of the electrical generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtos Carbonell, L.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the externalises associated with the electrical generation and fundamentally its atmospherically environmental impact, win greater importance nowadays, with the objective that to medium term these could be incorporated into the economy of electricity production as the surest way to reduce this impact. In the work is accomplished a comparative preliminary estimate of the externalises of the electrical generation in Cuba based in the results obtained in the External Project (Externalises of Energy) and the emissions of the domestic Power Plant. Different processes to reduce these emissions are proposed. The economic feasibility of installing Abatement Emissions Technologies based on the calculated externalises is analyzed

  20. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  1. External Costs of Risky Health Behaviors Associated with Leading Actual Causes of Death in the U.S.: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armineh Zohrabian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the evidence on external costs of risky behaviors in the U.S. and provides a framework for estimating them. External costs arise when a person does not bear all the costs of his or her behavior. They provide one of the strongest rationales for government interventions. Although the earlier estimates of external costs no longer have policy relevance, they demonstrated that the existence of external costs was an empirical question. We recommend that the estimates of external costs be updated as insurance structures, environments, and knowledge about these behaviors change. The general aspects of external costs may apply to countries other than the U.S. after taking into account differences in institutional, policy and epidemiological characteristics.

  2. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  3. HOW TO CALCULATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL COSTS? CASE COMPANY GRAFICA CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel, Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world urgently needs to protect the environment, many companies and organizations devote huge resources to reach that goal and achieve sustainable development as the highest standard of achievement for any country or organization. It then becomes imperative to determine how much the companies spend on the environment, taking into account that the Entities have an implicit contract with society and the environment, the product of the resources used and waste and waste pouring, which is why one needs to calculate and record the environmental costs of products to enhance the environmental management of the entity and thus promote an excellent decision-making. The following research seeks a procedure which allows solving this problem, making its composition with the use of various techniques within which highlights the environmental checklists and product life cycle, which also allows knowing separately as each process and product impacts the environment.

  4. Study on the measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Several important issues which affect external exposure in contaminated Chernobyl areas have been investigated using field measurements and computational simulations since 1992. The objectives of the study were: 1) the development of a mobile survey method to collect radiation data over the contaminated wide areas in a shot time; 2) the verification of a method to infer external dose to the population; 3) the provision of basic data used for evaluation of external dose due to gamma ray using a Monte Carlo simulation method. To develop a method to rapidly measure radiation over wide areas and map the extend of fallout, a mobile survey system was constructed and tested; the conversion factors to convert the measured data to required quantities were examined; and finally a detailed contamination map was created. The field surveys were implemented by using a land rover and a helicopter. To infer external dose to inhabitants, radiation measurements were carried out in the living environments using accurate dose meters in addition to individual dose measurements using glass dosimeters. Individual doses were inferred from occupancy factors and dose rate data measured with portable dose rate meters in and around houses. The evaluated doses were compared to directly measured individual doses with glass dosimeters in the seven settlements. A good agreement was observed with an error margin of approximate 20%. Basic data used for the evaluation of environmental gamma-ray dose rate were calculated using a Monte Carlo method. The following two kinds of data have been provided from the calculation: a) conversion factors from the nuclide concentration in the ground to the air kerma rate at 1 m height; and b) shielding factors of a typical Chernobyl house for gamma radiation. (M. Suetake)

  5. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Leach, Allison M.; Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result, this study

  6. The environmental cost of subsistence: Optimizing diets to minimize footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Jessica A.; Davis, Kyle F. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Emery, Kyle A. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); University of California, Santa Barbara. Marine Science Institute, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leach, Allison M. [University of New Hampshire, 107 Nesmith Hall, 131 Main Street, Durham, NH, 03824 (United States); Galloway, James N.; Pace, Michael L. [University of Virginia, Department of Environmental Sciences, 291 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The question of how to minimize monetary cost while meeting basic nutrient requirements (a subsistence diet) was posed by George Stigler in 1945. The problem, known as Stigler's diet problem, was famously solved using the simplex algorithm. Today, we are not only concerned with the monetary cost of food, but also the environmental cost. Efforts to quantify environmental impacts led to the development of footprint (FP) indicators. The environmental footprints of food production span multiple dimensions, including greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint), nitrogen release (nitrogen footprint), water use (blue and green water footprint) and land use (land footprint), and a diet minimizing one of these impacts could result in higher impacts in another dimension. In this study based on nutritional and population data for the United States, we identify diets that minimize each of these four footprints subject to nutrient constraints. We then calculate tradeoffs by taking the composition of each footprint's minimum diet and calculating the other three footprints. We find that diets for the minimized footprints tend to be similar for the four footprints, suggesting there are generally synergies, rather than tradeoffs, among low footprint diets. Plant-based food and seafood (fish and other aquatic foods) commonly appear in minimized diets and tend to most efficiently supply macronutrients and micronutrients, respectively. Livestock products rarely appear in minimized diets, suggesting these foods tend to be less efficient from an environmental perspective, even when nutrient content is considered. The results' emphasis on seafood is complicated by the environmental impacts of aquaculture versus capture fisheries, increasing in aquaculture, and shifting compositions of aquaculture feeds. While this analysis does not make specific diet recommendations, our approach demonstrates potential environmental synergies of plant- and seafood-based diets. As a result

  7. Mental states inside out: switching costs for emotional and nonemotional sentences that differ in internal and external focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Winkielman, Piotr; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Rotteveel, Mark; Fischer, Agneta H

    2012-01-01

    Mental states-such as thinking, remembering, or feeling angry, happy, or dizzy-have a clear internal component. We feel a certain way when we are in these states. These internal experiences may be simulated when people understand conceptual references to mental states. However, mental states can also be described from an "external" perspective, for example when referring to "smiling." In those cases, simulation of visible outside features may be more relevant for understanding. In a switching costs paradigm, we presented semantically unrelated sentences describing emotional and nonemotional mental states while manipulating their internal or external focus. The results show that switching costs occur when participants shift between sentences with an internal and an external focus. This suggests that different forms of simulation underlie understanding these sentences. In addition, these effects occurred for emotional and nonemotional mental states, suggesting that they are grounded in a similar way-through the process of simulation.

  8. Survival and health care costs until hospital discharge of patients treated with onsite, dispatched or without automated external defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdowski, Jocelyn; Kuiper, Mathijs J.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine whether automated external defibrillator (AED) use during resuscitation is associated with lower in-hospital health care costs. Methods: For this observational prospective study, we included all treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of suspected cardiac

  9. Bureaucracy Versus Environment: The Environmental Costs of Bureaucratic Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    The 15 contributors to this volume have an important message. They are convinced that both environmental and economic costs of bureaucratic management of natural resources are too high, and unnecessarily so. The main reason is an institutional one: Authority is given to those who do not bear responsibility for the consequences o f their actions.A classic case is the set of specific numerical emission standards for automobiles in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970. Congress arrived at these standards without a scientific basis, without technical analysis, and certainly without any consideration of costs and benefits. Only 3 years later did Senator Muskie ask the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a cost-benefit analysis. The NAS results were presented in a fashion that seemed to support the action of Congress; yet, the statutory emissions standards yielded marginal costs well beyond their marginal benefits. They had a major impact on Detroit during the 1970's, and very likely damaged, perhaps irreversibly, the competitive standing of the American automobile industry, a major segment of the U.S. economy. But the economic costs of these actions were never considered, least of all by the responsible bureaucrats. They were completely buffered from any consequences flowing from the exercise of their authority.

  10. Environmental policy without costs? A review of the Porter hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail: runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2009-03-15

    This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature connected to the so called Porter Hypothesis. That is, to review the literature connected to the discussion about the relation between environmental policy and competitiveness. According to the conventional wisdom environmental policy, aiming for improving the environment through for example emission reductions, do imply costs since scarce resources must be diverted from somewhere else. However, this conventional wisdom has been challenged and questioned recently through what has been denoted the 'Porter hypothesis'. Those in the forefront of the Porter hypothesis challenge the conventional wisdom basically on the ground that resources are used inefficiently in the absence of the right kind of environmental regulations, and that the conventional neo-classical view is too static to take inefficiencies into account. The conclusions that can be made from this review is (1) that the theoretical literature can identify the circumstances and mechanisms that must exist for a Porter effect to occur, (2) that these circumstances are rather non-general, hence rejecting the Porter hypothesis in general, (3) that the empirical literature give no general support for the Porter hypothesis. Furthermore, a closer look at the 'Swedish case' reveals no support for the Porter hypothesis in spite of the fact that Swedish environmental policy the last 15-20 years seems to be in line the prerequisites stated by the Porter hypothesis concerning environmental policy

  11. Environmental costs and reverse logistics: a systemic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the articles most relevant to the themes inherent environmental costs from the perspective of reverse logistics, identifying gaps for these two approaches through systemic analysis. In order to achieve the purpose of this article, the intervention instrument used was ProKnow-C (Knowledge Process Development - Constructivist. The application of this methodology resulted in gross bank of articles, comprising 1225 items obtained from four international databases: Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Wiley Online Library. The raw bank was filtered in relation to redundancy, the alignment of the title and the scientific relevance. The filtering had resulted in a set of 15 articles aligned with two axes of research. The analysis of the selected articles identified the most cited article and the author most cited, concluding that the issue environmental costs associated with reverse logistics is studied by several authors and universities. Moreover, it was found that the keyword most presented in the articles was reverse logistics. The analysis of 1117 references of the 15 articles has shown the most cited articles, as well as the most countrast journals and academic relevance of authors and their selected articles. A systemic analysis of the 15 selected articles showed that the two lines of research are related mainly to issues of environmental sustainability, competitiveness and business efficiency.

  12. Cost of the external MTR-fuel cycle. (Uranium , reprocessing and related services)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Gruber, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper points out how the RERTR program has affected NUKEM's fuel supplies for MTRs and how the prices in the External MTR Fuel Cycle have developed during this period. In addition other potential fuel sources and services on the External MTR Fuel Cycle are given. (orig.)

  13. Rugged, Low Cost, Environmental Sensors for a Turbulent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, B.; Sandell, C. T.; Wickert, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing scientific research and resource management require a diverse range of high-quality and low-cost sensors to maximize the number and type of measurements that can be obtained. To accomplish this, we have developed a series of diversified sensors for common environmental applications. The TP-DownHole is an ultra-compact temperature and pressure sensor designed for use in CMT (Continuous Multi-channel Tubing) multi-level wells. Its 1 mm water depth resolution, 30 cm altitude resolution, and rugged design make it ideal for both water level measurements and monitoring barometric pressure and associated temperature changes. The TP-DownHole sensor has also been incorporated into a self-contained, fully independent data recorder for extreme and remote environments. This device (the TP-Solo) is based around the TP-DownHole design, but has self-contained power and data storage and is designed to collect data independently for up to 6 months (logging at once an hour), creating a specialized tool for extreme environment data collection. To gather spectral information, we have also developed a very low cost photodiode-based Lux sensor to measure spectral irradiance; while this does not measure the entire solar radiation spectrum, simple modeling to rescale the remainder of the solar spectrum makes this a cost-effective alternative to a thermopile pyranometer. Lastly, we have developed an instrumentation amplifier which is designed to interface a wide range of sensitive instruments to common data logging systems, such as thermopile pyranometers, thermocouples, and many other analog output sensors. These three instruments are the first in a diverse family aimed to give researchers a set of powerful and low-cost tools for environmental instrumentation.

  14. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  15. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  16. Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste due to internal and external environmental factors in a lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio C; Caribé, Rômulo M; Ribeiro, Libânia S; Sousa, Raul B A; Monteiro, Veruschka E D; de Paiva, William

    2016-12-05

    Long-term settlement magnitude is influenced by changes in external and internal factors that control the microbiological activity in the landfill waste body. To improve the understanding of settlement phenomena, it is instructive to study lysimeters filled with MSW. This paper aims to understand the settlement behavior of MSW by correlating internal and external factors that influence waste biodegradation in a lysimeter. Thus, a lysimeter was built, instrumented and filled with MSW from the city of Campina Grande, the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Physicochemical analysis of the waste (from three levels of depth of the lysimeter) was carried out along with MSW settlement measurements. Statistical tools such as descriptive analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The settlement/compression, coefficient of variation and PCA results indicated the most intense rate of biodegradation in the top layer. The PCA results of intermediate and bottom levels presented fewer physicochemical and meteorological variables correlated with compression data in contrast with the top layer. It is possible to conclude that environmental conditions may influence internal indicators of MSW biodegradation, such as the settlement.

  17. Evaluation of Delivery Costs for External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Nilsen, Kristine; Hill, Colin; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Libby, Bruce; Lash, Donna H; Lain, Melody; Christodoulou, Deborah; Hodge, Constance; Showalter, Timothy N

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the delivery costs, using time-driven activity-based costing, and reimbursement for definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. Process maps were created to represent each step of the radiation treatment process and included personnel, equipment, and consumable supplies used to deliver care. Personnel were interviewed to estimate time involved to deliver care. Salary data, equipment purchasing information, and facilities costs were also obtained. We defined the capacity cost rate (CCR) for each resource and then calculated the total cost of patient care according to CCR and time for each resource. Costs were compared with 2016 Medicare reimbursement and relative value units (RVUs). The total cost of radiation therapy for cervical cancer was $12,861.68, with personnel costs constituting 49.8%. Brachytherapy cost $8610.68 (66.9% of total) and consumed 423 minutes of attending radiation oncologist time (80.0% of total). External beam radiation therapy cost $4055.01 (31.5% of total). Personnel costs were higher for brachytherapy than for the sum of simulation and external beam radiation therapy delivery ($4798.73 vs $1404.72). A full radiation therapy course provides radiation oncologists 149.77 RVUs with intensity modulated radiation therapy or 135.90 RVUs with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, with total reimbursement of $23,321.71 and $16,071.90, respectively. Attending time per RVU is approximately 4-fold higher for brachytherapy (5.68 minutes) than 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (1.63 minutes) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (1.32 minutes). Time-driven activity-based costing was used to calculate the total cost of definitive radiation therapy for cervical cancer, revealing that brachytherapy delivery and personnel resources constituted the majority of costs. However, current reimbursement policy does not reflect the increased attending physician effort and delivery costs of brachytherapy. We

  18. Brief report: a cost analysis of neuraxial anesthesia to facilitate external cephalic version for breech fetal presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Brendan; Tan, Jonathan M; Macario, Alex; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Sultan, Pervez

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether neuraxial anesthesia to facilitate external cephalic version (ECV) increased delivery costs for breech fetal presentation. Using a computer cost model, which considers possible outcomes and probability uncertainties at the same time, we estimated total expected delivery costs for breech presentation managed by a trial of ECV with and without neuraxial anesthesia. From published studies, the average probability of successful ECV with neuraxial anesthesia was 60% (with individual studies ranging from 44% to 87%) compared with 38% (with individual studies ranging from 31% to 58%) without neuraxial anesthesia. The mean expected total delivery costs, including the cost of attempting/performing ECV with anesthesia, equaled $8931 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $8541-$9252). The cost was $9207 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $8896-$9419) if ECV was attempted/performed without anesthesia. The expected mean incremental difference between the total cost of delivery that includes ECV with anesthesia and ECV without anesthesia was $-276 (2.5th-97.5th percentile prediction interval $-720 to $112). The total cost of delivery in women with breech presentation may be decreased (up to $720) or increased (up to $112) if ECV is attempted/performed with neuraxial anesthesia compared with ECV without neuraxial anesthesia. Increased ECV success with neuraxial anesthesia and the subsequent reduction in breech cesarean delivery rate offset the costs of providing anesthesia to facilitate ECV.

  19. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of alternatives in environmental impact statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    Although it has been Federal government officials who have been accused in courts of law with mismanagement with regard to the consideration of alternatives in the environmental impact statement, the responsibility for systematically considering all alternatives to a proposed project remains with project decisionmakers in the Federal, state, or local levels of government and in industry. By applying the techniques of system cost-effectiveness analysis to the assessment of alternatives, it is believed that management will be able to clearly demonstrate that the selection of the proposed approach was neither arbitrary nor capricious. A rational approach to the assessment of alternatives should aid in meeting the mandates of environmental legislation and EIS guidelines, and it should eliminate the merit of any plaintiff's charge of mismanagement with regard to management's consideration of alternatives. Even though many interfaces between the proposed system and the environment cannot as yet be objectively quantified, application of CE techniques will demonstrate that a rigorous exploration and objective evaluation has been applied to the consideration of alternatives with respect to project objectives, financial conditions, and adverse environmental impacts

  20. Guidebook in using Cost Benefit Analysis and strategic environmental assessment for environmental planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Environmental planning in China may benefit from greater use of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) methodologies. We provide guidance on using these methodologies. Part I and II show the principles behind the methodologies as well as their theoretical structure. Part III demonstrates the methodologies in action in a range of different good practice examples. The case studies and theoretical expositions are intended to teach by way of example as well as by understanding the principles, and to help planners use the methodologies as correctly as possible.(auth)

  1. External communication in environmental projects; La comunicacion externa en los proyectos ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Feltrer, C.

    2004-07-01

    The public's awareness of industrial projects is constantly growing. In addition, if such project imply any sort of environmental impact, their awareness increases and may result in a series of deterrents to the start-up of the said projects. The present article focuses on one of the most powerful of management tools through, at the same time, the one most often forgotten by companies: external communication. In the first part of the article, we shall analyse the reasons why many industrial projects never actually see the light of day. Starting from three working hypotheses, we came to the conclusion that we must be proactive in our communication if we wish our development to be durable and to last. In the second part, we put forward a method for planning communication aimed at first of all, foreseeing, and, ultimately, solving situations arising from the deterrents already mentioned. We have used a classical planning model from which to develop a specific application called Environmental Communication. (Author)

  2. Is climate change an unforeseen, irresistible and external factor - A force majeure in marine environmental law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Roxanne; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Several environmental laws include provisions on natural causes or force majeure, which except States from their commitments if it can be proven that the failure to meet the commitment is due to factors outside their control. The European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has a pivotal role in managing EU marine waters. This paper analyses natural causes and force majeure provisions of the MFSD and other marine legislation, and addresses their interaction with climate change and its consequences, especially the effect on the obligation of ensuring seas are in Good Environmental Status. Climate change is an exogenic unmanaged pressure in that it emanates from outside the area being managed but in which the management authority has to respond to the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and temperature elevation, rather than its causes. It is suggested that a defence by a Member State of force majeure may be accepted if an event was proven to be due to an externality of control, irresistible and unforeseeable. The analysis contends that countering such a legal defence would centre on the fact that climate change is a well-accepted phenomenon, is foreseen with an accepted level of confidence and probability and is due to human actions. However, as yet, this has not been legally tested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N. [National Radiation Protection Dept. Atomic Energy Organization (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabi, M. [Intenatinal atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 {mu}R/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 {mu}R/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 {mu}R/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  4. Estimate on external effective doses received by the Iranian population from environmental gamma radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roozitalab, J.; Reza deevband, M.; Rastkhah, N.; Sohrabi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Concentration of natural radioactive materials, especially available U 238, Ra 226, Th 232, and K 40 in construction materials and soil, as well as absorb dose from cosmic rays, is the most important source of the people for effective doses from the environment radiation. In order to evaluate external effective dose, it has been carried out more than 1000 measurements in 36 cities by sensitive dosimeters to environmental gamma radiation for indoor and outdoor conditions in residential areas; which its results show that range of gamma exposure for inside of buildings in Iran is 8.7-20.5 μR/h, and outdoor environments of different cities is 7.9-20.6 μR/h, which their mean value are 14.33 and 12.62 μR/h respectively. Meanwhile, it has been estimated that beam-absorbing ratio between indoor and outdoor in measured environments is 1.55, except contribution of cosmic rays. This studies show that average effective dose for each Iranian person from environmental gamma is 96.9 n Sv/h, and annually effective dose for every person is 0.848 mSv. (authors)

  5. Monetization of External Costs Using Lifecycle Analysis—A Comparative Case Study of Coal-Fired and Biomass Power Plants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structures of external costs are built in line with coal-fired and biomass power plant life cycle activities in Northeast China. The external cost of coal-fired and biomass power plants was compared, using the lifecycle approach. In addition, the external costs of a biomass power plant are calculated for each stage for comparison with those of a coal-fired power plant. The results highlight that the external costs of a coal-fired plant are 0.072 US $/kWh, which are much higher than that of a biomass power plant, 0.00012 US$/kWh. The external cost of coal-fired power generation is as much as 90% of the current price of electricity generated by coal, while the external cost of a biomass power plant is 1/1000 of the current price of electricity generated by biomass. In addition, for a biomass power plant, the external cost associated with SO2, NOX, and PM2.5 are particularly lower than those of a coal-fired power plant. The prospect of establishing precise estimations for external cost mechanisms and sustainable energy policies is discussed to show a possible direction for future energy schemes in China. The paper has significant value for supporting the biomass power industry and taxing or regulating coal-fired power industry to optimize the energy structure in China.

  6. Conflict translates environmental and social risk into business costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel M; Davis, Rachel; Bebbington, Anthony J; Ali, Saleem H; Kemp, Deanna; Scurrah, Martin

    2014-05-27

    Sustainability science has grown as a field of inquiry, but has said little about the role of large-scale private sector actors in socio-ecological systems change. However, the shaping of global trends and transitions depends greatly on the private sector and its development impact. Market-based and command-and-control policy instruments have, along with corporate citizenship, been the predominant means for bringing sustainable development priorities into private sector decision-making. This research identifies conflict as a further means through which environmental and social risks are translated into business costs and decision making. Through in-depth interviews with finance, legal, and sustainability professionals in the extractive industries, and empirical case analysis of 50 projects worldwide, this research reports on the financial value at stake when conflict erupts with local communities. Over the past decade, high commodity prices have fueled the expansion of mining and hydrocarbon extraction. These developments profoundly transform environments, communities, and economies, and frequently generate social conflict. Our analysis shows that mining and hydrocarbon companies fail to factor in the full scale of the costs of conflict. For example, as a result of conflict, a major, world-class mining project with capital expenditure of between US$3 and US$5 billion was reported to suffer roughly US$20 million per week of delayed production in net present value terms. Clear analysis of the costs of conflict provides sustainability professionals with a strengthened basis to influence corporate decision making, particularly when linked to corporate values. Perverse outcomes of overemphasizing a cost analysis are also discussed.

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  8. Utility planning using least-cost principles and the role of externalities - staff report on a Keystone policy dialogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    For over two years, The Keystone Center facilitated a two-phase dialogue on Utility Planning Using Least-Cost Principles and, in the second phase, on the role of Externalities. The intent of this report is to assist policy-makers faced with decisions about changes to traditional utility regulation and planning. This report is not a consensus document, rather it is staff written summary of two years of discussion on the issues. As a concept, least-cost planning has been discussed since the 1970`s and many states have implemented such programs since the mid-1980`s. Yet, the actual goals and objectives of least-cost planning remain a source of controversy between affected interest groups. Some industry observers believe that least-cost planning can help reconcile the often conflicting demands between increased capacity requirements and concerns about the external costs of power production. In traditional utility regulation practices, capital investments are rewarded and revenue is a direct function of sales. However, a number state public utility commissions have altered their practices to allow for returns on investments in more efficient end-use equipment (also known as ratebasing conservation) and adjusting revenues to account for sales lost due to utility conservation programs. Other states are planning these types of changes. Still others are observing the impacts of the changes before they commit.

  9. Environmental damage costs from airborne pollution of industrial activities in the greater Athens, Greece area and the resulting benefits from the introduction of BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Hontou, V.; Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Lalas, D.P.; Loukatos, A.; Gargoulas, N.; Mentzis, A.; Economidis, D.; Triantafilopoulos, T.; Korizi, K.; Mavrotas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Attributing costs to the environmental impacts associated with industrial activities can greatly assist in protecting human health and the natural environment as monetary values are capable of directly influencing technological and policy decisions without changing the rules of the market. This paper attempts to estimate the external cost attributable to the atmospheric pollution from 'medium and high environmental burden' industrial activities located in the greater Athens area and the benefits from Best Available Techniques (BAT) introduction. To this end a number of typical installations were defined to be used in conjunction with the Impact Pathway Approach developed in the context of the ExternE project to model all industrial sectors/sub-sectors located in the area of interest. Total environmental externalities due to air pollutants emitted by these industrial activities were found to reach 211 M Euro per year, associated mainly with human mortality and morbidity due to PM 10 emissions, as well as with climate change impacts due to CO 2 emissions for which non-metallic minerals and oil processing industries are the main sources. The results obtained can be used as the basis for an integrated evaluation of potential BAT, taking into account not only private costs and benefits but also the environmental externalities, thus leading to policy decisions that maximize social welfare in each industrial sector/sub-sector

  10. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  11. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  12. Environmental external gamma radiation isodose map of Kinta and Batang Padang Districts, Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.; Monawarah, N.M.Y.; Hng, P.W.; Sharifah Mastura, S.A

    2005-01-01

    The background radiation levels of any area, including those related to having deposit of NORM is important to be mapped out before being developed in order to assess their for potential radiological risk. A study was carried out map the environmental external gammas radiation dose rates in Kinta and Batang Padang Districts, Perak. The interpolation method in GIS was used to produce an isodose map based on prediction made from 13 different geological structure soil type combinations. Actual field measurements were carried using Sodium Iodine detectors. A predicted isodose map was plotted based on 5 dose rate classes, ranging from 0.16-0.57 Sv hr -1 . The area dose rates was increased to 5.00 Sv hr -1 once the dose rates contributed artificially by among plants to the study area was considered. Results also showed that the geosoil combination of steep land and acid intrusive rock areas radiates the highest dose rate levels (90.31 %) and most of these areas are in areas covered by hilly mountain. (Author)

  13. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  15. Assessment of the external costs of the coal fuel cycle and the wind energy cycle in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, P.; Montes, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1995-09-01

    This study is part of the ExternE Project, a joint effort of the European Commission and the US Dept. of Energy to assess the externalities of different fuel cycles, and quantify them in monetary terms, as kWh price adders. For Spain, this assessment has been carried out for a coal plant hypothetically sited in Valdecaballeros, in Southwestern Spain, and for an existing farm in Cabo Villano, in the Northwestern corner. In this first stage, only environmental externalities have been assessed. The first section contains a description of the methodology used in the European project, based mostly on a damage function approach, and its adaptation to Spanish conditions. In the last section, this methodology has been applied to the fuel cycles mentioned. The impacts assessed have been, for the coal fuel cycle, health effects, agricultural and forest production losses, and global warming. For wind energy, the main impacts considered have been noise, loss of visual amenity, accidents and global warning. The results obtained can only be considered as underestimates, as there are still impacts that have not been assessed or quantified, specially for the coal fuel cycle. Thus, further research is needed for a complete assessment

  16. Assessing District-Heating Sustainability. Case Studies of CO{sub 2} Mitigation Strategies and Environmental Cost Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Elsa

    2012-11-01

    District heating (DH) may play an important role in achieving the EU goal of a secure, competitive and sustainable energy supply. Integrated energy solutions based on technologies, such as biomass gasification for transport fuel, electricity and heat production and heat-driven absorption cooling, create new optimisation possibilities through the linkage between heat, power, cooling and transport fuel markets which may reduce the global warming contribution of the energy sector. With increasing focus on climate change impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, the environmental effects of other air pollutants should not be neglected. To achieve both a competitive and a sustainable energy supply, it is necessary to integrate environmental considerations into economic policies. Through accounting for external costs of air pollution in energy system modelling and analysis, sustainability aspects may be integrated into DH assessments. The aim of this thesis is to develop, apply and evaluate methodologies for assessing conventional and new technology solutions in a DH system; the assessments are made from a DH perspective with respect to two factors - cost-effectiveness and environmental impacts - which are either assessed separately or integrated through external cost accounting. Various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies are evaluated with regard to the robustness of the DH system in meeting future developments of energy market prices and policies. The studies are performed using a systems approach by using the simulating DH supply model MARTES as applied to the DH system Sweden. This thesis concludes that the integration of biomass gasification technology and absorption cooling technology in DH systems has the potential for cost-effective CO{sub 2} emission reduction, in line with other EU goals to increase the share of renewable sources in energy use and to increase energy efficiency. Accounting for external costs of not only climate change but also other environmental

  17. Environmental conditions using thermal-hydraulics computer code GOTHIC for beyond design basis external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskunas, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi beyond design basis accident in March 2011, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Order EA-12-049, 'Issuance of Order to Modify Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation Strategies Beyond-Design-Basis-External-Events'. To outline the process to be used by individual licensees to define and implement site-specific diverse and flexible mitigation strategies (FLEX) that reduce the risks associated with beyond design basis conditions, Nuclear Energy Institute document NEI 12-06, 'Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (FLEX) Implementation Guide', was issued. A beyond design basis external event (BDBEE) is postulated to cause an Extended Loss of AC Power (ELAP), which will result in a loss of ventilation which has the potential to impact room habitability and equipment operability. During the ELAP, portable FLEX equipment will be used to achieve and maintain safe shutdown, and only a minimal set of instruments and controls will be available. Given these circumstances, analysis is required to determine the environmental conditions in several vital areas of the Nuclear Power Plant. The BDBEE mitigating strategies require certain room environments to be maintained such that they can support the occupancy of personnel and the functionality of equipment located therein, which is required to support the strategies associated with compliance to NRC Order EA-12-049. Three thermal-hydraulic analyses of vital areas during an extended loss of AC power using the GOTHIC computer code will be presented: 1) Safety-related pump and instrument room transient analysis; 2) Control Room transient analysis; and 3) Auxiliary/Control Building transient analysis. GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal-Hydraulic Information for Containment) is a general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for the analysis of nuclear power plant containments, confinement buildings, and system components. It is a volume/path/heat sink

  18. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent open-quotes Murder Board.close quotes Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters' budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management

  19. Environmental management requirements/defensible costs project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) used a systems engineering approach to develop the first formal requirements baseline for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Management (EM) Programs. The recently signed Settlement Agreement with the State of Idaho (Batt Agreement), along with dramatically reduced EM funding targets from Department of Energy (DOE) headquarters, drove the immediacy of this effort. Programs have linked top-level requirements to work scope to cost estimates. All EM work, grouped by decision units, was scrubbed by INEL EM programs and by an independent {open_quotes}Murder Board.{close_quotes} Direct participation of upper level management from LITCO and the DOE-Idaho Operations Office ensured best information and decisions. The result is a scrubbed down, defensible budget tied to top-level requirements for use in the upcoming DOE-Headquarters` budget workout, the Internal Review Board, the FY98 Activity Data Sheets submittal, and preparation of the FY97 control accounts and out-year plans. In addition to the remarkable accomplishments during the past eight weeks, major issues were identified and documented and follow-on tasks are underway which will lead to further improvements in INEL EM program management.

  20. Low-Cost, Distributed Environmental Monitors for Factory Worker Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geb W. Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated network of environmental monitors was developed to continuously measure several airborne hazards in a manufacturing facility. The monitors integrated low-cost sensors to measure particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, noise, temperature and humidity. The monitors were developed and tested in situ for three months in several overlapping deployments, before a full cohort of 40 was deployed in a heavy vehicle manufacturing facility for a year of data collection. The monitors collect data from each sensor and report them to a central database every 5 min. The work includes an experimental validation of the particle, gas and noise monitors. The R2 for the particle sensor ranges between 0.98 and 0.99 for particle mass densities up to 300 μg/m3. The R2 for the carbon monoxide sensor is 0.99 for concentrations up to 15 ppm. The R2 for the oxidizing gas sensor is 0.98 over the sensitive range from 20 to 180 ppb. The noise monitor is precise within 1% between 65 and 95 dBA. This work demonstrates the capability of distributed monitoring as a means to examine exposure variability in both space and time, building an important preliminary step towards a new approach for workplace hazard monitoring.

  1. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve J. Merrill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1 the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2 evaluation of various sources of power, (3 estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4 a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M, vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M, reduction of accidents ($544.6 M, and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M. These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project.

  2. Biological invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant, animal, and microbe species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pimentel, David

    2011-01-01

    ...: Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species, this reference discusses how non-native species invade new ecosystems and the subsequent economic and environmental effects of these species...

  3. Advancing environmental toxicology through chemical dosimetry: External exposures versus tissue residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L.S.; Landrum, P.F.; Luoma, S.N.; Meador, J.P.; Merten, A.A.; Shephard, B.K.; van Wezelzz, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    The tissue residue dose concept has been used, although in a limited manner, in environmental toxicology for more than 100 y. This review outlines the history of this approach and the technical background for organic chemicals and metals. Although the toxicity of both can be explained in tissue residue terms, the relationship between external exposure concentration, body and/or tissues dose surrogates, and the effective internal dose at the sites of toxic action tends to be more complex for metals. Various issues and current limitations related to research and regulatory applications are also examined. It is clear that the tissue residue approach (TRA) should be an integral component in future efforts to enhance the generation, understanding, and utility of toxicity testing data, both in the laboratory and in the field. To accomplish these goals, several key areas need to be addressed: 1) development of a risk-based interpretive framework linking toxicology and ecology at multiple levels of biological organization and incorporating organism-based dose metrics; 2) a broadly applicable, generally accepted classification scheme for modes/mechanisms of toxic action with explicit consideration of residue information to improve both single chemical and mixture toxicity data interpretation and regulatory risk assessment; 3) toxicity testing protocols updated to ensure collection of adequate residue information, along with toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics information, based on explicitly defined toxicological models accompanied by toxicological model validation; 4) continued development of residueeffect databases is needed ensure their ongoing utility; and 5) regulatory guidance incorporating residue-based testing and interpretation approaches, essential in various jurisdictions. ??:2010 SETAC.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of radiotherapy during surgery compared with external radiation therapy in the treatment of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedie Mosalanezhad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraoperative radiation therapy device (IORT is one of the several options for partial breast irradiation. IORT is sent to the tumor bed during surgery and can be replaced with conventional standard therapy (EBRT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of IORT machine compared with EBRT and to determine the dominant option in terms of the cost-effectiveness. Method: This study was conducted in two phases; the first phase was a comprehensive review of the electronic databases search that was extracted after extraction and selection of the articles used in this article on effectiveness outcomes. Data collection form was completed by professionals and experts to estimate the cost of treatment, intraoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy cost when using external radiation therapy process; direct costs were considered from the perspective of service provider and they were calculated in the second phase to determine the option of cost-effective ICER. Excel software was used for data analysis and sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the strength of the results of cost-effectiveness. Results:18 studies were selected but only 8 of them were shown to have acceptable quality. The consequences like “rate of cancer recurrence”, “seroma”, “necrosis”, “toxic”, “skin disorders and delayed wound healing” and “spread the pain” were among the consequences used in the selected articles. The total costs for each patient during a course of treatment for EBRT and IORT were estimated 1398 and $5337.5, respectively. During the analysis, cost-effectiveness of the consequences of cancer recurrence, seroma, necrosis and skin disorders and delayed wound healing ICER was calculated. And IORT was found to be the dominant supplier in all cases. Also, in terms of implications of toxicity and prevalence of pain, IORT had a lower cost and better effectiveness and consequently the result was more cost

  5. BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS IN U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Archibald, Sandra O.

    1998-01-01

    As the number and cost of environmental regulations have increased over the last thirty years, the regulated community, taxpayers, and policy makers have begun to demand that the benefits of regulations justify their costs. The use of benefit-cost analysis as an integral part of developing new regulations is increasing and the demands and expectations being placed on the method have expanded. Although benefit-cost analysis is expected to play an even greater role in environmental decision mak...

  6. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  7. Patient costs associated with external beam radiotherapy treatment for localized prostate cancer: the benefits of hypofractionated over conventionally fractionated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethukavalan, Perakaa; Cheung, Patrick; Tang, Colin I; Quon, Harvey; Morton, Gerard; Nam, Robert; Loblaw, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    To estimate the out-of-pocket costs for patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and calculate the patient-related savings of being treated with a 5-fraction versus a standard 39-fraction approach. Seventy patients accrued to the pHART3 (n = 84) study were analyzed for out-of-pocket patient costs as a result of undergoing treatment. All costs are in Canadian dollars. Using the postal code of the patient's residence, the distance between the hospital and patient home was found using Google Maps. The Canada Revenue Agency automobile allowance rate was then applied to determine the cost per kilometer driven. The average cost of travel from the hospital and pHART3 patient's residence was $246 per person after five trips. In a standard fractionation regimen, pHART3 patients would have incurred an average cost of $1921 after 39 visits. The patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy would have paid an average of $38 in parking while those receiving conventional treatment would have paid $293. The difference in out-of-pocket costs for the patients receiving a standard versus hypofractionated treatment was $1930. Medium term prospective data shows that hypofractionated radiotherapy is an effective treatment method for localized prostate cancer. Compared to standard EBRT, hypofractionated radiotherapy requires significantly fewer visits. Due to the long distance patients may have to travel to the cancer center and the expense of parking, the short course treatment saves each patient an average of $1900. A randomized study of standard versus hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy should be conducted to confirm a favorable efficacy and tolerability profile of the shorter fractionation scheme.

  8. Environmental cost benefit analysis for a coal-fired power plant. An application of dispersion modelling coupled with GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguz, M.; Balta, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, local air quality impacts of a proposed conventional coal-fired power at Icel region has been investigated using numerical dispersion modeling studies coupled with a GIS application. Within the impact area of the facility, Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST2) dispersion model has been used to estimate ground level concentrations of air pollutants originating from the power plant. For the same impact area, GIS applications have been utilized to determine the agricultural yield distribution. For this purpose, relevant satellite images were digitized, classified and statistically analyzed. Based on the predicted ground level pollutant concentrations and sensitivity of the agricultural crops to those, agricultural yield loss was estimated for the impact area. The results have been quantified and validated in monetary terms for the purpose of performing an environmental cost benefit analysis. Comparison of the conventional cost benefit analysis with the environmental cost benefit analysis showed the significance of the external cost of the proposed facility, resulting from the environmental damages. 6 refs

  9. Department of defense environmental cleanup cost allowability policy. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the allowability determination of defense contractor environmental remediation costs. The primary objective of this thesis was to determine what policies and contracting cost principles the Department of Defense (DOD) should develop to address environmental costs in a consistent manner, providing a `single face` to industry. A secondary objective was to develop an audit framework and questions to allow for consistent policy analysis and application to a contractor`s proposed environmental remediation costs based upon the materiality of the situation. Background material was presented to show the amount and complexity of environmental regulations, the effects of current judicial decisions and DOD`s efforts to develop a consistent policy. Research material was provided from Congress, the General Accounting Office, DOD, defense contractors, California, Washington, industry associations and environmental protection coalitions. The researcher`s analysis of the material produced an environmental cost principle. This cost principle was applied to a current environmental claim, producing an audit framework and tailored list of cost and/or pricing data analysis, questions. Both the cost principle and audit framework are recommended for incorporation into DOD`s final environmental cost allowability decision.

  10. Improvement of the assessment of the external costs of severe nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Dale, N.; Schneider, T.

    1998-12-01

    The first part of this document presents a bibliographic study on the accidents costs. The second part is devoted to an empirical study realized in Spain, concerning the risk assessment by experts. The third part proposes an approach in terms of hope of utility for the aversion calculation facing the major risks. The last part presents the probabilities transformations taking into account the human perception of the risk. (A.L.B.)

  11. Environmental costs and renewable energy: re-visiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Menéndez, Ana Jesús; Pérez, Rigoberto; Moreno, Blanca

    2014-12-01

    The environmental costs of economic development have received increasing attention during the last years. According to the World Energy Outlook (2013) sustainable energy policies should be promoted in order to spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context, particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Within this framework, the European Union aims to achieve the "20-20-20" targets, including a 20% reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels, a raise in the share of EU energy consumption produced from renewable resources to 20% and a 20% improvement in the EU's energy efficiency. Furthermore, the EU "Energy Roadmap 2050" has been recently adopted as a basis for developing a long-term European energy framework, fighting against climate change through the implementation of energy efficiency measures and the reduction of emissions. This paper focuses on the European context and attempts to explain the impact of economic growth on CO2 emissions through the estimation of an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) using panel data. Moreover, since energy seems to be at the heart of the environmental problem it should also form the core of the solution, and therefore we provide some extensions of the EKC by including renewable energy sources as explanatory variables in the proposed models. Our data sets are referred to the 27 countries of the European Union during the period 1996-2010. With this information, our empirical results provide some interesting evidence about the significant impacts of renewable energies on CO2 emissions, suggesting the existence of an extended EKC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life cycle cost and risk estimation of environmental management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation process is demonstrated in this paper through comparative analysis of two alternative scenarios identified for the management of the alpha-contaminated fixed low-level waste currently stored at INEL. These two scenarios, the Base Case and the Delay Case, are realistic and based on actual data, but are not intended to exactly match actual plans currently being developed at INEL. Life cycle cost estimates were developed for both scenarios using the System Cost Model; resulting costs are presented and compared. Life cycle costs are shown as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Although there are some short-term cost savings for the Delay Case, cumulative life cycle costs eventually become much higher than costs for the Base Case over the same period of time, due mainly to the storage and repackaging necessary to accommodate the longer Delay Case schedule. Life cycle risk estimates were prepared using a new risk analysis method adapted to the System Cost Model architecture for automated, systematic cost/risk applications. Relative risk summaries are presented for both scenarios as a function of time and also aggregated by pretreatment, treatment, storage, and disposal activities. Relative risk of the Delay Case is shown to be higher than that of the Base Case. Finally, risk and cost results are combined to show how the collective information can be used to help identify opportunities for risk or cost reduction and highlight areas where risk reduction can be achieved most economically

  13. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G. [Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ``Kuznet Curve``were reviewed. The `Kuznet curve` represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations.

  15. Energy, Externalities and Environmental Quality: Will Development Cure the Ills It Creates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, P.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental quality in the context of economic development was discussed. Factors that influence environmental quality were emphasized. Main empirical studies performed in this area, including studies that have produced the inverted U-shaped environmental ''Kuznet Curve''were reviewed. The 'Kuznet curve' represents the hypothesized relationship between inequality of income distribution and economic development. This author attempted to incorporate environmental quality into this relationship, and to look for the policy implications of these estimates. Determinants of environmental quality such as the supply of environmental quality, waste receptors and energy resources, the demand for environmental quality, environmental quality outcomes, environmental and quality/development models were discussed, and an attempt was made to answer the question of whether or not these Kuznet curves really imply that development will automatically cure environmental ills. One of the main conclusions was that as income rises, the demand for environmental quality rises proportionately faster, while the supply of environmentally destructive activities decreases. Other conclusions called for the improvement of the data base on environmental quality, especially by developing countries. There was also a call for more studies to be done to understand the factors that affect environmental quality and policy in different developmental situations

  16. Incorporation of environmental costs in electric utility planning and resource selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Generation of electricity is pervasively regulated for economic, environmental and other governmental objectives at both the state and federal levels. A panoply of legislative and regulatory devices implicitly or explicitly influence the acquisition of generation and fuel resources seeking to achieve environmentally sound selections. Effective implementation or enforcement of these laws and policies may be impeded by the regional or global character of the environmental impacts; jurisdictional conflicts and limitations; and the division of regulatory authority between economic regulatory agencies and their environmental or energy policy counterparts. This chapter reviews the state and federal statutory and regulatory treatment of environmental externalities and discusses alternatives for their consideration

  17. Bioenergy development pathways for Europe. Potentials, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, M.P.

    2011-09-26

    Fossil resources dominate the global energy system today which cannot be sustained indefinitely. Bioenergy use can meet a large share of future energy supply sustainably. For example, it can substitute fossil fuels including petroleum, and when sustainably produced, bioenergy avoids greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the recent increase of modern bioenergy use several drawbacks have become apparent that may lead to negative ecological impacts. Europe plays an important role in the further sustainable development of bioenergy due to its ambitious renewable energy policies and its state-of-the-art agricultural sector. The main objective of this thesis is to evaluate development pathways for bioenergy in Europe by assessing preconditions for its development, an economic outlook for such development and an assessment of its environmental implications. The technical European biomass potential has a substantial potential to contribute to Europe's energy consumption. Energy crop production on European croplands and grasslands supplemented with agricultural and forestry residues offers an ultimate technical potential of 27.7 EJ y-1. These findings were based on the assumption that agricultural land needs for future domestic food production decrease as productivities per hectare increase. Central and Eastern Europe pose the more attractive region with relatively high potentials and low costs. In European agriculture, it is possible to combine large-scale biomass production with food production sustained at current levels, without direct or indirect land-use changes and while accomplishing significant net cumulative greenhouse gas emission reductions when both bioenergy and agricultural production are considered. To accomplish this situation two preconditions need to be met: a gradual intensification of food production and implementation of structural improvements to agricultural management. Based on the current economic performance and future prospects for

  18. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  19. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  20. Low Cost Environmental Sensors for Spaceflight: NMP Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Buehler, Martin G.; Brinza, D.; Patel, J. U.

    2005-01-01

    An outstanding problem in spaceflight is the lack of adequate sensors for monitoring the space environment and its effects on engineering systems. By adequate, we mean low cost in terms of mission impact (e.g., low price, low mass/size, low power, low data rate, and low design impact). The New Millennium Program (NMP) is investigating the development of such a low-cost Space Environmental Monitor (SEM) package for inclusion on its technology validation flights. This effort follows from the need by NMP to characterize the space environment during testing so that potential users can extrapolate the test results to end-use conditions. The immediate objective of this effort is to develop a small diagnostic sensor package that could be obtained from commercial sources. Environments being considered are: contamination, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, cosmic radiation, EMI, and temperature. This talk describes the requirements and rational for selecting these environments and reviews a preliminary design that includes a micro-controller data logger with data storage and interfaces to the sensors and spacecraft. If successful, such a sensor package could be the basis of a unique, long term program for monitoring the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems.

  1. The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate the costs of Pb poisoning attributable to petrochemicals in Nigeria, we conducted a meta-analysis of measured blood lead levels (BLL) and we used published Relative Risk values for disease categories to estimate the proportion of overall disease burden attributable to Pb. We modeled the health costs of Pb ...

  2. An Environmentally Oriented Constructive Cost Model In Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model was designed to assist software developers in Nigeria to estimate software effort, duration and cost as a result of the difficulties in understanding the parameters of the traditional Constructive Cost Model II (COCOMO II) , which was designed for a specif ic environment, using Source Lines of Code (SLOC) . Results ...

  3. Cost And Environmental Optimization Of Waste Supply Chains Using Clca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchi, Romain; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Prosman, Ernst Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Although circular supply chains are widely perceived as a huge leap towards a more environmentally friendly economy, supply chain literature lacks environmental supplier selection criteria (E-SSC) for circular supply chains. Taking into account the various characteristics of circular supply chains...

  4. articles: The implementation of marginal external cost pricing in road transport Long run vs short run and first-best vs second-best

    OpenAIRE

    Erik T. Verhoef

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses a number of issues that will become increasingly important now that the concept of marginal external cost pricing becomes more likely to be implemented as a policy strategy in transport in reality. The first part of the article deals with the long-run efficiency of marginal external cost pricing. It is shown that such prices not only optimize short-run mobility, given the shape and position of the relevant demand and cost curves, but even more importantly, also optimall...

  5. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AT THE FOOD INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES OF THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Sargsyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of the external environment, which have a key influence on the economic activities of organizations in the food industry, are discussed in the article. The influence of certain external environment factors is examined by the example of the Republic of Armenia with taking into account the characteristics of the industry. The rates of development, the leading market indicators are analysed, as well as the key components that form the socio-economic system of the industry are considered.

  6. Externality costs by emission. F. Land use and water pollution impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This section discusses the environmental impacts associated with solid and liquid combustion wastes and cooling system discharges from nuclear, coal, oil, and gas fired power plants. This chapter also presents data for land use requirements for these types of power plants. Coal, oil and nuclear power plants also generate a variety of solid wastes from power generation and maintenance operations. These solid wastes must be disposed of in landfills, which may have a variety of adverse effects on surface water, groundwater, and land use. Power plants also require significant amounts of land for plant sites, fuel storage, transmission lines, and waste disposal. Large fossil fuel and nuclear plants require large quantities of water for cooling and maintenance. The removal from and return of cooling water to rivers, streams and lakes may have adverse effects on fish populations and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. other water impacts include pollution of surface water from coal storage pile and plant site run-off, and wastewater discharges of acids, organics, suspended solids and metals derived from boiler or cooling system maintenance procedures

  7. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  8. Environmental Management Accounting (EMA: Reflection of Environmental Factors in the Accounting Processes through the Identification of the Environmental Costs Attached to Products, Processes and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantin Roman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available EMA can be defined as the identification, collection, estimation, analysis, internal reporting, and use of materials and energy flow information, environmental cost information, and other cost information for both conventional and environmental decision-making within an organization. Thus EMA incorporates and integrates two of the three building blocks of sustainable development – environment and economics – as they relate to an organization’s internal decision-making. EMA is a relatively new tool in environmental management. Decades ago environmental costs were very low, so it seemed wise to include them in the overhead account for simplicity and convenience. Recently there has been a steep rise in all environmental costs, including energy and water prices as well as liabilities.

  9. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  10. Indeterminacy, bifurcations and chaos in an overlapping generations model with negative environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, Angelo; Sodini, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    We analyze an overlapping generations model where agent's welfare depends on three goods: leisure, environmental quality and consumption of a private good. We assume that the production process of the private good depletes the natural resource and that the consumption of the private good alleviates the damages due to environmental deterioration. In such context, we show that individuals' reactions to environmental deterioration may lead to complex dynamics, in particular to the rise of periodic orbits and chaos.

  11. Perceived environmental uncertainty in Dutch dairy farming: The effect of external farm context on strategic choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which dairy farmers perceive their environment (PE), i.e., the external context of their farm, and the uncertainty (PEU) this poses to them. The environment is defined using the STEP concept (society, technology, economy and politics) and Porter¿s five forces model.

  12. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Peter Odjugo

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Although these environmental problems affect all parts of Nigeria, some are ..... rainfall pattern coincided with the El Nino and drought years in Nigeria with the ..... South Africa: Floods killed 120 and destroy crops. http://.www.

  13. Department of Defense Environmental Cleanup Cost Allowability Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    even 1 millions of lives were endangered or disrupted and property values depreciated . The country was becoming increasingly aware of the serious...Cost Accounting Standards (CAS), if applicable; otherwise, generally accepted accounting principles ( GAAP ). 4. Terms of the contract. 5. Limitations...exemptions that determine the applicability of the Standards. If the Standards do not apply, then GAAP applies to the allocability of costs and in many

  14. Partial analysis of the environmental costs generated by hotels in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management

    2005-12-15

    This paper investigates the environmental costs attributable to the various activities involved in operating a hotel such as energy usage, water consumption, and solid waste disposal. A control cost approach and a pro-rated model were used in environmental costing. A holistic analysis of the environmental costs was then made. It was found that, in the early 1990s, the environmental costs incurred in controlling air pollution was higher than for other types of pollution. However, the situation changed during the late 1990s as the government invested more in building large-scale sewage treatment systems and landfills. At present, the environmental costs attributable to water protection and solid waste management have been larger than the environmental costs of air pollution. This implies that hotel operators should place a greater focus on mitigating the pressure on the environment from the consumption of water and disposal of solid waste. Also based on the methodologies, recommendations on environmental accounting on three levels are made. (Author)

  15. Smart Environmental Policy with Full-Cost Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Olewiler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s natural capital — its resources, ecosystems and wildlife — are indispensable to the productivity of industry. Despite this, both the public and private sectors have failed to adequately factor in the consequences of production and consumption on the natural environment. There is a growing need for full-cost pricing, a system that adjusts market prices to reflect not only the direct costs of good and services, but also their impact on this country’s natural capital. As this paper argues, the onus is on the federal government to create the conditions for full-cost pricing to succeed. Ottawa needs to eliminate energy subsidies (to producers and consumers, implement full-cost pricing on air contaminants and greenhouse gases and encourage projects at the provincial and municipal levels that adopt that methodology. The benefits include productivity gains; potentially billions in savings for consumers, businesses and governments; a strong environment supporting sustainable industries; and simplified tax systems. In surveying past and existing federal initiatives and missed opportunities in previous budgets, this paper assesses costs and consequences, arguing that a healthy environment is synonymous with a healthy economy, and providing hard data to back up that conviction. With Budget 2012 just around the corner, the time is ripe for the Harper government to introduce full-cost pricing, and guarantee Canada a brighter future.

  16. 78 FR 14090 - EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of Candidates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...: Environmental education, public-private partnerships, environmental or educational project financing, nonprofit... K-12, community college and/or technical school education. Nominations should include a resume and a...: Contact information including name, address, phone and fax numbers and an email address; a curriculum...

  17. Low-cost, digital lock-in module with external reference for coating glass transmission/reflection spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Villuendas, F.; Borja, J.; Barragán, L. A.; Salinas, I.

    2003-05-01

    A versatile, low-cost, digital signal processor (DSP) based lock-in module with external reference is described. This module is used to implement an industrial spectrophotometer for measuring spectral transmission and reflection of automotive and architectonic coating glasses over the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelength range. The light beams are modulated with an optical chopper. A digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) is used to lock the lock-in to the chop frequency. The lock-in rejects the ambient radiation and permits the spectrophotometer to work in the presence of ambient light. The algorithm that implements the dual lock-in and the DPLL in the DSP56002 evaluation module from Motorola is described. The use of a DSP allows implementation of the lock-in and DPLL by software, which gives flexibility and programmability to the system. Lock-in module cost, under 300 euro, is an important parameter taking into account that two modules are used in the system. Besides, the algorithms implemented in this DSP can be directly implemented in the latest DSP generations. The DPLL performance and the spectrophotometer are characterized. Capture and lock DPLL ranges have been measured and checked to be greater than the chop frequency drifts. The lock-in measured frequency response shows that the lock-in performs as theoretically predicted.

  18. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system. CEEH scientific report no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Christensen, Jesper H. (and others)

    2011-03-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate external costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. The essential idea behind the EVA system is that state-of-the-art scientific methods are used in all the individual parts of the impact-pathway chain and to make the best scientific basis for sound political decisions with respect to emission control. In this report, we estimate the impacts and total health-related external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, represented by the 10 major SNAP (Selected Nomenclature for Sources of Air Pollution); categories as well as all emission sectors simultaneously. Besides these major categories, we assess the external costs from international ship traffic, since this sector is an important contributor to air pollution in Denmark. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externalities of all emissions from the Northern Hemisphere simultaneously (including natural emissions) to estimate the total health-related external costs from the total air pollution levels in Europe, and these results are compared to similar results obtained in the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) project. Both for international ship traffic and for the total air pollution levels, results are presented for present and future conditions, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011 and 2020. The major results and conclusions concerning external costs within Denmark can be summarised as follows: 1) The main emission sectors in Denmark contributing to health-related external costs in Denmark

  19. Joint implementation. Cost benefit analysis of global environmental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, M.A.P.C. van

    1996-01-01

    The strategy in SEP, the interconnected electricity supply undertaking of The Netherlands, for the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is focussed on the implementation of cost-effective 'no regret' measures at home and abroad. Here, at present, SEP is concentrating on afforestation measures. Through a daughter organization called the FACE Foundation, SEP finances world-wide afforestation projects. FACE is able to take into account, forco-financing, the CO 2 absorption capacity of these forests. These re-afforestation projects have proved to be a very cost-effective way of levelling out CO 2 emissions in comparison with measures in The Netherlands. (orig.) [de

  20. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are numerous environmental problems that plague different parts of the world in the face of climate change. These range from pollution, deforestation, indiscriminate bush burning and natural wild fire, desertification, climate change, rain and windstorms, flood, earthquake, volcanicity, drought and erosion among ...

  2. The cost of environmental lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDA

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 1 (2), pp. 027-036 .... family either owning a car or living in a house located on a tarred road ... trations were determined by means of an automatic blood lead analyzer with a ...

  3. Assessing the Social and Environmental Costs of Institution Nitrogen Footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Jana E; Leach, Allison M; Castner, Elizabeth A; Galloway, James N

    2017-04-01

    This article estimates the damage costs associated with the institutional nitrogen (N) footprint and explores how this information could be used to create more sustainable institutions. Potential damages associated with the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH 3 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) to air and release of nitrogen to water were estimated using existing values and a cost per unit of nitrogen approach. These damage cost values were then applied to two universities. Annual potential damage costs to human health, agriculture, and natural ecosystems associated with the N footprint of institutions were $11.0 million (2014) at the University of Virginia (UVA) and $3.04 million at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). Costs associated with the release of nitrogen oxides to human health, in particular the use of coal-derived energy, were the largest component of damage at UVA. At UNH the energy N footprint is much lower because of a landfill cogeneration source, and thus the majority of damages were associated with food production. Annual damages associated with release of nitrogen from food production were very similar at the two universities ($1.80 million vs. $1.66 million at UVA and UNH, respectively). These damages also have implications for the extent and scale at which the damages are felt. For example, impacts to human health from energy and transportation are generally larger near the power plants and roads, while impacts from food production can be distant from the campus. Making this information available to institutions and communities can improve their understanding of the damages associated with the different nitrogen forms and sources, and inform decisions about nitrogen reduction strategies.

  4. External costs due to congestion, accidents, energy consumption and emissions before and into the economic crisis: Pilot study along selected roadways of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriou Matina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the economic crisis, forecasts indicated a continuous increase of traffic in European cities, highlighting the need of a policy to alleviate the external impacts of transport. The crisis, however, generated pressures on all sectors of activity, with transport being an indicative example. The reduction of income and employment, the increased vehicle maintenance and renewal costs and the transport related taxation seem to affect the transport system and its external impacts. Thus, taking for granted that Europe will eventually achieve “sustainable recovery” from the crisis, the current period presents an opportunity for promoting sustainable mobility policies and interventions in the most affected by the crisis European cities. Towards this goal, it is essential to capitalise on contemporary techniques for the monitoring of changes in transport external costs. The purpose of the paper is the development of a methodology for the estimation of external costs due to congestion, air pollution, climate change and accidents, based on road traffic data. The methodology is applied along road arteries in Thessaloniki for the period “before and after” the emergence of the crisis. As a result, an overall decrease in external costs is observed, creating an unforeseen “surplus” for the society during the crisis.

  5. SCORECARD AMBIENTAL: MONITORAÇÃO DOS CUSTOS AMBIENTAIS ATRAVÉS DA WEB ENVIRONMENTAL SCORECARD: WEB-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL COST MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Durán

    2007-12-01

    of information for the modern management. Nevertheless, measuring environmental costs is difficult because of traditional accounting instruments. By their nature, most environmental costs are considered as production indirect costs or overheads, which make their identification and correct allocation difficult. Activity Based Costing arises as a solution for defining, identifying and/or measuring the resources consumed by the activities of control, preservation and recovering of the environment. This is possible because of the characteristics of the ABC methodology, which are best suited for managing environmental costs. This paper deals with the implementation of a web-based environmental performance monitoring system. The proposed system was entirely written in PHP programming language and is interconnected with a database-based management system. The system, called Environmental Scorecard, provides information about environmental costs, which are classified according to four main types: prevention, evaluation, internal faults and external faults. The system allows users to know and monitor the behavior of the mentioned variables through long time periods.

  6. Inclusion of environmental costs on a long-term expansion model of hydrothermal generation systems; Insercao dos custos ambientais em um modelo de expansao da geracao a longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Henrique Luz

    2008-02-15

    This dissertation presents the development of a mathematical model to be used in the hydrothermal generation expansion planning taking into account uncertainties, the guarantee of energy supply and issues related to the social and environmental problems caused by the power sector. Named 'MELP Ambiental', it is a version of MELP, a model developed by Machado Junior (2000). The environmental valuation was based on results of previous studies. The analysis of the environmental costs scenarios showed that the inclusion of a variable linked to externalities implies in changes on the investment schedule. These changes decrease the total cost (economic and environmental) related to long-term power supply expansion. (author)

  7. Guidelines for defining and documenting data on costs of possible environmental protection measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, I.; King, K.; Boyd, R.; Bouscaren, R.; Pacyna, J. [AEA Technology Environment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The Guidelines are intended to promote good practice in the documenting and use of data on the costs of possible environmental protection measures in the context of international data comparisons. The minimum information needed to describe the cost of an environmental protection measures is: details of pollution source; details of the environmental protection measure and its performance characteristics; how costs are defined; the year to which data apply; indications of data uncertainty; how pollutants are defined; and reference to data sources. Guidelines are given for these seven items. These are followed by descriptions of various methods of data processing - dealing with information; calculating annual costs; discount/interest rates; and additional issues relating to the implementation of cost data. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 apps.

  8. Environmental pricing of externalities from different sources of electricity generation in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, Claudia; Hutchinson, W. George; Longo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in electricity demand in Chile means a choice must be made between major investments in renewable or non-renewable sources for additional production. Current projects to develop large dams for hydropower in Chilean Patagonia impose an environmental price by damaging the natural environment. On the other hand, the increased use of fossil fuels entails an environmental price in terms of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions contributing to climate change. This paper studies the debate on future electricity supply in Chile by investigating the preferences of households for a variety of different sources of electricity generation such as fossil fuels, large hydropower in Chilean Patagonia and other renewable energy sources. Using Double Bounded Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation, a novel advanced disclosure method and internal consistency test are used to elicit the willingness to pay for less environmentally damaging sources. Policy results suggest a strong preference for renewable energy sources with higher environmental prices imposed by consumers on electricity generated from fossil fuels than from large dams in Chilean Patagonia. Policy results further suggest the possibility of introducing incentives for renewable energy developments that would be supported by consumers through green tariffs or environmental premiums. Methodological findings suggest that advanced disclosure learning overcomes the problem of internal inconsistency in SB-DB estimates.

  9. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  10. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  11. Measuring and minimizing the social cost of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    The various impacts to the environmental protection movement on the largest corporations in several industries which had the most serious pollution problem are discussed. The purpose was to examine the impacts from the point of view of top corporation managers so that a broader perspective could be provided for all concerned parties- citizens, environmentalists, legislators, governmental administrators and agency personnel, scientists, engineers, and other industrial managers.

  12. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  13. Environmental costs of sugarcane agroecosystems; Custos ambientais de agroecossistemas da cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Renato de

    1997-07-01

    This thesis analyzes and evaluates sugarcane agroecosystems, taking into account the environmental implications and the use of natural resources as production factors. The costs are estimated in financial and energetic measures, from the implantation of the culture to the delivery of the cane to the mill. In order to perform the basic model, a business group, that presently represents the paradigm in Brazil, was selected and from those data on, scenarios of financial and energetic costs of alternative production systems were structured. The environmental aspects were evaluated as production factors and also include in the tables. Using the costs and the energetic tables, combined with the environmental implication data of the agroecosystems, three scenarios were established. The basic scenario takes into account the commercial energy used and the environment was not considered as a part of the production. In the second scenario the environmental impacts and the use of natural resources are estimated as production factors and involve costs. The third scenario simulates a situation where the agroecosystem is planned to be sustained and the environmental damages are minimized. The results indicated higher costs for the scenarios of inserting environmental costs than for the others scenarios. They also indicated that it is possible to achieve a profitable production in a sustainable ecosystem and that the differences of the energy amount between the systems remain still small, and that the sustainable perspective will only be attractive if it were based on the social definition of higher values to the natural environment. (author)

  14. Environmental optimisation of natural gas fired engines - calculation of health externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohn, L.M.; Becker, T.; Christensen, Jesper; Hertel, O.; Silver, J.D.; Villadsen, H. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark)); Soees Hansen, M. (Aarhus Univ., National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (European Environment Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The measured emissions of WP1 of the project has been applied as input for model calculations with the EVA model system. The DEHM model which calculates the regional scale delta-concentrations has been further developed to handle the low signal to noise ratio of the delta-concentrations related to the small sources that the gas fired engines constitute. All combinations of engine settings and locations have been run as scenarios with the EVA system, however the results have been grouped into themes to investigate changes related to location as well as changes related to engine settings. New exposure-response relations have been implemented in the system related to the chemical components nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, ethene and propene. The choice of high-exposure location in the calculations has unfortunately turned out to be less optimal. The location at Store Valby has previously been applied in studies with the EVA system as a high-exposure site, however in previous applications, the emission sources have been large power plants with stack heights of around 150 meters. The height of the stack of the gas fired engines is only around 30 meters, and the consequence is that the emitted components reach the surface closer to the stack, thereby giving high exposure in an area located further to the southwest, where the population density is not as high as in central Copenhagen. In general the marginal health costs (in Euro pr kg) of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde emissions are very small. The emissions of formaldehyde are also small and the resulting costs for this component is therefore very small. The emission of carbon monoxide is much larger, however the small marginal cost makes the contribution to the total costs small, also for this component. The marginal health costs of nitrogen oxides and ethene emissions show little variation with engine scenario. However the general picture is that as the NO{sub x} emissions increase (either by increasing ignition

  15. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, Erik; Meskens, Gaston; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: → Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. → Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. → Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. → This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  16. Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment, A Summary (1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents data on environmental pollution control costs during the period 1972--1987, projects these costs for each subsequent year to the year 2000 under a number of assumptions, and breaks them down in a variety of ways (capital, operating; media; etc.)

  17. Managing the environmental externalities of traffic logistics: the issue of emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensel, van T.; Creten, R.; Vandaele, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    Companies are increasingly being held accountable for the life-cycle impact of their products and services. Transportation is frequently a major component of this life-cycle impact. Hence, to reduce total environmental impact, logistics managers will have to become more sophisticated in their

  18. 78 FR 18589 - EPA Office of External Affairs and Environmental Education; Request for Nominations of Candidates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... balance of perspectives, professional qualifications, and experience. The Act specifies that members must... regions of the country, and the Council strives for a diverse representation. The professional backgrounds..., development, implementation and/or management of environmental education nationally. Persons having questions...

  19. Using Low Cost Environmental Sensors in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in process technology have drastically reduced the cost of manufacturing almost every type of sensor and micro-controller, putting low-to-mid grade sensor technology in the reach of educators and hobbyists. We demonstrate how a low cost magnetometer and an Arduino micro-controller can be used in education. Students can easily connect the sensor to the Arduino and collect three-component magnetic field data. Experiments can easily be turned into long-term monitoring projects by connecting sensors to the internet and providing an Internet-of-Things interface to store and to display the data in near-real time. Low-cost sensors are generally much noisier than their research grade counterparts, but can still provide an opportunity for students to learn about fundamental concepts such as signal quality, sampling, averaging, and filtering and to gain hands-on, concrete experience with observations. Sensors can be placed at different locations and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, with an inexpensive magnetometer, students can examine diurnal magnetic field variations and look for magnetic storms. Magnetic field orientation can be calculated and compared to the predicted geomagnetic field orientation at a given location. Data can be stored in simple text files to facilitate analysis with any convenient package. We illustrate the idea using Python notebooks, allowing students to explore the data interactively and to learn the basic principles of programming and reproducible research. Using an Arduino encourages students to interact with open-source data collection hardware and to experiment with ways to quickly, cheaply, and effectively measure the environment. Analysis of these data can lead to a deeper understanding of both geoscience and data processing.

  20. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  1. The Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Instruments for Environmental Protection in a Second-Best Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence H. Goulder; Ian W. H. Parry; Roberton C. Williams III; Dallas Burtraw

    1998-01-01

    This paper employs analytical and numerical general equilibrium models to examine the costs of achieving pollution reductions under a range of environmental policy instruments in a second-best setting with pre-existing factor taxes. We compare the costs and overall efficiency impacts of emissions taxes, emissions quotas, fuels taxes, performance standards, and mandated technologies, and explore how costs change with the magnitude of pre-existing taxes and the extent of pollution abatement. We...

  2. Characterization of a Low-Cost Optical Flow Sensor When Using an External Laser as a Direct Illumination Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low cost optical flow sensor is combined with an external laser device to measure surface displacements and mechanical oscillations. The measurement system is based on applying coherent light to a diffuser surface and using an optical flow sensor to analyze the reflected and transferred light to estimate the displacement of the surface or the laser spot. This work is focused on the characterization of this measurement system, which can have the optical flow sensor placed at different angles and distances from the diffuser surface. The results have shown that the displacement of the diffuser surface is badly estimated when the optical mouse sensor is placed in front of the diffuser surface (angular orientation >150° while the highest sensitivity is obtained when the sensor is located behind the diffuser surface and on the axis of the laser source (angular orientation 0°. In this case, the coefficient of determination of the measured displacement, R2, was very high (>0.99 with a relative error of less than 1.29%. Increasing the distance between the surface and the sensor also increased the sensitivity which increases linearly, R2 = 0.99. Finally, this measurement setup was proposed to measure very low frequency mechanical oscillations applied to the laser device, up to 0.01 Hz in this work. The results have shown that increasing the distance between the surface and the optical flow sensor also increases the sensitivity and the measurement range.

  3. How generation choices are influenced by costs, risks and externalities: the generation planning process in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriage, E.A.; Rogers, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Ontario Hydro is responsible for generating, supplying and delivering electricity throughout Ontario, Canada. Installed generation capacity of 32 GW consists of 20% hydro-electric (6.4 GW), 35% fossil (11.3 GW) and 40% nuclear (14.2 GW). Ontario Hydro' s planning process has evolved significantly since its decision in the late 1970's to build the 4-unit 3500 MW Darlington Nuclear Station. The emergence of environmental issues as a primary consideration, increased awareness of financial and regulatory risks, and uncertainty about the load forecast and the impact of demand management programs on the load have all contributed to the changed planning process. This paper discusses Ontario Hydro's responses to these changes such as: increased public involvement in the decision-making process; the use of a broader range of options including demand management and non-utility generation; optimizing the use of the existing system; more complete risk analyses of generation options, and recent attempts to incorporate externalities into the decision-making process. (authors). 3 figs

  4. The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drechsler, Martin; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Ohl, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ► We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ► Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ► High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ► Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

  5. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  6. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  7. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães,João Carlos Costa; Barros,Dalmo Arantes de; Pereira,José Aldo Alves; Silva,Rossi Allan; Oliveira,Antonio Donizette de; Borges,Luís Antônio Coimbra

    2013-01-01

    This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to...

  8. Cost optimization of ADS design: Comparative study of externally driven heterogeneous and homogeneous two-zone subcritical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of two-zone homogeneous subcritical systems has been performed. • A Serpent model for two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been developed. • The optimization of two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been carried out. • Economically optimal core composition of two-zone subcritical system was found. • The neutron spectra of the heterogeneous subcritical systems have been obtained. - Abstract: Subcritical systems driven by external neutron sources, commonly known as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), are one type of advanced nuclear reactor exhibiting attractive characteristics, distinguished from the traditional critical systems by their intrinsic safety features. In addition, an ADS can be used for the transmutation of the nuclear waste, accumulated during the operation of existing reactors. The optimization of a subcritical nuclear reactor in terms of materials (fuel content, coolant, etc.), geometrical, and economical parameters is a crucial step in the process of their design and construction. This article describes the optimization modeling performed for homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems in terms of geometry of the fuel zones. Economical assessment was also carried out for the costs of the fuel in the core of the system. Optimization modeling was performed with the Serpent-1.1.18 Monte Carlo code. The model of a two-zone subcritical system with a fast inner and a thermal gas-cooled graphite-moderated outer zone was developed, simulated, and analyzed. The optimal value for the pitch of fuel elements in the thermal outer zone was investigated from the viewpoint of the cost of subcritical system. As the main goal of ADS development is nuclear waste transmutation, neutron spectra for both fast and thermal zones were obtained for different system configurations. The results of optimization modeling of homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems show that an optimal

  9. Global environmental costs of China's thirst for milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhaohai; Lee, Michael R F; Ma, Lin; Ledgard, Stewart; Oenema, Oene; Velthof, Gerard L; Ma, Wenqi; Guo, Mengchu; Zhao, Zhanqing; Wei, Sha; Li, Shengli; Liu, Xia; Havlík, Petr; Luo, Jiafa; Hu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2018-05-01

    China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO 2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3.6 to 5.4 Tg nitrogen). Producing all additional milk in China with current technology will greatly increase animal feed import; from 1.9 to 8.5 Tg for concentrates and from 1.0 to 6.2 Tg for forage (alfalfa). In addition, it will increase domestic dairy related GHG emissions by 2.2 times compared to 2010 levels. Importing the extra milk will transfer the environmental burden from China to milk exporting countries; current dairy exporting countries may be unable to produce all additional milk due to physical limitations or environmental preferences/legislation. For example, the farmland area for cattle-feed production in New Zealand would have to increase by more than 57% (1.3 million ha) and that in Europe by more than 39% (15 million ha), while GHG emissions and nitrogen losses would increase roughly proportionally with the increase of farmland in both regions. We propose that a more sustainable dairy future will rely on high milk demanding regions (such as China) improving their domestic milk and feed production efficiencies up to the level of leading milk producing countries. This will decrease the global dairy related

  10. Shadow prices of emerging pollutants in wastewater treatment plants: Quantification of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver-Domingo, A; Fuentes, R; Hernández-Sancho, F

    2017-12-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designed to remove mainly the organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and suspended solids from wastewater but are not capable of removing chemicals of human origin, such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The presence of PPCPs in wastewater has environmental effects on the water bodies receiving the WWTP effluents and renders the effluent as unsuitable as a nonconventional water source. Considering PPCPs as non-desirable outputs, the shadow prices methodology has been implemented using the output distance function to measure the environmental benefits of removing five PPCPs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, carbamazepine and trimethoprim) from WWTP effluents discharged to three different ecosystems (wetland, river and sea). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen show the highest shadow prices of the sample for wetland areas. Their values are 128.2 and 11.0 €/mg respectively. These results represent a proxy in monetary terms of the environmental benefit achieved from avoiding the discharge of these PPCPs in wetlands. These results suggest which PPCPs are urgent to remove from wastewater and which ecosystems are most vulnerable to their presence. The findings of this study will be useful for the plant managers in order to make decisions about prioritization in the removal of different pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inefficient national environmental regulation as a signal of high abatement costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyses the importance of informational asymmetries in international environmental regulation by use of a game theoretic approach of signaling games. More specific it analysis whether it is possible for a government to try to extract higher compensation in an international unidirectoral environmental problem. This may be possible when the national environmental regulation carries a signal of the cost of the regulated industry. In this case the government e.g. by means of inefficient environmental regulation on a national level may try to signal high abatement costs. In spite of the fact that many international environmental problems seem to be solvable by the use of financial payments there are only few examples that compensation payment arrangements have been implemented. As many countries and especially many polluting firms possess better information about abatement costs than the countries that receive the pollution, it is worthwhile to include asymmetric information. Consequently, this paper analyses whether the introduction of asymmetric information about abatement costs may bring forward incentives to misrepresent the true abatement cost in order to capture more compensation. If these incentives turn out to be present, it may explain some of the suspicion against using financial payment in order to induce other countries to join an agreement. The analysis shows that it may indeed be the case that the expected gain from cheating is so large that it gives incentives to use an inefficient national environmental policy. (au) 13 refs.

  12. The long-term life cycle private and external costs of high coal usage in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergerson, Joule; Lave, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Using four times as much coal in 2050 for electricity production need not degrade air quality or increase greenhouse gas emissions. Current SO x and NO x emissions from the power sector could be reduced from 12 to less than 1 and from 5 to 2 million tons annually, respectively, using advanced technology. While direct CO 2 emissions from new power plants could be reduced by over 87%, life cycle emissions could increase by over 25% due to the additional coal that is required to be mined and transported to compensate for the energy penalty of the carbon capture and storage technology. Strict environmental controls push capital costs of pulverized coal (PC) and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants to $1500-1700/kW and $1600-2000/kW, respectively. Adding carbon capture and storage (CCS) increases costs to $2400-2700/kW and $2100-3000/kW (2005 dollars), respectively. Adding CCS reduces the 40-43% efficiency of the ultra-supercritical PC plant to 31-34%; adding CCS reduces the 32-38% efficiency of the GE IGCC plant to 27-33%. For IGCC, PC, and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants, the carbon dioxide tax would have to be $53, $74, and $61, respectively, to make electricity from a plant with CCS cheaper. Capturing and storing 90% of the CO 2 emissions increases life cycle costs from 5.4 to 11.6 cents/kWh. This analysis shows that 90% CCS removal efficiency, although being a large improvement over current electricity generation emissions, results in life cycle emissions that are large enough that additional effort is required to achieve significant economy-wide reductions in the US for this large increase in electricity generation using either coal or natural gas

  13. A standard methodology for cost-effectiveness analysis of new environmental technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, S.R.; Trocki, L.K.; Bowling, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology that is being applied to assess the cost-effectiveness of new environmental technologies under development by EM-50, DOE. Performance, total system effects, and life-cycle costs are all considered in the methodology to compare new technologies with existing or base-line technologies. An example of performance characterization is given in the paper. Sources of data for cost estimates and technology characterizations also appear in the paper. The Department of Energy (DOE) is facing a massive clean up effort of waste sites that contain hazardous, radioactive, or mixed materials. DOE has recognized that improvements in environmental restoration and waste management methods can potentially save the taxpayers billions of dollars as older, less-effective technologies are displaced. Consequently, DOE has targeted significant funding to search for new technologies and to test and demonstrate them in rapid and cost-effective manner with the goal of applying them quickly to address environmental problems

  14. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  15. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  16. Energy policy and externalities: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in estimating the monetary value of the environmental impacts of different energy systems. Perhaps the best known study in Europe is that sponsored by the European Commission and known as the ExternE programme. In the USA a comparable project is that jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the European Commission. There are many others. In each case what is sought is a monetary value of an environmental impact arising from a unit of energy, usually standardised as a kilowatt hour. These environmental impacts are usually termed 'externalities'. An externality exists if two conditions are met. First, some negative (or positive) impact is generated by an economic activity and imposed on third parties. Second, that impact must not be priced in the market place, i.e. if the effect is negative, no compensation is paid by the generator of the externality to the sufferer. If the effect is positive, the generator of the externality must not appropriate the gains to the third party, e.g. via some price that is charged. In the energy externality literature, the procedure of expressing the externalities in, say, cents or milli-euros (1000 th of an Euro = m-euro) per kWh results in an 'adder'. An adder is simply the unit externality cost added to the standard resource cost of energy. Thus, if an electricity source costs X m/euros to produce or deliver, the final social cost of it is (X+y) m-euros where y is the externality adder. While externality adders have been researched most in the context of energy, they are increasingly being estimated for other economic sectors, notably transport and agriculture. This paper presents the uses of such figures. (author)

  17. Investigating genetic and environmental contributions to adolescent externalizing behavior in a collectivistic culture: a multi-informant twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yu, J; Zhang, J; Li, X; McGue, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the etiology of adolescents' externalizing behavior (Ext) in collectivistic cultures. We aimed to fill this gap by investigating the genetic and environmental influences on Ext in Chinese adolescents. The etiological heterogeneity of aggression (AGG) and rule breaking (RB) was also examined. The study sample included 908 pairs of same-sex twins aged from 10 to 18 years (mean = 13.53 years, s.d. = 2.26). Adolescents' Ext were assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment including Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and Youth Self-Report. Univariate genetic analyses showed that genetic influences on all measures were moderate ranging from 34% to 50%, non-shared environmental effects ranged from 23% to 52%, and shared environmental effects were significant in parent- and teacher-reported measures ranging from 29% to 43%. Bivariate genetic analyses indicated that AGG and RB shared large genetic influences (r g = 0.64-0.79) but moderate non-shared environmental factors (r e = 0.34-0.52). Chinese adolescents' Ext was moderately influenced by genetic factors. AGG and RB had moderate independent genetic and non-shared environmental influences, and thus constitute etiologically distinct dimensions within Ext in Chinese adolescents. The heritability of AGG, in particular, was smaller in Chinese adolescents than suggested by previous data obtained on Western peers. This study suggests that the collectivistic cultural values and Confucianism philosophy may attenuate genetic potential in Ext, especially AGG.

  18. Externalizing problems in childhood and adolescence predict subsequent educational achievement but for different genetic and environmental reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Asbury, Kathryn; Plomin, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Childhood behavior problems predict subsequent educational achievement; however, little research has examined the etiology of these links using a longitudinal twin design. Moreover, it is unknown whether genetic and environmental innovations provide incremental prediction for educational achievement from childhood to adolescence. We examined genetic and environmental influences on parental ratings of behavior problems across childhood (age 4) and adolescence (ages 12 and 16) as predictors of educational achievement at age 16 using a longitudinal classical twin design. Shared-environmental influences on anxiety, conduct problems, and peer problems at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Genetic influences on the externalizing behaviors of conduct problems and hyperactivity at age 4 predicted educational achievement at age 16. Moreover, novel genetic and (to a lesser extent) nonshared-environmental influences acting on conduct problems and hyperactivity emerged at ages 12 and 16, adding to the genetic prediction from age 4. These findings demonstrate that genetic and shared-environmental factors underpinning behavior problems in early childhood predict educational achievement in midadolescence. These findings are consistent with the notion that early-childhood behavior problems reflect the initiation of a life-course persistent trajectory with concomitant implications for social attainment. However, we also find evidence that genetic and nonshared-environment innovations acting on behavior problems have implications for subsequent educational achievement, consistent with recent work arguing that adolescence represents a sensitive period for socioaffective development. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. A benefit-cost methodology for developing environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiter, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using benefit-cost analysis in developing generally applicable environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal. Several disposal alternatives were selected which consist of different combinations of control measures. The resulting cost and benefit estimations allow the calculation of the incremental cost of obtaining incremental benefits of radiation protection. The overall benefit of a disposal alternative is expressed in terms of an index which is based on weighting factors assigned to individual benefits. The results show that some disposal alternatives have higher costs while providing no additional benefit than other alternatives. These alternatives should be eliminated from consideration in developing standards

  20. External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Millsap, Deborah S; Yeager, Ronnie L; Heise, Steve S; Sparks, Daniel W; Henshel, Diane S

    2006-02-01

    Necropsy-observable cardiac deformities were evaluated from 283 nestling passerines collected from one reference site and five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around Bloomington and Bedford, Indiana, USA. Hearts were weighed and assessed on relative scales in three dimensions (height, length, and width) and for externally visible deformities. Heart weights normalized to body weight (heart somatic index) were decreased significantly at the more contaminated sites in both house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). Heart somatic indices significantly correlated with log PCB concentrations in Carolina chickadee (Parus carolinesis) and tree swallow and with log 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent values in tree swallow alone. Ventricular length was increased significantly in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and decreased significantly in Carolina chickadee and tree swallow from contaminated sites versus the reference site. Heart length regressed significantly against the log PCB concentrations (Carolina chickadee and tree swallow) or the square of the PCB concentrations (red-winged blackbird [Agelaius phoeniceus]) in a sibling bird. The deformities that were observed most at the contaminated sites included abnormal tips (pointed, rounded, or flattened), center rolls, macro- and microsurface roughness, ventricular indentations on the ventral or dorsal surface, lateral ventricular notches, visibly thin ventricular walls, and changes in overall heart shape. A pooled heart deformity index regressed significantly against the logged contaminant concentrations for all species except red-winged blackbird. These results indicate that developmental changes in heart morphometrics and shape abnormalities are quantifiable and may be sensitive and useful indicators of PCB-related developmental impacts across many avian species.

  1. Survey of LWR environmental control technology performance and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Aaberg, R.L.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Lewallen, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study attempts to establish a ranking for species that are routinely released to the environment for a projected nuclear power growth scenario. Unlike comparisons made to existing standards, which are subject to frequent revision, the ranking of releases can be used to form a more logical basis for identifying the areas where further development of control technology could be required. This report describes projections of releases for several fuel cycle scenarios, identifies areas where alternative control technologies may be implemented, and discusses the available alternative control technologies. The release factors were used in a computer code system called ENFORM, which calculates the annual release of any species from any part of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle given a projection of installed nuclear generation capacity. This survey of fuel cycle releases was performed for three reprocessing scenarios (stowaway, reprocessing without recycle of Pu and reprocessing with full recycle of U and Pu) for a 100-year period beginning in 1977. The radioactivity releases were ranked on the basis of a relative ranking factor. The relative ranking factor is based on the 100-year summation of the 50-year population dose commitment from an annual release of radioactive effluents. The nonradioactive releases were ranked on the basis of dilution factor. The twenty highest ranking radioactive releases were identified and each of these was analyzed in terms of the basis for calculating the release and a description of the currently employed control method. Alternative control technology is then discussed, along with the available capital and operating cost figures for alternative control methods

  2. A probabilistic approach to cost and duration uncertainties in environmental decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boak, D.M.; Painton, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a method for analyzing life-cycle costs using probabilistic cost forecasting and utility theory to determine the most cost-effective alternatives for safe interim storage of radioactive materials. The method explicitly incorporates uncertainties in cost and storage duration by (1) treating uncertain component costs as random variables represented by probability distributions, (2) treating uncertain durations as chance nodes in a decision tree, and (3) using stochastic simulation tools to generate life-cycle cost forecasts for each storage alternative. The method applies utility functions to the forecasted costs to incorporate the decision maker's risk preferences, making it possible to compare alternatives on the basis of both cost and cost utility. Finally, the method is used to help identify key contributors to the uncertainty in forecasted costs to focus efforts aimed at reducing cost uncertainties. Where significant cost and duration uncertainties exist, and where programmatic decisions must be made despite these uncertainties, probabilistic forecasting techniques can yield important insights into decision alternatives, especially when used as part of a larger decision analysis framework and when properly balanced with deterministic analyses. Although the method is built around an interim storage example, it is potentially applicable to many other environmental decision problems

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  4. The costs of avoiding environmental impacts from shale-gas surface infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Gagnolet, Tamara D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Growing energy demand has increased the need to manage conflicts between energy production and the environment. As an example, shale-gas extraction requires substantial surface infrastructure, which fragments habitats, erodes soils, degrades freshwater systems, and displaces rare species. Strategic planning of shale-gas infrastructure can reduce trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, but the specific nature of these trade-offs is not known. We estimated the cost of avoiding impacts from land-use change on forests, wetlands, rare species, and streams from shale-energy development within leaseholds. We created software for optimally siting shale-gas surface infrastructure to minimize its environmental impacts at reasonable construction cost. We visually assessed sites before infrastructure optimization to test whether such inspection could be used to predict whether impacts could be avoided at the site. On average, up to 38% of aggregate environmental impacts of infrastructure could be avoided for 20% greater development costs by spatially optimizing infrastructure. However, we found trade-offs between environmental impacts and costs among sites. In visual inspections, we often distinguished between sites that could be developed to avoid impacts at relatively low cost (29%) and those that could not (20%). Reductions in a metric of aggregate environmental impact could be largely attributed to potential displacement of rare species, sedimentation, and forest fragmentation. Planners and regulators can estimate and use heterogeneous trade-offs among development sites to create industry-wide improvements in environmental performance and do so at reasonable costs by, for example, leveraging low-cost avoidance of impacts at some sites to offset others. This could require substantial effort, but the results and software we provide can facilitate the process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. The calculation of external gamma-ray doses from airborne and deposited radionuclides in the environmental code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    A computer program has been developed for the rapid evaluation of external gamma-ray doses from airborne and deposited radionuclide mixtures. Based on a gaussian dispersion model, the program calculates the dose at any position, including points high above ground level or upwind of the source. Meteorological frequency data for wind speed, direction, atmospheric stability and rainfall are fully taken into account. The calculational model assumes that the ground surface is perfectly flat and that gamma-ray paths are entirely in air; the possible errors caused by these and other assumptions are discussed, with suggested correction factors. The program applies various criteria to determine the best approximation or numerical integration method for each target point; execution times (on an IBM 370 machine) thus vary from less than 0.01s to about 0.3s per target point for a single weather category. The program has been incorporated in the environmental release program NECTAR. (author)

  6. Review comments on Environmental Analysis Cost Reduction Proposals (WIPP-DOE-136), July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-11-01

    The cost reduction proposals have the laudable goal of significantly reducing the total capital And operating cost connected with WIPP. Furthermore, since the proposed changes would reduce the size and operating rate of the project, they would be expected to have decreased environmental And socioeconomic impacts. However, some of these cost reduction proposals do decrease factors of safety in various components of the project or trade off one type of environmental detriment for another. The report does not contain sufficient detail to justify all of the conclusions reached; more discussion and quantitative information (including costs) is necessary in some cases. Also, there are places where the report is unclear or contradictory. Without a more detailed evaluation, EEG is unable to conclude that each of these cost reduction proposals either has a net environmental/health and safety benefit or a cost savings that justifies a net detriment. A revised Environmental Analysis (EA) should either include additional information or specifically reference backup documents where these conclusions have been justified. In addition, the EA needs to be revised to include the effect of the recently announced (11/18/82) decision by DOE to relocate the underground waste storage areas of the repository to the south

  7. MONNIE 2000: A description of a model to calculate environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanemaaijer, A.H.; Kirkx, M.C.A.P.

    2001-02-01

    A new model (MONNIE 2000) was developed by the RIVM in the Netherlands in 2000 to calculate environmental costs on a macro level. The model, it's theoretical backgrounds and the technical aspects are described, making it attractive to both the user and the designer of the model. A user manual on how to calculate with the model is included. The basic principle of the model is the use of a harmonised method for calculating environmental costs, which provides the user with an output that can easily be compared with and used in other economic statistics and macro-economic models in the Netherlands. Input for the model are yearly figures on operational costs, investments and savings from environmental measures. With MONNIE 2000 calculated environmental costs per policy target group, economic sector and theme can be shown, With this model the burden of environmental measures on the economic sectors and the environmental expenditures of the government can be presented as well. MONNIE 2000 is developed in Visual Basic and by using Excel as input and output a user-friendly data exchange is realised. 12 refs

  8. The 'Environmental Manual for Power Development': a tool for GHG mitigation and cost analysis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, Uwe R.; Liptow, Holger

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Manual for Power Development (EM) is a computerised tool to include environmental and cost data into the decision-making for energy projects in developing countries. The EM is sponsored by German BMZ (Ministry for Economic Co-operation and Development), Dutch DGIS (Directorate General for International Co-operation), British DfID (Department for International Development), and the World Bank. The EM was developed by GTZ with scientific support from Oeko-Institut (Institute for applied ecology). The EM tracks down the emissions and costs of e.g. the existing power supply system in a country, region, or of a specific energy project, and compares those to alternative options to deliver the same energy service, e.g. electricity, or process heat, or transport services. To do so, the EM maintains a comprehensive database on environmental and cost impacts of energy technologies, and determines environmental impacts for life-cycles: All impacts from mining, transport, conversion etc. can be accounted for. To consistently handle all life-cycles, the EM database offers a variety of pre-defined fuel-and life-cycles to work with. The Em database covers generic energy technologies in developing countries, especially fossil-fueled electricity and heating systems, cogeneration, renewable energies, selected energy efficiency technologies, nuclear power systems, as well as data for upstream activities like mining, fuel benefication, transport, and emission control technologies like flue-gas desulfurisation, low-NO x burners, etc. The EM analyses and compares airborne and greenhouse gas emissions, solid wastes, and land use, as well as internal and external costs associated with investment and operation of energy technologies, including their life-cycle (upstream fuel-cycles, materials). The Em helps to check the compliance of energy processes with given emission standards - its database offers such standard for various countries and regions, and users can test if

  9. Cost-effectiveness of environmental management for vector control in resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, R

    1991-01-01

    Vector control methods are traditionally divided in chemical, biological and environmental management approaches, and this distinction also reflected in certain financial and economic aspects. This is particularly true for environmental modification, usually engineering or other structural works. It is highly capital intensive, as opposed to chemical and biological control which require recurrent expenditures, and discount rates are therefore a prominent consideration in deciding for one or the other approach. Environmental manipulation requires recurrent action, but can often be carried out with the community participation, which raises the issue of opportunity costs. The incorporation of environmental management in resource projects is generally impeded by economic considerations. The Internal Rate of Return continues to be a crucial criterion for funding agencies and development banks to support new projects; at the same time Governments of debt-riden countries in the Third World will do their best to avoid additional loans on such frills as environmental and health safeguards. Two approaches can be recommended to nevertheless ensure the incorporation of environmental management measures in resource projects in an affordable way. First, there are several examples of cases where environmental management measures either have a dual benefit (increasing both agricultural production and reducing vector-borne disease transmission) or can be implemented at zero costs. Second, the additional costs involved in structural modifications can be separated from the project development costs considered in the calculations of the Internal Rate of Return, and financial support can be sought from bilateral technical cooperation agencies particularly interested in environmental and health issues. There is a dearth of information in the cost-effectiveness of alternative vector control strategies in the developing country context. The process of integrating vector control in the

  10. Quantifying Third-Party Impacts and Environmental Externalities from a Cap-And-Trade System for Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H. F.; Yang, Y. C. E.; Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Economic decision models, such as the cap-and-trade system, have been shown to be useful in the context of groundwater management. A uniformly applied cap-and-trade system can however result in significant spatially and temporally varying hydrogeologic impacts that reduce public welfare. Hydrological challenges associated with the cap-and-trade system for groundwater management include establishing appropriate system boundaries, setting system-wide sustainable yield and limiting third party impacts from extractions. Given these challenges, these economic models need to be supplemented with physically based hydrogeologic models that are able to represent the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in conditions across a region. This investigation assesses third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from a cap-and-trade system in a sub-basin of the Republican River Basin, overlying the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States. The economic model is coupled with a calibrated physically based groundwater model. The cap-and-trade system is developed using a multi-agent system model where individual benefits of each self-interested agent are maximized subject to bounds on irrigation requirements and water use permits. We then compare the performance of the cap-and-trade system with a smart groundwater market which, in addition to a cap on total groundwater extraction, also incorporates streamflow constraints. The results quantify third-party impacts and environmental externalities resulting from uncontrolled trading. This analysis demonstrates the value added by a well-designed cap-and-trade system able to account for basin-wide heterogeneity in hydrogeologic and ecological conditions by establishing trading limits, managing inter-area transfers and setting exchange rates for permit trading.

  11. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement (draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided in the main document, and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided in the Appendices A-D. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report

  12. Who Should Bear the Cost of Convenience? A Cost-effectiveness Analysis Comparing External Beam and Brachytherapy Radiotherapy Techniques for Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffin, M; Merino, T; Keller, B; Pignol, J-P

    2017-03-01

    Standard treatment for early breast cancer includes whole breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Recently, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been proposed for well-selected patients. A cost and cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out comparing WBI with two APBI techniques. An activity-based costing method was used to determine the treatment cost from a societal perspective of WBI, high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) and permanent breast seed implants (PBSI). A Markov model comparing the three techniques was developed with downstream costs, utilities and probabilities adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for a wide range of variables, including treatment costs, patient costs, utilities and probability of developing recurrences. Overall, HDR was the most expensive ($14 400), followed by PBSI ($8700), with WBI proving the least expensive ($6200). The least costly method to the health care system was WBI, whereas PBSI and HDR were less costly for the patient. Under cost-effectiveness analyses, downstream costs added about $10 000 to the total societal cost of the treatment. As the outcomes are very similar between techniques, WBI dominated under cost-effectiveness analyses. WBI was found to be the most cost-effective radiotherapy technique for early breast cancer. However, both APBI techniques were less costly to the patient. Although innovation may increase costs for the health care system it can provide cost savings for the patient in addition to convenience. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  14. Using cost/risk uncertainty spheres to make better environmental restoration decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangraw, R.F.; Cheney, C.S.; Shangraw, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The process of balancing cost expenditures and risk reductions during environmental restoration (ER) activities (and as part of other environmental programs such as waste management and facility transition) is the critical policy decision facing DOE site decisionmakers and associated stakeholders (including regulators). The ground rules for this process are specified formally in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended, the subsequent regulations (e.g., National Contingency Plan) and policies that EPA and State agencies have issued to implement these programs, and (increasingly) interagency agreements and orders. Clearly, as Federal resources to meet environmental commitments become more constrained, cost and risk management tradeoffs will become even more needed and their results pronounced

  15. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  16. Potential external contamination with bisphenol A and other ubiquitous organic environmental chemicals during biomonitoring analysis: an elusive laboratory challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Hennings, Ryan; Kramer, Joshua; Calafat, Antonia M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring studies are conducted to assess internal dose (i.e., body burden) to environmental chemicals. However, because of the ubiquitous presence in the environment of some of these chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA), external contamination during handling and analysis of the biospecimens collected for biomonitoring evaluations could compromise the reported concentrations of such chemicals. We examined the contamination with the target analytes during analysis of biological specimens in biomonitoring laboratories equipped with state-of-the-art analytical instrumentation. We present several case studies using the quantitative determination of BPA and other organic chemicals (i.e., benzophenone-3, triclosan, parabens) in human urine, milk, and serum to identify potential contamination sources when the biomarkers measured are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Contamination with target analytes during biomonitoring analysis could result from solvents and reagents, the experimental apparatus used, the laboratory environment, and/or even the analyst. For biomonotoring data to be valid-even when obtained from high-quality analytical methods and good laboratory practices-the following practices must be followed to identify and track unintended contamination with the target analytes during analysis of the biological specimens: strict quality control measures including use of laboratory blanks; replicate analyses; engineering controls (e.g., clean rooms, biosafety cabinets) as needed; and homogeneous matrix-based quality control materials within the expected concentration ranges of the study samples.

  17. The process of life-cycle cost analysis on the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.Y.; Jacoboski, J.A.; Fisher, L.A.; Beirne, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Estimating Services Department of the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) is formalizing the process of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) for the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The LCCA process is based on the concepts, principles, and guidelines described by applicable Department of Energy's (DOE) orders, pertinent published literature, and the National Bureau of Standards handbook 135. LCC analyses will be performed following a ten-step process on the FEMP at the earliest possible decision point to support the selection of the least-cost alternatives for achieving the FERMCO mission

  18. Multi objective optimization model for minimizing production cost and environmental impact in CNC turning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiarso, Wahyu; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing production cost in a manufacturing company will increase the profit of the company. The cutting parameters will affect total processing time which then will affect the production cost of machining process. Besides affecting the production cost and processing time, the cutting parameters will also affect the environment. An optimization model is needed to determine the optimum cutting parameters. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact in CNC turning process. The model is used a multi objective optimization. Cutting speed and feed rate are served as the decision variables. Constraints considered are cutting speed, feed rate, cutting force, output power, and surface roughness. The environmental impact is converted from the environmental burden by using eco-indicator 99. Numerical example is given to show the implementation of the model and solved using OptQuest of Oracle Crystal Ball software. The results of optimization indicate that the model can be used to optimize the cutting parameters to minimize the production cost and the environmental impact.

  19. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  20. Impact of environmental cost on economics of thermal power plant. Paper no. IGEC-1-007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, H.; Kaushik, S.C.; Chandra, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cost analysis per unit of power generation have been performed for coal based thermal power plant situated in Dadri (UP) for Indian and imported coal from Australia and America. In our study it has been found that it is better to use imported coal in Indian thermal power plants with advantages like low environmental, investment and total cost per unit of power generation. The effect of percent excess air and plant load factor on total cost per unit of power generation is also analyzed. (author)

  1. A multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Pacino, Dario; Kontovas, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a multiple ship routing and speed optimization problem under time, cost and environmental objectives. A branch and price algorithm as well as a constraint programming model are developed that consider (a) fuel consumption as a function of payload, (b......) fuel price as an explicit input, (c) freight rate as an input, and (d) in-transit cargo inventory costs. The alternative objective functions are minimum total trip duration, minimum total cost and minimum emissions. Computational experience with the algorithm is reported on a variety of scenarios....

  2. Environmental dependency in the expression of costs of tolerance to deer herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R

    2002-05-01

    Plant tolerance to natural enemy damage is a defense strategy that minimizes the effects of damage on fitness. Despite the apparent benefits of tolerance, many populations exhibit intermediate levels of tolerance, indicating that constraints on the evolution of tolerance are likely. In a field experiment with the ivyleaf morning glory, costs of tolerance to deer herbivory in the form of negative genetic correlations between deer tolerance and fitness in the absence of damage were detected. However, these costs were detected only in the presence of insect herbivores. Such environmental dependency in the expression of costs of tolerance may facilitate the maintenance of tolerance at intermediate levels.

  3. A cost effective method for the determination of 210Po and 210Pb in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.F.; Bradley, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of the methods for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials were developed in the 1960s. However, with the advances in technology since that time, particularly in the areas of ion-exchange chromatography and instrumentation, new methods may be more appropriate to measure these radionuclides in environmental media such as foodstuffs. A review was conducted of potentially suitable methods. Four methods were selected for detailed evaluation on the basis of cost and sensitivity. A cheap, sensitive and simple method is recommended for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials

  4. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  5. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect neurotoxic impacts via topsoil ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The link between anthropogenic emissions and the monetary value of their impacts, so-called external cost, can be determined via the impact pathway approach. This method is used in the present study to calculate the indirect costs, via topsoil ingestion, of lead emitted into atmosphere from a waste......-to-energy facility in Denmark. The Operational Meteorological air-quality model, the Simplified Fate and Speciation Model, and the Age Dependent Biokinetic Model are used to determine the metals’ atmospheric transport, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and its bio-accumulation in the human body...

  6. Analysis of Environmental Costs of Mobility due to Urban Sprawl - A Modelling Study on Italian Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travisi, Chiara M.; Camagni, Roberto; Nijkamp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A sound empirical and quantitative analysis on the relationship between different patterns of urban expansion and the environmental or social costs of mobility is rare, and the few studies available provide at best a qualitative discussion of these issues. Some recent tentative studies on the

  7. Trade off between costs and environmental effects of weed control on pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Horst, van der C.L.M.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Leemans, K.J.M.; Bannink, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    An actor-participative project on sustainable weed control on pavements was started in 2000 in the Netherlands. The aim of the project was to develop a new concept of weed management that provides cost-effective and environmentally sound weed control. Early in 2002, practical guidelines were drawn

  8. The environmental cost in the mining projects; El costo ambiental en los proyectos mineros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gaviria Rivera

    1992-07-01

    To evaluate and calculate the mining project, Environmental costs, besides the proper variables concerning the project. It is necessary to incorporate the distinct interrelations among the mining operation with the local and regional biophysics and. socio-economic environments existing in the project's area of influence.

  9. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  10. The effect of alternative cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies on radioactive waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.; Dalrymple, G.J.

    1985-06-01

    The study reported here investigates the effects of different cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies for a single waste disposal scenario. Four disposal options are considered. The study examines the environmental impacts from waste storage and transport and the disposal impacts in terms of collective dose, maximum individual dose and individual dose from intrusion. The total cost of disposing of waste takes account of storage, transport and disposal costs to each of the four facilities. Two minimum cost scenarios and seven minimum impact assessments were performed. The results showed clearly that a trade-off has to be made between the environmental impacts from transport and storage of waste. A low objective risk of transport is achieved by directing waste to the engineered trench, assumed to have a central location. This waste is stored until the facility is available in 1995 thus increasing the potential impact from storage. The results also show a trade-off has to be made between minimising the maximum individual dose from disposal and collective dose. The study shows that for relatively little cost large reductions in the impacts can be obtained particularly in short and long-term collective dose and the individual dose from intrusion. (author)

  11. A general theory to explain the relatively high cost of environmental restoration at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration costs for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have been the subject of much scrutiny and concern for several years. General opinion is that DOE clean-up costs are as much as three times higher than costs for similar clean-up projects in the private sector. Consequently, DOE Environmental Restoration professionals are continually under pressure to do more with less, which, ironically, can lead to additional inefficiencies in the system. This paper proposes a general theory as to why DOE costs are higher, explains the reasons why current conditions will make it difficult to realize any pervasive or significant decreases in clean-up costs, and presents some general changes that need to take place in the DOE system in order to bring about conditions that will allow more efficient clean-up to occur. The theory is based on a simple economic model that describes the balance between the resources spent for risk avoidance and the corresponding changes in overall productivity as a function of risk. The elementary concepts illustrated with the economic model, when refined and specifically applied, have the potential to become the catalyst for significant change-change that is absolutely necessary if we truly intend to conduct environmental clean-up with the same efficiencies as private industry

  12. Advertising energy saving programs: The potential environmental cost of emphasizing monetary savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Lave, Lester

    2015-06-01

    Many consumers have monetary or environmental motivations for saving energy. Indeed, saving energy produces both monetary benefits, by reducing energy bills, and environmental benefits, by reducing carbon footprints. We examined how consumers' willingness and reasons to enroll in energy-savings programs are affected by whether advertisements emphasize monetary benefits, environmental benefits, or both. From a normative perspective, having 2 noteworthy kinds of benefit should not decrease a program's attractiveness. In contrast, psychological research suggests that adding external incentives to an intrinsically motivating task may backfire. To date, however, it remains unclear whether this is the case when both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are inherent to the task, as with energy savings, and whether removing explicit mention of extrinsic motivation will reduce its importance. We found that emphasizing a program's monetary benefits reduced participants' willingness to enroll. In addition, participants' explanations about enrollment revealed less attention to environmental concerns when programs emphasized monetary savings, even when environmental savings were also emphasized. We found equal attention to monetary motivations in all conditions, revealing an asymmetric attention to monetary and environmental motives. These results also provide practical guidance regarding the positioning of energy-saving programs: emphasize intrinsic benefits; the extrinsic ones may speak for themselves. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A cost benefit review of applying quality assurance principles to project management of environmental cleanup programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper shows the cost/benefit mechanism used for applying the theory and practical aspects of QA principles as a management tool to project management of environmental cleanup projects. This includes reviewing and guidelines and requirements to determine the practical aspects of applying these requirements to environmental project management. Thus, there is a feedback loop for comparison of the cost/benefits of application of each stage of the project. The project's major stages include planning, environmental sampling, analysis of data samples, data/information management to include reporting, and follow- up, post-cleanup sampling with continued data management. A comparison is also made of the theory with the practical aspects of each of these stages

  14. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, J; Tozan, Y; Singer, B H

    2001-09-01

    Roll back malaria (RBM) aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and cost-effective control strategies. But the evidence base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is the discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified multiple malaria control programmes that incorporated environmental management as the central feature. Prominent among them are programmes launched in 1929 and implemented for two decades at copper mining communities in Zambia. The full package of control measures consisted of vegetation clearance, modification of river boundaries, draining swamps, oil application to open water bodies and house screening. Part of the population also was given quinine and was sleeping under mosquito nets. Monthly malaria incidence rates and vector densities were used for surveillance and adaptive tuning of the environmental management strategies to achieve a high level of performance. Within 3-5 years, malaria-related mortality, morbidity and incidence rates were reduced by 70-95%. Over the entire 20 years of implementation, the programme had averted an estimated 4173 deaths and 161,205 malaria attacks. The estimated costs per death and malaria attack averted were US$ 858 and US$ 22.20, respectively. Over the initial 3-5 years start-up period, analogous to the short-duration of cost-effectiveness analyses of current studies, we estimated that the costs per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted were US$ 524-591. However, the strategy has a track record of becoming cost-effective in the longer term, as maintenance costs were much lower: US$ 22-92 per DALY averted. In view of fewer adverse ecological effects, increased sustainability and better uses of local resources and knowledge, environmental management--integrated with pharmacological, insecticidal and bednet interventions

  15. Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Caroline; Boucher, Olivier; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dewailly, Eric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Québec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored. Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview. After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants. This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploratory benefit-cost analysis of environmental controls on hydrothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; King, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    A study of the value of environmental benefits generated by environmental regulation of hydrothermal sites was initiated to compare these benefits with the estimated costs of regulation. Primary objectives were to 1) evaluate the environmental damages caused by unregulated hydrothermal resource development, 2) use existing environmental and economic data to estimate the dollar value of preventing expected environmental damages at two sites, and 3) compare the benefits and costs of preventing the damages. The sites chosen for analyses were in the Imperial Valley at Heber and Niland, California. Reasons for this choice were 1) there is a high level of commercial interest in developing the Heber known geothermal resource area (KGRA) and the Salton Sea KGRA; 2) the potential for environmental damage is high; 3) existing data bases for these two sites are more comprehensive than at other sites. The primary impacts analyzed were those related to hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions and those related to disposal of spent hydrothermal brine. (MHR)

  17. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  18. Documenting cost and performance for environmental remediation projects: Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-08

    The purpose of this DOE guide is to facilitate the use of consistent procedures to document cost and performance information for projects involving the remediation of media contaminated with hazardous and radioactive wastes. It provides remedial action project managers with a standardized set of data to document completed remediation projects. Standardized reporting of data will broaden the utility of the information, increase confidence in the effectiveness of future remedial technologies, and enhance the organization, storage and retrieval of relevant information for future cleanup projects. The foundation for this guide was laid down by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR) in their publication, Guide to Documenting Cost and Performance for Remediation Projects, EPA-542-B- 95-002. Member agencies of the FRTR include the US EPA, the US DOD, the US DOE, and the US DOI. All the member agencies are involved in site remediation projects and anticipate following the guidance provided in the above reference. Therefore, there is much to be gained for DOE to be consistent with the other member agencies as it will be easier to compare projects across different agencies and also to learn from the experiences of a wider spectrum of prior completed projects.

  19. Overweight and Obesity Among Chinese College Students: An Exploration of Gender as Related to External Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuhan; Peng, Sihui; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R; Li, Lu

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have examined factors associated with overweight and obesity among college students, no study has yet compared gender differences influencing overweight and obesity using a multilevel framework. The present study examines different influences on overweight and obesity between men and women at both individual and environmental levels. Participants were 11,673 college students identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 Chinese universities. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.5% (95% CI [7.7, 11.3]) in the overall study sample, 13.9% (95% CI [11.5, 16.7]) in males and 6.1% (95% CI [4.1, 8.1]) in females, respectively. We found that higher family income, perceived life stress, home region GDP, and university city unemployment were associated with higher overweight and obesity levels in males, independent of other individual- and city-level covariates. However, unlike male students, only unemployment was associated with overweight and obesity among females. Our research indicates Chinese males are more susceptible to overweight and obesity, and are more easily influenced by external variants than Chinese females. This information should be considered in formulating gender-specific policies and designing and implementing effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young adult male college students.

  20. A cost/schedule and control system for the environmental restoration program Albuquerque Field Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiske, Wanda S.; Bischoff, Edward L.; Rea, Kenneth H.; Dwain Farley, P.; Biedermann, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Office Albuquerque (AL), Environmental Restoration Project Office (ERPO), has developed a project management system used to plan, document, and control Environmental Restoration (ER) work at eight installations and one superfund site managed by AL. This system emphasizes control of the cost, schedule, and technical elements of the Program. It supports programmatic documentation such as the Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Five-Year Plan, Site Specific Plan, and budget requests. The System provides information used to manage the ER Program at all levels of management (i.e., from low-level day-to-day activities to high-level upper management). The System requires substantial effort to ensure reliability; however, the benefit to ERPO is an effective, proactive project management tool. This paper provides an overview of the ERPO System, an explanation of how it is implemented, and lessons learned from this process. Application of the System to cost estimating, annual and five-year budget preparation, resource projections, scheduling, and cost/schedule performance measurement is discussed. Also discussed are cost/schedule review procedures, along with variance identification and resolution. Examples are taken from the Pinellas ER Program. (author)

  1. Cost analysis and ecological benefits of environmental recovery methodologies in bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Costa Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed and compared three methods of environmental recovery in bauxite mining commonly used in Poços de Caldas Plateau, MG, by means of recovery costs and ecological benefits. Earnings and costs data of environmental recovery activities were obtained for the areas that belonged to the Companhia Geral de Minas – CGM, on properties sited in the city of Poços de Caldas, MG. The amount of costs of these activities was used to compare the recovery methods by updating them monetarily to a reference date, in other words, the present moment. It is concluded that the difference between the present value of costs for simple restoration and rehabilitation activities are less than 1% and that between the complete restoration and rehabilitation is about 15.12%, suggesting that the choice of the methods to be used must be based on the ecological earnings proportional to each of them. The methodology of environmental restoration of the mining areas emphasizes the ecological variables in the process of establishment of the community, to the detriment of complex ecological aspects, which show difficulties in measuring the actual moment of the development of the ecosystem considered.

  2. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaiane; Menzel, Francine

    2013-01-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  3. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of photovoltaic solar energy for the Brazilian Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Sabundjian, Gaianes; Menzel, Francine, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The availability of energy resources is a central point to economic development. The energy matrix of most countries is based on the consumption of fossil fuels, which adds annually over 5 billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere. The energy consumption in developing countries has quadrupled since the 60s further aggravating global environmental conditions. The need to implement alternative energy sources to the energy matrix was proved. In addition, Brazil has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of these populations. In this context, it is necessary to think in economic development way, and then the sustainable and alternative sources appear as an option for its features and its availability in Brazil. The solar energy captured by photovoltaic cells can be highlighted in the Brazilian scenario because of its wide availability, especially in the Northeast. The aim of this paper is to estimate the economic feasibility of insertion of solar systems in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast, considering environmental costs involved in electricity generation. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic valuation of environmental resources. The results shows that solar power is becoming increasingly competitive due to reduced costs of components and due to the environmental costs reduced when compared with fossil fuels. (author)

  4. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  5. The real cost of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Valdalbero, Domenico Rossetti

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out in recent years to assess the external costs (externalities) of energy, among them the European Commission's ExternE research project. An external cost occurs when the social or economic activities of one group of people have an impact on another group but that impact is not fully accounted for or compensated for by the first group. For example, a power station that generates emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases imposes an external cost if these emissions cause damage to human health (fatal or non-fatal), contribute to global warming, or have adverse effects on crops and building materials. ExternE, which was carried out during the 1990s, is the most exhaustive study to date on the evaluation of the external costs associated with the production and consumption of energy and with energy-related activities. Despite the uncertainties associated with setting a value on external costs, the ExternE project has been successful in several ways and these are summarised together with the ways in which external costs to the environment and health can be taken into account or 'internalised'. One possibility is the imposition of eco-taxes. Another option would be to encourage or subsidise cleaner technologies, thereby avoiding socio-environmental costs. Renewable energy technologies, for example, have limited external costs. The results of ExternE have already been used as a basis for European Commission guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. The project's findings are also being used to support the Council of the European Union in formulating proposals for a Directive on the limits to be set for sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, particulates and lead in the atmosphere. In 2000, under the EU's Fifth Research and Technological Development Framework programme, a follow-up project was initiated. The purpose of NewExt (New Elements for the Assessment of External Costs from Energy Technologies) is to refine the methodology

  6. The environmental cost of a reference withdrawal from surface waters: Definition and geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligno, Irene; Ridolfi, Luca; Laio, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    World freshwater ecosystems are significantly deteriorating at a faster rate than other ecosystems. Water withdrawals are recognized as one of the main drivers of growing water stress in river basins worldwide. Over the years, much effort has been devoted to quantify water withdrawals at a global scale; however, comparisons are not simple because the uneven spatiotemporal distribution of surface water resources entails that the same amount of consumed water does not have the same environmental cost in different times or places. In order to account for this spatiotemporal heterogeneity, this work proposes a novel index to assess the environmental cost of a withdrawal from a generic river section. The index depends on (i) the environmental relevance of the impacted fluvial ecosystem (e.g., bed-load transport capacity, width of the riparian belt, biodiversity richness) and (ii) the downstream river network affected by the water withdrawal. The environmental cost has been estimated in each and every river section worldwide considering a reference withdrawal. Being referred to a unitary reference withdrawal that can occur in any river section worldwide, our results can be suitably arranged for describing any scenario of surface water consumption (i.e., as the superposition of the actual pattern of withdrawals). The index aims to support the interpretation of the volumetric measure of surface water withdrawal with a perspective that takes into account the fluvial system where the withdrawal actually occurs. The application of the index highlights the river regions where withdrawals can cause higher environmental costs, with the challenge of weighting each water withdrawal considering the responsibilities that it has on downstream freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Renewable Energies and CO2 Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends- 2012 Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Providing up-to-date numerical data across a range of topics related to renewable energy technologies, Renewable Energies and CO2 offers a one-stop source of key information to engineers, economists and all other professionals working in the energy and climate change sectors. The most relevant up-to-date numerical data are exposed in 201 tables and graphs, integrated in terms of units and methodology, and covering topics such as energy system capacities and lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, external costs, patents and literature statistics. The data are first presented and then analyzed to project potential future grid, heat and fuel parity scenarios, as well as future technology tendencies in different energy technological areas. Innovative highlights and descriptions of preproduction energy systems and components from the past four years have been gathered from selected journals and international energy departments from G20 countries. As the field develops, readers are in...

  8. Financial and environmental costs of manual versus automated control of end-tidal gas concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S; Weinberg, L; Peyton, P; Story, D; Briedis, J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies that reduce the economic and environmental costs of anaesthesia have had limited assessment. We hypothesised that automated control of end-tidal gases, a new feature in anaesthesia machines, will consistently reduce volatile agent consumption cost and greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the planned replacement of anaesthesia machines in a tertiary hospital, we performed a prospective before and after study comparing the cost and greenhouse gas emissions of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane when using manual versus automated control of end-tidal gases. We analysed 3675 general anaesthesia cases with inhalational agents: 1865 using manual control and 1810 using automated control. Volatile agent cost was $18.87/hour using manual control and $13.82/hour using automated control: mean decrease $5.05/hour (95% confidence interval: $0.88-9.22/hour, P=0.0243). The 100-year global warming potential decreased from 23.2 kg/hour of carbon dioxide equivalents to 13.0 kg/hour: mean decrease 10.2 kg/hour (95% confidence interval: 2.7-17.7 kg/hour, P=0.0179). Automated control reduced costs by 27%. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased by 44%, a greater than expected decrease facilitated by a proportional reduction in desflurane use. Automated control of end-tidal gases increases participation in low flow anaesthesia with economic and environmental benefits.

  9. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  10. Economic evaluation of technical, environmental and institutional barriers on biomass residue collection cost in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Tiangco, V.; Dee, V.; Simons, G.; Lee, Y.; Yomogida, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the economic impacts of the technical, environmental, and institutional barriers in the production, harvesting, and processing of various biomass fuels in California. For each biomass fuel, a base case scenario was developed to characterize the procedures of harvesting, processing and transporting. An economic model was utilized to project the biomass production costs supplied to direct-combustion power plants for each technical, environmental, and institutional barrier. These results will enable the California Energy Commission to identify the most significant barriers to economical biomass energy production (production, harvesting, and processing). (author)

  11. Investigating the environmental costs of deteriorating road conditions in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the Environmental Costs of Deteriorating Road Conditions in South Africa L Mashoko, W L Bean*, W JvdM STEYN* CSIR, Built Environment, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 Tel: 012 841-4466; Email: lmashoko@csir.co.za *University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield..., Pretoria, 0002 Email: wilna.bean@up.ac.za and wynand.steyn@up.ac.za Corresponding Author: L Mashoko ABSTRACT The potential environmental impacts of deteriorating road conditions on logistics systems and the national economy have not received...

  12. The costs of the environmental administration in the planning of the electric sector in Colombia - methodological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado Montano, Jose Lino

    2001-01-01

    The environmental costs came forth in the planning of the Colombian electrical sector by earl