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Sample records for external applied field

  1. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); University of Florida, Department of Physics, Gainesville, FL (United States); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Shabad, A.E. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to the simple example of a spherically symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space; the pattern of the lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic response to applied electrostatic field in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

    2014-01-01

    We show, within QED and other possible nonlinear theories, that a static charge localized in a finite domain of space becomes a magnetic dipole, if it is placed in an external (constant and homogeneous) magnetic field in the vacuum. The magnetic moment is quadratic in the charge, depends on its size and is parallel to the external field, provided the charge distribution is at least cylindrically symmetric. This magneto-electric effect is a nonlinear response of the magnetized vacuum to an applied electrostatic field. Referring to a simple example of a spherically-symmetric applied field, the nonlinearly induced current and its magnetic field are found explicitly throughout the space, the pattern of lines of force is depicted, both inside and outside the charge, which resembles that of a standard solenoid of classical magnetostatics.

  3. Theoretical study on coupling effects of modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings with an external applied field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Baohong; ZHOU Zhongxiang; HOU Chunfeng; SUN Xiudong

    2001-01-01

    We used the perturbation expanding method to the hopping model and studied coupling effects of the modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings stored in one point with an external applied DC electric field . It has been found that the modulation depth of one of the two gratings seriously affects the spatial-charge field of the other grating.

  4. Tunable Lamb wave band gaps in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changjiang; Sai, Yi; Chen, Jiujiu

    2016-09-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the band gaps of Lamb mode waves in two-dimensional magnetoelastic phononic crystal slabs by an applied external magnetostatic field. With the assumption of uniformly oriented magnetization, an equivalent piezomagnetic material model is used. The effects of magnetostatic field on phononic crystals are considered carefully in this model. The numerical results indicate that the width of the first band gap is significantly changed by applying the external magnetic field with different amplitude, and the ratio between the maximum and minimum gap widths reaches 228%. Further calculations demonstrate that the orientation of the magnetic field obviously affects the width and location of the first band gap. The contactless tunability of the proposed phononic crystal slabs shows many potential applications of vibration isolation in engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flow between caoxial rotating disks: with and without externally applied magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Bhatnagar

    1981-01-01

    when such a fluid is confined between two infinite rotating coaxial disks. The governing system of a pair of non-linear ordinary differential equation is solved by treating Reynolds number to small. The three cases discussed are: (I one disks is held at rest while other rotates with a constant angular velocity, (ii one disk rorates faster than the other but in the same sense and (iii the disks rotate in opposite senses and with different angular velocities. The radial, tranverse and axial components of the velocity field are plotted for the above three cases for different values of the Reynolds number. The results obtained for a viscoelastic fluid are compared with those for a Newtonian fluid. The velocity field for case (i is also computed when a magnetic field is applied in a direction perpendicular to the discs and the results are compared with the case when magnetic field is absent. Some interesting features are observed for a viscoelastic fluid.

  6. High sensitivity microwave detection using a magnetic tunnel junction in the absence of an external applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Y. S.; Bai, L. H.; Hu, C.-M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Xiao, Y.; Guo, H. [Department of Physics, Center for the Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hemour, S.; Zhao, Y. P.; Wu, K. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Houssameddine, D. [Everspin Technologies, 1347 N. Alma School Road, Chandler, Arizona 85224 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    In the absence of any external applied magnetic field, we have found that a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) can produce a significant output direct voltage under microwave radiation at frequencies, which are far from the ferromagnetic resonance condition, and this voltage signal can be increase by at least an order of magnitude by applying a direct current bias. The enhancement of the microwave detection can be explained by the nonlinear resistance/conductance of the MTJs. Our estimation suggests that optimized MTJs should achieve sensitivities for non-resonant broadband microwave detection of about 5000 mV/mW.

  7. Molecular dynamics study of response of liquid N,N-dimethylformamide to externally applied electric field using a polarizable force field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weimin; Niu, Haitao; Lin, Tong; Wang, Xungai; Kong, Lingxue [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2014-01-28

    The behavior of Liquid N,N-dimethylformamide subjected to a wide range of externally applied electric fields (from 0.001 V/nm to 1 V/nm) has been investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. To approach the objective the AMOEBA polarizable force field was extended to include the interaction of the external electric field with atomic partial charges and the contribution to the atomic polarization. The simulation results were evaluated with quantum mechanical calculations. The results from the present force field for the liquid at normal conditions were compared with the experimental and molecular dynamics results with non-polarizable and other polarizable force fields. The uniform external electric fields of higher than 0.01 V/nm have a significant effect on the structure of the liquid, which exhibits a variation in numerous properties, including molecular polarization, local cluster structure, rotation, alignment, energetics, and bulk thermodynamic and structural properties.

  8. Effect of external applied steady magnetic field on the morphology of laser welding joint of 4-mm 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Junjie; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    Additional external steady magnetic fields were applied to investigate the influence of a steady magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the welding direction during laser beam welding of 2024 aluminum alloy. The flow pattern in the molten pool and the weld seam geometry were significantly changed by the induced Lorentz force distribution in the liquid metal. It revealed that the application of a steady magnetic field to laser beam welding was helpful to the suppression of the characteristic wineglass-shape and the depth-to-width ratio because of the Marangoni convection. The microstructures and component distributions at various laser power and magnetic field intensity were analyzed too. It was indicated that the suppression of the Marangoni convection by Lorentz force was beneficial to accumulation of component and grain coarsening near the fusion line.

  9. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H M; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN-PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0-18 kV cm(-1) was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis.

  10. A rapid two-dimensional data collection system for the study of ferroelectric materials under external applied electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergentev, Tikhon; Bronwald, Iurii; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Gorfman, Semen; Ryding, Stephanie H. M.; Thompson, Paul; Cernik, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Synchrotron X-rays on the Swiss Norwegian Beamline and BM28 (XMaS) at the ESRF have been used to record the diffraction response of the PMN–PT relaxor piezoelectric 67% Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–33% PbTiO3 as a function of externally applied electric field. A DC field in the range 0–18 kV cm−1 was applied along the [001] pseudo-cubic direction using a specially designed sample cell for in situ single-crystal diffraction experiments. The cell allowed data to be collected on a Pilatus 2M area detector in a large volume of reciprocal space using transmission geometry. The data showed good agreement with a twinned single-phase monoclinic structure model. The results from the area detector were compared with previous Bragg peak mapping using variable electric fields and a single detector where the structural model was ambiguous. The coverage of a significantly larger section of reciprocal space facilitated by the area detector allowed precise phase analysis. PMID:27738414

  11. Improvement in refractive-index change in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu by applying an external electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Cui-Xia; Liu Li-Ren; Liu De-An; Zhou Yu; Chai Zhi-Fang; Luan Zhu

    2005-01-01

    By jointly solving two-centre material equations with a nonzero external electric field and coupled-wave equations,we have numerically studied the dependence of the non-volatile holographic recording in LiNbO3:Ce:Cu crystals on the external electric field. The dominative photovoltaic effect of the non-volatile holographic recording in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals is directly verified. And an external electric field that is applied in the positive direction along the c-axis (or a large one in the negative direction of the c-axis) in the recording phase and another one that is applied in the negative direction of the c-axis in the fixing phase are both proved to benefit strong photorefractive performances.Experimental verifications are given with a small electric field applied externally.

  12. Effect of Externally Applied Perturbation Fields on Alfvénic MHD Activity in the NSTX Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Observations from NSTX demonstrate that externally applied magnetic perturbations (MP) can alter the dynamic of beam driven Alfvén modes. Bursting Global Alfvén Eigenmodes (GAE, n = 7-9, 400-700 kHz) respond to pulses of static n = 3 fields (δB/B ~ 0.01 at the plasma edge) reducing mode amplitude, bursting period and frequency sweep by a factor of 2-3 [Bortolon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 265008 (2013)]. Similar MP attenuate the amplitude of continuous Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE, n = 2-3, 50-90 kHz). Calculations of the perturbed beam-ion distribution function, considering MP from ideal or resistive plasma response, confirm an enhanced fast-ion transport consistent with a reduced drive for the GAE. At the same time, MP can also affect the Alfvén stability by altering the structure of Alfvén continua through modification of the kinetic profiles or introducing toroidal coupling as result of the broken axisymmetry. Computations of the n = 2 Alfvén continuum for NSTX equilibria with n = 3 MP show strong modification of the TAE continuum near the plasma edge, where coupling between n = 2 and n = 5 continuum modes reduces the gap, providing an additional damping for TAE modes extending in this region. DOE Contracts No. DE-FG02-06ER54867, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. A Direct Approach to Determine the External Disturbing Gravity Field by Applying Green Integral with the Ground Boundary Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Jialei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By using the ground as the boundary, Molodensky problem usually gets the solution in form of series. Higher order terms reflect the correction between a smooth surface and the ground boundary. Application difficulties arise from not only computational complexity and stability maintenance, but also data-intensiveness. Therefore, in this paper, starting from the application of external gravity disturbance, Green formula is used on digital terrain surface. In the case of ignoring the influence of horizontal component of the integral, the expression formula of external disturbance potential determined by boundary value consisted of ground gravity anomalies and height anomaly difference are obtained, whose kernel function is reciprocal of distance and Poisson core respectively. With this method, there is no need of continuation of ground data. And kernel function is concise, and suitable for the stochastic computation of external disturbing gravity field.

  14. Theoretical analysis of multiple quantum-well, slow-light devices under applied external fields using a fully analytical model in fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohandani, R; Kaatuzian, H [Photonics Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-31

    We report a theoretical study of optical properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-well (MQW), slow-light devices based on excitonic population oscillations under applied external magnetic and electric fields using an analytical model for complex dielectric constant of Wannier excitons in fractional dimension. The results are shown for quantum wells (QWs) of different width. The significant characteristics of the exciton in QWs such as exciton energy and exciton oscillator strength (EOS) can be varied by application of external magnetic and electric fields. It is found that a higher bandwidth and an appropriate slow-down factor (SDF) can be achieved by changing the QW width during the fabrication process and by applying magnetic and electric fields during device functioning, respectively. It is shown that a SDF of 10{sup 5} is obtained at best. (slowing of light)

  15. Exciton spectra in GaAs/Ga1-xAlxAs quantum wells in an externally applied electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bangfen

    1988-12-01

    A theory on the exciton spectra in quantum wells in the presence of an external electric field is presented. The theory emphasizes the usually ignored aspect, namely, that the different exciton spinor components correspond to different in-plane angular momenta and only a single spinor component contributes to the optical transition, which in conjunction with the hybridization of the heavy and light holes will affect the exciton binding energies and oscillator strengths drastically. Numerical calculations based on the theory explain the contradictory behavior of the h12a peak observed by Collins et al., which is actually the 2p state of the light-hole-conduction-band (LH1-CB1) exciton.

  16. Impurity ion flow and temperature measured in a detached divertor with externally applied non-axisymmetric fields on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesemeister, A.R., E-mail: briesemeister@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Isler, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ahn, J.-W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A.; Hillis, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are shown to have little effect on the impurity ion flow velocity and temperature as measured by the multichord divertor spectrometer in the DIII-D divertor for both attached and detached conditions. These experiments were performed in H-mode plasmas with the grad-B drift toward the target plates, with and without n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). The flow velocity in the divertor is shown to change by as much as 30% when deuterium gas puffing is used to create detachment of the divertor plasma. No measurable changes in the C III flow were observed in response to the RMP fields for the conditions used in this work. Images of the C III emission are used along with divertor Thomson scattering to show that the local electron and C III temperatures are equilibrated for the conditions shown.

  17. Most effective way to improve the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated BN sheets: applying external biaxial strain and an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-15

    Density functional calculations were used to investigate the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-atoms-decorated BN sheets under both external biaxial strain and a vertical electric field. The Na atom generally has the weakest binding strength to a given substrate compared with the other elements in the periodic table [PANS, 2016, 113, 3735]. Consequently, it is understudied in comparison to other elements and there are few reports about the hydrogen storage abilities of Na-decorated nanomaterials. We calculated that the average binding energy (Eb) of Na atoms to the pure BN sheet is 1.08 eV, which is smaller than the cohesive energy of bulk Na (1.11 eV). However, the Eb can be increased to 1.15 eV under 15% biaxial strain, and further up to 1.53 eV with the control of both 15% biaxial strain and a 5.14 V nm(-1) electric field (E-field). Therefore, the application of biaxial strain and an external upward E-field can prevent clustering of the Na atoms on the surface of a BN sheet, which is crucial for the hydrogen storage. Each Na atom on the surface of a BN sheet can adsorb only one H2 molecule when no strain or E-field is applied; however, the absorption increases to five H2 molecules under 15% biaxial strain and six H2 molecules under both 15% biaxial strain combined with a 5.14 V nm(-1)E-field. The average adsorption energies for H2 of BN-(Na-mH2) (m = 1-6) are within the range of practical applications (0.2-0.6 eV). The hydrogen gravimetric density of the periodic BN-(Na-6H2)4 structure is 9 wt%, which exceeds the 5.5 wt% value that should be met by 2017 as specified by the US Department of Energy. On the other side, removal of the biaxial strain and E-field can help to desorb the H2 molecule. These findings suggest a new route to design hydrogen storage materials under near-ambient conditions.

  18. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  19. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  20. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  1. Experimental and theoretical analyses of penetration processes of externally applied rotating helical magnetic perturbation fields in TEXTOR and HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Bock, M F M de [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, EURATOM Association, Postbus 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein, The (Netherlands); Finken, K H [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Jakubowski, M [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Jaspers, R [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, EURATOM Association, Postbus 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein, The (Netherlands); Koslowski, H R [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Lehnen, M [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Liang, Y [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Loewenbrueck, K [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Matsunaga, G [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 311-0193 (Japan); Reiser, D [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Samm, U [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany); Sewell, G [Mathematics Department Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); Takamura, S [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 464-8603 Nagoya (Japan); Unterberg, B; Wolf, R C; Zimmermann, O [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Penetration processes of rotating helical magnetic perturbation field into tokamak plasmas have been investigated by the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) in TEXTOR. Experimental observations of the field penetration and field amplification are performed and the data are interpreted by theoretical analyses based on a linearized two-fluid plasma model. It is observed that the growth of the forced magnetic reconnection by the rotating DED-field is accompanied by a change in the plasma fluid rotation. The theoretical model is also applied to the DED experiment in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. It is confirmed that the theoretical analyses can explain the observed radial profiles of the DED-field in the plasma by inserting small magnetic pick-up coils in HYBTOK-II.

  2. Externally applied electric fields up to 1.6 × 10(5) V/m do not affect the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Tang, Sindy K Y; Bishop, Kyle J M; Whitesides, George M

    2011-02-10

    The freezing of water can initiate at electrically conducting electrodes kept at a high electric potential or at charged electrically insulating surfaces. The microscopic mechanisms of these phenomena are unknown, but they must involve interactions between water molecules and electric fields. This paper investigates the effect of uniform electric fields on the homogeneous nucleation of ice in supercooled water. Electric fields were applied across drops of water immersed in a perfluorinated liquid using a parallel-plate capacitor; the drops traveled in a microchannel and were supercooled until they froze due to the homogeneous nucleation of ice. The distribution of freezing temperatures of drops depended on the rate of nucleation of ice, and the sensitivity of measurements allowed detection of changes by a factor of 1.5 in the rate of nucleation. Sinusoidal alternation of the electric field at frequencies from 3 to 100 kHz prevented free ions present in water from screening the electric field in the bulk of drops. Uniform electric fields in water with amplitudes up to (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10(5) V/m neither enhanced nor suppressed the homogeneous nucleation of ice. Estimations based on thermodynamic models suggest that fields in the range of 10(7)-10(8) V/m might cause an observable increase in the rate of nucleation.

  3. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  4. Effect of the wire geometry and an externally applied magnetic field on the detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusche, Robert; Semenov, Alexey; Huebers, Heinz-Willhelm [DLR, Institut fuer Planetenforschung, Berlin (Germany); Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Korneeva, Yuliya; Trifonov, Andrey; Korneev, Alexander; Goltsman, Gregory [Moscow State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The interest in single-photon detectors in the near-infrared wavelength regime for applications, e.g. in quantum cryptography has immensely increased in the last years. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) already show quite reasonable detection efficiencies in the NIR which can even be further improved. Novel theoretical approaches including vortex-assisted photon counting state that the detection efficiency in the long wavelength region can be enhanced by the detector geometry and an applied magnetic field. We present spectral measurements in the wavelength range from 350-2500 nm of the detection efficiency of meander-type TaN and NbN SNSPD with varying nanowire line width from 80 to 250 nm. Due to the used experimental setup we can accurately normalize the measured spectra and are able to extract the intrinsic detection efficiency (IDE) of our detectors. The results clearly indicate an improvement of the IDE depending on the wire width according to the theoretic models. Furthermore we experimentally found that the smallest detectable photon-flux can be increased by applying a small magnetic field to the detectors.

  5. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  6. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  7. Analysis of the effects of applying external fields and device dimensions alterations on GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well slow light devices based on excitonic population oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohandani, Reza; Zandi, Ashkan; Kaatuzian, Hassan

    2014-02-20

    This paper demonstrates the effects of applying magnetic and electric fields and physical dimensions alterations on AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (QW) slow light devices. Physical parameters include quantum well sizes and number of quantum wells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of the effects of both applying magnetic/electric fields and physical parameters alterations and the first suggestion for matching the prefabrication and post fabrication tuning of the slow light devices based on excitonic population oscillations. The aim of our theoretical analysis is controlling the optical properties such as central frequency, bandwidth, and slow down factor (SDF) in slow light devices based on excitonic population oscillation to achieve better tuning. To reach these purposes, first we investigate the quantum well size and number of quantum wells alteration effects. Next, we analyze the effects of applying magnetic and electric fields to the multiple quantum well structure, separately. Finally, physical parameters and applied external fields are changed for measuring frequency shift and SDF for coherent population oscillation slow light devices. The results show the available central frequency shifts in about 1.6 THz at best. Also the SDF value improvement is about one order of magnitude. These results will be applicable for optical nonlinearity enhancements, all-optical signal processing, optical communications, all-optical switches, optical modulators, and variable true delays.

  8. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  9. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  10. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  11. Influence of an externally applied magnetic field on vectorial interaction in LiNbO3:Fe crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Johansen, P.M.; Petersen, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    -beam gain and the diffraction efficiency of up to 40 and 75 %, respectively. The magnitude depends on the direction of the magnetic field. The interaction is believed to occur due to the anomalously high mobility of the nonthermalized free electrons responsible for the photovoltaic current, which...... in the vectorial interaction scheme causes the grating formation. A phenomenological description of the photovoltaic current including the photo-flail effect shows a linear dependence on the magnetic field, which does not explain the obtained experimental results....

  12. Aging and magnetism: Presenting a possible new holistic paradigm for ameliorating the aging process and the effects thereof, through externally applied physiologic PicoTesla magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jerry; Sherlag, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions, physiologic PicoTesla range magnetic fields may decrease the production of excessive heat energy through target specific, bio molecular resonant interactions, renormalization of intrinsic electromagnetic tissue profiles, and autonomic modulation. Prospectively, we hypothesize that deleterious effects of physical trauma, immunogenic microbiological agents, stress, and anxiety may be ameliorated. A particle-wave equation is cited to ascertain magnetic field parameters for application to the whole organism thereby achieving desired homeostasis; secondary to restoration of structure and function on quantum levels. We hypothesize that it is at the atomic level that physical events shape the flow of signals and the transmission of energy in bio molecular systems. References are made to experimental data indicating the aspecific efficacy of non-ionizing physiologic magnetic field profiles for treatment of various pathologic states.

  13. Laser ablation of titanium in liquid in external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, “Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University)”, 9 Institutskiy per., 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Barmina, E.V., E-mail: barminaev@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 31, Kashirskoye Highway, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in liquid is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. • Applied cathodic bias leads to increase in average size of self-organized nanostructures formed upon ablation of titanium target. • Laser ablation of Ti target in external electric field results in generation of elongated titanium oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ablation of a bulk Ti target by 10 ps laser pulses in water is experimentally studied in external DC electric field. It is demonstrated that both lateral size of nanostructures (NS) on Ti surface and their density depend on the electric field applied to the target. Scanning Electron Microscopy of NS reveals the shift of their size distribution function toward larger sizes with applied field (cathodic bias, 25 V DC). Density of mushroom-like NS with applied electric field amounts to 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction of generated nanoparticles (NPs) shows difference in the crystallographic structure of NPs of non-stoichiometric Ti oxides generated with and without electric field. This conclusion is corroborated with the optical absorption spectroscopy of obtained colloids. Transmission Electron Microscopy of NPs also shows difference in morphology of particles produced with and without cathodic bias. The results are interpreted on the basis of instability of the melt on Ti surface in the electric field.

  14. Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2017-07-01

    We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  15. Tuning plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kort-Kamp, W J M; Pinheiro, F A; Farina, C

    2013-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to actively tune the operation of plasmonic cloaks with an external magnetic field by investigating electromagnetic scattering by a dielectric cylinder coated with a magneto-optical shell. In the long wavelength limit we show that the presence of an external magnetic field may drastically reduce the scattering cross-section at all observation angles. We demonstrate that the application of external magnetic fields can modify the operation wavelength without the need of changing material and/or geometrical parameters. We also show that applied magnetic fields can reversibly switch on and off the cloak operation. These results, which could be achieved for existing magneto-optical materials, are shown to be robust to material losses, so that they may pave the way for developing actively tunable, versatile plasmonic cloaks.

  16. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2016-01-01

    We perform a reanalysis of hourly mean magnetic data from ground-based observatories spanning 1997-2009 inclusive, in order to isolate (after removal of core and crustal field estimates) the spatiotemporal morphology of the external fields important to mantle induction, on (long) periods of months......-the form of the decomposition is controlled by the data. We apply a spherical harmonic analysis to the EOF outputs in a joint inversion for internal and external coefficients. The results justify our assumption that the EOF procedure responds primarily to the long-period external inducing field...... contributions. Though we cannot determine uniquely the contributory source regions of these inducing fields, we find that they have distinct temporal characteristics which enable some inference of sources. An identified annual-period pattern appears to stem from a north-south seasonal motion of the background...

  17. Fluxon propagation in long Josephson junctions with external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    of breather-like waves depending on the velocity of the incident fluxon and the magnitude of the external magnetic field. Approximations based on energy analysis describing the border lines between regions of different processes are presented. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American...... Institute of Physics....

  18. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Menghua; Jia Weiping

    2016-01-01

    The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD) caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field...

  19. Behaviour of ferrocholesterics under external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Emil; Motoc, Cornelia

    2001-08-01

    The influence of an external magnetic field on the orientational behaviour of a ferrocholesteric with a positive magnetic anisotropy is investigated. Both the phenomena arising when the field was switched on or switched off are considered. It is found that the field needed for a ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition BFC↑ is higher when compared to that obtained for the pure cholesteric ( BC↑). A similar result was obtained when estimating the critical field for the homeotropic ferronematic-ferrocholesteric (focal conic) transition, occurring when the magnetic field was decreased or switched off. We found that BFC↓> BC↓. These results are explained when considering that the magnetic moments of the magnetic powder are not oriented parallel to the liquid crystal molecular directors, therefore hindering their orientation under a magnetic field.

  20. Composite vector particles in external electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can additionally be obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasistatic responses of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within the effective theory, providing explicit expressions that can be used to match directly onto lattice QCD correlation functions. The viability of an extraction of the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron from the upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus is discussed.

  1. Applied physics of external radiation exposure dosimetry and radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the interaction of living matter with photons, neutrons, charged particles, electrons and ions. The authors are specialists in the field of radiation protection. The book synthesizes many years of experiments with external radiation exposure in the fields of dosimetry and radiation shielding in medical, industrial and research fields. It presents the basic physical concepts including dosimetry and offers a number of tools to be used by students, engineers and technicians to assess the radiological risk and the means to avoid them by calculating the appropriate shields. The theory of radiation interaction in matter is presented together with empirical formulas and abacus. Numerous numerical applications are treated to illustrate the different topics. The state of the art in radiation protection and dosimetry is presented in detail, especially in the field of simulation codes for external exposure to radiation, medical projects and advanced research. Moreover, important data spread in differ...

  2. Influence of externally applied magnetic perturbations on neoclassical tearing modes at ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fietz, S.; Bergmann, A.; Classen, I.; Maraschek, M.; M. García-Muñoz,; Suttrop, W.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2015-01-01

    The influence of externally applied magnetic perturbations (MPs) on neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) and the plasma rotation in general is investigated at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG). The low n resonant components of the applied field exert local torques and influence the stability of NTMs. The

  3. A Perspective on External Field QED

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    In light of the conference Quantum Mathematical Physics held in Regensburg in 2014, we give our perspective on the external field problem in quantum electrodynamics (QED), i.e., QED without photons in which the sole interaction stems from an external, time-dependent, four-vector potential. Among others, this model was considered by Dirac, Schwinger, Feynman, and Dyson as a model to describe the phenomenon of electron-positron pair creation in regimes in which the interaction between electrons can be neglected and a mean field description of the photon degrees of freedom is valid (e.g., static field of heavy nuclei or lasers fields). Although it may appear as second easiest model to study, it already bares a severe divergence in its equations of motion preventing any straight-forward construction of the corresponding evolution operator. In informal computations of the vacuum polarization current this divergence leads to the need of the so-called charge renormalization. In an attempt to provide a bridge between...

  4. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Deckert, D -A

    2015-01-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spacial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential $A_\\mu$ are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general $A_\\mu$, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of $A_\\mu$ w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  5. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    Colloidal dispersions have long been proven as pivotal model systems for equilibrium phase transition such as crystallization, melting and liquid-gas phase transition. The last decades have revealed that this is also true for nonequilibrium phenomena. In fact, the fascinating possibility to track the individual trajectories of colloidal particles has greatly advanced our understanding of collective behaviour in classical many-body systems and has helped to reveal the underlying physical principles of glass transition, crystal nucleation, and interfacial dynamics (to name just a few typical nonequilibrium effects). External fields can be used to bring colloids out of equilibrium in a controlled way. Different kinds of external fields can be applied to colloidal dispersions, namely shear flow, electric, magnetic and laser-optical fields, and confinement. Typical research areas can be sketched with the by now traditional complexity diagram (figure 1). The complexity of the colloidal system itself as embodied in statistical degrees of freedom is shown on the x-axis while the complexity of the problem posed, namely bulk, an inhomogeneity in equilibrium, steady state nonequilibrium and full time-dependent nonequilibrium are shown on the y-axis. The different external fields which can be imposed are indicated by the different hatched areas. figure1 Figure 1. Diagram of complexity for colloidal dispersions in external fields: while the x-axis shows the complexity of the system, the y-axis shows the complexity of the problem. Regions which can be accessed by different kinds of external fields are indicated. The arrows indicate recent research directions. Active particles are also indicated with a special complexity of internal degrees of freedom [1]. This collection of papers reflects the scientific programme of the International Conference on Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields III (CODEF III) which took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 20-23 March 2012. This was the

  6. Nonlinear lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2016-02-09

    Nonlinear phenomena of lepton-photon interactions in external backgrounds with a generalised periodic plane-wave geometry are studied. We discuss nonlinear Compton scattering in head-on lepton-photon collisions extended properly to beyond the soft-photon regime. In addition, our results are applied to stimulated lepton-antilepton pair production in photon collisions with unrestricted energies. Derivations are considered semi-classically based on unperturbed fermionic Volkov representations encoding the full interaction with the background field. Closed expressions for total probabilities considering S-matrix elements have been derived. The general formula is applied to Compton scattering by an electron propagating in an external laser-like background. We obtain additive contributions in the extended unconstrained result which turns out to be stringently required in the highly nonlinear regime. A detailed comparison of contributing harmonics is discussed for various field parameters.

  7. Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.

  8. Cholesteric elastomers in external mechanical and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Brand, Helmut R.

    2007-01-01

    In our studies, we focus on the reaction of cholesteric side-chain liquid single-crystal elastomers (SCLSCEs) to static external mechanical and electric fields. By means of linearized continuum theory, different geometries are investigated: The mechanical forces are oriented in a direction either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the cholesteric helix such that they lead to a compression or dilation of the elastomer. Whereas only a homogeneous deformation of the system is found for the parallel case, perpendicularly applied mechanical forces cause either twisting or untwisting of the cholesteric helix. This predominantly depends on the direction in which the director of the cholesteric phase is anchored at the boundaries of the elastomer, and on the sign of a material parameter that describes how deformations of the elastomer couple to the relative rotations between the elastomer and the director. It is also this material parameter that leads to an anisotropy of the mechanical reaction of the system to compression and dilation, due to the liquid crystalline order. The effect of an external electric field is studied when applied parallel to the helix axis of a perfect electric insulator. Here an instability arises at a threshold value of the field amplitude, where the latter results from a competition between the effects of the external electric field on the one hand and the influences of the boundaries of the system, the cholesteric order, and the coupling between the director and the polymer network on the other hand. The instability is either homogeneous in space in the directions perpendicular to the external electric field and includes homogeneous shearing, or, for certain values of the material parameters, there arise undulations of the elastomer and the director orientation perpendicular to the direction of the external electric field at onset. This describes a qualitatively new phenomenon not observed in cholesteric systems yet, as these undulations

  9. Q criterion for disc stability modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the local stability of a disc supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical discs, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational field which can affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disc embedded in a dark matter halo. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disc in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and a modified stability criterion. An external field has two effects on the disc dynamics: first, it contributes to the unperturbed rotational field, and second, it adds a tidal field term in the stability parameter. A typical disruptive tidal field results in a higher modified Q value and hence leads to a more stable disc. We apply these results to the Milky Way, and to a low surface brightness galaxy UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disc by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disc against local, axisymmetric gravitational ins...

  10. Holographic fermions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2011-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of 2+1-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. Next we compute compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators....

  11. QED in external fields, a functional point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Jean

    2001-01-01

    A functional partial differential equation is set for the proper graphs generating functional of QED in external electromagnetic fields. This equation leads to the evolution of the proper graphs with the external field amplitude and the external field gauge dependence of the complete fermion propagator and vertex is derived non-perturbativally.

  12. Formation of Organized Protein Thin Films with External Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cecília Fabiana da G; Camargo, Paulo C; Benelli, Elaine M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of an external electric field on the formation of protein GlnB-Hs films and on its buffer solution on siliconized glass slides has been analyzed by current versus electric field curves and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Herbaspirillum seropedicae GlnB protein (GlnB-Hs) is a globular, soluble homotrimer (36 kDa) with its 3-D structure previously determined. Concentrations of 10 nM native denatured GlnB-Hs protein were deposited on siliconized glass slides under ambient conditions. Immediately after solution deposition a maximum electric field of 30 kV/m was applied with rates of 3 V/s. The measured currents were surface currents and were analyzed as transport current. Electric current started to flow only after a minimum electric field (critical value) for the systems analyzed. The AFM images showed films with a high degree of directional organization only when the proteins were present in the solution. These results showed that the applied electric field favored directional organization of the protein GlnB-Hs films and may contribute to understand the formation of protein films under applied electric fields.

  13. Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P. A.; Monteiro, T. S.; Owen, S. M.

    1998-03-01

    Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; ``core shadowing'' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.

  14. Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dando, P A; Owen, S M

    1998-01-01

    Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; `core-shadowing' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.

  15. Negativity in the Extended Hubbard Model under External Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhen; NING Wen-Qiang

    2008-01-01

    We exactly calculate the negativity,a measurement of entanglement,in the two-site extended Hubbard model with external magnetic field.Its behaviour at different temperatures is presented.The negativity reduces with the increasing temperature or with the increasing uniform external magnetic field.It is also found that a non-uniform external magnetic field can be used to modulate or to increase the negativity.

  16. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  17. Linear response of a pre- and post-selected system to an external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Masashi, E-mail: ban.masashi@ocha.ac.jp

    2015-02-06

    Linear response to an external field is studied for a quantum system with pre- and post-selection. Effects of an external field on strong and weak values of a system observable are found. The external field applied after the measurement of the observable influences the linear response of the system through post-selection. A time-symmetric property in the linear response is found. - Highlights: • The linear response theory is applied to a quantum system with pre-selection and post-selection. • It is found how an external field affects strong and weak values of a measured system observable • Not only an external field before measurement but also one after measurement influences the linear response due to the post-selection.

  18. Behavior of Compact Toroid in the External Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ioroi, A.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.

    1999-11-01

    We have investigated the possibility of refueling and density control of tokamak plasmas by the spheromak-type Compact Toroid (CT) injection in the JFT-2M tokamak in collaboration with JAERI. We demonstrated the CT injection into OH plasmas and observed the core penetration at B_T=0.8 T. The tokamak electron density increased ~0.2× 10^19m-3 at a rate of 2× 10^21m-3/s. We also observed the decrease of the CT velocity by the external magnetic field of the tokamak, which is applied across the CT acceleration region. We have examined the behavior of the CT translated in the external fields B_ext using the magnetic probes and the fast framing camera at Himeji Inst. of tech.. CT plasma in the acceleration region is deformed by the Lorentz force of Jg × B_ext, where Jg is the gun current for CT acceleration. The magnetic field structures of a long CT in the drift region has been revealed to be the mixed relaxed state of m=0 and m=1. Results from CT acceleration and injection in a transverse field will be presented.

  19. Study on Mechanism of Concrete Failure Induced by Steel Corrosion under Externally Applied Direct Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With the combination of electrochemical corrosion due to straycurrent in running tunnels of metro, the formula to determine the corrosion products of rebars in reinforced concrete subjected to externally applied direct current is proposed, and the influence of corrosion on stress in concrete is also discussed. Meanwhile, the concept of corrosion stress field and its mathematical formula are presented in the paper. Finally the failure mode of concrete and its shortest breaking time are also analyzed.

  20. The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show...

  1. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Planar QED in External Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate planar quantum electrodynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. We argue that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak-coupling region. We extrapolate our lattice results to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  2. Orientational hysteresis in swarms of active particles in external field

    CERN Document Server

    Romensky, Maksym

    2015-01-01

    Structure and ordering in swarms of active particles have much in common with condensed matter systems like magnets or liquid crystals. A number of important characteristics of such materials can be obtained via dynamic tests such as hysteresis. In this work, we show that dynamic hysteresis can be observed also in swarms of active particles and possesses similar properties to the counterparts in magnetic materials. To study the swarm dynamics, we use computer simulation of the active Brownian particle model with dissipative interactions. The swarm is confined to a narrow linear channel and one-dimensional polar order parameter is measured. In an oscillating external field, the order parameter demonstrates dynamic hysteresis with the shape of the loop and its area varying with the amplitude and frequency of the applied field, swarm density and the noise intensity. We measure the scaling exponents for the hysteresis loop area, which can be associated with the controllability of the swarm. Although the exponents...

  3. Quantum mechanics in strong time dependent external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeau, Y.

    1986-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, time dependent Hamiltonians are most often studied by perturbation methods, the amplitude of the unsteady force being assumed to be small. On two examples (two level system with a large time dependent coupling, and atoms in large external unsteady field). I show that the opposite limit (large time dependent field) can be analyzed in some details too. For a particle in a central potential and submitted to a large periodic external field, one is led to make a Kapitza averaging because the intrinsic frequency tends to zero when the external field diverges. In that way one has to introduce a steady effective potential with singular turning points.

  4. The interaction between plasma rotation, stochastic fields and tearing mode excitation by external perturbation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBock, M. F. M.; Classen, I. G. J.; Busch, C.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Koslowski, H. R.; Unterberg, B.; TEXTOR Team

    2008-01-01

    For fusion reactors, based on the principle of magnetic confinement, it is important to avoid so-called magnetic islands or tearing modes. They reduce confinement and can be the cause of major disruptions. One class of magnetic islands is that of the perturbation field driven modes. This perturbation field can, for example, be the intrinsic error field. Theoretical work predicts a strong relationship between plasma rotation and the excitation of perturbation field modes. Experimentally, the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation has been confirmed on several tokamaks. In those experiments, however, the control over the plasma rotation velocity and direction, and over the externally applied perturbation field was limited. In this paper experiments are presented that were carried out at the TEXTOR tokamak. Two tangential neutral beam injectors and a set of helical perturbation coils, called the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED), provide control over both the plasma rotation and the external perturbation field in TEXTOR. This made it possible to set up a series of experiments to test the theory on mode excitation and plasma rotation in detail. The perturbation field induced by the DED not only excites magnetic islands, it also sets up a layer near the plasma boundary where the magnetic field is stochastic. It will be shown that this stochastic field alters both the rotational response of the plasma on the perturbation field and the threshold for mode excitation. It therefore has to be included in an extended theory on mode excitation.

  5. Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoka, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using a conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show that our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.

  6. Geodesic Witten diagrams with an external spinning field

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We explore AdS/CFT correspondence between geodesic Witten diagrams and conformal blocks (conformal partial waves) with an external symmetric traceless tensor field. We derive an expression for the conformal partial wave with an external spin-1 field and show that this expression is equivalent to the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram. We also show the equivalence by using conformal Casimir equation in embedding formalism. Furthermore, we extend the construction of the amplitude of the geodesic Witten diagram to an external arbitrary symmetric traceless tensor field. We show our construction agrees with the known result of the conformal partial waves.

  7. Separation of the Magnetic Field into External and Internal Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Jia, X.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of a planet or a planetary moon contains contributions from a variety of sources in the environment of the body (external sources) and its interior (internal sources). This chapter describes different methods that have been developed for the separation of external and internal...

  8. On the Structure of Quantum Gauge Theories with External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Falkenberg, S; Lavrov, P M; Moshin, P

    1998-01-01

    We consider generating functionals of Green's functions with external fields in the framework of BV and BLT quantization schemes for general gauge theories. The corresponding Ward identities are obtained, and the gauge dependence is studied.

  9. The theory of sternheimer shielding in molecules in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, P. W.; Lazzeretti, P.; Steiner, E.; Zanasi, R.

    1989-05-01

    A series of tensors is defined to describe the response to external electric and magnetic fields of the electric field gradient at a nucleus in a molecule. Perturbation expressions, symmetry relations and exact results for the hydrogen atom are given. The new tensors are related to derivatives of electric field shieldings with respect to motion of a test point through an electron distribution.

  10. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure); Etude par diffusion de neutrons du chlorure de calcium et de betaine dihydrate sous champ externe applique (temperature, champ electrique et pression hydrostatique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O

    1997-11-17

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil`s staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of {delta}(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the `X-rays` structural model is found more harmonic than the `neutron` one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with {delta} = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a `complete` Devil`s air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between `coexisting` phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results

  11. Recurrence spectra of He atoms in strong external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Shenglu; LI Hongyun; WANG Dehua; ZHAO Wenli; GAO Feng

    2004-01-01

    By employing a model potential including the electron exchange energy, we extend the semiclassical closed orbit theory to study the multielectron atoms. Using special region-splitting consistent and iterative method, we figure out the closed orbits in the corresponding classical system and calculate the recurrence spectra of triplet helium atoms in parallel electric and magnetic fields at scaled energy ε = -0.03, n≈40, m = 0.The core-scattering effects have been taken into account, which lead to more peaks in the spectra. It has also been confirmed by means of the direct comparison between the spectral portrait in such a plot and those of hydrogen case. In order to compare the theoretic results with experiment, we investigate the closed orbits and recurrence spectra of helium atoms for the similar exchange potential but applied only by single electric field at scaled energy s= -2.7 case. The spectra are in good agreement with the experimental observation. We conclude that our model is correct and it is necessary to consider the exchange effect for determining the photoabsorption spectra of multielectron atoms in strong external fields.

  12. Field characterization of external grease abatement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Tarek N; Holt, Leon M; Keener, Kevin M; Groninger, John W; Ducoste, Joel J

    2012-03-01

    This study characterized some of the physical and chemical features of large outside field grease abatement devices (GADs). 24-hour measurements of several food service establishments' (FSEs') influent GAD flowrates indicated highly intermittent conditions with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) that exceeded the common recommendation (30 minutes) by two to five times. Investigation into the chemical characteristics of GADs indicated highly variable influent and effluent fat, oil, and grease (FOG) concentrations. Low pH and dissolved oxygen values were measured throughout the GAD, indicating the likely occurrence of anaerobic microbial processes. Detailed spatial and temporal observations of the accumulation of FOG and food solids were also discussed. Though the FOG layer remained relatively constant for all GAD configurations investigated, results indicated that commonly-used GAD configurations with a straight submerged inlet tee or no-inlet tee configuration may result in the transport of food solids into the second compartment. The present research showed increased accumulation of food solids in the first compartment with a retro-fit flow distributive inlet. This retro-fit displays promise for potentially improving the separation characteristics of existing GADs.

  13. Tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystals by means of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Vala, A., E-mail: asoltani@tabrizu.ac.i [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, B. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalafi, M. [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystal of silicon rods in air background in which one of the rods is replaced by ferrite material and an external static magnetic field is applied in the ferrite rod direction. Using the supercell method, the dependence of E-polarized defect modes on the magnetic field has been reported.

  14. Foucault imaging and small-angle electron diffraction in controlled external magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kotani, Atsuhiro; Harada, Ken; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2016-12-01

    We report a method for acquiring Foucault images and small-angle electron diffraction patterns in external magnetic fields using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any modification. In the electron optical system that we have constructed, external magnetic fields parallel to the optical axis can be controlled using the objective lens pole piece under weak excitation conditions in the Foucault mode and the diffraction mode. We observe two ferromagnetic perovskite-type manganese oxides, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3, in order to visualize magnetic domains and their magnetic responses to external magnetic fields. In rhombohedral-structured LSMO, pinning of magnetic domain walls at crystallographic twin boundaries was found to have a strong influence on the generation of new magnetic domains in external applied magnetic fields.

  15. The Research and Development of the External Magnetic Field Acting on Electro-Deposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Menghua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development status of the electro-deposition technology under the action of external magnetic field are introduced. The basic characteristics and applied manners of external magnetic field in electro-deposition process are summarized. The acting principle of external magnetic field, the effects of magnetic hydrodynamics (MHD caused by the Lorentz force, and the acting of magnetic force on the metal ions and particles are described. The main actions of external magnetic field include MHD effect, magnetizing force, affecting the physical and chemical properties of the bath, affecting the disperse ability and coverage capacity of bath, affecting the mass transfer process of electro-deposition, affecting the chemical reaction process and current distribution of electrode surface. Some examples of electro-depositing single metal coatings, alloy coatings and composite coatings under action of magnetic field are explained. During the electro-depositing process, the external magnetic field has different degrees of impact on solution properties, mass transfer, charge transfer, content of composited nanoparticles, crystal growth and crystal orientation etc. The specific impact of magnetic field during the electro-depositing is also classified and summarized. The problems that existed in electro-deposition process while applying magnetic field and the next development trend were summarized.

  16. Holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zixu; Jing, Jiliang

    2014-01-01

    We analytically study the holographic superconductors with Lifshitz scaling in presence of an external magnetic field. We observe that Lifshitz scaling can hinder the condensation to be formed, which can be used to back up the existing numerical results. Moreover, we find that the dynamical exponent $z$ does have effects on the upper critical magnetic field. However, we note that Lifshitz scaling does not modify the well-known relation obtained from the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the upper critical magnetic field.

  17. Massless Boundary Sine-Gordon Model Coupled to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kogetsu, H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a generalization of the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with conformal invariance, which has been used to describe an array of D-branes (or rolling tachyon). We consider a similar action whose couplings are replaced with external fields depending on the boundary coordinate. Even in the presence of the external fields, this model is still solvable, though it does not maintain the whole conformal symmetry. We obtain, to all orders in perturbation theory in terms of the external fields, a simpler expression of the boundary state and the disc partition function. As a by-product, we fix the relation between the bare couplings and the renormalized couplings which has been appeared in papers on tachyon lump and rolling tachyon.

  18. Enhancement of critical current in mesoscopic superconducting strips by external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Luck, Yannick; Fuchs, Lea; Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Current crowding in superconducting mesoscopic strips with bends results in decrease of critical current in these structures with respect to the strips without geometrical non-uniformities. Recently it has been shown that Meissner currents induced by externally applied magnetic field of appropriate direction allow to suppress this effect so that I{sub c}(B) can exceed I{sub c}(0). Experimental dependencies of critical current in mesoscopic bended strips made from ultra-thin superconducting films on externally applied magnetic field and their comparison to the theoretical predictions are presented and discussed.

  19. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  20. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  1. Low External Electric Field Periodic Poling of Thick LiTaO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A promising method of ferroelectric domain inverted structures was demonstrated, which allows us to fabricate thicker domain inverted patterns by applying a lower external electric field in LiTaO3 crystal. The external field for the domain reversal of the 1.5 mm thick LiTaO3 at 500 ℃ was only 6 V·mm-1, which is lower by three orders of magnitude than that in LiTaO3 crystal at room temperature. The process of the domain inversion structure was also studied. The fabrication techniques are based on controlled temperature and field duration time.

  2. Liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid in a uniform external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stan G; Stevens, Mark J; Grest, Gary S

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a uniform (nonspatially varying) external field on the liquid-vapor interface of the Stockmayer fluid (Lennard-Jones particles embedded with a point dipole) has been investigated by molecular-dynamics simulations. The long-ranged parts of both the dipole and Lennard-Jones interactions are treated using an Ewald summation, which removes the effects of the cutoff. The direction of the field shifts the critical point and interfacial properties in different directions. For an external field parallel to the interface, the critical temperature increases, while for a field applied perpendicular to the interface, it decreases. The effects of the field on surface tension and interfacial width are also investigated. For zero field, dipoles near the liquid-vapor interface show a weak orientation parallel to the interface. For fields parallel to the interface, ordering in the liquid phase is greater than the vapor, while for fields perpendicular to the interface, the opposite is true.

  3. Holographic gratings in photorefractive polymers without external electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N.; Lyuksyutov, S.; Buchhave, Preben

    1997-01-01

    Using anomalous large diffusion we report a recording of reflection type gratings in a PVK-based photorefractive polymer without any external electric field. The diffraction efficiency of the gratings was measured to be 7%. An efficient modulation of beams during two-beam coupling up to 12...

  4. Thermal Reservoir coupled to External Field and Quantum Dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Patriarca, M; Patriarca, Fabrizio Illuminati & Marco

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of the Caldeira-Leggett model of dissipative quantum mechanics, we investigate the effects of the interaction of the thermal reservoir with an external field. In particular, we discuss how the interaction modifies the conservative dynamics of the central particle, and the mechanism of dissipation. We briefly comment on possible observable consequencies.

  5. On the Potts Model Partition Function in an External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Leslie M.; Moffatt, Iain

    2012-03-01

    We study the partition function of the Potts model in an external (magnetic) field, and its connections with the zero-field Potts model partition function. Using a deletion-contraction formulation for the partition function Z for this model, we show that it can be expanded in terms of the zero-field partition function. We also show that Z can be written as a sum over the spanning trees, and the spanning forests, of a graph G. Our results extend to Z the well-known spanning tree expansion for the zero-field partition function that arises though its connections with the Tutte polynomial.

  6. Phase diagram of strong interactions in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Chernodub, M N

    2011-01-01

    We obtain the phase diagram of strong interactions in the presence of a magnetic field within the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to the Polyakov loop, and show that the chiral and deconfinement lines can split. We also study the behavior of the chiral condensate in this magnetic environment and find an approximately linear dependence on the external field, in accordance with lattice data.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichioroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz . The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6in the strong direct current field.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation study on behaviors of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane under external electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志强; 陈正隆

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to study the behavior of liquid 1,2-dichloroethane molecules under external electric fields including direct current field, alternating current field and positive-half-period cosin field. The maximum applied field strength was 108 V/m , the maximum frequency of the alternating current field and that of the positive-half-period cosine field was 1012 Hz .The simulation revealed that the field type and field strength act on the population of the molecular configuration. In the strong direct current field, all trans forms converted completely into gauche forms. Order parameter and the correlation of the system torsion angle were also investigated. The results suggested that these two dynamical parameters depended also on the field type and the field strength. The maximum of order parameter was found to be at 0.6 in the strong direct current field.

  9. Enhanced proton acceleration in an applied longitudinal magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Arefiev, Alexey; Fiksel, Gennady

    2016-01-01

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we examine how an externally applied strong magnetic impacts proton acceleration in laser-irradiated solid-density targets. We find that a kT-level external magnetic field can sufficiently inhibit transverse transport of hot electrons in a flat laser-irradiated target. While the electron heating by the laser remains mostly unaffected, the reduced electron transport during proton acceleration leads to an enhancement of maximum proton energies and the overall number of energetic protons. The resulting proton beam is much better collimated compared to a beam generated without applying a kT-level magnetic field. A factor of three enhancement of the laser energy conversion efficiency into multi-MeV protons is another effect of the magnetic field. The required kT magnetic fields are becoming feasible due to a significant progress that has been made in generating magnetic fields with laser-driven coils using ns-long laser pulses. The predicted improved characterist...

  10. Tuning the Colloidal Crystal Structure of Magnetic Particles by External Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, Antara; Malik, Vikash; He, Le; Erne, Ben H.; Yin, Yadong; Kegel, Willem K.; Petukhov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of the self-assembly of magnetic colloidal particles by an externally applied magnetic field paves a way toward developing novel stimuli responsive photonic structures. Using microradian X-ray scattering technique we have investigated the different crystal structures exhibited by self-a

  11. Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Maurice; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2014-04-07

    This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viable treatment for scoliosis, although previous studies have suggested that it can potentially deliver similarly effective corrective forces to the spine as bracing. The potential of muscle activation for scoliosis correction was investigated over different curvatures both with and without the addition of externally applied forces. The five King's classifications of scoliosis were investigated over a range of Cobb angles. A biomechanical model of the spine was used to represent various scoliotic curvatures. Optimization was applied to the model to reduce the curves using combinations of both deep and superficial muscle activation and applied external forces. Simulating applied external forces in combination with muscle activation at low Cobb angles (forces were applied in combination, lower levels of muscle activation or less external force was required to reduce the curvature of the spine, when compared with either muscle activation or external force applied in isolation. The results of this study suggest that activation of superficial and deep muscles may be effective in reducing spinal curvature at low Cobb angles when muscle groups are selected for activation based on the curve type. The findings further suggest the potential for a hybrid treatment involving combined muscle activation and applied external forces at larger Cobb angles.

  12. Field Evaluation of the System Identification Approach for Tension Estimation of External Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hyun Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of external tendons are considered to verify the applicability of tension estimation method based on the finite element model with system identification technique. The proposed method is applied to estimate the tension of benchmark numerical example, model structure, and field structure. The numerical and experimental results show that the existing methods such as taut string theory and linear regression method show large error in the estimated tension when the condition of external tendon is different with the basic assumption used during the derivation of relationship between tension and natural frequency. However, the proposed method gives reasonable results for all of the considered external tendons in this study. Furthermore, the proposed method can evaluate the accuracy of estimated tension indirectly by comparing the measured and calculated natural frequencies. Therefore, the proposed method can be effectively used for field application of various types of external tendons.

  13. Rated MW from a heliostat field on cylindrical external receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Fathalah, K.A. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dep., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Elsayed, M.M. [Kuwait Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dep., Safat (Kuwait)

    1995-12-31

    Some of the reflected beam radiation from a heliostat field bypasses the receiver surface. The spillage factor which is a measure of how much of reflected beam radiation actually intercepted by the receiver surface, is calculated and plotted for easy access. The variation of the spillage with tower height, external cylindrical receiver size, dimensionless radial distance from the tower is computed and plotted. The value of the rated MW energy absorbed by an external cylindrical receiver, is investigated, and its relations to the tower height, the site location and the field radius are given. The effect of changing the radial spacing on the rated MW and the total number of heliostats in the field is also computed and depicted. The developed set of charts for the spillage factor are believed to be very useful for solar central receiver system design. (author) 7 figs., 21 refs.

  14. Flow-driven cell migration under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent. PMID:26765031

  15. Effect of external electric field on Cyclodextrin-Alcohol adducts: A DFT study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kundan Baruah; Pradip Kr Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Effect of external electric fields on the interaction energy between cyclodextrin and alcohol was analyzed in the light of density functional theory (DFT) and density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). Stability of the cyclodextrin-alcohol adducts was measured in terms of DFT based reactivity descriptor, global hardness, electrophilicity, and energy of the HOMO. Stability of adducts was observed to be sensitive towards the strength as well as direction of the applied external electric field. In addition, reactivity pattern follows the maximum hardness and minimum electrophilicity principles.

  16. Time Evolution in the external field problem of Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarovici, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    A general problem of quantum field theories is the fact that the free vacuum and the vacuum for an interacting theory belong to different, non-equivalent representations of the canonical (anti-)commutation relations. In the external field problem of QED, we encounter this problem in the form that the Dirac time evolution for an external field with non-vanishing magnetic components will not satisfy the Shale-Stinespring condition, known to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of an implementation on the fermionic Fock space. Therefore, a second quantization of the time evolution in the usual way is impossible. In this thesis, we present several rigorous approaches to QED with time-dependent, external fields and analyze in what sense a time evolution can exist in the second quantized theory. We study different constructions of the fermionic Fock space and prove their equivalence. We study and compare the results of Deckert et. al. (2010), where the time evolution is realized as unitary transformations ...

  17. Diffusion of external magnetic fields into the cone-in-shell target in the fast ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunahara, Atsushi; Johzaki, Tomoyui; Nagatomo, Hideo; Sakata, Shouhei; Matsuo, Kazuki; Lee, Seungho; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Firex-Project Team

    2016-10-01

    We simulated the diffusion of externally applied magnetic fields into cone-in-shell target in the fast ignition. In this ignition scheme, the externally magnetic fields up to kilo-Tesla is used to guide fast electrons to the high-dense imploded core, and understanding diffusion of the magnetic field is one of the key issues for increasing the coupling efficiency from the heating laser to the imploded core. In order to study the magnetic field, we have developed 2D cylindrical Maxwell equation solver with Ohm's law, and carried out simulations of diffusion of externally applied magnetic fields into a cone-in-shell target. Also, we estimated the conductivity of the cone and shell target based on the assumption of Saha-ionization equilibrium. We present our results of diffusion of magnetic fields. We also show that the target is heated by the eddy current. Because of the density and temperature dependence of the conductivity, the magnetic fields diffuse into the material with varying conductivity. Consequently, the magnetic fields into the cone-in-shell target depend on the temporal profile of the magnetic fields as well as the electrical and thermal properties of the material.

  18. Jeans instability criterion modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The well-known Jeans criterion describes the onset of instabilities in an infinite, homogeneous, self-gravitating medium supported by pressure. Most realistic astrophysical systems, however, are not isolated - instead they are under the influence of an external field such as the tidal field due to a neighbour. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a system in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation that depends on the wavenumber, the sound speed, and also the magnitude of the tidal field. A typical, disruptive tidal field is shown to make the system more stable against perturbations, and results in a higher effective Jeans wavelength. The minimum mass that can become unstable is then higher (super-Jeans) than the usual Jeans mass. Conversely, in a compressive tidal field, perturbations can grow even when the mass is lower (sub-Jeans). This approach involving the inclusion of tidal field opens up a new way of looking at instabilities in gravitating systems. The treatment is gene...

  19. Weibel instability in a plasma with nonzero external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Weibel instability is generalized for the case of a plasma immersed in a nonzero external magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of this external field modifies the dispersion relation for this mode which now possesses a nonzero frequency. The explicit expression for the real and imaginary parts of the frequency is then calculated. It turns out that the linear growth rate remains unchanged, whereas the frequency becomes nonzero due to the finite value of the electron cyclotron frequency. The frequency of the Weibel mode is found to be proportional to the electron temperature anisotropy. The formal similarity of the Weibel and drift-mirror instabilities is outlined.

  20. The electron propagator in external electromagnetic fields in low dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Gabriela; Raya, Alfredo; Sánchez, Ángel; Reyes, Edward

    2010-07-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in one and two spatial dimensions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. In this case, the propagator is not diagonal in momentum space. We obtain the propagator on the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator (γ ṡΠ)2 in terms of which the propagator acquires a free form. Πμ is the canonical momentum operator and γμ are the Dirac matrices. In two dimensions, we work with an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra and consider to all orders the effects of an arbitrary magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of motion of the electrons. We then discuss the special cases of a uniform magnetic field and an exponentially damped static magnetic field. These cases are relevant to graphene in the massless limit. We further consider the electron propagator for the massive Schwinger model and incorporate the effects of a constant electric field to all orders.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Heisenberg Thin Films in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; ZHANG Jing

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Heisenberg ferromagnetic films in an external magnetic field are investigated by means of the variational cumulant expansion (VCE). The magnetization can be in principle calculated analytically as the function of the temperature and the number of atomic layers in the film to an arbitrary order of accuracy in the VCE. We calculate the spontaneous magnetization and coercivity to the third order for spin-1/2 Heisenberg films with simple cubic lattices by using a graphic technique.

  2. Holographic equilibration in confining gauge theories under external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Demircik, Tuna

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of external magnetic fields on equilibration in the improved holographic QCD theory in the deconfined phase using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular we calculate the quasinormal mode spectra in the corresponding black brane solutions and study their dependence on temperature, momentum and magnetic field, both in the scalar and the shear channels. We find complex patterns in the motion of quasinormal modes on the complex plane, including certain cross overs between the lowest lying modes under varying momentum. We also find a curious dynamical instability that arise at a certain value of momentum.

  3. External field characterization using CHAMP satellite data for induction studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Praveen Kunagu; E Chandrasekhar

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of external inducing source field morphology is essential for precise estimation of electromagnetic (EM) induction response. A better characterization of the external source field of magnetospheric origin can be achieved by decomposing it into outer and inner magnetospheric contributions, which are best represented in Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) and Solar Magnetic (SM) reference frames, respectively. Thus we propose a spherical harmonic (SH) model to estimate the outer magnetospheric contribution, following the iterative reweighted least squares approach, using the vector magnetic data of the CHAMP satellite. The data covers almost a complete solar cycle from July 2001 to September 2010, spanning 54,474 orbits. The SH model, developed using orbit-averaged vector magnetic data, reveals the existence of a stable outer magnetospheric contribution of about 7.39 nT. This stable field was removed from the CHAMP data after transforming to SM frame. The residual field in the SM frame acts as a primary source for induction in the Earth. The analysis of this time-series using wavelet transformation showed a dominant 27-day periodicity of the geomagnetic field. Therefore, we calculated the inductive EM -response function in a least squares sense considering the 27-day period variation as the inducing signal. From the estimated -response, we have determined that the global depth to the perfect substitute conductor is about 1132 km and its conductivity is around 1.05 S/m.

  4. Soybean Hydrophobic Protein Response to External Electric Field: A Molecular Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Raghavan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The molecular dynamic (MD modeling approach was applied to evaluate the effect of an external electric field on soybean hydrophobic protein and surface properties. Nominal electric field strengths of 0.002 V/nm and 0.004 V/nm had no major effect on the structure and surface properties of the protein isolate but the higher electric field strength of 3 V/nm significantly affected the protein conformation and solvent accessible surface area. The response of protein isolate to various external field stresses demonstrated that it is necessary to gain insight into protein dynamics under electromagnetic fields in order to be able to develop the techniques utilizing them for food processing and other biological applications.

  5. Green's functions in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, S.M.

    1979-04-01

    An approach to quantum electrodynamics in an intense electromagnetic field was proposed in Ref. 1 (E. S. Fradkin and D. M. Gitman, Preprint, MIT, 1978). In the case when the vacuum is unstable with respect to electron-positron pair production, an entire series of various Green's functions in an external classical field enters into the theory. In the present study these Green's functions are calculated for the case of a constant homogeneous electric field. The results are presented in the form of contour integrals over the proper time. The operator representations of the Green's functions in this field are given. Only scalar QED is considered.

  6. Electron beam guiding by external magnetic fields in imploded fuel plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johzaki, T.; Sentoku, Y.; Nagatomo, H.; Sunahara, A.; Sakagami, H.; Fujioka, S.; Shiraga, H.; Endo, T.; FIREX project Group

    2016-05-01

    For enhancing the core heating efficiency in fast ignition laser fusion, we proposed the fast electron beam by externally-applied the kilo-tesla (kT) class longitudinal magnetic field. We evaluated the imploded core and the magnetic field profiles formed through the implosion dynamics by resistive MHD radiation hydro code. Using those profiles, the guiding effect was evaluated by fast electron transport simulations, which shows that in addition to the feasible field configuration (moderate mirror ratio), the kT-class magnetic field is required at the fast electron generation point. In this case, the significant enhancement in heating efficiency is expected.

  7. Retention of nativelike conformation by proteins embedded in high external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Bramanti, A.; Maruccio, G.; Cingolani, R.; De Rienzo, F.; Corni, S.; Di Felice, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-05-01

    In this Communication, we show that proteins embedded in high external electric fields are capable of retaining a nativelike fold pattern. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, immobilized onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying static fields up to 106-107V/m. The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. Such results are also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the inner protein fields.

  8. Bandgap engineering of different stacking WS2 bilayer under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Tianxing; Dai, Xianqi; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhai, Caiyun; Ma, Yaqiang; Chang, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Effective modulation of physical properties via external control is a tantalizing possibility that would bring two-dimensional material-based electronics a step closer. By means of density functional theory calculations, we systematically examined the effect of external electric field on the bandgap of different stacking WS2 bilayer. It shows that for all cases, the most stable stacking order is the AB conformation, followed by the AA‧ stacking fault, which is by only 2.06 meV/supercell less stable than AB. The band gaps of both AB and AA‧ configurations decrease monotonically with an increasing vertical external electric field strength except for external electric field along -z direction in the AB conformation. Applying external electric field along +z direction and -z directions has different effects on the band gap of AB conformation, while it has the same effect on the AA‧ configuration. The different effects are caused by the spontaneous electrical polarization existing between the two monolayers of AB conformation. This may provide a new perspective on the formation of WS2-based electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Zero modes on cosmic strings in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer, F; Starkman, G D; Vachaspati, T; Ferrer, Francesc; Mathur, Harsh; Starkman, Glenn D.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2006-01-01

    A classical analysis suggests that an external magnetic field can cause trajectories of charge carriers on a superconducting domain wall or cosmic string to bend, thus expelling charge carriers with energy above the mass threshold into the bulk. We study this process by solving the Dirac equation for a fermion of mass $m_f$ and charge $e$, in the background of a domain wall and a magnetic field of strength $B$. We find that the modes of the charge carriers get shifted into the bulk, in agreement with classical expectations. However the dispersion relation for the zero modes changes dramatically -- instead of the usual linear dispersion relation, $\\omega_k =k$, the new dispersion relation is well fit by $\\omega \\approx m_f tanh(k/k_*)$ where $k_*=m_f$ for a thin wall in the weak field limit, and $k_*=eBw$ for a thick wall of width $w$. This result shows that the energy of the charge carriers on the domain wall remains below the threshold for expulsion even in the presence of an external magnetic field. If char...

  10. Possible role of external radial electric field on ion heating in an FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Trask, E.; Korepanov, S.; Granstedt, E.; Osin, D.; Roche, T.; Deng, B.; Beall, M.; Zhai, K.; TAE Team

    2016-10-01

    In C-2/C-2U FRCs, a radial electric field is applied by either plasma guns or biased electrodes inside the divertors, at both ends of the machine. The electric field plays an important role in stabilizing the FRC; thus, providing a favorable target condition to a neutral beam injection. In addition, it is also observed that the application of radial electric field may lead to a heating of ions. Radial profile of impurity ion emission, azimuthal velocity and temperature are measured under different configurations. The conditions and evidences of ion heating due to the electric field biasing will be presented and discussed. Radial momentum balance equation of oxygen impurity ions is used with these measurements to estimate the radial electric field profile. Parameters affecting the ion heating due to biasing will also be discussed with some correlations. The external radial electric field is planned to be applied by biased electrodes and plasma guns in C-2W inner/outer divertors.

  11. Dynamics of molecular superrotors in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Korobenko, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    We excite diatomic oxygen and nitrogen to high rotational states with an optical centrifuge and study their dynamics in external magnetic field. Ion imaging is employed to directly visualize, and follow in time, the rotation plane of molecular superrotors. The two different mechanisms of interaction between the magnetic field and the molecular angular momentum in paramagnetic oxygen and non-magnetic nitrogen lead to the qualitatively different behaviour. In nitrogen, we observe the precession of the molecular angular momentum around the field vector. In oxygen, strong spin-rotation coupling results in faster and richer dynamics, encompassing the splitting of the rotation plane in three separate components. As the centrifuged molecules evolve with no significant dispersion of the molecular wave function, the observed magnetic interaction presents an efficient mechanism for controlling the plane of molecular rotation.

  12. Nucleation of lysozyme crystals under external electric and ultrasonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanev, Christo N.; Penkova, Anita

    2001-11-01

    Preferred orientation along c-axis of hen-egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals has been observed in an external electric field. Besides, the HEWL crystals grew predominantly on the cathode side of the glass cell. These facts were explained on the basis of a concept for specific spatial distribution of the positive electric charges on the individual HEWL molecules, and thus attributed to the (preferred) orientation of individual HEWL molecules in the solution, under these conditions. Ultrasonic field redoubles the nucleation rate of HEWL crystals, but does not change the number of building units in the critical nucleus. Taking into account the intermolecular binding energy, we conclude that ultrasonic field accelerates nucleation due to breaking of the protein crystals.

  13. Locally covariant quantum field theory with external sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of the classical and quantized theory of a multiplet of inhomogeneous Klein-Gordon fields, which couple to the spacetime metric and also to an external source term; thus the solutions form an affine space. Following the formulation of affine field theories in terms of presymplectic vector spaces as proposed in [Annales Henri Poincare 15, 171 (2014)], we determine the relative Cauchy evolution induced by metric as well as source term perturbations and compute the automorphism group of natural isomorphisms of the presymplectic vector space functor. Two pathological features of this formulation are revealed: the automorphism group contains elements that cannot be interpreted as global gauge transformations of the theory; moreover, the presymplectic formulation does not respect a natural requirement on composition of subsystems. We therefore propose a systematic strategy to improve the original description of affine field theories at the classical and quantized level, first passing ...

  14. Van der Waals torque induced by external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Palomono-Ovando, M

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for inducing and controlling van der Waals torques between two parallel slabs using a constant magnetic field. The torque is calculated using the Barash theory of dispersive torques. In III-IV semiconductors such as $InSb$, the effect of an external magnetic field is to induce an optical anisotropy, in an otherwise isotropic material, that will in turn induce a torque. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the slabs. As a case study we consider a slab made of calcite and a second slab made of $InSb$. In the absence of magnetic field there is no torque. As the magnetic field increases, the optical anisotropy of $InSb$ increases and the torque becomes different from zero, increasing with the magnetic field. The resulting torque is of the same order of magnitude as that calculated using permanent anisotropic materials when the magnetic fields is close to 1 T.

  15. Nonlinear subelliptic Schrodinger equations with external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyril Tintarev

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To account for an external magnetic field in a Hamiltonian of a quantum system on a manifold (modelled here by a subelliptic Dirichlet form, one replaces the the momentum operator $frac 1i d$ in the subelliptic symbol by $frac 1i d-alpha$, where $alphain TM^*$ is called a magnetic potential for the magnetic field $eta=dalpha$. We prove existence of ground state solutions (Sobolev minimizers for nonlinear Schrodinger equation associated with such Hamiltonian on a generally, non-compact Riemannian manifold, generalizing the existence result of Esteban-Lions [5] for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a constant magnetic field on $mathbb{R}^N$ and the existence result of [6] for a similar problem on manifolds without a magnetic field. The counterpart of a constant magnetic field is the magnetic field, invariant with respect to a subgroup of isometries. As an example to the general statement we calculate the invariant magnetic fields in the Hamiltonians associated with the Kohn Laplacian and for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the Heisenberg group.

  16. Van der Waals torque induced by external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R.; Cocoletzi, G. H.; Palomino-Ovando, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for inducing and controlling van der Waals torques between two parallel slabs using a constant magnetic field. The torque is calculated using the Barash theory of dispersive torques. In III–IV semiconductors such as InSb, the effect of an external magnetic field is to induce an optical anisotropy, in an otherwise isotropic material, that will in turn induce a torque. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, with the magnetic field parallel to the surface of the slabs. As a case study we consider a slab made of calcite and a second slab made of InSb. In the absence of magnetic field there is no torque. As the magnetic field increases, the optical anisotropy of InSb increases and the torque becomes different from zero, increasing with the magnetic field. The resulting torque is of the same order of magnitude as that calculated using permanent anisotropicmaterials when the magnetic fields is close to 1 T.

  17. High Mach-number collisionless shock driven by a laser with an external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collisionless shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas with an external magnetic field. The shocks are generated due to an electrostatic field generated in counter-streaming laser-irradiated plasmas, as reported previously in a series of experiments without an external magnetic field [T. Morita et al., Phys. Plasmas, 17, 122702 (2010, Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 175002 (2011] via laser-irradiation of a double-CH-foil target. A magnetic field is applied to the region between two foils by putting an electro-magnet (∼10 T perpendicular to the direction of plasma expansion. The generated shocks show different characteristics later in time (t > 20ns.

  18. Fuel magnetization without external field coils (AutoMag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen; Jennings, Christopher; Awe, Thomas; Shipley, Gabe; Lamppa, Derek; McBride, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) has produced fusion-relevant plasma conditions on the Z accelerator where the fuel was magnetized using external field coils. We present a novel concept that does not need external field coils. This concept (AutoMag) magnetizes the fuel during the early part of the drive current by using a composite liner with helical conduction paths separated by insulating material. The drive is designed so the current rises slowly enough to avoid electrical breakdown of the insulators until a sufficiently strong magnetic field is established. Then the current rises more quickly, which causes the insulators to break down allowing the drive current to follow an axial path and implode the liner. Low inductance magnetically insulated power feeds can be used with AutoMag to increase the drive current without interfering with diagnostic access. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Effect of vacancy defect on electrical properties of chiral single-walled carbon nanotube under external electrical field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yu-Pin; Tien Li-Gan; Tsai Chuen-Horng; Lee Ming-Hsien; Li Feng-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio calculations demonstrated that the energy gap modulation of a chiral carbon nanotube with monovacancy defect can be achieved by applying a transverse electric field. The bandstructure of this defective carbon nanotube varying due to the external electric field is distinctly different from those of the perfect nanotube and defective zigzag nanotube. This variation in bandstructure strongly depends on not only the chirality of the nanotube and also the applied direction of the transverse electric field. A mechanism is proposed to explain the response of the local energy gap between the valence band maximum state and the local gap state under external electric field. Several potential applications of these phenomena are discussed.

  20. Mean-field approximation for the potts model of a diluted magnet in the external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    The Potts model of a diluted magnet with an arbitrary number of states placed in the external field has been considered. Phase transitions of this model have been studied in the mean-field approximation, the dependence of the critical temperature on the external field and the density of magnetic atoms has been found, and the magnetic susceptibility has been calculated. An improved mean-field technique has been proposed, which provides more accurate account of the effects associated with nonmagnetic dilution. The influence of dilution on the first-order phase transition curve and the magnetization jump at the phase transition has been studied by this technique.

  1. Phase separation in fluids exposed to spatially periodic external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, R L C; Archer, A J

    2012-03-01

    When a fluid is confined within a spatially periodic external field, the liquid-vapor transition is replaced by a different transition called laser-induced condensation (LIC) [Götze et al., Mol. Phys. 101, 1651 (2003)]. In d=3 dimensions, the periodic field induces an additional phase, characterized by large density modulations along the field direction. At the triple point, all three phases (modulated, vapor, and liquid) coexist. At temperatures slightly above the triple point and for low (high) values of the chemical potential, two-phase coexistence between the modulated phase and the vapor (liquid) is observed; by increasing the temperature further, both coexistence regions terminate in critical points. In this paper, we reconsider LIC using the Ising model to resolve a number of open issues. To be specific, we (1) determine the universality class of the LIC critical points and elucidate the nature of the correlations along the field direction, (2) present a mean-field analysis to show how the LIC phase diagram changes as a function of the field wavelength and amplitude, (3) develop a simulation method by which the extremely low tension of the interface between modulated and vapor or liquid phase can be measured, (4) present a finite-size scaling analysis to accurately extract the LIC triple point from finite-size simulation data, and (5) consider the fate of LIC in d=2 dimensions.

  2. Coherent destruction of tunneling with optimally designed polychromatic external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Subhasree, E-mail: subhasree81@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Serampore College, Hooghly (India); Talukder, Srijeeta; Sen, Shrabani; Chaudhury, Pinaki [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: • We design polychromatic fields causing CDT. • The field intensity is kept very low (∼10{sup 5} a.u). • We have used Floquet analysis for determining the two lowest quasi-energy states. • SA method is used as a stochastic optimizer to minimize the energy gap. • Quantum phase space dynamics has been obtained by using TDFGH method. - Abstract: A suitably designed polychromatic field with a very low field strength and low frequency (∼10{sup -5} atomic unit) can bring about coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) in a symmetric double well system. It is analyzed that in the presence of an external perturbation the difference of energy between the two lowest quasi-energy states may increase or decrease depending on the spatial and temporal nature of the perturbation. We have designed sets of polychromatic fields both spatially symmetric and antisymmetric, which cause CDT in symmetric double well system. A stochastic optimizer (Simulated Annealing) has been used to design such a polychromatic field periodic in time. Both spatial symmetry preserving or symmetry breaking perturbations may cause CDT for a symmetric double well potential.

  3. Modeling of external electric field effect on the carbon and silicon carbide nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, Veronika, E-mail: ansonika@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, Konstantin, E-mail: knikiforov@cc.spbu.ru [Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, 5 Prof. Popova, St. Petersburg, 197376 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Studying emission characteristics of nanotubes is extremely important for development of electronics. Compared to other electron sources nanotube-based field emitters allow obtaining significant emission currents at relatively low values of the applied field. It is possible due to their unique structure. This article is devoted to theoretical investigation how external electric field effects several samples of open single-wall nanotubes from carbon and silicon carbide. Total energies, dipole moments and band gaps for five types of nanotubes were calculated from the first principles. The numerical experiment results indicate the adequacy of modeling. It was concluded that considered configurations of achiral carbon nanotubes should be semiconductors.

  4. Communication: Polarizable polymer chain under external electric field in a dilute polymer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkov, Yu. A., E-mail: urabudkov@rambler.ru [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Department of Applied Mathematics, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, A. L. [Institut für Nichtklassische Chemie e.V., Universitat Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Kiselev, M. G. [G. A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of NMR Spectroscopy and Numerical Investigations of Liquids, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-28

    We study the conformational behavior of polarizable polymer chain under an external homogeneous electric field within the Flory type self-consistent field theory. We consider the influence of electric field on the polymer coil as well as on the polymer globule. We show that when the polymer chain conformation is a coil, application of external electric field leads to its additional swelling. However, when the polymer conformation is a globule, a sufficiently strong field can induce a globule-coil transition. We show that such “field-induced” globule-coil transition at the sufficiently small monomer polarizabilities goes quite smoothly. On the contrary, when the monomer polarizability exceeds a certain threshold value, the globule-coil transition occurs as a dramatic expansion in the regime of first-order phase transition. The developed theoretical model can be applied to predicting polymer globule density change under external electric field in order to provide more efficient processes of polymer functionalization, such as sorption, dyeing, and chemical modification.

  5. The effective potential of composite fields in weakly coupled QED in a uniform external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, D S; Ng, Y J; Shovkovy, I A

    1999-01-01

    The effective potential for the composite fields responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in weakly coupled QED in a magnetic field is derived. The global minimum of the effective potential is found to acquire a non-vanishing expectation value of the composite fields that leads to generating the dynamical fermion mass by an external magnetic field. The results are compared with those for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model.

  6. On the MOND External Field Effect in the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the internal dynamics of a gravitating system s embedded in a larger one S is affected by the external background field E of S even if it is constant and uniform, thus implying a violation of the Strong Equivalence Principle: it is the so-called External Field Effect (EFE). In the case of the solar system, E would be A_cen\\approx 10^-10 m s^-2 because of its motion through the Milky Way: it is orders of magnitude smaller than the main Newtonian monopole terms for the planets. We address here the following questions in a purely phenomenological manner: are the Sun's planets affected by an EFE as large as 10^-10 m s^-2? Can it be assumed that its effect is negligible for them because of its relatively small size? Does $\\bds E$ induce vanishing net orbital effects because of its constancy over typical solar system's planetary orbital periods? It turns out that a constant and uniform acceleration, treated perturbatively, does induce non-vanishing long-pe...

  7. Flavoured Large N Gauge Theory in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Filev, V G; Rashkov, R C; Viswanathan, K S; Filev, Veselin G.; Johnson, Clifford V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a D7-brane probe of AdS$_{5}\\times S^5$ in the presence of pure gauge $B$-field. In the dual gauge theory, the $B$-field couples to the fundamental matter introduced by the D7-brane and acts as an external magnetic field. The $B$-field supports a 6-form Ramond-Ramond potential on the D7-branes world volume that breaks the supersymmetry and enables the dual gauge theory to develop a non-zero fermionic condensate. We explore the dependence of the fermionic condensate on the bare quark mass $m_{q}$ and show that at zero bare quark mass a chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. A study of the meson spectrum reveals a coupling between the vector and scalar modes, and in the limit of weak magnetic field we observe Zeeman splitting of the states. We also observe the characteristic $\\sqrt{m_{q}}$ dependence of the ground state corresponding to the Goldstone boson of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry.

  8. Particle Production under External Fields and Its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents studies of vacuum pair productions and its applications in early universe cosmology and high energy astrophysics. Vacuum often becomes unstable and spontaneously decays into pairs of particles in rapidly expanding universes or under strong external electromagnetic fields. Theoretically, spontaneous pair productions due to such non-trivial backgrounds of spacetimes or electromagnetic fields are well-understood. However, the effect of particle productions has not been observed so far because of experiemtal difficulties in obtaining large curvatures of space-times or strong electric fields. Although it may be impossible to observe the pair productions directly via laboratory experiments, there are still powerful sources of space-time curvatures or electric fields in cosmology and astrophysics, which result in observations. In Part I, we explore the inflationary models in early universe utilizing pair productions through gravity. We study observable signatures on the cosmic microwave background, such as isocurvature perturbations and non-Gaussianities, generated from the particle production of WIMPzillas and axions during or after inflation. In Part II, we investigate the electron-positron pair production in the magnetosphere of pulsars whose electromagnetic fields are expected to close to or even greater than the pair production threshold. In particular, we demonstrate that the pair production may be responsible for giant pulses from the Crab pulsar.

  9. Wave Grouping of a Drifting Spiral Wave in the Presence of an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hu-Jiang; YANG Jun-Zhong; HU Gang

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of wave grouping, in which the dense waves and the sparse waves can form groups in front of the spiral tip when the spiral wave is meandering, has been reported in a chemical reaction system recently. We present a method to realize the phenomenon of wave grouping by applying an external field to the system. The numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of the FitzHugh-Nagumo equations.

  10. Effect of external magnetic field on the coexistence of SC and AFM in iron based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goi, S. K.; Pradhan, B.; Behera, Srikanta; Parida, P. K.; Mishra, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    We have studied the interplay of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in presence of an applied external magnetic field for the iron based superconductors. For the purpose we have proposed a model Hamiltonian and solved it self-consistently by using the Zubarev's technique of double time Green's function technique. The self-consistent gap equations are solved numerically and interpreted the gap values from the of density of states plots.

  11. Surface field in an ensemble of superconducting spheres under external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Peñaranda, A; Ramírez-Piscina, L

    1999-01-01

    We perform calculations of the magnetic field on the surface of an ensemble of superconducting spheres when placed into an external magnetic field, which is the configuration employed in superheated superconducting granule detectors. The Laplace equation is numerically solved with appropriate boundary conditions by means of an iterative procedure and a multipole expansion.

  12. Defect Formation in Superconducting Rings: External Fields and Finite-Size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, D. J.; Monaco, R.; Rivers, R. J.

    2013-06-01

    Consistent with the predictions of Kibble and Zurek, scaling behaviour has been seen in the production of fluxoids during temperature quenches of superconducting rings. However, deviations from the canonical behaviour arise because of finite-size effects and stray external fields. Technical developments, including laser heating and the use of long Josephson tunnel junctions, have improved the quality of data that can be obtained. With new experiments in mind we perform large-scale 3D simulations of quenches of small, thin rings of various geometries with fully dynamical electromagnetic fields, at nonzero externally applied magnetic flux. We find that the outcomes are, in practise, indistinguishable from those of much simpler Gaussian analytical approximations in which the rings are treated as one-dimensional systems and the magnetic field fluctuation-free.

  13. On Cluster Properties of Classical Ferromagnets in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Jürg; Rodríguez, Pierre-François

    2017-02-01

    Correlation functions of ferromagnetic spin systems satisfying a Lee-Yang property are studied. It is shown that, for classical systems in a non-vanishing uniform external magnetic field h, the connected correlation functions decay exponentially in the distances between the spins, i.e., the inverse correlation length ("mass gap"), m( h), is strictly positive. Our proof is very short and transparent and is valid for complex values of the external magnetic field h, provided that Re h not = 0. It implies a mean-field lower bound on m( h), as h searrow 0, first established by Lebowitz and Penrose for the Ising model. Our arguments also apply to some quantum spin systems.

  14. Spontaneous axisymmetry breaking of Saturn's external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Goldreich, Peter; Farmer, Alison J.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn's magnetic field is remarkably axisymmetric. Its dipole axis is inclined by less than 0.2 deg with respect to its rotation axis. Rotationally driven convection of magnetospheric plasma breaks the axisymmetry of its external magnetic field. Field aligned currents transfer angular momentum from the planet to a tongue of outflowing plasma. This transfer slows the rate of rotation of the ionosphere relative to that of the underlying atmosphere. The currents are the source for the non-axisymmetric components of the field. The common rotation rates of these components and Saturn's kilometric radio (SKR) bursts is that of the plasma near the orbit of Enceladus, and by extension the rotation rate in the ionosphere to which this plasma is coupled. That rate tells us nothing about the rotation rate of Saturn's deep interior. Of that we remain ignorant. Magnetic perturbations with magnitudes similar to those observed by Cassini are produced for Mdot ~ 10^4 g/s, a value similar to estimates for the rate of product...

  15. Holographic description of strongly correlated electrons in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2013-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of (2+1)-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. We compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators. As expecte...

  16. Effects of external magnetic field on biodistribution of nanoparticles: A histological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tony [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hua, M.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Chen Jyhping [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Wei, K.-C. [Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jung, S.-M. [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.-J. [Department of Neurology, Chang Gung University College of Medicine and Memorial Hospital, 199 Tung-Hwa N Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jou, M.-J. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ma, Y.-H. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of external magnetic fields on the biodistribution of nanoparticles (NP). A NdFeB magnet of 2.4 kG was externally applied over the left femoral artery or right kidney. The 250 nm dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NP was injected via tail vein in healthy rats, and organs were taken 1 or 24 h later. Prussian blue stain revealed that NP were more rapidly retained in the liver and spleen than in the lungs. NP aggregation observed in the kidney and femoral artery after application of external magnets was time dependent. Hollow organs such as the intestine, colon, and urinary bladder retained little NP.

  17. CURVATURE RELATION OF WAVE FRONT AND WAVE CHANGING IN EXTERNAL FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shen-quan; SONG Le

    2005-01-01

    The changing of wave structure in excitable media in external field is studied and the curvature relation of wave front is analyzed. Under external stimulus the normal velocity of wave front has linear relation with mean curvature of wave front, plane velocity and external field. The simulation methods have been used to analyze BarEiswirth model with external field and obtain the wave pattern of excitable media contained external stimulus. These theoretical analysis and simulation results are identical with experiments of BZ reaction. So the results here theoretically explain the BZ phenomenon under external field and the simulation results here have rich wave patterns.

  18. Effects of high external electric fields on protein conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, Pier Paolo; Bramanti, Alessandro; Maruccio, Giuseppe; del Mercato, Loretta Laureana; Chiuri, Rocco; Cingolani, Roberto; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-06-01

    Resistance of biomolecules to high electric fields is a main concern for nanobioelectronics/nanobiosensing applications, and it is also a relevant issue from a fundamental perspective, to understand the dielectric properties and structural dynamics of proteins. In nanoscale devices, biomolecules may experience electric fields as high as 107 V/m in order to elicit charge transport/transfer. Understanding the effects of such fields on their structural integrity is thus crucial to assess the reliability of biomolecular devices. In this study, we show experimental evidence for the retention of native-like fold pattern by proteins embedded in high electric fields. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, deposited onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying high static electric fields (up to 106-107 V/m). The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. This behavior is also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the intrinsic intra-protein electric fields. As the general features of such inner fields are not peculiar of azurin, the conclusions presented here should have general validity.

  19. Interfacing external sensors with Android smartphones through near field communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikanger, Tore; Häkkinen, Juha; Schuss, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to communicate with inter-integrated circuit (I2C) enabled circuits such as sensors over near field communication (NFC). The NFC-to-I2C interface was designed using a non-standard NFC command to control the I2C bus directly from a smartphone, which was controlling both, the read and write operations on the I2C bus. The NFC-to-I2C interface was reporting back the data bytes on the bus to the smartphone when the transaction was completed successfully. The proposed system was tested experimentally, both, with write and read requests to a commercial microcontroller featuring a hardware I2C port, as well as reading a commercial I2C enabled humidity and temperature sensor. We present experimental results of the system which show that our approach enables an easy interface between smartphones and external sensors. Interfacing external sensors is useful and beneficial for smartphone users, especially, if certain types of sensors are not available on smartphones.

  20. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  1. Signal amelioration of electrophoretically deposited whole-cell biosensors using external electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Yoav, Hadar, E-mail: benyoav@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Amzel, Tal [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sternheim, Marek [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Belkin, Shimshon [Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Rubin, Adi [Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Yosi [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Freeman, Amihay [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: > We present an electrochemical whole-cell biochip that can apply electric fields. > We examine the integration of cells on a biochip using electrophoretic deposition. > The effect of electric fields on the whole-cell biosensor has been demonstrated. > Relatively short DC electric pulse improves the performance of whole-cell biosensors. > Prolonged AC electric fields deteriorated the whole-cell biosensor performance. - Abstract: This paper presents an integrated whole-cell biochip system where functioning cells are deposited on the solid micro-machined surfaces while specially designed indium tin oxide electrodes that can be used to apply controllable electric fields during various stages; for example during cell deposition. The electrodes can be used also for sensing currents associated with the sensing mechanisms of electrochemical whole-cell biosensors. In this work a new approach integrating live bacterial cells on a biochip using electrophoretic deposition is presented. The biomaterial deposition technique was characterized under various driving potentials and chamber configurations. An analytical model of the electrophoretic deposition kinetics was developed and presented here. The deposited biomass included genetically engineered bacterial cells that may respond to toxic material exposure by expressing proteins that react with specific analytes generating electrochemically active byproducts. In this study the effect of external electric fields on the whole-cell biochips has been successfully developed and tested. The research hypothesis was that by applying electric fields on bacterial whole-cells, their permeability to the penetration of external analytes can be increased. This effect was tested and the results are shown here. The effect of prolonged and short external electric fields on the bioelectrochemical signal generated by sessile bacterial whole-cells in response to the presence of toxins was studied. It was demonstrated that relatively

  2. Relativistic Killingbeck energy states under external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshghi, M. [Islamic Azad University, Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehraban, H. [Semnan University, Faculty of Physics, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ikhdair, S.M. [An-Najah National University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Near East University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    We address the behavior of the Dirac equation with the Killingbeck radial potential including the external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields. The spin and pseudo-spin symmetries are considered. The correct bound state spectra and their corresponding wave functions are obtained. We seek such a solution using the biconfluent Heun's differential equation method. Further, we give some of our results at the end of this study. Our final results can be reduced to their non-relativistic forms by simply using some appropriate transformations. The spectra, in the spin and pseudo-spin symmetries, are very similar with a slight difference in energy spacing between different states. (orig.)

  3. Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk

    2015-01-01

    The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.

  4. Magnetic force of piezo electric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field based on magnetizing current metho d%外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统的磁化电流法磁力研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丹; 冷永刚; 范胜波; 高毓璣

    2015-01-01

    以外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统结构为研究对象,根据磁化电流方法探讨了具有悬臂梁特征的系统结构的磁场作用力及其计算方法,给出了相应的磁力计算模型,并将计算结果与实验数据进行了对比。研究表明,磁化电流方法导出的磁力计算模型存在偏差,其磁力计算误差随着磁铁间距缩小而增大。通过引入悬臂梁末端磁铁的偏转角度,对磁化电流法计算模型进行改进,得到合理的外加磁场压电悬臂梁能量采集系统的磁力计算模型,为该能量采集系统的进一步研究提供了可靠的磁力计算理论依据。%This paper focuses on the piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field. The calculation method and model for the magnetic force are proposed from the magnetizing current method, and the calculation results are compared with a set of experimental data. The study shows that there is a deviation in the calculation model derived by the magnetizing current method, which increases as the distance between two magnets decreases. The calculation model is improved by introducing the deflection angle of the magnet at the end of the cantilever beam, and is reliable to calculate the magnetic force of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesting system with an externally applied magnetic field for further studying this energy harvesting system.

  5. Near-microsecond human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in static and alternating external electric fields: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J; Garate, José-A

    2016-08-28

    An extensive suite of non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation has been performed for ∼0.85-0.9 μs of human aquaporin 4 in the absence and presence of externally applied static and alternating electric fields applied along the channels (in both axial directions in the static case, taken as the laboratory z-axis). These external fields were of 0.0065 V/Å (r.m.s.) intensity (of the same order as physiological electrical potentials); alternating fields ranged in frequency from 2.45 to 500 GHz. In-pore gating dynamics was studied, particularly of the relative propensities for "open" and "closed" states of the conserved arginines in the arginine/aromatic area (itself governed in no small part by external-field response of the dipolar alignment of the histidine-201 residue in the selectivity filter). In such a manner, the intimate connection of field-response governing "two-state" histidine states was established statistically and mechanistically. Given the appreciable size of the energy barriers for histidine-201 alignment, we have also performed non-equilibrium metadynamics/local-elevation of static fields applied along both directions to construct the free-energy landscape thereof in terms of external-field direction, elucidating the importance of field direction on energetics. We conclude from direct measurement of deterministic molecular dynamics in conjunction with applied-field metadynamics that the intrinsic electric field within the channel points along the +z-axis, such that externally applied static fields in this direction serve to "open" the channel in the selectivity-filter and the asparagine-proline-alanine region.

  6. Near-microsecond human aquaporin 4 gating dynamics in static and alternating external electric fields: Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Niall J.; Garate, José-A.

    2016-08-01

    An extensive suite of non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulation has been performed for ˜0.85-0.9 μs of human aquaporin 4 in the absence and presence of externally applied static and alternating electric fields applied along the channels (in both axial directions in the static case, taken as the laboratory z-axis). These external fields were of 0.0065 V/Å (r.m.s.) intensity (of the same order as physiological electrical potentials); alternating fields ranged in frequency from 2.45 to 500 GHz. In-pore gating dynamics was studied, particularly of the relative propensities for "open" and "closed" states of the conserved arginines in the arginine/aromatic area (itself governed in no small part by external-field response of the dipolar alignment of the histidine-201 residue in the selectivity filter). In such a manner, the intimate connection of field-response governing "two-state" histidine states was established statistically and mechanistically. Given the appreciable size of the energy barriers for histidine-201 alignment, we have also performed non-equilibrium metadynamics/local-elevation of static fields applied along both directions to construct the free-energy landscape thereof in terms of external-field direction, elucidating the importance of field direction on energetics. We conclude from direct measurement of deterministic molecular dynamics in conjunction with applied-field metadynamics that the intrinsic electric field within the channel points along the +z-axis, such that externally applied static fields in this direction serve to "open" the channel in the selectivity-filter and the asparagine-proline-alanine region.

  7. Explicit Piecewise Smooth Solutions of Landau-Lifshitz Equation with Discontinuous External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-shan Yang; Yun-zhang Zhang; Li-min Liu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we shall construct some explicit piecewise smooth(global continuous)solutions as well as blow up solutions to the multidimensional Landau-Lifshitz equation,subject to the external magnetic fields being both discontinuous and unbounded.When the external magnetic field is continuous,some explicit exact smooth solutions and blow up solution are also constructed.We also establish some necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure that the solution of multidimensional Landau-Lifshitz equation with external magnetic field converges to the solution of equation without external magnetic field when the external magnetic field tends to zero.

  8. Manipulating Majorana zero modes on atomic rings with an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Yazdani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Non-Abelian quasiparticles have been predicted to exist in a variety of condensed matter systems. Their defining property is that an adiabatic braid between two of them results in a non-trivial change of the quantum state of the system. The simplest non-Abelian quasiparticles--the Majorana bound states--can occur in one-dimensional electronic nano-structures proximity-coupled to a bulk superconductor. Here we propose a set-up, based on chains of magnetic adatoms on the surface of a thin-film superconductor, in which the control over an externally applied magnetic field suffices to create and manipulate Majorana bound states. We consider specifically rings of adatoms and show that they allow for the creation, annihilation, adiabatic motion and braiding of pairs of Majorana bound states by varying the magnitude and orientation of the external magnetic field.

  9. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Ali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  10. Transport properties of a charged hot spot in an external electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S., E-mail: sergeyb@ariel.ac.il; Komoshvili, K.; Prygarin, A.

    2016-06-15

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fluid element consisting of weakly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of this fluid volume is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the element with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the spot and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  11. On the interaction between the external magnetic field and nanofluid inside a vertical square duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kashif; Ahmad, Shabbir; Ahmad, Shahzad, E-mail: shahzadahmadbzu@gmail.com; Ashraf, Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Postal Code: 60800) (Pakistan)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we numerically study how the external magnetic field influences the flow and thermal characteristics of nanofluid inside a vertical square duct. The flow is considered to be laminar and hydrodynamically as well as thermally developed, whereas the thermal boundary condition of constant heat flux per unit axial length with constant peripheral temperature at any cross section, is assumed. The governing equations are solved using the spectral method and the finite difference method. Excellent comparison is noted in the numerical results given by the two methods but the spectral method is found to be superior in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. We have noted that the flow reversal due to high Raleigh number may be controlled by applying an external magnetic field of suitable strength. Moreover, the Nusselt number is found to be almost a linear function of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, for different values of the Raleigh number and the magnetic parameter.

  12. Transport properties of a charged drop in an external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, S; Prygarin, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fireball consisting of weekly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of the fireball is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the droplet with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the fireball and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  13. The Electron Propagator in External Electromagnetic Fields in Lower Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Murguia, Gabriela; Sanchez, Angel; Reyes, Edward

    2009-01-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in lower dimensions. In the case of free electrons, it is well known that the propagator in momentum space takes the simple form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot p-m)$. In the presence of external electromagnetic fields, electron asymptotic states are no longer plane-waves, and hence the propagator in the basis of momentum eigenstates has a more intricate form. Nevertheless, in the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$, where $\\Pi_\\mu$ is the canonical momentum operator, it acquires the free form $S_F(p)=1/(\\gamma\\cdot \\bar{p}-m)$ where $\\bar{p}_\\mu$ depends on the dynamical quantum numbers. We construct the electron propagator in the basis of the $(\\gamma\\cdot \\Pi)^2$ eigenfunctions. In the (2+1)-dimensional case, we obtain it in an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra incorporating to all orders the effects of a magnetic field of arbitrary spatial shape pointing perpendicularly to the plane of motion of the electrons...

  14. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  15. The effect of external magnetic field on plasma acceleration in electromagnetic railgun channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of a free plasma piston (PP) accelerated without solid striker armature in an electromagnetic railgun channel filled with various gases (argon or helium). It is established that, as the applied magnetic field grows, the velocity of a shock wave generated by PP in the channel increases. The experimental results are compared to a theoretical model that takes into account the gas pressure force behind the shock wave and the drag force that arises when erosion mass entering the channel is partly entrained by the accelerated plasma. The results of model calculations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The discrepancy somewhat increases with the applied field, but the maximum deviation still does not exceed 20%.

  16. Stabilisation of ballooning modes in torsatrons with an externally applied toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-09-01

    It has been found that ideal ballooning modes can impose very restrictive volume average {beta} limits in torsatrons much below the typical values close to 5% that are required to be economically realisable as reactor systems and it has been shown that externally applied toroidal currents that are peaked can destabilise the Mercier criterion in this type of configuration. We will show here that if the applied currents are hollow, they can stabilise the ballooning modes without triggering Mercier instabilities and as a result raise the limiting {beta}* from 2% to 5%. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs.

  17. Flexible magnetic filaments under the influence of external magnetic fields in the limit of infinite dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Joan J; Sánchez, Pedro A; Lüsebrink, Daniel; Kantorovich, Sofia; Sintes, Tomàs

    2016-05-14

    In the present work we use Langevin dynamics computer simulations to understand how the presence of a constant external magnetic field modifies the conformational phase diagram of magnetic filaments in the limit of infinite dilution. We have considered the filaments immersed in either a good (non-sticky filaments) or a poor (Stockmayer polymers) solvent. It has been found that in the presence of an applied field, filaments turn out to be much more susceptible to parameters such as temperature and solvent conditions. Filaments owe this increased susceptibility to the fact that the external magnetic field tends to level the free energy landscape as compared to the zero-field case. The field induces equalization in the free energy of competing conformational states that were separated by large energy differences in the zero-field limit. In this new scenario multistability arises, and manifests itself in the existence of broad regions in the phase diagram where two or more equilibrium configurations coexist. The existence of multistability greatly enhances the possibility of tuning the properties of the filament.

  18. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission—Application to Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzikos, Marios; Ferland, G. J.; Williams, R. J. R.; Porter, Ryan; van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background, as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus. These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field and show that about 60% of its emission lines are sensitive to background subtraction. We argue that this geometric approach could provide an additional tool toward understanding the complex radiation fields of starburst galaxies.

  19. A hint on the external field problem for matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekhov, L. (Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (USSR)); Makeenko, Y. (Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark) Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-03-26

    We reexamine the external field problem for NxN hermitian one-matrix model. We prove an equivalence of the models with the potentials tr ((1/2N)X{sup 2}+log X-{Lambda}X) and {Sigma}{sub k=1}{sup {infinity}}t{sub k} to X{sup k} provided the matrix {Lambda} is related to {l brace}t{sub k}{r brace} by t{sub k}=(1/k)tr{Lambda}{sup -k}-(N/2){delta}{sub k2}. Based on this equivalence we formulate a method for calculating the partition function by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations order by order of genus expansion. Explicit calculations of the partition function and of correlators of conformal operators with the puncture operator are presented in genus one. These results support the conjecture that our models are associated with the c=1 case in the same sense as the Kontsevich model describes c=0. (orig.).

  20. Influence of an external magnetic field on forced turbulence in a swirling flow of liquid metal

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile; Mordant, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We report an experimental investigation on the influence of an external magnetic field on forced 3D turbulence of liquid gallium in a closed vessel. We observe an exponential damping of the turbulent velocity fluctuations as a function of the interaction parameter N (ratio of Lorentz force over inertial terms of the Navier-Stokes equation). The flow structures develop some anisotropy but do not become bidimensional. From a dynamical viewpoint, the damping first occurs homogeneously over the whole spectrum of frequencies. For larger values of N, a very strong additional damping occurs at the highest frequencies. However, the injected mechanical power remains independent of the applied magnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of induced magnetic field and electrical potential differences shows a very weak correlation between magnetic field and velocity fluctuations. The observed reduction of the fluctuations is in agreement with a previously proposed mechanism for the saturation of turbulent dynamos and wit...

  1. The QCD phase diagram in the presence of an external magnetic field: the role of the inverse magnetic catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Márcio; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an external magnetic field in QCD phase diagram, namely, in the the location of the critical end point (CEP) is investigated. Using the 2+1 flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model with Polyakov loop, it is shown that when an external magnetic field is applied its effect on the CEP depends on the strength of the coupling. If the coupling depends on the magnetic field, allowing for inverse magnetic catalysis, the CEP moves to lower chemical potentials eventually disappearing, and the chiral restoration phase transition is always of first order.

  2. Effects of External Magnetic Fields on the Excited States of (ND)8 Metal Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Charles Alan

    Large changes in the steady state emissions and lifetimes as a function of external magnetic field strength have been observed for (nd)^8 mononuclear and binuclear complexes. These unusually pronounced effects are attributed to a field-induced symmetry reduction leading to a relaxation of transition dipole selection rules. Both spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field strength appear to play a role in determining the magnitude of the observed effect. A theoretical model has been developed to rationalize the results obtained for the Pt_2(H _2P_2O _5)_sp{4}{4-} ion. An analogous model should pertain to the mononuclear systems. Closed-shell (La(III), Lu(III)) rare earth salts of the Pt_2(H_2P _2O_5)_sp{4 }{4-} ion show the same dependence on an externally applied magnetic field as the previously examined K and Ba analogs, in all respects. However, the luminescence properties of the openshell salts are markedly different, even in the absence of a magnetic field. The zero-field phosphorescence lifetime of GdKPt_2 (H_2P_2O _5)_4 is one-tenth that of the closed-shell lifetime, but the position of the phosphorescence is unchanged from the closed-shell case. The application of an external magnetic field produces no further changes in the electronic properties of the open-shell salts. Salts containing rare earth ions with low-lying atomic states (Eu(III)) exhibit complete quenching of the Pt _2(H_2P_2 O_5)_sp{4}{4 -} phosphorescence, indicating efficient energy transfer. Results from complexes containing rare earth ions are analyzed in terms of an angular momentum coupling scheme. A recently published derivation of basis functions for the Pt_2(H_2 P_2O_5)_sp {4}{4-} ion including spin-orbit interactions was repeated and confirmed.

  3. The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)

  4. Effects of External Radiation Fields on Line Emission - Application to Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzikos, Marios; Williams, Robin; van Hoof, Peter; Porter, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A variety of astronomical environments contain clouds irradiated by a combination of isotropic and beamed radiation fields. For example, molecular clouds may be irradiated by the isotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB), as well as by a nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN). These radiation fields excite atoms and molecules and produce emission in different ways. We revisit the escape probability theorem and derive a novel expression that accounts for the presence of external radiation fields. We show that when the field is isotropic the escape probability is reduced relative to that in the absence of external radiation. This is in agreement with previous results obtained under ad hoc assumptions or with the two-level system, but can be applied to complex many-level models of atoms or molecules. This treatment is in the development version of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. We examine the spectrum of a Spitzer cloud embedded in the local interstellar radiation field, and show that about 60 percent of it...

  5. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: a molecular `tug-of-war'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Rajeev; Gurav, Nalini; Gejji, Shridhar; Bartolotti, Libero

    We investigate applying ab initio theoretical methods, the molecules Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and Methanol, CH3OH, encaged in hydrogen-bonded water ``buckyballs'' (H2O)20 , subjected to an externally applied electric field. While the water-cage (host) tends to confine the guest-molecule, the external electric field tends to stretch it along with its labile hydrogen-bonded host, resulting into a molecular `tug-of-war'. We appraise these two competing effects in terms of the extent of `screening' of the host by the cage and compare the response of the composite system in the form of the consequent structural mutations, redistributions in the electron density and the electrostatic potential leading to emergence and suppression of the covalent O-H characteristic frequency shifts in the infra-red vibrational spectrum. This study brings forth the cooperative effect of hydrogen-bonding up to a maximally sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which fragmentation of the water cage occurs. Partial support from The Center for Development in Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in terms of Computer time on the PARAM Supercomputing facility at Pune, MH, India, is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Entanglement in Anisotropic Heisenberg Model with Non-Uniform External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-Feng; CAO Jun-Peng; WANG Yu-Peng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study entanglement properties of the three-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model with both uniform and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Analytic expressions for the measures of entanglement at the ground state are obtained. We show that the pairwise entanglement and global entanglement of the system at the ground state clearly depend on the strength and configuration of external fields. The entanglement between some pairs can be enhanced by non-uniform external fields.

  7. External Electric Field-Assisted Laser Percussion Drilling for Highly Reflective Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ching Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an external electric field was employed during the laser percussion drilling on highly reflective materials. The laser-produced plasma was sputtered substantially, and the charged ions in the plasma plume were drawn by the electrodes. Different configurations of plate electrodes were proposed and investigated in this work to provide a simple, low-cost method that allows expelling the laser-induced plasma during the percussion drilling process. The electric field resulted from the potential that was applied across the two electrodes. This electrical perturbation produced a uniform electric field when the laser-generated plasma was created in the plane plate-charged capacitor. The electric field with different electrode configurations applied to the charged particles that are carrying the electrons was also simulated in this work. All processing work was performed in air under standard atmospheric conditions and in the absence of assisting process gas. The depth of the holes drilled when various types of electrode configurations were used was measured, and the results were used to evaluate the percussion drilling rate. Results show that vaporized debris is expelled by the applied electric field; hence, in optimal configuration the penetration depth can be increased by up to 91.1%.

  8. Noise-spectroscopy of multiqubit systems: Determining all their parameters by applying an external classical noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savel' ev, S., E-mail: S.Saveliev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Zagoskin, A.M. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Omelyanchouk, A.N. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2010-10-05

    Imagine that you have several sets of two coupled qubits, but you do not know the parameters of their Hamitonians. How to determine these without resorting to the usual spectroscopy approach to the problem? Based on numerical modeling, we show that all the parameters of a system of two coupled qubits can be determined by applying to it an external classical noise and analyzing the Fourier spectrum of the elements of the system's density matrix. In particular, the interlevel spacings as well as the strength and sign of the qubit-qubit coupling can be determined this way.

  9. Clinical analysis of the rap stress stimulator applied for crus fracture after skeletal external fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Hong, Jiayuan; Chen, Wei; Wu, Jin; Ding, Zhenqi

    2015-06-19

    Open crus fracture is still difficult in clinical treatment because of the delayed fracture union and high rate of nonunion after the operation. A consensus has been reached that mechanical stress can promote fracture healing. We independently developed a stress stimulator, which can provide longitudinal pressure for the fixed fracture end of the lower legs to promote fracture healing. The purpose of this study is to explore the advantages and clinical effect of the rap stress stimulator applied for open crus fracture after skeletal external fixation. One hundred and sixty-five patients (183 limbs) who suffered from open tibia and fibula fracture received skeletal external fixation, of which 108 limbs were treated with the rap stress stimulator after external fixation and 75 limbs were treated with regular functional exercises of muscle contraction and joint activity only. Then the fracture healing time and rate of nonunion were compared between the two groups. The mean fracture healing time and rate of nonunion in the group treated with the rap stress stimulator were 138.27 ±4.45 days and 3.70% respectively, compared to 153.43 ±4.89 days and 10.67% in the group treated without the stimulator. The rap stress stimulator significantly shortened the fracture healing time and reduced the rate of nonunion for treating open tibia and fibula fractures.

  10. Entropic repulsion of an interface in an external field

    OpenAIRE

    Velenik, Yvan Alain

    2004-01-01

    We consider an interface above an attractive hard wall in the complete wetting regime, and submitted to the action of an external increasing, convex potential, and study its delocalization as the intensity of this potential vanishes. Our main motivation is the analysis of critical prewetting, which corresponds to the choice of a linear external potential. We also present partial results on critical prewetting in the two dimensional Ising model, as well as a few (weak) results on pathwise esti...

  11. Earth's external magnetic fields at low orbital altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1990-01-01

    Under our Jun. 1987 proposal, Magnetic Signatures of Near-Earth Distributed Currents, we proposed to render operational a modeling procedure that had been previously developed to compute the magnetic effects of distributed currents flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. After adaptation of the software to our computing environment we would apply the model to low altitude satellite orbits and would utilize the MAGSAT data suite to guide the analysis. During the first year, basic computer codes to run model systems of Birkeland and ionospheric currents and several graphical output routines were made operational on a VAX 780 in our research facility. Software performance was evaluated using an input matchstick ionospheric current array, field aligned currents were calculated and magnetic perturbations along hypothetical satellite orbits were calculated. The basic operation of the model was verified. Software routines to analyze and display MAGSAT satellite data in terms of deviations with respect to the earth's internal field were also made operational during the first year effort. The complete set of MAGSAT data to be used for evaluation of the models was received at the end of the first year. A detailed annual report in May 1989 described these first year activities completely. That first annual report is included by reference in this final report. This document summarizes our additional activities during the second year of effort and describes the modeling software, its operation, and includes as an attachment the deliverable computer software specified under the contract.

  12. Error Field Assessment from Driven Rotation of Stable External Kinks at EXTRAP-T2R Reversed Field Pinch

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, F A; Brunsell, P R; Drake, J R; Olofsson, K E J

    2013-01-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n=10 and n=8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behavior was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic error fields of n=8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mo...

  13. Mechanism of Carbon Nanotubes Aligning along Applied Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shao-Jie; GUO Wan-Lin

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTS)aligning in the direction of external electric field is studied by quantum mechanics calculations.The rotational torque on the carbon nanotubes is proportional to the difference between the longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities and varies with the angle of SWCNTs to the external electric field.The longitudinal polarizability increases with second power of length,while the transverse polarizability increases linearly with length.A zigzag SWCNT has larger longitudinal and transverse polarizabilities than an armchair SWCNT with the same diameter and the discrepancy becomes larger for longer tubes.

  14. Role of external magnetic field and current closure in the force balance mechanism of a magnetically stabilized plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Ravi; Goyal, Vidhi

    2012-10-01

    Experimental investigations on the role of applied external magnetic field and return current closure in the force balance mechanism of a plasma torch are reported. The plasma torch is of low power and has wall, gas and magnetic stabilization mechanisms incorporated in it. Gas flow is divided into two parts: axial-central and peripheral-shroud, applied magnetic field is axial and return current is co-axial. Results indicate that application of large external magnetic field gives rise to not only J x B force but also, coupled with gas flow, to a new drag-cum-centrifugal force that acts on the plasma arc root and column. The magnetic field also plays a role in the return current closure dynamics and thus in the overall force balance mechanism. This in turn affects the electro-thermal efficiency of the plasma torch. Detailed experimental results, analytical calculations and physical model representing the processes will be presented and discussed.

  15. Effects of Potassium Currents upon Action Potential of Cardiac Cells Exposed to External Electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Ying Zhang; Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to high-voltage electric fields would influence the electro cardiogram both in experimental animate and human beings. The effects of the external electric fields upon action potential of cardiac cells are studied in this paper based on the dynamical model, LR91. Fourth order Runger-Kuta is used to analyze the change of potassium ion channels exposed to external electric fields in detail. Results indicate that external electric fields could influence the current of potassium ion by adding an induced component voltage on membrane. This phenomenon might be one of the reasons of heart rate anomaly under the high-voltage electric fields.

  16. External-field shifts in precision spectroscopy of hydrogen molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Korobov, Vladimir [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schiller, Stephan [Heinrich-Heine-Universitat Dusseldorf, Institut fur Experimentalphysik (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    The Effective Hamiltonian of the hydrogen molecular ions is a convenient tool for the evaluation of the shift of the energy levels of the ro-vibrational states and the frequencies of the transitions between them, due to external electric and magnetic fields. Using the Effective Hamiltonian, composite frequencies of suppressed susceptibility to external fields are constructed.

  17. 76 FR 55384 - External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Guidance of Applying Quantitative Data To Develop Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... AGENCY External Peer Review Meeting for the Draft Guidance of Applying Quantitative Data To Develop Data... register to attend this peer review meeting as observers. Time will be set aside for observers to give... finalizing the draft document, EPA intends to consider the comments from the external peer review...

  18. A method for the estimate of the wall diffusion for non-axisymmetric fields using rotating external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Fridström, R.; Setiadi, A. C.; Brunsell, P. R.; Volpe, F. A.; Drake, J.

    2013-08-01

    A new method for the estimate of the wall diffusion time of non-axisymmetric fields is developed. The method based on rotating external fields and on the measurement of the wall frequency response is developed and tested in EXTRAP T2R. The method allows the experimental estimate of the wall diffusion time for each Fourier harmonic and the estimate of the wall diffusion toroidal asymmetries. The method intrinsically considers the effects of three-dimensional structures and of the shell gaps. Far from the gaps, experimental results are in good agreement with the diffusion time estimated with a simple cylindrical model that assumes a homogeneous wall. The method is also applied with non-standard configurations of the coil array, in order to mimic tokamak-relevant settings with a partial wall coverage and active coils of large toroidal extent. The comparison with the full coverage results shows good agreement if the effects of the relevant sidebands are considered.

  19. Error field assessment from driven rotation of stable external kinks at EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J. R.; Olofsson, K. E. J.

    2013-04-01

    A new non-disruptive error field (EF) assessment technique not restricted to low density and thus low beta was demonstrated at the EXTRAP-T2R reversed field pinch. Stable and marginally stable external kink modes of toroidal mode number n = 10 and n = 8, respectively, were generated, and their rotation sustained, by means of rotating magnetic perturbations of the same n. Due to finite EFs, and in spite of the applied perturbations rotating uniformly and having constant amplitude, the kink modes were observed to rotate non-uniformly and be modulated in amplitude. This behaviour was used to precisely infer the amplitude and approximately estimate the toroidal phase of the EF. A subsequent scan permitted to optimize the toroidal phase. The technique was tested against deliberately applied as well as intrinsic EFs of n = 8 and 10. Corrections equal and opposite to the estimated error fields were applied. The efficacy of the error compensation was indicated by the increased discharge duration and more uniform mode rotation in response to a uniformly rotating perturbation. The results are in good agreement with theory, and the extension to lower n, to tearing modes and to tokamaks, including ITER, is discussed.

  20. [Effect of External Applying Compound Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. on Joint Pain of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juan; Tang, Xiao-po; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Xu; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Chun-yan; Wang, Li-ying; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effectiveness and safety of external applying Compound Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. (TwHF) in relieving joint pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In this double-blinded, randomized multicenter trial, a total of 174 moderately active RA patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the treatment group (treated with Compound TwHF, 87 cases) and the placebo control group (87 cases). Compound TwHF or placebo was externally applied in painful joints, 20 g each time, once per day for 8 weeks. Self-reported joint pain relief was taken as a primary effective indicator. Visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), VAS for general health (GH) were evaluated before treatment, at week 4 and after treatment. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were tested before and after treatment. Menstrual changes in females were observed during treatment. Skin irritation occurred during the recording process was assessed using skin irritation strength. Intention to treat (ITT) was statistically analyzed. The joint pain relief rate in the treatment group was 90.8% (79/87 cases), higher than that in the placebo control group (69.0%, 60/87 cases; P = 0.001). VAS pain score, DAS28, VAS for GH score were significantly improved in the two groups at week 4 of treatment and after treatment, as compared with before treatment (P 0.05). Eight adverse events occurred in the treatment group (5 skin allergy, 1 intolerance of medical odor, and 2 mild liver injury), while 3 adverse events occurred in the placebo control group (2 skin allergy, 1 mild liver injury). There was no statistical difference in adverse event between the two groups (P > 0.05). No menstrual change occurred in the treatment group. External applying Compound TwHF was an effective and safe way to relieve-joint pain of RA patients, which could be taken as an adjuvant therapy.

  1. A DFT study on the elastic and plastic properties of MoS2 nanosheet subjected to external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Shahnazari, A.; Malakpour, S.; Faghihnasiri, M.; Sahmani, S.

    2016-09-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) may be synthesized in a large variety of forms such as particles, monolayer and multilayers nanosheets/nanotubes, ropes and ribbons. Due to such diversity, several applications can be found for MoS2. In this paper, on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the Perdew- Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange correlation, the elastic properties including Young's and bulk moduli together with plastic properties of MoS2 nanosheet under external electric field with magnitudes within the range of 0 V/ang-1.5 V/ang are determined. It is demonstrated that up to the magnitude of 1 V/ang, the external electric field has a negligible influence on the bulk modulus of MoS2 nanosheet. However, by applying an external electric field equal to 1.3 V/ang, a significant increase in the value of bulk modulus occurs. Additionally, by applying an external electric field equal to 1.5 V/ang, the bulk modulus decreases suddenly, showing the considerable influence of high external electric field on the bulk modulus of MoS2 nanosheet. Also, it is observed that the first and second critical strains of the MoS2 nanosheet subjected to biaxial strain are smaller than those of the MoS2 nanosheet under uniaxial strain. Furthermore, it is revealed that for the both uniaxial and biaxial loading cases, by increasing the magnitude of external electric field, the stability of MoS2 nanosheet decreases.

  2. Macro-Behaviour of Agents' Opinion under Influence of an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Yun-Feng; CAI Xu

    2007-01-01

    @@ We propose a model to study the evolution of opinion under the influence of an external field on small world network. The macro-behaviour of agents' opinion and the relative change rate as time elapses are studied. The external field is found to play an important role in making the opinion s(t) balance or increase, and without the influence of the external field, the relative change rate γ(t) shows nonlinear increasing behaviour as time runs.What is more, this nonlinear increasing behaviour is independent of the initial condition, the strength of the external field and the time that we cancel the external field. The results may reflect some phenomena in our society, such as the function of the macro-control in China or the mass media in our society.

  3. Multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for measuring local mechanical properties of materials in external magnetic and electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hao; Huang, Hu; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Faxin; Fang, Daining

    2013-01-01

    Nano/micro-scale mechanical properties of multiferroic materials can be controlled by the external magnetic or electric field due to the coupling interaction. For the first time, a modularized multi-field nanoindentation apparatus for carrying out testing on materials in external magnetostatic/electrostatic field is constructed. Technical issues, such as the application of magnetic/electric field and the processes to diminish the interference between external fields and the other parts of the apparatus, are addressed. Tests on calibration specimen indicate the feasibility of the apparatus. The load-displacement curves of ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric materials in the presence/absence of external fields reveal the small-scale magnetomechanical and electromechanical coupling, showing as the Delta-E and Delta-H effects, i.e. the magnetic/electric field induced changes in the apparent elastic modulus and indentation hardness.

  4. Orbital motion in generalized static fields of FELs accounting for axial magnetic field, beam forces, undulator and external focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Various types of undulators with or without axial magnetic field are used in FELs. Supplementary beam focusing can be applied by wedging, inclining or profiling pole faces of plan undulators or superposing external focusing magnetic fields in addition to undulator own focusing. Space-charge forces influence significantly particle motion in high-current, low-energy electron beams. Finally, one can use simultaneously two or more different undulators for some specific purpose: more efficient and selective higher harmonics generation, changing polarization types and direction, gain enhancement in double-period undulator etc. All these cases can be treated by solving the generalized equations of transverse orbital motion in a linear approximation, which is widely used for orbit calculation, gives sufficient accuracy for practical purposes and allows to consider many variants and optimize the chosen one. The undulator field is described as a field of two plane undulators with mutually orthogonal fields and an arbitrary axial (phase) shift between them. Various values of the phase shift correspond to right- or left-handed helical undulators, plane undulator of different polarization etc. The general formulae are reduced to forms that allow easier examination of particular cases: planar or helical undulator combined with axial magnetic field or without it, gyroresonance, limiting beam current, polarization etc.

  5. External Fields and Chiral Symmetry Breaking in the Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2008-01-01

    Using the Sakai-Sugimoto model we study the effect of an external magnetic field on the dynamics of fundamental flavours in both the confined and deconfined phases of a large N_c gauge theory. We find that an external magnetic field promotes chiral symmetry breaking, consistent with the ``magnetic catalysis'' observed in the field theory literature, and seen in other studies using holographic duals. The external field increases the separation between the deconfinement temperature and the chiral symmetry restoring temperature. In the deconfined phase we investigate the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram and observe, for example, there exists a maximum critical temperature (at which symmetry is restored) for very large magnetic field. We find that this and certain other phenomena persist for the Sakai-Sugimoto type models with probe branes of diverse dimensions. We comment briefly on the dynamics in the presence of an external electric field.

  6. Encaged molecules in external electric fields: A molecular "tug-of-war"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Nalini D.; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Bartolotti, Libero J.; Pathak, Rajeev K.

    2016-08-01

    Response of polar molecules CH3OH and H2O2 and a non-polar molecule, CO2, as "guests" encapsulated in the dodecahedral water cage (H2O)20 "host," to an external, perturbative electric field is investigated theoretically. We employ the hybrid density-functionals M06-2X and ωB97X-D incorporating the effects of damped dispersion, in conjunction with the maug-cc-pVTZ basis set, amenable for a hydrogen bonding description. While the host cluster (cage) tends to confine the embedded guest molecule through cooperative hydrogen bonding, the applied electric field tends to rupture the cluster-composite by stretching it; these two competitive effects leading to a molecular "tug-of-war." The composite remains stable up to a maximal sustainable threshold electric field, beyond which, concomitant with the vanishing of the HOMO-LUMO gap, the field wins over and the cluster breaks down. The electric-field effects are gauged in terms of the changes in the molecular geometry of the confined species, interaction energy, molecular electrostatic potential surfaces, and frequency shifts of characteristic normal vibrations in the IR regime. Interestingly, beyond the characteristic threshold electric field, the labile, distorted host cluster fragmentizes, and the guest molecule still tethered to a remnant fragment, an effect attributed to the underlying hydrogen-bonded networks.

  7. Glassy behaviour of random field Ising spins on Bethe lattice in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Bannora; Galal Ismail; Wafaa Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamics and the phase diagram of random field Ising model (RFIM) on Bethe lattice are studied by using a replica trick. This lattice is placed in an external magnetic field (B). A Gaussian distribution of random field (hi) with zero mean and variance = H2RF is considered. The free-energy (F), the magnetization (M) and the order parameter (q) are investigated for several values of coordination number (z). The phase diagram shows several interesting behaviours and presents tricritical point at critical temperature TC = J/k and when HRF = 0 for finite z. The free-energy (F) values increase as T increases for different intensities of random field (HRF) and finite z. The internal energy (U) has a similar behaviour to that obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. The ground state of magnetization decreases as the intensity of random field HRF increases. The ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) phase boundary is clearly observed only when z →∞. While FM-PM-spin glass (SG) phase boundaries are present for finite z. The magnetic susceptibility (X) shows a sharp cusp at TC in a small random field for finite z and rounded different peaks on increasing HRF.

  8. BUBBLES OF LANDAU-LIFSHITZ EQUATIONS WITH APPLIED FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Shijin; Guo Boling

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the Landau-Lifshitz equations with applied magnetic fields. The equations describing the bubbles in the ferromagnets and the behaviors of the solutions near the singularities are given. We found that the applied fields do not affect the bubbles and we have the same conclusions as in reference [1].

  9. Effects of external fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaseghi, B., E-mail: vaseghi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Razavi, S.M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and photon statistics of a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement are investigated. With special attention to the optical scattering processes resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function are calculated and plotted for different external parameters. Our results show the occurrence of resonance fluorescence similar to atomic systems and considerable effects of external fields, quantum confinement and light polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function in the quantum dot systems. The existence of Mollow triplets and photon antibunching are strongly depend on these external agents.

  10. Effects of external fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, B.; Razavi, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields, dimension and polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and photon statistics of a spherical quantum dot with parabolic confinement are investigated. With special attention to the optical scattering processes resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function are calculated and plotted for different external parameters. Our results show the occurrence of resonance fluorescence similar to atomic systems and considerable effects of external fields, quantum confinement and light polarization on the resonance fluorescence spectrum and second-order correlation function in the quantum dot systems. The existence of Mollow triplets and photon antibunching are strongly depend on these external agents.

  11. Energy consumption in Hodgkin–Huxley type fast spiking neuron model exposed to an external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Usha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the change in metabolic energy required to maintain the signalling activity of neurons in the presence of an external electric field. We have analysed the Hodgkin–Huxley type conductance based fast spiking neuron model as electrical circuit by changing the frequency and amplitude of the applied electric field. The study has shown that, the presence of electric field increases the membrane potential, electrical energy supply and metabolic energy consumption. As the amplitude of applied electric field increases by keeping a constant frequency, the membrane potential increases and consequently the electrical energy supply and metabolic energy consumption increases. On increasing the frequency of the applied field, the peak value of membrane potential after depolarization gradually decreases as a result electrical energy supply decreases which results in a lower rate of hydrolysis of ATP molecules.

  12. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  13. Influence of External Magnetic Fields on Tunneling of Spin-1 Bose Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong; SUN Jin-Zuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we have studied the influence of the external magnetic fields on tunneling of the spin-1 Bose condensate. We find that the population transfer between spin-0 and spin-±1 exhibits the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field and a combination of static and cosinusoidal one, respectively. Compared with the longitudinal component of the external magnetic field, the smaller the transverse component of the magnetic field is, the larger the time scale of exhibiting the step structure does. The tunneling current may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior when the ratio of the transverse component of the magnetic field is smaller than that of the longitudinal component, otherwise it exhibits a damply oscillating behavior. This means that the dynamical spin localization can be adjusted by the external magnetic fields.

  14. External magnetic fields affect the biological impacts of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Lahooti, Afsaneh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Ghavami, Mahdi; Azhdarzadeh, Morteza

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are recognized as one of the promising nanomaterials for applications in various field of nanomedicine such as targeted imaging/drug delivery, tissue engineering, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Besides their suitable biocompatibility, SPIONs' unique magnetic properties make them an outstanding candidate for theranostic nanomedicine. Very recent progress in the field revealed that the presence of external magnetic fields may cause considerable amount of SPIONs' agglomeration in their colloidal suspension. As variation of physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles has strong effect on their biological outcomes, one can expect that the SPIONs' agglomeration in the presence of external magnetic fields could change their well-recognized biological impacts. In this case, here, we probed the cellular uptake and toxicity of the SPIONs before and after exposure to external magnetic fields. We found that the external magnetic fields can affect the biological outcome of magnetic nanoparticles.

  15. Dependence of Interaction Free Energy between Solutes on an External Electrostatic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Kun Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the athermal effect of an external electrostatic field on the stabilities of protein conformations and the binding affinities of protein-protein/ligand interactions, the dependences of the polar and hydrophobic interactions on the external electrostatic field, −Eext, were studied using molecular dynamics (MD simulations. By decomposing Eext into, along, and perpendicular to the direction formed by the two solutes, the effect of Eext on the interactions between these two solutes can be estimated based on the effects from these two components. Eext was applied along the direction of the electric dipole formed by two solutes with opposite charges. The attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes decreased for solutes treated as point charges. In contrast, the attractive interaction free energy between these two solutes increased, as observed by MD simulations, for Eext = 40 or 60 MV/cm. Eext was applied perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes. The attractive interaction free energy was increased for Eext = 100 MV/cm as a result of dielectric saturation. The force on the solutes along the direction of Eext computed from MD simulations was greater than that estimated from a continuum solvent in which the solutes were treated as point charges. To explore the hydrophobic interactions, Eext was applied to a water cluster containing two neutral solutes. The repulsive force between these solutes was decreased/increased for Eext along/perpendicular to the direction of the electric dipole formed by these two solutes.

  16. "Charged" phonons in an external field: a QED analog with Bose-Einstein condensates

    CERN Document Server

    Leizerovitch, Shay

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for using ultracold atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, to form an analog model of a relativistic massive field that carries "charge" and interacts with an external non-dynamical gauge field. Such a "scalar QED" analog model, may be useful for simulating certain of QFT involving charged particles. In particular, the Schwinger pair-creation of "charged" phonons in a constant external field, and vacuum instability.

  17. Influence of External Magnetic Field on Anomalous Skin Effects in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ming; WANG You-Nian

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using a one-dimensional slab model, we study the influence of the external static magnetic field on the anomalous skin effects in the inductively coupled plasma. The rf electromagnetic field in the plasma is determined by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation incorporating with the Maxwell equations. The numerical results show that,due to the existence of the external magnetic field, the anomalous skin effects are greatly enhanced and the number of regions with negative absorption is decreased.

  18. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Rong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  19. Synthesis of cobalt nanowires in aqueous solution under an external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the majority of related experiments, which are carried out in organic solvents at high temperatures and pressures, cobalt nanowires were synthesized by chemical reduction in aqueous solution with the assistance of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as surfactant under moderate conditions for the first time, while an external magnetic field of 40 mT was applied. Uniform linear cobalt nanowires with relatively smooth surfaces and firm structure were obtained and possessed an average diameter of about 100 nm with a coating layer of PVP. By comparison, the external magnetic field and PVP were proven to have a crucial influence on the morphology and the size of the synthesized cobalt nanowires. The prepared cobalt nanowires are crystalline and mainly consist of cobalt as well as a small amount of platinum. Magnetic measurements showed that the resultant cobalt nanowires were ferromagnetic at room temperature. The saturation magnetization (Ms and the coercivity (Hc were 112.00 emu/g and 352.87 Oe, respectively.

  20. Effect of an external electric field on the propagation velocity of premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez-Sanz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. There have been many experimental investigations into the ability of electric fields to enhance combustion by acting upon ion species present in flames [1]. In this work, we examine this phenomenon using a one-dimensional model of a lean premixed flame under the influence of a longitudinal electric field. We expand upon prior two-step chain-branching reaction laminar models with reactions to model the creation and consumption of both a positively-charged radical species and free electrons. Also included are the electromotive force in the conservation equation for ion species and the electrostatic form of the Maxwell equations in order to resolve ion transport by externally applied and internally induced electric fields. The numerical solution of these equations allows us to compute changes in flame speed due to electric fields. Further, the variation of key kinetic and transport parameters modifies the electrical sensitivity of the flame. From changes in flame speed and reactant profiles we are able to gain novel, valuable insight into how and why combustion can be controlled by electric fields.

  1. External magnetic field dependent shift of superparamagnetic blocking temperature due to core/surface disordered spin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan; Jang, Jung-tak; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Paek, Sun Ha; Bae, Seongtae

    2017-02-01

    Although the blocking temperature of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) is crucial for various spintronics and biomedical applications, the precise determination of the blocking temperature is still not clear. Here, we present ‘intrinsic’ and ‘extrinsic’ characteristics of the blocking temperature in SPNP systems. In zero-field-cooled/field-cooled (ZFC-FC) curves, there was no shift of ‘intrinsic blocking temperature’ at different applied external (excitation) magnetic fields. However, ‘extrinsic blocking temperature’ shift is clearly dependent on the external (excitation) magnetic field. According to our newly proposed physical model, the ‘intermediate spin layer’ located between the core and surface disordered spin layers is primarily responsible for the physical nature of the shift of extrinsic blocking temperature. Our new findings offer possibilities for characterizing the thermally induced physical properties of SPNPs. Furthermore, these findings provide a new empirical approach to indirectly estimate the qualitative degree of the disordered surface spin status in SPNPs.

  2. Constant External Fields in Gauge Theory and the Spin 0, 1/2, 1 Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, M; Schubert, C; Reuter, Martin; Schmidt, Michael G.; Schubert, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the ``string-inspired technique'' for gauge theory calculations in a constant external field background. Our approach is based on Strassler's worldline path integral approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism, and on the construction of worldline (super--) Green's functions incorporating external fields as well as internal propagators. The worldline path integral representation of the gluon loop is reexamined in detail. We calculate the two-loop effective actions induced for a constant external field by a scalar and spinor loop, and the corresponding one-loop effective action in the gluon loop case.

  3. Bandgap engineering of rippled MoS2 monolayer under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng; Feng, Ji

    2013-04-01

    In this letter we propose a universal strategy combining external electric field with the ripple of membrane to tune the bandgap of semiconducting atomic monolayer. By first-principles calculations we show that the bandgap of rippled MoS2 monolayer can be tuned in a large range by vertical external electric field, which is expected to have little effect on MoS2 monolayer. This phenomenon can be explained from charge redistribution under external electric field by a simple model. This may open an avenue of optimizing monolayer MoS2 for electronic and optoelectronic applications by surface patterning.

  4. Quantum transport of the semiconductor pump: Due to an axial external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yun-Chang, E-mail: phyxiaofan@163.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Wang, Ri-Xing, E-mail: wangrixing@sina.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000 (China); Deng, Wei-Ying, E-mail: weiyindeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Parametric semiconductor pump modulated by the external field is investigated. The pump center attaching to two normal leads is driven by the potentials formed in the interfaces. With the Floquet scattering matrix method, the pumped currents modulated by the parameters are studied. Results reveal that the charge and spin currents pumped from the system can be strengthen by the external field besides the potentials. Directed spin currents can be pumped more strongly than the charge currents, and even the pure spin currents can be achieved in some external field couplings to the pump parameters.

  5. Thermodynamics of relativistic Newton—Wigner particle in external potential field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A. S.; Filinov, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic properties of relativistic spinless particle described by the Klein-Gordon equation have been studied using the Newton-Wigner theory of particle in external potential field. Concept of Wiener path integral was extended on relativistic case. A new path integral Monte-Carlo method was developed for relativistic particle in external potential field. The bounds of applicability of available analytical approaches and related results have been specified by comparison with Monte-Carlo calculations. Developed path integral formalism can be directly extended on systems of many identical Newton-Wigner particles, which interact with external field and each other.

  6. Disorder Chaos in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model with External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei-Kuo

    2011-01-01

    Consider a spin system obtained by coupling two distinct Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) models with the same temperature and external field whose Hamiltonians are correlated. The disorder chaos conjecture for the SK model states that the overlap under the corresponding Gibbs measure is essentially concentrated at a single value. In the absence of external field, this statement was first confirmed by Chatterjee. In the present paper, using Guerra's replica symmetry-breaking bound, we prove that the SK model is also chaotic in the presence of external field and the position of the overlap is determined by an equation related to Guerra's bound and the Parisi measure.

  7. Phase diagrams of mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko

    2014-11-14

    We present a mean field theory to describe phase behaviors in mixtures of a polymer and a cholesteric liquid crystal under an external magnetic or electric field. Taking into account a chiral coupling between a polymer and a liquid crystal under the external field, we examine twist-untwist phase transitions and phase separations in the mixtures. It is found that a cholesteric-nematic phase transition can be induced by not only the external field but also concentration and temperature. Depending on the strength of the external field, we predict cholesteric-paranematic (Ch+pN), nematic-paranematic (N+pN), cholesteric-nematic (Ch+N) phase separations, etc., on the temperature-concentration plane. We also discuss mixtures of a non-chiral nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant.

  8. Facets of Tunneling Particle production in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, K

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of particle production in an uniform electric field and Schwarzchild-like spacetimes. Both problems can be reduced to solving an effective one-dimensional Schrodinger equation with a potential barrier. In the electric field case, the potential is that of an inverted oscillator -x^2 while in the case of Schwarchild-like spacetimes, the potential is of the form -1/x^2 near the horizon. The transmission and reflection coefficients can easily be obtained for both potentials. To describe particle production, these coefficients have to be suitably interpreted. In the case of the electric field, the standard Bogoliubov coefficients can be identified and the standard gauge invariant result is recovered. However, for Schwarzchild-like spacetimes, such a tunnelling interpretation appears to be invalid. The Bogoliubov coefficients cannot be determined by using an identification process similar to that invoked in the case of the electric field. The reason for such a discrepancy appea...

  9. Infrared polarimetry and the magnetic field in external galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay

    1990-01-01

    Here researchers report for the first time infrared polarimetry of the normal edge on spiral NGC 4565 and the interacting pair NGC 3690/IC 694 (Arp 299). These observations, as well as previous observations, were made with the Minnesota Infrared Polarimeter on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility during the past year. The goal is to explore the magnetic field geometry in these galaxies and to determine the extent to which the field is ordered and uniform.

  10. On the string-inspired approach to QED in external field

    CERN Document Server

    Shaisultanov, R Z

    1995-01-01

    Strassler's formulation of the string-derived Bern-Kosower formalism is extended to consider QED processes in homogeneous constant external field. A compact expression for the contribution of the one-loop with arbitrary number of external photon lines is given for scalar QED. Extension to spinor QED is shortly discussed.

  11. Wetting of sessile water drop under an external electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancauwenberghe, Valerie; di Marco, Paolo; Brutin, David; Amu Collaboration; Unipi Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    The enhancement of heat and mass transfer using a static electric field is an interesting process for industrial applications, due to its low energy consumption and potentially high level of evaporation rate enhancement. However, to date, this phenomenon is still not understood in the context of the evaporation of sessile drops. We previously synthesized the state of the art concerning the effect of an electric field on sessile drops with a focus on the change of contact angle and shape and the influence of the evaporation rate [1]. We present here the preliminary results of an new experiment set-up. The novelty of the set-up is the drop injection from the bottom that allows to generate safety the droplet under the electrostatic field. The evaporation at room temperature of water drops having three different volumes has been investigated under an electric field up to 10.5 kV/cm. The time evolutions of the contact angles, volumes and diameters have been analysed. As reported in the literature, the drop elongate along the direction of the electric field. Despite the hysteresis effect of the contact angle, the receding contact angle increases with the strength of the electric field. This is clearly observable for the small drops for which the gravity effect can be neglected.

  12. Modulating protein behaviors on responsive surface by external electric fields: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yun, E-mail: xieyunxx@gdpu.edu.cn; Pan, Yufang; Zhang, Rong; Liang, Ying; Li, Zhanchao

    2015-01-30

    phosphate groups after overcoming a slight energy barrier. Under three states, the basic backbone structures of Cyt c are well kept within the simulation time since the conformation of Cyt c is mainly affected by the surface-generated electric fields, whose strengths are modulated by the external electric fields and are not strong enough to deform protein. The results indicate the possibility of regulating protein behaviors, including promoting or retarding protein adsorption and regulating protein orientations, on responsive surfaces by applying electric fields on the surfaces without worrying protein deformation, which may be helpful in the applications of protein separation and controlled drug delivery.

  13. Bending of Layer-by-Layer Films Driven by an External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on optimized architectures containing layer-by-layer (LbL films of natural rubber latex (NRL, carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC and magnetite (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNPs deposited on flexible substrates, which could be easily bent by an external magnetic field. The mechanical response depended on the number of deposited layers and was explained semi-quantitatively with a fully atomistic model, where the LbL film was represented as superposing layers of hexagonal graphene-like atomic arrangements deposited on a stiffer substrate. The bending with no direct current or voltage being applied to a supramolecular structure containing biocompatible and antimicrobial materials represents a proof-of-principle experiment that is promising for tissue engineering applications in biomedicine.

  14. Dynamics of a Dirac oscillator coupled to an external field: a new class of solvable problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SadurnI, E; Torres, J M; Seligman, T H, E-mail: sadurni@fis.unam.m, E-mail: mau@fis.unam.m, E-mail: seligman@fis.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-16

    The Dirac oscillator coupled to an external two-component field can retain its solvability, if couplings are appropriately chosen. This provides a new class of integrable systems. A simplified way of a solution is given by recasting the known solution of the Dirac oscillator into matrix form; there one notes that a block-diagonal form arises in a Hamiltonian formulation. The blocks are two dimensional. Choosing couplings that do not affect the block structure, these blow up the 2 x 2 matrices to 4 x 4 matrices, thus conserving solvability. The result can be cast again in covariant form. By way of an example we apply this exact solution to calculate the evolution of entanglement.

  15. Dynamics of a Dirac oscillator coupled to an external field: a new class of solvable problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadurní, E.; Torres, J. M.; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-07-01

    The Dirac oscillator coupled to an external two-component field can retain its solvability, if couplings are appropriately chosen. This provides a new class of integrable systems. A simplified way of a solution is given by recasting the known solution of the Dirac oscillator into matrix form; there one notes that a block-diagonal form arises in a Hamiltonian formulation. The blocks are two dimensional. Choosing couplings that do not affect the block structure, these blow up the 2 × 2 matrices to 4 × 4 matrices, thus conserving solvability. The result can be cast again in covariant form. By way of an example we apply this exact solution to calculate the evolution of entanglement.

  16. Pull-in control due to Casimir forces using external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R; Cocoletzi, G H

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the pull-in control in capacitive micro switches actuated by Casimir forces, using external magnetic fields. The external magnetic fields induces an optical anisotropy due to the excitation of magneto plasmons, that reduces the Casimir force. The calculations are performed in the Voigt configuration, and the results show that as the magnetic field increases the system becomes more stable. The detachment length for a cantilever is also calculated for a cantilever, showing that it increases with increasing magnetic field. At the pull-in separation, the stiffness of the system decreases with increasing magnetic field.

  17. Hydrophilic quantum dots stability against an external low-strength electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goftman, Valentina V., E-mail: Valentina.Goftman@UGent.be [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Pankratov, Vladislav A.; Markin, Alexey V. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Ginste, Dries Vande [IBCN/Electromagnetics Group, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 B-Gent (Belgium); De Saeger, Sarah [Laboratory of Food Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goryacheva, Irina Yu. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Chemistry Institute, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silica-coated and polymer-covered hydrophilic quantum dots are synthesized and characterized. • Impact of low-strength electric field is compared for both hydrophilic shells. • Silica shell protects the quantum dots fluorescent core when being subjected to a low-strength electric field. - Abstract: Since the stability of nanobiolabels plays a key role in their application, we thoroughly investigated how an external, low-strength electric field impacts on the fluorescent properties of hydrophilic quantum dots (QDs). Two fundamentally different approaches were applied to make the QDs water-soluble, i.e. ligand exchange (namely silica covering) and encapsulation with an amphiphilic polymer. It is shown that, even under a low-strength electric field, the polymer-coated QDs could lose 90% of their brightness because of the weak interaction between the QD's surface and the polymeric molecule. Silica-covered QDs, on the contrary, stay bright and stable owing to the covalently attached dense silica shell. These findings, which are clearly explained and illustrated in the present paper, are of critical importance in the context of hydrophilic QDs’ bioapplication.

  18. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  19. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic peptides including diphenylalanine (FF) have the capacity to self-assemble into ordered, biocompatible nanostructures with piezoelectric properties relevant to a variety of biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we examine the response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate ordered aggregation, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. This is modulated by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g., backbone stretching) and by the cooperative alignment of neighboring FF and water molecules. These observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nanostructured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their electro-mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engineering Topological Surface State of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Lian, Ruqian; Yang, Yanmin; Xu, Guigui; Zhong, Kehua; Huang, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    External electric field control of topological surface states (SSs) is significant for the next generation of condensed matter research and topological quantum devices. Here, we present a first-principles study of the SSs in the magnetic topological insulator (MTI) Cr-doped Bi2Se3 under external electric field. The charge transfer, electric potential, band structure and magnetism of the pure and Cr doped Bi2Se3 film have been investigated. It is found that the competition between charge transfer and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) will lead to an electrically tunable band gap in Bi2Se3 film under external electric field. As Cr atom doped, the charge transfer of Bi2Se3 film under external electric field obviously decreases. Remarkably, the band gap of Cr doped Bi2Se3 film can be greatly engineered by the external electric field due to its special band structure. Furthermore, magnetic coupling of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 could be even mediated via the control of electric field. It is demonstrated that external electric field plays an important role on the electronic and magnetic properties of Cr-doped Bi2Se3 film. Our results may promote the development of electronic and spintronic applications of magnetic topological insulator.

  1. Effects of an external magnetic field in pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, C.P. 09790, Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: tupacgarcia@yahoo.com; Posada, E. de [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico); Villagran, M. [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), A.P. 70-186, C.P. 04510, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ll, J.L. Sanchez [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Bartolo-Perez, P.; Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida, Applied Physics Department, A.P. 73, Cordemex, C.P. 97130 Merida, Yuc. (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    Thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition, PLD, on Si (1 0 0) substrates by the ablation of a sintered ceramic SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} target with and without the presence of a nonhomogeneous magnetic field of {mu}{sub 0}H = 0.4 T perpendicular to substrate plane and parallel to the plasma expansion axis. The field was produced by a rectangular-shaped Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet and the substrate was just placed on the magnet surface (Aurora method). An appreciable increment of optical emission due to the presence of the magnetic field was observed, but no film composition change or thickness increment was obtained. It suggests that the increment of the optical emission is due mainly to the electron confinement rather than confinement of ionic species.

  2. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  3. Carboxylated Capped Carbon Nanotubes Interacting with Nimesulide Molecules: Applied Electric Fields Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of carboxylated capped carbon nanotubes with nimesulide molecules under electric fields were investigated by ab initio simulations. Repulsive forces between the nimesulide molecules and the carboxyl group of the carbon nanotubes, except for the nimesulide radical configuration, were observed. To keep the original molecule in the pristine form, electric fields with different intensities were applied, where changes in the behavior of the interactions between the molecules were noticed. It was shown that the intensity of the interaction between the nimesulide and the hydrophilic carboxylated capped carbon nanotube can be modulated by the action of the external electric fields making promising systems for drug delivery applications.

  4. A Mechanism of ELM Mitigation by External Magnetic Field Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghvendra; Jhang, H.; Kim, J.-H.; Hahm, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the impact of external magnetic perturbations (EMP) on the stability of ballooning mode (BM). We use: 1) the two-step process; 2) standard four wave interactions. In two-step process, we consider EMP are long wave-length perturbations interacting with short scale BM and generating side-bands of higher harmonics. This calculates contributions from all the high toroidal mode numbers. EMP can modify the dispersion characteristics of BM - the growth spectrum becomes broader in kBM space. The increase in high kBM can lead to the mitigation of an ELM crash by increasing turbulent transport. New nonlinear instability is also found even below the BM threshold at large EMP amplitude. In four wave interaction, EMP act like a short scale pump wave interacting with BM and creating two sidebands. The side-bands couple with the pump and produce the ponderomotive force, magnetic stress at BM frequency. EMP may enhance the BM instability threshold if RMP K->BM RMP and reduce the threshold if K->BM >K->RMP .

  5. Quantum Dynamics of Biological Plasma in the External Coulomb Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.

    2013-10-01

    A quantum solution to the truncated Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with Coulomb convection and linear diffusion is derived. The quantum radiation of biological systems, individual microorganisms (cells, bacteria), and dust plasma particles in the Coulomb field is studied using the foregoing solution.

  6. Surface paraconductivity induced by an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B.Y. (Jack and Pearl Resnik Institute of Advance Technology, Physics Department, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel))

    1993-12-01

    The fluctuating properties of the surface superconducting layers created by an electric field perpendicular to the surface are investigated. Shifts of the critical temperature, heat capacity, and the conductivity above the critical temperature have been calculated for arbitrary relations between the screening and coherence lengths.

  7. Effect of a DC external electric field on the properties of a nonuniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at reduced pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Yu. A., E-mail: lebedev@ips.ac.ru; Krashevskaya, G. V.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Titov, A. Yu.; Epshtein, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The effect of a dc external electrical field on the properties of a highly nonuniform electrode microwave discharge in hydrogen at a pressure of 1 Torr was studied using optical emission spectroscopy and selfconsistent two-dimensional simulations. It is shown that the negative voltage applied to the antenna electrode with respect to the grounded chamber increases the discharge radiation intensity, while the positive voltage does not affect the discharge properties. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data.

  8. An Importance Sampling Scheme for Models in a Strong External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Molkaraie, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    We propose Monte Carlo methods to estimate the partition function of the two-dimensional Ising model in the presence of an external magnetic field. The estimation is done in the dual of the Forney factor graph representing the model. The proposed methods can efficiently compute an estimate of the partition function in a wide range of model parameters. As an example, we consider models that are in a strong external field.

  9. The Potts Model on a Bethe Lattice in an External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, S. V.; Smagin, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    A solution for the Potts model with arbitrary number of states on a Bethe lattice in a nonzero external field has been obtained. A line of first-order phase transitions has been constructed in the temperature - external-field plane, terminating at the point of the second-order phase transition. The magnitude of the magnetization jump on the phase-transition lines has been found, as well as some of the critical exponents characterizing this phase transition.

  10. Investigation of Multiscale Non-equilibrium Flow Dynamics Under External Force Field

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Tianbai

    2016-01-01

    The multiple scale non-equilibrium gaseous flow behavior under external force field is investigated. Both theoretical analysis based on the kinetic model equation and numerical study are presented to demonstrate the dynamic effect of external force on the flow evolution, especially on the non-equilibrium heat flux. The current numerical experiment is based on the well-balanced unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS), which presents accurate solutions in the whole flow regime from the continuum Navier-Stokes solution to the transition and free molecular ones. The heat conduction in the non-equilibrium regime due to the external forcing term is quantitatively investigated. In the lid-driven cavity flow study, due to the external force field the density distribution inside cavity gets stratified and a multiscale non-equilibrium flow transport appears in a single gas dynamic system. With the increment of external forcing term, the flow topological structure changes dramatically, and the temperature gradient, shearing s...

  11. Numerical simulation of a backward-facing step flow in a microchannel with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-He Yao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A backward-facing step flow in the microchannel with external electric field was investigated numerically by a high-order accuracy upwind compact difference scheme in this work. The Poisson–Boltzmann and Navier–Stokes equations were computed by the high-order scheme, and the results confirmed the ability of the new solver in simulation of micro-scale electric double layer effects. The flow fields were displayed for different Reynolds numbers; the positions of the vortex saddle point of model with external electric field and model without external electric field were compared. The average velocity increases linearly with the electric field intensity; however, the Joule heating effects cannot be neglected when the electric field intensity increases to a certain level.

  12. Thermal entanglement in a mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ model under a nonuniform external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The thermal entanglement in (1/2,1) mixed-spin Heisenberg XXZ model is investigated under an external nonuniform magnetic field. In the uniform magnetic field system,the critical magnetic field Bc and critical temperature Tc are increased by increasing the anisotropic parameter k. The degree of magnetic field b plays an important role in improving the critical temperature and enlarging the region of entan-glement in the nonuniform magnetic field system.

  13. Ion-cage interpretation for the structural and dynamic changes of ionic liquids under an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2013-05-01

    In many applications, ionic liquids (ILs) work in a nonequilibrium steady state driven by an external electric field. However, how the electric field changes the structure and dynamics of ILs and its underlying mechanism still remain poorly understood. In this paper, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the structure and dynamics of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ([EMIm][NO3]) under a static electric field. The ion cage structure was found to play an essential role in determining the structural and dynamic properties of the IL system. With a weak or moderate electric field (0-10(7) V/m), the external electric field is too weak to modify the ion cage structure in an influential way and thus the changes of structural and dynamic properties are negligible. With a strong electric field (10(7)-10(9) V/m) applied, ion cages expand and deform apparently, leading to the increase of ion mobility and self-diffusion coefficient with electric field, and the self-diffusion of ions along the electric field becomes faster than the other two directions due to the anisotropic deformation of ion cages. In addition, the Einstein relation connecting diffusion and mobility breaks down at strong electric fields, and it also breaks down for a single ion species even at moderate electric fields (linear-response region).

  14. Properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔帅帅; 彭光雄; 陆振烟; 彭程; 徐建峰

    2015-01-01

    The properties of color-flavor locked strange quark matter in an external strong magnetic field are investigated in a quark model with density-dependent quark masses. Parameters are determined by stability arguments. It is found that the minimum energy per baryon of the color-flavor locked (MCFL) matter decreases with increasing magnetic-field strength in a certain range, which makes MCFL matter more stable than other phases within a proper magnitude of the external magnetic field. However, if the energy of the field itself is added, the total energy per baryon will increase.

  15. Stainless steel surface wettability control via laser ablation in external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkov, A. A.; Shafeev, G. A.; Barmina, E. V.; Loufardaki, A.; Stratakis, E.

    2016-12-01

    Laser ablation of stainless steel in external electric field (up to 10 kV/cm) is experimentally studied. The dependencies of both morphology and chemical properties of surface structures on laser parameters and electric field strength are investigated. Surface wettability properties of the laser-treated samples are considered by means of contact angle measurement. It is shown that under certain conditions laser irradiation in external electric field can render the surface superhydrophobic. Influence of electric field on the laser surface treatment is discussed on basis of its impact on melt solidification and oxidation processes.

  16. Total cross-section for photon-axion conversions in external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Soa, D V; Tham, T D

    2014-01-01

    We reconsider the conversion of the photon into axion in the external electromagnetic fields, namely in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. The total cross-sections for the conversion are evaluated in detail. The result shows that with strong strength of external electromagnetic fields, the cross-sections are large enough to measure the axion production. In the wave guide there exists the resonant conversion at the low energies, in which the value of cross-sections is much enhanced

  17. Electron-positron pair production in space-time varying external electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, I A; Shabaev, V M

    2016-01-01

    The Schwinger mechanism of the electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach was developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations a few generic properties of pair-creation process are found. The method employed is described in detail.

  18. Vortex String Dynamics in an External Antisymmetric Tensor Field

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Shin, H J

    1999-01-01

    We study the Lund-Regge equation that governs the motion of strings in a constant background antisymmetric tensor field by using the duality between the Lund-Regge equation and the complex sine-Gordon equation. Similar to the cases of vortex filament configurations in fluid dynamics, we find various exact solitonic string configurations which are the analogue of the Kelvin wave, the Hasimoto soliton and the smoke ring. In particular, using the duality relation, we obtain a completely new type of configuration which corresponds to the breather of the complex sine-Gordon equation.

  19. Fracture problem for an external circumferential crack in a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to a parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Gao, S.W. [College of Civil Engineering, Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Feng, W.J., E-mail: wjfeng9999@126.com [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • External circumferential crack problem of superconducting cylinder is investigated. • A functionally graded superconducting cylinder is analyzed. • The magnetically impermeable crack surface condition is applied. • The generalized Irie-Yamafuji critical state model outside the crack region is adopted. - Abstract: In this study, the multiple isoparametric finite element method (MIFEM) is used to investigate external circumferential crack problem of a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to electromagnetic forces. The superconducting cylinder is composed by Bi2223/Ag composite with material parameters varying. A crack reference region is defined to reflect the effects of crack on flux and current densities, and the magnetically impermeable crack surface condition and the generalized Irie–Yamafuji critical state model outside the crack region are adopted. The distributions of magnetic flux density in the superconducting cylinder are obtained analytically for both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and the field cooling (FC) activation processes. Based on the MIFEM, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) at crack fronts in the process of field ascent and/or descent are then numerically calculated. It is interesting to note from numerical results that for the present crack model in the ZFC activation process, the crack is easily propagate and grow with the applied field increases, and that in the field descent process of either the ZFC case or FC case, the crack generally does not propagate. In addition, in the field ascent process of the ZFC case, the SIFs depend on not only the crack depths and model parameters but also the applied field. The present study should be helpful to the design and application of high-temperature superconductors with external edge cracks.

  20. Impact of spin-zero particle-photon interactions on light polarization in external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Yi [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)]. E-mail: liaoy@nankai.edu.cn

    2007-07-05

    If the recent PVLAS results on polarization changes of a linearly polarized laser beam passing through a magnetic field are interpreted by an axion-like particle, it is almost certain that it is not a standard QCD axion. Considering this, we study the general effective interactions of photons with spin-zero particles without restricting the latter to be a pseudo-scalar or a scalar, i.e., a parity eigenstate. At the lowest order in effective field theory, there are two dimension-5 interactions, each of which has previously been treated separately for a pseudo-scalar or a scalar particle. By following the evolution in an external magnetic field of the system of spin-zero particles and photons, we compute the changes in light polarization and the transition probability for two experimental set-ups: one-way propagation and round-trip propagation. While the first may be relevant for astrophysical sources of spin-zero particles, the second applies to laboratory optical experiments like PVLAS. In the one-way propagation, interesting phenomena can occur for special configurations of polarization where, for instance, transition occurs but light polarization does not change. For the round-trip propagation, however, the standard results of polarization changes for a pseudoscalar or a scalar are only modified by a factor that depends on the relative strength of the two interactions.

  1. Effect of external electric field on morphology of copper phthalocyanine-fullerene blended films during annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Anukul Prasad; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The thin-film morphology and segregated phases of constituents in blends of organic semiconductors play an important role in determining the performance of devices fabricated with these constituents. In this study, we explored the effect of an external electric field applied during annealing on the morphology and phase of blended films of two popular organic semiconductors, copper pthalocyanine (CuPc) and buckminsterfullerene (C60). Films of different blend ratios annealed at various temperatures in both the presence and absence of an electric field were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The characteristics of annealed pristine CuPc films were also included for comparison. The observed changes in the properties of the blended films following the annealing, including the abrupt phase segregation of the blended constituents in the films, are discussed. The polarizability of the molecules was calculated using density functional theory (DFT) to explain the interaction, stacking, and segregation of the molecules in the blend. The results showed that application of an electric field during annealing of the blended films is an additional control parameter that can help tune the properties of the blended film. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Impact of spin-zero particle-photon interactions on light polarization in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yi

    2007-01-01

    If the recent PVLAS results on polarization changes of a linearly polarized laser beam passing through a magnetic field are interpreted by an axion-like particle, it is almost certain that it is not a standard QCD axion. Considering this, we study the general effective interactions of photons with spin-zero particles without restricting the latter to be a pseudo-scalar or a scalar, i.e., a parity eigenstate. To lowest order in effective field theory, there are two dimension-5 interactions, each of which has previously been treated separately for a pseudo-scalar or a scalar particle. By following the evolution in an external magnetic field of the system of spin-zero particles and photons, we compute the changes of light polarization and the transition probability for two experimental set-ups: one-way propagation and round-trip propagation. While the first may be relevant for astrophysical sources of spin-zero particles, the second applies to laboratory optical experiments like PVLAS. We find that interference ...

  3. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  4. Externally imposed electric field enhances plant root tip regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Nicolas; Hanna Ougolnikova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis. Crucially, we explored both spatial and temporal competences of the stump to respond to electrical stimulation, by varying respectively the position of the cut and the time interval between excision and stimulation. Our data indicate that a brief pulse of an electric field parallel to the root is sufficient to increase by up to two‐fold the probability of its regeneration, and to perturb the local distribution of the hormone auxin, as well as cell division regulation. Remarkably, the orientation of the root towards the anode or the cathode is shown to play a role. PMID:27606066

  5. The effects of intense laser field and applied electric and magnetic fields on optical properties of an asymmetric quantum well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, R.L., E-mail: pfrire@eia.edu.co [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia-EIA, Envigado (Colombia); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Ungan, F.; Kasapoglu, E. [Department of Physics, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonóma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Morales, A.L.; Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia-UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the results of the theoretical study of the effects of non-resonant intense laser field and electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties (the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive index and absorption coefficients) in an asymmetric quantum well. The electric field and intense laser field are applied along the growth direction of the asymmetric quantum well and the magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly. To calculate the energy and the wave functions of the electron in the asymmetric quantum well, the effective mass approximation and the method of envelope wave function are used. The asymmetric quantum well is constructed by using different aluminium concentrations in both right and left barriers. The confinement in the quantum well is changed drastically by either the effect of electric and magnetic fields or by the application of intense laser field. The optical properties are calculated using the compact density matrix approach. The results show that the effect of the intense laser field competes with the effects of the electric and magnetic fields. Consequently, peak position shifts to lower photon energies due to the effect of the intense laser field and it shifts to higher photon energies by the effects of electric and magnetic fields. In general, it is found that the concentration of aluminum, electric and magnetic fields and intense laser field are external agents that modify the optical responses in the asymmetric quantum well.

  6. Electron-positron pair production in external electric fields varying both in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, I. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Schwinger mechanism of electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach is developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations the effects of the spatial finiteness are examined, which confirms their importance and helps us to attest our approach further. The corresponding calculations are also performed for several more interesting and nontrivial combinations of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we discuss the case of a spatially periodic external field when the approach is particularly productive. The method employed is described in detail.

  7. Materials Bound by Non-Chemical Forces: External Fields and the Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, John; Srivastava, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    We discuss materials which owe their stability to external fields. These include: 1) external electric or magnetic fields, and 2) quantum vacuum fluctuations in these fields induced by suitable boundary conditions (the Casimir effect). Instances of the first case include the floating water bridge and ferrofluids in magnetic fields. An example of the second case is taken from biology where the Casimir effect provides an explanation of the formation of stacked aggregations or "rouleaux" by negatively charged red blood cells. We show how the interplay between electrical and Casimir forces can be used to drive self-assembly of nano-structured materials, and could be generalized both as a probe of Casimir forces and as a means of manufacturing nanoscale structures. Interestingly, all the cases discussed involve the generation of the somewhat exotic negative pressures. We note that very little is known about the phase diagrams of most materials in the presence of external fields other than those represented by the ...

  8. Phase diagram of hot QCD in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, CP 68528, Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 RJ (Brazil); Chernodub, Maxim [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique - LMPT, CNRS UMR 6083 Tours, Federation Denis Poisson, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Francois Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2010-07-01

    The structure of the phase diagram for strong interactions becomes richer in the presence of a magnetic background, which enters as a new control parameter for the thermodynamics, and can exhibit new phases and interesting features. Motivated by the relevance of this physical setting for current and future high-energy heavy ion collision experiments and for the cosmological QCD transitions, we use the linear sigma model coupled to quarks and to Polyakov loops as an effective theory to investigate how the chiral and the deconfining transitions are affected, and present a general picture for the temperature-magnetic field phase diagram. We compute and discuss each contribution to the effective potential for the approximate order parameters, and uncover new phenomena such as the para-magnetically-induced breaking of Z(3). (authors)

  9. Nonlinearity in Electro- and Magneto-statics with and without External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M; Shabad, A E

    2014-01-01

    Due to the nonlinearity of QED, a static charge becomes a magnetic dipole if placed in a magnetic field. Already without external field, the cubic Maxwell equation for the field of a point charge has a soliton solution with a finite field energy. Equations are given for self-coupling dipole moments. Any theoretically found value for a multipole moment of a baryon or a meson should be subjected to nonlinear renormalization.

  10. [Study on dewatering of activated sludge under applied electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xue-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Li; Feng, Jing

    2012-12-01

    For an electro-dewatering process of activated sludge (AS), the effect of pH and conductivity of AS, flocculation conditioning and operation factors of horizontal electric field (voltage magnitude, method of applying electric field and distance between plates) were investigated, and the corresponding optimum electro-dewatering conditions were also obtained. The results showed that the best electro-dewatering effect was achieved for AS without change of its pH value (6.93) and conductivity (1.46 mS x cm(-1)). CPAM conditioning could lead to the increase of 30%-40% in the dewatering rate and accelerate the dewatering process, whereas a slight increase in the electro-dewatering rate. The electro-dewatering rate for conditioned AS reached 83.12% during an electric field applied period of 60 minutes, while this rate for original AS could be 75.31% even the electric field applied period extended to 120 minutes. The delay of applying the electric field had an inhibition effect on the AS electro-dewatering rate. Moreover, the optimum conditions for AS electro-dewatering were followed: CPAM dose of 9 g x kg(-1), electric field strength of 600 V x m(-1), distance between the two plates of 40 mm, dehydration time of 60 minutes. Under above optimum conditions the AS electro-dewatering rate could approach to 85.33% and the moisture content in AS decreased from 99.30% to 95.15% accordingly.

  11. New parameterization of external and induced fields in geomagnetic field modeling, and a candidate model for IGRF 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.J.; Lowes, F.

    2005-01-01

    When deriving spherical harmonic models of the Earth's magnetic field, low-degree external field contributions are traditionally considered by assuming that their expansion coefficient q(1)(0) varies linearly with the D-st-index, while induced contributions are considered assuming a constant ratio...

  12. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  13. Magnetic anisotropy in Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy induced by external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Liang; SUN Xue-yin; XU Cheng-yan; GAO Run-sheng; XU Ren-gen; QIN Lu-chang

    2007-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy thermo-magnetically treated under different external magnetic field conditions were investigated. Orientation and morphology of the ferromagnetic α1 phase embedded in α2 phase matrix before and after step ageing are characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM). The results show that the ellipsoidal particles of ferromagnetic α1 phase are aligned along the direction of external magnetic field during isothermal magnetic ageing. Approximately 28% of the total coercivity can be attributed to the shape anisotropy of α1 phase particles induced by external magnetic field for Fe-25Cr-12Co-1Si alloy thermo-magnetically treated with a parallel magnetic field.

  14. Design of a Linear Variable Differential Transformer With High Rejection to External Interfering Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, M; Losito, R; Masi, A; Danisi, A

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensors to external slowly varying magnetic fields represents a critical issue when these sensors are installed close to high-current cables or electrical motors with significant fringe fields. The resulting position error can reach several hundreds of micrometers against a specified uncertainty normally below a few micrometers. In this paper, the design of a LVDT position sensor with high rejection to external constant or slowly varying magnetic fields is addressed by exploiting the finite element method (FEM) simulator FLUX. A shield, isolated from the sensor's magnetic circuit, has been considered to reduce the effect of magnetic fields on the secondary voltages of the LVDT. In addition, a dc current is used in order to polarize the magnetic circuit to reduce the sensitivity of the sensor to external interferences.

  15. Molecules Near Absolute Zero and External Field Control of Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Krems, R V

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of the art in the field of cold and ultracold molecules and demonstrates that chemical reactions, inelastic collisions and dissociation of molecules at subKelvin temperatures can be manipulated with external electric or magnetic fields. The creation of ultracold molecules may allow for spectroscopy measurements with extremely high precision and tests of fundamental symmetries of nature, quantum computation with molecules as qubits, and controlled chemistry. The probability of chemical reactions and collisional energy transfer can be very large at temperatures near zero Kelvin. The collision energy of ultracold atoms and molecules is much smaller than perturbations due to interactions with external electric or magnetic fields available in the laboratory. External fields may therefore be used to induce dissociation of weakly bound molecules, stimulate forbidden electronic transitions, suppress the effect of centrifugal barriers in outgoing reaction channels or tune Feshbac...

  16. Effect of external fields on the energies of hydrogenic donor with the anharmonic confinement potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aciksoz, E.; Bayrak, O. [Department of Physics, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya (Turkey); Soylu, A., E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)

    2015-01-01

    The impurity binding energy in the GaAs−Ga{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}As system is studied with an anharmonic type confinement potential by taking into account the influence of the external electric and magnetic fields within the framework of the effective mass approximation and asymptotic iteration method (AIM). The influence of the external electromagnetic fields and anharmonicity on a donor binding energy is examined systematically. It is shown that the donor binding energy is highly dependent on the external electric and magnetic fields and the confinement potential shapes. Both the electric and magnetic fields are increased, the binding energies increase for each of them. However, the behaviors of increase in the weak and strong fields’ regimes have different character a bit. Furthermore, when the more anharmonicity is considered, the binding energy of donor slightly increases as well.

  17. Relativistic Two-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator Plus Cornell Potentials in External Magnetic and AB Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.

  18. Processes in suspensions of nanocomposite microcapsules exposed to external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Lomova, M. V.; Kim, V. P.; Chumakov, A. S.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Gorin, D. A.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsules with and without magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in the polyelectrolyte shell were prepared. The effect of external electric field on the nanocomposite polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing magnetite nanoparticles in the shell was studied in this work as a function of the electric field strength. Effect of electric fields on polyelectrolyte microcapsules and the control over integrity of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with and without inorganic nanoparticles by constant electric field has been investigated. Beads effect, aggregation and deformations of nanocomposite microcapsule shell in response to electric field were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, a new approach for effect on the nanocomposite microcapsule, including opening microcapsule shell by an electric field, was demonstrated. These results can be used for creation of new systems for drug delivery systems with controllable release by external electric field.

  19. Simulations of polymer brushes with charged end monomers under external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huanda; Duan, Chao; Tong, Chaohui

    2017-01-01

    Using Langevin dynamics simulations, the response of neutral polymer brushes with charged terminal monomers to external electric fields has been investigated. The external electric field is equivalent to the field generated by the opposite surface charges on two parallel electrodes. The effects of charge valence of terminal monomers on the structure of double layers and overall charge balance near the two electrodes were examined. Using the charge density distributions obtained from simulations, the total electric field normal to the electrodes was calculated by numerically solving the Poisson equation. Under external electric fields, the total electric field across the two electrodes is highly non-uniform and in certain regions within the brush, the total electric field nearly vanishes. The probability distribution of electric force acting on one charged terminal monomer was obtained from simulations and how it affects the probability density distribution of terminal monomers was analyzed. The response of polymer brushes with charged terminal monomers to a strongly stretching external electric field was compared with that of uniformly charged polymer brushes.

  20. Using global magnetospheric models for simulation and interpretation of Swarm external field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    We have used a global model of the solar wind magnetosphere interaction to model the high latitude part of the external contributions to the geomagnetic field near the Earth. The model also provides corresponding values for the electric field. Geomagnetic quiet conditions were modeled to provide...

  1. The effect of external magnetic field on the density distributions and electromagnetic fields in the interaction of high-intensity short laser pulse with collisionless underdense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi-Darian, Masoomeh; Ettehadi-Abari, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range I{λ^2} ˜eq 10^{14}{-}10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}} \\upmu{{{m}}2} . The collisionless effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}}\\upmu{{{m}}2} . In the current work, the propagation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisionless plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. When a constant magnetic field parallel to the laser pulse propagation direction is applied, the electrons rotate along the magnetic field lines and generate the electromagnetic part in the wake with a nonzero group velocity. Here, by considering the ponderomotive force in attendance of the external magnetic field and assuming the isothermal collisionless plasma, the nonlinear permittivity of the plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. Here, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in isothermal collisionless magnetized plasma, it is shown that by increasing the laser pulse intensity, the electrons density profile leads to steepening and the electron bunches of plasma become narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic field oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison to the unmagnetized collisionless plasma.

  2. GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN - COMPARISON OF 12 ANALYTICAL METHODS, APPLIED TO LYOPHILIZED HEMOLYSATES BY 101 LABORATORIES IN AN EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1993-01-01

    Stable lyophilized ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-blood haemolysates were applied in an external quality assurance programme (SKZL, The Netherlands) for glycohaemoglobin assays in 101 laboratories using 12 methods. The mean intralaboratory day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV), calculate

  3. Thermal quantum and classical correlations in two qubit XX model in a nonuniform external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, Ali Saif M; Joag, Pramod S

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how thermal quantum discord $(QD)$ and classical correlations $(CC)$ of a two qubit one-dimensional XX Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on temperature of the bath as well as on nonuniform external magnetic fields applied to two qubits and varied separately. We show that the behaviour of $QD$ differs in many unexpected ways from thermal entanglement $(EN)$. For the nonuniform case, $(B_1= - B_2)$ we find that $QD$ and $CC$ are equal for all values of $(B_1=-B_2)$ and for different temperatures. We show that, in this case, the thermal states of the system belong to a class of mixed states and satisfy certain conditions under which $QD$ and $CC$ are equal. The specification of this class and the corresponding conditions is completely general and apply to any quantum system in a state in this class and satisfying these conditions. We further find the relative contributions of $QD$ and $CC$ can be controlled easily by changing the relative magnitudes of $B_1$ and $B_2$.

  4. Non-relativistic correspondence of Dirac equation with external electromagnetic field and space-time torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno; Dias Junior, Mario Marcio [Instituto Federal de Educacacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The discussion of experimental manifestations of torsion at low energies is mainly related to the torsion-spin interaction. In this respect the behavior of Dirac field and the spinning particle in an external torsion field deserves and received very special attention. In this work, we consider the combined action of torsion and magnetic field on the massive spinor field. In this case, the Dirac equation is not straightforward solved. We suppose that the spinor has two components. The equations have mixed terms between the two components. The electromagnetic field is introduced in the action by the usual gauge transformation. The torsion field is described by the field S{sub μ}. The main purpose of the work is to get an explicit form to the equation of motion that shows the possible interactions between the external fields and the spinor in a Hamiltonian that is independent to each component. We consider that S{sub 0} is constant and is the unique non-vanishing term of S{sub μ}. This simplification is taken just to simplify the algebra, as our main point is not to describe the torsion field itself. In order to get physical analysis of the problem, we consider the non-relativistic approximation. The final result is a Hamiltonian that describes a half spin field in the presence of electromagnetic and torsion external fields. (author)

  5. Quantum-mechanical relaxation model for characterization of fine particles magnetic dynamics in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischenko, I.; Chuev, M.

    2016-12-01

    Principal difference of magnetic nanoparticles from the bulk matter which cannot be ignored when constructing upon them combined metamaterials and modern devices is the essential influence on their behavior thermal fluctuations of the environment. These disturbances lead to specific distributions of the particles characteristics and to stochastic reorientations of their magnetic moments. On the basis of quantum-mechanical representation of the particle possessing intrinsic magnetic anisotropy and being placed onto the external magnetic field we developed general approach to describe equilibrium magnetization curves and relaxation Mössbauer spectra of magnetic nanoparticles for diagnostics of magnetic nanomaterials in the whole temperature or external field ranges. This approach has universal character and may be applied not only to the systems under thermal equilibrium, but may in principle describe macroscopic dynamical phenomena such as magnetization reversal.

  6. Butterfly effect and holographic mutual information under external field and spatial noncommutativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Du, Yi-Hsien

    2017-02-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  7. Butterfly Effect and Holographic Mutual Information under External Field and Spatial Noncommutativity

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We apply the transformation of mixing azimuthal and internal coordinate or mixing time and internal coordinate to a stack of N black M-branes to find the Melvin spacetime of a stack of N black D-branes with magnetic or electric flux in string theory, after the Kaluza-Klein reduction. We slightly extend previous formulas to investigate the external magnetic and electric effects on the butterfly effect and holographic mutual information. It shows that the Melvin fields do not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. In addition, we also T-dualize and twist a stack of N black D-branes to find a Melvin Universe supported by the flux of the NSNS b-field, which describes a non-comutative spacetime. It also shows that the spatial noncommutativity does not modify the scrambling time and will enhance the mutual information. We also study the corrected mutual information in the backreaction geometry due to the shock wave in our three model spacetimes.

  8. Lopsidedness of Self-consistent Galaxies Caused by the External Field Effect of Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufen; Wang, Yougang; Feix, Martin; Zhao, HongSheng

    2017-08-01

    Adopting Schwarzschild’s orbit-superposition technique, we construct a series of self-consistent galaxy models, embedded in the external field of galaxy clusters in the framework of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND). These models represent relatively massive ellipticals with a Hernquist radial profile at various distances from the cluster center. Using N-body simulations, we perform a first analysis of these models and their evolution. We find that self-gravitating axisymmetric density models, even under a weak external field, lose their symmetry by instability and generally evolve to triaxial configurations. A kinematic analysis suggests that the instability originates from both box and nonclassified orbits with low angular momentum. We also consider a self-consistent isolated system that is then placed in a strong external field and allowed to evolve freely. This model, just like the corresponding equilibrium model in the same external field, eventually settles to a triaxial equilibrium as well, but has a higher velocity radial anisotropy and is rounder. The presence of an external field in the MOND universe generically predicts some lopsidedness of galaxy shapes.

  9. Reorientation response of magnetic microspheres attached to gold electrodes under an applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, L.; Reeve, R.M.; Mitrelias, T.; Langford, R.M.; Barnes, C.H.W., E-mail: luis_d_v@hotmail.com [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge Materials and Structures Laboratory (United Kingdom); Bustamante Dominguez, A. [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima (Peru); Aguiar, J. Albino [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Azuma, Y. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Majima, Y. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we report the mechanical reorientation of thiolated ferromagnetic microspheres bridging a pair of gold electrodes under an external magnetic field. When an external magnetic field (7 kG) is applied during the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of a carboxyl ferromagnetic microsphere (4 μm diameter) attached to two gold electrodes by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of octane dithiol (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}S{sub 2}), the current signal is distorted. Rather than due to magnetoresistance, this effect is caused by a mechanical reorientation of the ferromagnetic sphere, which alters the number of SAMs between the sphere and the electrodes and therefore affects conduction. To study the physical reorientation of the ferromagnetic particles, we measure their hysteresis loops while suspended in a liquid solution. (author)

  10. Capture of water-borne colloids in granular beds using external electric fields: improving removal of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Pramod; Dutari, Gabriel; Weingeist, David; Adin, Avner; Haught, Roy; Biswas, Pratim

    2005-03-01

    Suboptimal coagulation in water treatment plants often results in reduced removal efficiency of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by several orders of magnitude (J. AWWA 94(6) (2002) 97, J. AWWA 93(12) (2001) 64). The effect of external electric field on removal of C. parvum oocysts in packed granular beds was studied experimentally. A cylindrical configuration of electrodes, with granular media in the annular space was used. A negative DC potential was applied to the central electrode. No coagulants or flocculants were used and filtration was performed with and without application of an electric field to obtain improvement in removal efficiency. Results indicate that removal of C. parvum increased from 10% to 70% due to application of field in fine sand media and from 30% to 96% in MAGCHEM media. All other test particles (Kaolin and polystyrene latex microspheres) used in the study also exhibited increased removal in the presence of an electric field. Single collector efficiencies were also computed using approximate trajectory analysis, modified to account for the applied external electric field. The results of these calculations were used to qualitatively explain the trends in the experimental observations.

  11. Extensional flow of nematic liquid crystal with an applied electric field

    KAUST Repository

    CUMMINGS, L. J.

    2013-10-17

    Systematic asymptotic methods are used to formulate a model for the extensional flow of a thin sheet of nematic liquid crystal. With no external body forces applied, the model is found to be equivalent to the so-called Trouton model for Newtonian sheets (and fibres), albeit with a modified \\'Trouton ratio\\'. However, with a symmetry-breaking electric field gradient applied, behaviour deviates from the Newtonian case, and the sheet can undergo finite-time breakup if a suitable destabilizing field is applied. Some simple exact solutions are presented to illustrate the results in certain idealized limits, as well as sample numerical results to the full model equations. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.

  12. Three-dimensional extremely-short optical pulses in carbon nanotube arrays in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Belonenko, Mikhail B.; Galkina, Elena N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we study the behavior of three-dimensional extremely-short optical pulses propagating in a system made of carbon nanotubes in the presence of an external magnetic field applied perpendicular both to the nanotube axis and to the direction of propagation of the pulse. The evolution of the electromagnetic field is classically derived on the basis of the Maxwell’s equations. The electronic system of carbon nanotubes is considered in the low-temperature approximation. Our analysis reveals the novel and unique ability of controlling the shape of propagating short optical pulses by tuning the intensity of the applied magnetic field. This effect paves the way for the possible development of innovative applications in optoelectronics.

  13. Template nanowires for spintronics applications: nanomagnet microwave resonators functioning in zero applied magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourachkine, A; Yazyev, O V; Ducati, C; Ansermet, J-Ph

    2008-11-01

    Low-cost spintronic devices functioning in zero applied magnetic field are required for bringing the idea of spin-based electronics into the real-world industrial applications. Here we present first microwave measurements performed on nanomagnet devices fabricated by electrodeposition inside porous membranes. In the paper, we discuss in details a microwave resonator consisting of three nanomagnets, which functions in zero external magnetic field. By applying a microwave signal at a particular frequency, the magnetization of the middle nanomagnet experiences the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), and the device outputs a measurable direct current (spin-torque diode effect). Alternatively, the nanodevice can be used as a microwave oscillator functioning in zero field. To test the resonators at microwave frequencies, we developed a simple measurement setup.

  14. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M., E-mail: nmaraujo@fc.ul.pt; Telo da Gama, Margarida M. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal and Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional, Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-01-21

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  15. Self-assembly of colloidal bands driven by a periodic external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, André S.; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation of bands of colloidal particles driven by periodic external fields. Using Brownian dynamics, we determine the dependence of the band width on the strength of the particle interactions and on the intensity and periodicity of the field. We also investigate the switching (field-on) dynamics and the relaxation times as a function of the system parameters. The observed scaling relations were analyzed using a simple dynamic density-functional theory of fluids.

  16. The stability of two layer dielectric-electrolyte micro-flow subjected to an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhin, E. A.; Ganchenko, G. S.; Navarkar, A.; Amiroudine, S.

    2016-09-01

    The two-phase microflow of conductive (electrolyte) and non-conductive (dielectric) viscous liquids bounded by two solid walls in an external electric field is scrutinized. The lower solid wall, which is adjoined to the electrolyte, is a charged dielectric surface; the upper wall which bounds the dielectric is insulated. The problem has a steady one-dimensional (1D) solution. The theoretical results for a plug-like velocity profile are successfully compared with available theoretical and experimental data from the literature. The linear stability of the steady-state flow is investigated numerically with spectral Galerkin's method for solving linearized eigenvalue problem. This method was successfully applied for related problem of electroosmosis of ultrathin film. The numerical analysis provides insights on the coexistence of long and short-wave instabilities. The influence of control parameters such as the ratio of the viscosities of both liquids and the ratio of the channel heights on the stability of one-dimensional flow was investigated for different values of external electric field. The influence of an external pressure gradient on the flow stability is also investigated. The experimental facts established by other authors, according to which the system destabilizes if the electroosmotic flow is oppositely directed to the external pressure gradient, is confirmed in this work. Otherwise stabilization takes place.

  17. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Providencia, Constanca; Yamamura, Masatoshi; Bohr, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with axial vector-type four-point interaction or tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks. In the axial vector-type interaction, it is shown that a quark spin polarized phase is realized in all region of the quark chemical potential under a strong external magnetic field within the lowest Landau level approximation. Each phase is characterized by the chiral condensate or dynamical quark mass. On the other hand, in the tensor-type interaction, it is also shown that the quark spin polarized phase does not appear even if there exists the strong external magnetic field. However, if the anomalous magnetic moment of quark is taken into account, it may be possible to realize the quark spin polarized phase.

  18. Hysteresis analysis in dye-sensitized solar cells based on external bias field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Li, Xiaoyi; Tong, Yanhua; Zhang, Tiansheng

    2017-02-01

    The current density-voltage (J-V) hysteresis phenomenon occurs in perovskite solar cells as well as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs); however, it has received little attention in DSCs. We consider that the trapping-detrapping-induced variation of the charge collection efficiency might cause J-V hysteresis. Therefore, we conduct a systematic study on the influence of an external bias field during and before J-V measurements in typical DSCs. We find that the J-V performance of DSCs significantly depends on the scan bias direction and the external bias field before and during measurements. Our results indicate that the external-bias-field-modulated charge injection, trapping-detrapping, and accumulation processes in DSCs are possible causes for the anomalous J-V behavior.

  19. Cu Films Deposited by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Enhanced by ICP and External Magnetic Field Confinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xuelian; REN Chunsheng; MA Tengcai; WANG Younian

    2008-01-01

    Metallic copper(Cu) films were deposited on a Si (100) substrate by unbalanced magnetron sputtering enhanced by radio-frequency plasma and external magnetic field confine-ment. The morphology and structure of the films were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface average rough-ness of the deposited Cu films was characterized by AFM data and resistivity was measured by a four-point probe. The results show that the Cu films deposited with radio-frequency discharge enhanced ionization and external magnetic field confinement have a smooth surface, low surface roughness and low resistivity. The reasons may be that the radio-frequency discharge and external magnetic field enhance the plasma density, which further improves the ion bombardment effect under the same bias voltage conditions. Ion bombardment can obviously influence the growth features and characteristics of the deposited Cu films.

  20. Thermodynamics of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in an applied magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, L.

    1972-01-01

    The anisotropic-Heisenberg-ferromagnet formalism developed previously is examined to include an applied magnetic field for the isotropic case in the random-phase approximation. Thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization, susceptibility, and the derivative of magnetization with respect to temperature are studied near the Curie point.

  1. Tuning band gaps of BN nanosheets and nanoribbons via interfacial dihalogen bonding and external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Bao, Jie; Li, Yafei; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Zhongfang

    2014-08-07

    Density functional theory computations with dispersion corrections (DFT-D) were performed to investigate the dihalogen interactions and their effect on the electronic band structures of halogenated (fluorinated and chlorinated) BN bilayers and aligned halogen-passivated zigzag BN nanoribbons (BNNRs). Our results reveal the presence of considerable homo-halogen (FF and ClCl) interactions in bilayer fluoro (chloro)-BN sheets and the aligned F (Cl)-ZBNNRs, as well as substantial hetero-halogen (FCl) interactions in hybrid fluoro-BN/chloro-BN bilayer and F-Cl-ZBNNRs. The existence of interfacial dihalogen interactions leads to significant band-gap modifications for the studied BN nanosystems. Compared with the individual fluoro (chloro)-BN monolayers or pristine BNNRs, the gap reduction in bilayer fluoro-BN (B-FF-N array), hybrid fluoro-BN/chloro-BN bilayer (N-FCl-N array), aligned Cl-ZBNNRs (B-ClCl-N alignment), and hybrid F-Cl-ZBNNRs (B-FCl-N alignment) is mainly due to interfacial polarizations, while the gap narrowing in bilayer chloro-BN (N-ClCl-N array) is ascribed to the interfacial nearly-free-electron states. Moreover, the binding strengths and electronic properties of the interactive BN nanosheets and nanoribbons can be controlled by applying an external electric field, and extensive modulation from large-gap to medium-gap semiconductors, or even metals can be realized by adjusting the direction and strength of the applied electric field. This interesting strategy for band gap control based on weak interactions offers unique opportunities for developing BN nanoscale electronic devices.

  2. Effects of Complex System Structure and External Field in Opinion Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Cai, Xu

    Around us, the society structure and external field, such as government policy, the newspaper, the internet and other mass media, play a special role in shaping the attitudes, beliefs and public opinion. For studying the role of the society structure and the external field, we propose a new opinion model based on the former models. With computer simulations of opinion dynamics, we find that the smaller the clustering coefficient and the society size, the easier the consensus phase is reached and other interesting results.

  3. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  4. Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a spherical quantum dot with hydrogenic impurity in the external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Vladan; Stevanović, Ljiljana

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyzed the realization of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in the spherical quantum dot with on-center hydrogenic impurity under the influence of the external magnetic field. Three energy levels of hydrogen impurity 1s0, 2p-1, and 3d-2, together with the probe and control laser fields, which induce σ- transitions between the given states, form a ladder configuration. Optical Bloch equations for such a system are solved in a stationary regime. Dependence of the susceptibility for such a system on the Rabi frequency of the control field, intensity of the external magnetic field, detuning of the control field, and decay rates coefficients are then discussed in detail. Finally, the explanation in dressed state picture is given.

  6. Frustrating a correlated superconductor: the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.

    2000-03-01

    At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.

  7. BEHAVIOUR OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL UNIAXIAL MAGNET NEAR THE CRITICAL POINT IN AN EXTERNAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of a three-dimensional magnet with a one-component order parameter near the critical point in a homogeneous external field is investigated. The calculations are performed in the case when the field and temperature are dependent and related by some expression (the system tends to the critical point along some trajectory. The high- and low-temperature regions in the vicinity of Tc (Tc is the phase transition temperature in the absence of an external field are considered. It is shown that in the weak fields the system behaviour is described in general by the temperature variable, but in the case of the strong fields the role of the temperature variable is not dominant. The corresponding expressions for the free energy, susceptibility and other characteristics of the system are obtained for each of these regions.

  8. Properties of the Schrödinger Theory for Electrons in External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Viraht; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    We consider electrons in external electrostatic boldsymbol calE (r) = - boldsymbol∇ v (r) and magnetostatic B (r) = boldsymbol∇ × A (r) fields. (The case of solely an electrostatic field constitutes a special case.) Via the `Quantal Newtonian' first law for the individual electron we prove the following: (i) In addition to the external electric and Lorentz fields, each electron experiences an internal field representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle and Coulomb repulsion, the kinetic energy, the density, and the magnetic field; (ii) the scalar potential v (r) arises from a curl-free field and is thus path-independent; (iii) the magnetic field B (r) appears explicitly in the Schrödinger equation in addition to the vector potential A (r) ; (iv) The Schrödinger equation can be written to exhibit its intrinsic self-consistent form. (The generalization of the conclusions to time-dependent external fields via the `Quantal Newtonian' second law follows.)

  9. Influence of external 3D magnetic fields on helical equilibrium and plasma flow in RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovesan, P; Bonfiglio, D; Bonomo, F; Cappello, S; Carraro, L; Cavazzana, R; Gobbin, M; Marrelli, L; Martin, P; Martines, E; Momo, B; Piron, L; Puiatti, M E; Soppelsa, A; Valisa, M; Zanca, P; Zaniol, B [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    A spontaneous transition to a helical equilibrium with an electron internal transport barrier is observed in RFX-mod as the plasma current is raised above 1 MA (Lorenzini R et al 2009 Nature Phys. 5 570). The helical magnetic equilibrium can be controlled with external three-dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by 192 active coils, providing proper helical boundary conditions either rotating or static. The persistence of the helical equilibrium is strongly increased in this way. A slight reduction in the energy confinement time of about 15% is observed, likely due to the increased plasma-wall interaction associated with the finite radial magnetic field imposed at the edge. A global helical flow develops in these states and is expected to play a role in the helical self-organization. In particular, its shear may contribute to the ITB formation and is observed to increase with the externally applied radial field. The possible origins of this flow, from nonlinear visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or ambipolar electric fields, will be discussed.

  10. Effect of external electric fields on the dielectronic recombination cross section of lithium and sodium like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Bottcher, C.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of external electric fields on the dielectronic recombination cross section associated with the 2s ..-->.. 2p excitation in the Li like ions B/sup 2 +/, C/sup 3 +/, O/sup 5 +/, and Fe/sup 23 +/, and the 3s ..-->.. 3p excitation in the Na like ions Mg/sup +/, S/sup 5 +/, Cl/sup 6 +/, and Fe/sup 15 +/ has been studied in the configuration-average, distorted-wave approximation. By applying the linear-Stark approximation to the doubly-excited 2pnl and 3pnl Rydberg states in the presence of an external electric field, we study the systematics of field mixing effects on dielectronic recombination and determine the maximum field enhancement of the dielectronic recombination cross section. We find that the magnitude of the field enhancement decreases as we move up an isoelectronic sequence and is of the order of a factor of two or three in highly-ionized systems. In addition, we show that dielectronic recombination transitions through doubly-excited states near threshold can produce large narrow peaks in the cross section at low energies, which are especially prominent in high stages of ionization, and are not affected by the electric field.

  11. Electron Weibel instability in relativistic counterstreaming plasmas with flow-aligned external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, A.; Grech, M.; Amiranoff, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Macchi, A.; Riconda, C.

    2017-02-01

    The Weibel instability driven by two symmetric counterstreaming relativistic electron plasmas, also referred to as current-filamentation instability, is studied in a constant and uniform external magnetic field aligned with the plasma flows. Both the linear and nonlinear stages of the instability are investigated using analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. While previous studies have already described the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field, we show here that the saturation stage is only weakly affected. The different mechanisms responsible for the saturation are discussed in detail in the relativistic cold fluid framework considering a single unstable mode. The application of an external field leads to a slight increase of the saturation level for large wavelengths, while it does not affect the small wavelengths. Multimode and temperature effects are then investigated. While at high temperature the saturation level is independent of the external magnetic field, at low but finite temperature the competition between different modes in the presence of an external magnetic field leads to a saturation level lower with respect to the unmagnetized case.

  12. Transverse voltage in superconductors at zero applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, M.S. da [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena - USP, P.O. Box 116, Lorena, SP 12602-810 (Brazil)], E-mail: luz@physics.montana.edu; Santos, C.A.M. dos; Shigue, C.Y.; Carvalho, F.J.H. de; Machado, A.J.S. [Escola de Engenharia de Lorena - USP, P.O. Box 116, Lorena, SP 12602-810 (Brazil)

    2009-01-01

    A systematic study of the transverse voltage at zero magnetic field in the superconducting state is reported. The effects of warming rate, temperature, applied magnetic field, and electrical current on the transversal resistance (R{sub XY}) of polycrystalline superconducting sample are taken into account. At zero magnetic field two peaks are observed in R{sub XY}(T) curves which are related to the double superconducting transition in the R{sub XX}(T) component. In the superconducting (R{sub XX} = zero) and normal states no transverse voltage has been detected at zero magnetic field as expected. The results are discussed within the framework of the motion of Abrikosov and Josephson vortices and anti-vortices. A new scaling relation between transverse and longitudinal components given by R{sub XY} {approx} dR{sub XX}/dT has been confirmed.

  13. Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Quasem Al-Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.

  14. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-01-01

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 106 A·cm−2, or about 1 × 1025 electrons s−1 cm−2. This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 1013 electrons per cm2 are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions. PMID:28230054

  15. Multi-bump solutions in a neural field model with external inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Flora; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Bicho, Estela

    2016-07-01

    We study the conditions for the formation of multiple regions of high activity or "bumps" in a one-dimensional, homogeneous neural field with localized inputs. Stable multi-bump solutions of the integro-differential equation have been proposed as a model of a neural population representation of remembered external stimuli. We apply a class of oscillatory coupling functions and first derive criteria to the input width and distance, which relate to the synaptic couplings that guarantee the existence and stability of one and two regions of high activity. These input-induced patterns are attracted by the corresponding stable one-bump and two-bump solutions when the input is removed. We then extend our analytical and numerical investigation to N-bump solutions showing that the constraints on the input shape derived for the two-bump case can be exploited to generate a memory of N > 2 localized inputs. We discuss the pattern formation process when either the conditions on the input shape are violated or when the spatial ranges of the excitatory and inhibitory connections are changed. An important aspect for applications is that the theoretical findings allow us to determine for a given coupling function the maximum number of localized inputs that can be stored in a given finite interval.

  16. Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakeas, Panagiotis; Robicheaux, Francis; Greene, Chris H.

    2016-05-01

    In this work a rigorous theoretical framework is developed generalizing the local frame transformation theory (GLFT) and it is applied to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field. The resulting development is compared with previous theoretical treatments, including the first version of local frame transformation theory, developed initially by Fano and Harmin. Our revised version of the theory yields non-trivial corrections because we now take into account the full Hilbert space on the energy shell without adopting truncations utilized by the original Fano-Harmin theory. The semi-analytical calculations from GLFT approach are compared with ab initio numerical simulations yielding errors of few tens of MHz whereas the errors in the original Fano-Harmin theory are one or two orders of magnitude larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet modern experimental standards. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award numbers DE-SC0010545 (for PG and CHG) and DE-SC0012193 (for FR).

  17. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-02-23

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 10(6) A·cm(-2), or about 1 × 10(25) electrons s(-1) cm(-2). This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 10(13) electrons per cm(2) are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions.

  18. Laser-field-induced magnon amplification in a magnetic semiconductor quantum well under an external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Feng

    2003-01-01

    The laser-field induced magnon amplification in a magnetic semiconductor quantum well under an external magnetic field was discussed, it is shown that when the laser frequency is near to the electron cyclotron frequency, no matter how weaker the laser field is, the magnon amplification always occurs. In case of fixed laser frequency, the optical absorption of magnons obeys the definite selection rule to the laser field strength. The rate of change of magnon occupation is calculated, and the amplification condition is given.

  19. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of metal oxides. Reactions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Aguas, M D

    2001-01-01

    The preparation of metal oxides by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis is reported. The reactions are started with a point source of ignition; typically a hot wire. A synthesis wave is observed moving out from the point source and reactions terminate in seconds. Products obtained can be classified into ferrites (magnetic applications) and stannates (gas sensing applications). Ferrites were synthesised under variable external magnetic fields. The synthesis wave is hotter in the presence of an external magnetic field for hard ferrite synthesis. For spinel ferrites the opposite was observed. Materials synthesised in the field show differences in their bulk magnetic properties (coercivity and saturation magnetisation), structures and microstructures. Combustion reactions in large fields revealed changes in unit cell volume (shrinkage was observed for hard ferrites while expansion was observed for spinel ferrites). SHS synthesised hard ferrites show two distinct components; one has large grain structure co...

  20. Sakata-Taketani spin-0 theory with external field interactions - Lagrangian formalism and causal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, R. F.; Wilson, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    To illustrate that a relativistic field theory need not be manifestly covariant, Lorentz-invariant Lagrangian densities are constructed that yield the equation satisfied by an interacting (two-component) Sakata-Taketani spin-0 field. Six types of external field couplings are considered, two scalars, two vectors, an antisymmetric second-rank tensor, and a symmetric second-rank tensor, with the results specialized to electromagnetic interactions. For either of the two second-rank couplings, the equation is found to describe noncausal wave propagation, a property that is apparent from the dependence of the coefficients of the space derivatives on the external field; in contrast, the noncausality of the corresponding manifestly covariant Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau spin-0 equation is not so obvious. The possibilities for generalizing the results to higher spin theories involving only the essential 2(2J + 1) components for a particle with a definite spin J and mass m are discussed in considerable detail.

  1. Numerical simulation of a helical shape electric arc in the external axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, R. M.; Urusova, I. R.

    2016-10-01

    Within the frameworks of non-stationary three-dimensional mathematical model, in approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, a numerical calculation was made of characteristics of DC electric arc burning in a cylindrical channel in the uniform external axial magnetic field. The method of numerical simulation of the arc of helical shape in a uniform external axial magnetic field was proposed. This method consists in that that in the computational algorithm, a "scheme" analog of fluctuations for electrons temperature is supplemented. The "scheme" analogue of fluctuations increases a weak numerical asymmetry of electrons temperature distribution, which occurs randomly in the course of computing. This asymmetry can be "picked up" by the external magnetic field that continues to increase up to a certain value, which is sufficient for the formation of helical structure of the arc column. In the absence of fluctuations in the computational algorithm, the arc column in the external axial magnetic field maintains cylindrical axial symmetry, and a helical form of the arc is not observed.

  2. Exact solutions for quantum mechanical particle with spin 1 in the external homogeneous magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V V; Red'kov, V M

    2010-01-01

    With the use of the general covariant matrix 10-dimensional Petiau -- Duffin -- Kemmer formalism in cylindrical coordinates and tetrad there are constructed exact solutions of the quantum-mechanical equation for a particle with spin 1 in presence of an external homogeneous magnetic field. There are separated three linearly independent types of solutions; in each case the formula for energy levels has been found.

  3. Critical values of the external magnetic field leading biological effects in the human organism

    CERN Document Server

    Kanokov, Zakirjon

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the simplified stochastic model the critical values of an induction of the external magnetic field leading to sharp increase of fluctuations of a casual current of biologically important ions in different blood vessels of a human body are calculated.

  4. Planar supersymmetric quantum mechanics of a charged particle in an external electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoal, Ricardo C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial, Centro de Tecnologia da Industria Quimica e Textil, SENAI/CETIQT, Rua Dr. Manoel Cotrim 195, 20961-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: paschoal@cbpf.br; Helayel-Neto, Jose A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, P.O. Box 91933, 25685-970 Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: helayel@cbpf.br; Assis, Leonardo P.G. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Grupo de Fisica Teorica Jose Leite Lopes, P.O. Box 91933, 25685-970 Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lpgassis@cbpf.br

    2006-01-09

    The supersymmetric quantum mechanics of a two-dimensional non-relativistic particle subject to external magnetic and electric fields is studied in a superfield formulation and with the typical non-minimal coupling of (2+1) dimensions. Both the N=1 and N=2 cases are contemplated and the introduction of the electric interaction is suitably analysed.

  5. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay А.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  6. Plasma excitations in a single-walled carbon nanotube with an external transverse magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K A Vijayalakshmi; T P Nafeesa Baby

    2013-02-01

    The effect of different uniform transverse external magnetic fields in plasma frequency when propagated parallel to the surface of the single-walled metallic carbon nanotubes is studied. The classical electrodynamics as well as Maxwell’s equations are used in the calculations. Equations are developed for both short- and long-wavelength limits and the variations are studied graphically.

  7. Effect of an External Electric Field on Positronium Formation in Positron Spur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of positronium (Ps) formation in condensed matter caused by the presence of an external electric field is discussed in terms of the spur reaction model of Ps formation. The rather few experimental results available are shown to be in good agreement with the predictions of the model...

  8. Bogomolnyi-type bounds in unconventional superconductors without external magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Manes, JL

    1996-01-01

    Following Bogomolnyi's classical. treatment of vortices, we develop a method for finding rigorous lower bounds to the Landau-Ginzburg free energy, describing unconventional superconductors in the absence of external magnetic fields. This allows a more precise description of the magnetic instabilitie

  9. Further Investigation on Chiral Symmetry Breaking in a Uniform External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Jasinski, P

    2004-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking in QED when a uniform external magnetic field is present. We calculate higher order corrections to the dynamically generated fermion mass and find them to be small. In so doing we correct an error in the literature regarding the matrix structure of the fermion self-energy.

  10. Nonlinear evolution of electron shear flow instabilities in the presence of an external guide magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation mechanism by which the magnetic field reconnects in the presence of an external (guide) magnetic field in the direction of the main current is not well understood. In thin electron current sheets (ECS) (thickness ~ an electron inertial length) formed in collisionless magnetic reconnection, electron shear flow instabilities (ESFI) are potential candidates for providing an anomalous dissipation mechanism which can break the frozen-in condition of the magnetic field affecting the structure and rate of reconnection. We investigate the evolution of ESFI in guide field magnetic reconnection. The properties of the resulting plasma turbulence and their dependence on the strength of the guide field are studied. Utilizing 3-D electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of ECS we show that, unlike the case of ECS self-consistently embedded in anti-parallel magnetic fields, the evolution of thin ECS in the presence of a guide field (equal to the asymptotic value of the reconnecting magnetic field or larger) ...

  11. $(1+3)$D topological superconductors: screening and confinement in presence of external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gaete, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the gauge-invariant and path-dependent variables formalism, we compute the interaction energy for a topological field theory describing $(1+3)$D topological superconductors in presence of external fields. As a result, in the case of a constant electric field- strength expectation value, we show that the interaction energy describes a purely screening phase, encoded in a Yukawa potential. On the other hand, in the case of a constant magnetic field-strength and for a very small Josephson coupling constant, the particle-antiparticle binding potential displays a linear term leading to the confinement of static charge probes along with a screening contribution.

  12. Effects of external fields on two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudoharmonic oscillator interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjects to equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The non-relativistic limit, PHO and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  13. Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in the Friedberg—Lee Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shi-Jun

    2016-11-01

    The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.

  14. Effect of an External Oriented Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation in Natural Convection

    OpenAIRE

    Atef El Jery; Nejib Hidouri; Mourad Magherbi; Ammar Ben Brahim

    2010-01-01

    The influence of an external oriented magnetic field on entropy generation in natural convection for air and liquid gallium is numerically studied in steady-unsteady states by solving the mass, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. Entropy generation depends on five parameters which are: the Prandtl number, the irreversibility coefficients, the inclination angle of the magnetic field, the thermal Grashof and the Hartmann numbers. Effects of these parameters on total and local ir...

  15. Oscillator strength reduction induced by external electric fields in self-assembled quantum dots and rings

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out continuous wave and time resolved photoluminescence experiments in self-assembled In(Ga)As quantum dots and quantum rings embedded in field effect structure devices. In both kinds of nanostructures, we find a noticeable increase of the exciton radiative lifetime with the external voltage bias that must be attributed to the field-induced polarizability of the confined electron hole pair. The interplay between the exciton radiative recombination and the electronic carrier tu...

  16. Deconfinement Phase Transition with External Magnetic Field in Friedberg-Lee Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition with external magnetic field is investigated in the Friedberg-Lee model. In the frame of functional renormalization group, we extend the often used potential expansion method for continuous phase transitions to the first-order phase transition in the model. By solving the flow equations we find that, the magnetic field displays a catalysis effect and it becomes more difficult to break through the confinement in hot and dense medium.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy of single Mn acceptors in GaAs in an external magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Bozkurt, M Murat; Mahani, MR; Studer, P; Tang, J-M; Schofield, SR; Curson, NJ; Flatté, ME Michael; Silov, AY Andrei; Hirjibehedin, CF; Canali, CM; Koenraad, PM Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the physical properties of the acceptor hole states associated with single Mn acceptors placed near the (110) surface of GaAs. Crosssectional scanning tunneling microscopy images of the acceptor local density of states (LDOS) show that the strongly anisotropic hole wavefunction is not significantly affected by a magnetic field up to 6 T. These experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on a tightbinding model...

  18. Relaxation of Magnetic Nanoparticle Chain without Applied Field*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Liang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The relaxation ofa one-dimensional magnetic nanoparticle linear chain with lattice constant a is investigated in absence of applied field. There is an equilibrium state (or steady state) where all magnetic moments of particles lie along the chain (x-axis), back to which the magnetic nanoparticle chain at other state will relax. It is found that the relaxation time Tx is determined by Tx = 10β × a3. This relaxation is compared with that of single magnetic nanoparticle system.

  19. New foundations for applied electromagnetics the spatial structure of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Said

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive new resource focuses on applied electromagnetics and takes readers beyond the conventional theory with the use of contemporary mathematics to improve the practical use of electromagnetics in emerging areas of field communications, wireless power transfer, metamaterials, MIMO and direction-of-arrival systems. The book explores the existing and novel theories and principles of electromagnetics in order to help engineers analyze and design devices for todays applications in wireless power transfers, NFC, and metamaterials.

  20. Beta tricalcium phosphate ceramics with controlled crystal orientation fabricated by application of external magnetic field during the slip casting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagio, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazushige; Kohama, Takenori; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwai, Kazuhiko

    2013-07-01

    Beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a resorbable bioceramic that has hitherto been utilized in the medical field. Since it crystallizes in the anisotropic hexagonal system, properties such as chemical and physical ones are expected to depend on its crystal axis direction and/or on its crystal plane (anisotropy). Control of crystal orientation is thus important when used in polycrystalline form. Meanwhile, application of a strong magnetic field has been found to be a promising technique to control crystal orientation of anisotropic shape or structured crystals. In this work, we attempted to fabricate β-TCP ceramics with controlled crystal orientation by applying an external magnetic field during the slip casting process and subsequently sintering them at 1050°C, below the β-α transition temperature. Application of a vertical magnetic field increased intensities of planes perpendicular to c-plane on the top surface, while a horizontal one with simultaneous mechanical mold rotation decreased it. These results indicated that crystal orientation of β-TCP ceramics were successfully controlled by the external magnetic field and together that the magnetic susceptibility of β-TCP is χ(c[perpendicular])>χ(c//).

  1. The Effect of External Magnetic Fields on the MRT Instability in MagLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mark; Peterson, Kyle; Weis, Matthew; Lau, Yue Ying

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on MagLIF which incorporate an external B-field suggest that the MRT instability within the liner has a different behavior than without the B-field. Previous work by Chandrasekhar and Harris have illustrated how the MRT growth rate, assuming fixed liner density and fixed acceleration, can change due to the presence of an external B-field. In this work, we show how the growth rate of the MRT instability is dynamically affected by the rapidly varying acceleration, liner density, and surface magnetic field, which is composed of the external B-field and the drive B-field of the liner in the MagLIF experiments. In addition, we also examine the effects of finite liner resistivity on MRT growth, which gives rise to an additional time scale corresponding to magnetic diffusion. We discuss the implications of this result for future MagLIF designs. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Dielectric-spectroscopy approach to ferrofluid nanoparticle clustering induced by an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, Michal; Kurimsky, Juraj; Dolnik, Bystrik; Kopcansky, Peter; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Taculescu-Moaca, Elena Alina; Timko, Milan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental study of magnetic colloidal particles cluster formation induced by an external electric field in a ferrofluid based on transformer oil is presented. Using frequency domain isothermal dielectric spectroscopy, we study the influence of a test cell electrode separation distance on a low-frequency relaxation process. We consider the relaxation process to be associated with an electric double layer polarization taking place on the particle surface. It has been found that the relaxation maximum considerably shifts towards lower frequencies when conducting the measurements in the test cells with greater electrode separation distances. As the electric field intensity was always kept at a constant value, we propose that the particle cluster formation induced by the external ac electric field accounts for that phenomenon. The increase in the relaxation time is in accordance with the Schwarz theory of electric double layer polarization. In addition, we analyze the influence of a static electric field generated by dc bias voltage on a similar shift in the relaxation maximum position. The variation of the dc electric field for the hysteresis measurements purpose provides understanding of the development of the particle clusters and their decay. Following our results, we emphasize the utility of dielectric spectroscopy as a simple, complementary method for detection and study of clusters of colloidal particles induced by external electric field.

  3. Influence of an external axial magnetic field on betatron radiation from the interaction of a circularly polarized laser with plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bao; Wang, Xiao-Fang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are carried out to investigate the influence of an externally applied axial constant magnetic field on electrons' betatron radiation when an ultra-short, circularly polarized laser pulse of a peak intensity I0 = 5 × 1019 W/cm2 propagates in plasma of an electron density n0 = 1020/cm3. Ring-like x-ray radiation is emitted from the electrons' betatron oscillations. The applied magnetic field can modulate the resonance process between an electron's betatron oscillation and the laser electric field, and the electron energy gain from the direct laser acceleration is thus changed. When a magnetic field of strength B0=3 × 103 T is applied, which is in anti-parallel to the self-generated axial magnetic field, both the trapping efficiency of electrons by the wakefield and the maximum accelerated energy are increased. The maximum electron energy, the peak of angular radiation, and the total radiation energy are increased by 11.0%, 45.6%, and 41.1%, respectively, and the radiation spectra are blue-shifted significantly.

  4. Trajectory control of PbSe-γ-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-04-01

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the γ-Fe2O3 magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  5. Trajectory control of PbSe-gamma-Fe2O3 nanoplatforms under viscous flow and an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgar, Lioz; Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tannenbaum, Rina

    2010-04-30

    The flow behavior of nanostructure clusters, consisting of chemically bonded PbSe quantum dots and magnetic gamma-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles, has been investigated. The clusters are regarded as model nanoplatforms with multiple functionalities, where the gamma-Fe(2)O(3) magnets serve as transport vehicles, manipulated by an external magnetic field gradient, and the quantum dots act as fluorescence tags within an optical window in the near-infrared regime. The clusters' flow was characterized by visualizing their trajectories within a viscous fluid (mimicking a blood stream), using an optical imaging method, while the trajectory pictures were analyzed by a specially developed processing package. The trajectories were examined under various flow rates, viscosities and applied magnetic field strengths. The results revealed a control of the trajectories even at low magnetic fields (<1 T), validating the use of similar nanoplatforms as active targeting constituents in personalized medicine.

  6. Electron Raman scattering in a double quantum well tuned by an external nonresonant intense laser field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiutiunnyk, A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. M.; Restrepo, R. L.; Ungan, F.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Kasapoglu, E.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we shall present a study of inelastic light scattering involving inter-subband electron transitions in coupled GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells. Calculations include the electron related Raman differential cross section and Raman gain. The effects of an external nonresonant intense laser field are used in order to tune these output properties. The confined electron states will be described by means of a diagonalization procedure within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations. It is shown that the application of the intense laser field can produce values of the intersubband electron Raman gain above 400 cm-1. The system proposed here is an alternative choice for the development of AlxGa1-xAs semiconductor laser diodes that can be tuned via an external nonresonant intense laser field.

  7. Matter-induced magnetic moment and neutrino helicity rotation in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternov, Alexei I.

    2016-11-01

    The induced magnetic moment that arises due to the propagation of neutrinos in a dispersive medium can affect the dynamics of the neutrino spin in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, it can cause a helicity flip of a massive neutrino in a magnetic field. In some astrophysical media, this helicity transition mechanism could be more effective than a similar process caused by the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutrino. If the neutrino energy is sufficiently high, the two helicity transition mechanisms mentioned above can compensate each other. Then a helicity flip in an external field will not occur. Calculations are carried out using both the methods of relativistic quantum mechanics and the quasiclassical Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation.

  8. Forcing a unitary transformation by an external field comparing two approaches based on optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.

  9. Describing pair production in inhomogeneous external fields with the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berényi Dániel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present results on pair production from vacuum in QED in case of inhomogeneous external electric fields. The central tool of our description is the relativistic one particle single-time Wigner-function, that describes the evolution of the e+e− densities in phase-space. We compare the influence of homogeneous and inhomogeneous external fields, and find that the inhomogeneity near the Compton-scale increases particle production proportionally to the duration of the electric pulse. We also find, that when the inhomogeneity is restricted to a single direction, a significant component of the pair yield originates from the edge or surface where the electric field gradients are large, in agreement with the prediction of Heisenberg.

  10. Supersymmetric Dynamics of a Spin-1/2 Particle in an Extended External Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Gilmar de Souza

    2011-01-01

    We consider a electron in a external field in D=5, through the Dirac equation in the Galilean symmetry approach, and in the Lorentz symmetry approach; from these we perform the nonrelativistic limit, then we procede the supersymmetry of the same that is associated with the Galilean symmetry, we identify as a supersymmetry sector from the quantum-mechanical dynamics, and we got the algebra of fermionic charges. We naturally define as extra electrical vector E, and interpret the terms of energy coming from the fifth dimension. The energy from the fifth dimension, criate this extra electrical vector E, associated with the fifth component of the external electrical field A, this makes the energy flow from the fifth dimension to the usual three-dimensional space, when some symmetries of the usual space are broken, giving a preferential direction in the space, even though the standard electrical and magnetic fields are null.

  11. Topology optimized and 3D printed polymer-bonded permanent magnets for a predefined external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Pfaff, C.; Kriwet, J.; Groenefeld, M.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Suess, D.

    2017-08-01

    Topology optimization offers great opportunities to design permanent magnetic systems that have specific external field characteristics. Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets with an end-user 3D printer can be used to manufacture permanent magnets with structures that had been difficult or impossible to manufacture previously. This work combines these two powerful methods to design and manufacture permanent magnetic systems with specific properties. The topology optimization framework is simple, fast, and accurate. It can also be used for the reverse engineering of permanent magnets in order to find the topology from field measurements. Furthermore, a magnetic system that generates a linear external field above the magnet is presented. With a volume constraint, the amount of magnetic material can be minimized without losing performance. Simulations and measurements of the printed systems show very good agreement.

  12. In situ and remote characterization of the external field temporal variations at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Benoit; Civet, François; Thébault, Erwan

    2017-01-01

    Since there are currently no magnetic field measurements made at Mars' surface, it is not possible to directly monitor the temporal variability of the external field as it is done on Earth's ground magnetic observatories. In this paper we examine two indirect ways of quantifying this external field. First, we directly use Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements to quantify the level of variability of the external field. We sort the measurements on a fine spatial mesh, 0.8° × 0.8° at the equator. We then subtract for each bin and measurement the internal, crustal (static) field without any a priori modeling. We finally compute daily averages of the individual residuals to obtain a time series of an in situ proxy. Second, we use the Advanced Composition Explorer mission which measures the solar wind about 1 h upstream of the Earth at the L1 Lagrange point. These measurements are extrapolated to Mars' position taking into account the orbital configurations of the Mars-Earth system and the average velocity of particles carrying the interplanetary magnetic field to obtain a remote proxy time series. We compare these time series and demonstrate that they are complementary. When Mars and the Earth are close to the same Parker spiral arm, in situ and remote series have correlation coefficients close to 0.5. We show how these series, or proxies, can help to select magnetic field measurements on Mars. This dual approach and these proxies will especially be useful for upcoming magnetic field measurements made around or at the surface of Mars.

  13. External field-assisted solution synthesis and selectively catalytic properties of amorphous iron nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jianguo; Yan, Gongqin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2012-03-07

    This work describes an easy and flexible approach for the synthesis of 2D nanostructures by external composite field-induced self-assembly. Amorphous iron nanoplatelets with a large aspect ratio were prepared by reducing a concentrated FeSO4 solution with NaBH4 without any templates or surfactants under a magnetic field and a shear field, and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the morphological dependence of the resultant iron nanostructures on the kinetic parameters such as reactant concentration, reaction temperature, external fields as well as reaction time, etc., a novel conceivable formation mechanism of the iron nanoplatelets was substantiated to be a self-assembly of concentrated iron nuclei induced by the synergistic effect of both a magnetic field and a shear field. Due to the amorphous nature and shape anisotropy, the as-synthesized iron nanoplatelets exhibit quite different magnetic properties with an enhanced coercivity of >220 Oe from isotropic iron nanoparticles. In the oxidation of cyclohexane with hydrogen peroxide as a 'green' oxidant, the as-obtained amorphous iron nanoplatelets show a conversion more than 84% and a complete selectivity for cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone due to the unique structure. Moreover, their catalytic performances are strongly influenced by their morphology, and the iron atoms located on the faces tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanol while those on the sides tend to catalyze the formation of cyclohexanone. The external composite field-induced solution synthesis reported here can be readily explored for fabricating other 2D magnetic nanoplatelets, and the resulting iron nanoplatelets are promising for a number of applications such as high efficient selective catalysis, energy, environment fields and so forth.

  14. Graphene nanoflakes in external electric and magnetic in-plane fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szałowski, Karol, E-mail: kszalowski@uni.lodz.pl

    2015-05-15

    The paper discusses the influence of the external in-plane electric and magnetic fields on the ground state spin phase diagram of selected monolayer graphene nanostructures. The calculations are performed for triangular graphene nanoflakes with armchair edges as well as for short pieces of armchair graphene nanoribbons with zigzag terminations. The mean field approximation (MFA) is employed to solve the Hubbard model. The total spin for both classes of nanostructures is discussed as a function of external fields for various structure sizes, for charge neutrality conditions as well as for weak charge doping. The variety of nonzero spin states is found and their stability ranges are determined. For some structures, the presence of antiferromagnetic orderings is predicted within the zero-spin phase. The process of magnetization of nanoflakes with magnetic field at constant electric field is also investigated, showing opposite effect of electric field at low and at high magnetic fields. - Highlights: • Magnetic ground-state phase diagram of graphene nanoflakes was constructed. • The combined effect of in-plane electric and magnetic fields on total spin was studied. • A rich phase diagram with both disordered and ordered (nonzero spin) phases was found. • The importance of size and edge geometry of the nanostructure was emphasized.

  15. Release of charges under external fields of PbLa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Chong-Hui; Xu Zhuo; Gao Jun-Jie; Yao Xi

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the pyroelectric of poled antiferroelectric (AFE) ceramic Pb0.97La0.02 (Zr0.69Sn0.196 Ti0.114)O3 and its remnant polarization dependence of hydrostatic pressure. The results show that the bound charges of poled sample can be released in short time by temperature field or pressure field. The released charge abruptly forms a large pulse current. The phenomena of released charge under external fields result in the ferroelectric-AFE phase transition induced by temperature or hydrostatic pressure.

  16. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimachkov, D.A., E-mail: klimachkovdmitry@gmail.com [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Petrosyan, A.S. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Science, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya str., Moscow, 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskyi per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  17. Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an arbitrarily oriented external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rubio, F., E-mail: fernando.garcia.rubio@upm.es; Sanz, J. [E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Ruocco, A. [Universitá degli studi di Napoli Federico II, 80138 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Plasma expansion into a vacuum with an external magnetic field is studied under the ideal magnetohydrodynamic hypothesis. The inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the expansion direction is arbitrary, and both the perpendicular and the oblique cases are separately analyzed. A self-similar solution satisfying the boundary conditions is obtained. The interface with the vacuum is treated as a fluid surface, and jump conditions concerning the momentum conservation are imposed. The effect of the intensity of the magnetic field and its inclination is thoroughly studied, and the consistency of the solution for small and large inclinations is investigated.

  18. The Mass of Kerr-Newman Black Holes in an external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, M; Oliveri, R; Vandevoorde, N

    2016-01-01

    The explicit solution for a Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in an external magnetic field, sometimes called the Melvin-Kerr-Newman black hole, has been derived by Ernst and Wild in 1976. In this paper, we clarify the first law and Smarr formula for black holes in a magnetic field. We then define the unique mass which is integrable and reduces to the Kerr-Newman mass in the absence of magnetic field. This defines the thermodynamic potentials of the black hole. Quite strikingly, the mass coincides with the standard Christodoulou-Ruffini mass of a black hole as a function of the entropy, angular momentum and electric charge.

  19. Photon-radion conversion cross-sections in external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, P V; Soa, D V; Thao, N H; 10.1007/JHEP10(2011)018

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some experimental predictions of the Randall-Sundrum model, where compactification radius of the extra dimension is stabilized by the radion, which is a scalar field lighter than the graviton Kaluza-Klein states. We calculate the conversion cross-sections of the photons into the radions in the external electromagnetic fields, namely, in the static fields and in a periodic field of the wave guide. Numerical evaluations of the total cross-sections are also given. Our result shows that the conversion cross-section in the static electric field is quite small. But, in the static magnetic and periodic fields, the radion productions are much enhanced.

  20. Holographic Superconductors with Logarithmic Nonlinear Electrodynamics in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi, A.; Shamsi, F.

    2017-03-01

    Based on the matching method, we explore the effects of adding an external magnetic field on the s-wave holographic superconductors when the gauge field is in the form of the logarithmic nonlinear source. First, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics and understand that they depend on the nonlinear parameter b. We show that the critical temperature decreases with increasing b, which implies that the nonlinear gauge field makes the condensation harder. Then, we turn on the magnetic field in the bulk and find the critical magnetic field, B c , in terms of the temperature, which also depends on the nonlinear parameter b. We observe that for temperature smaller than the critical temperature, T superconductor with magnetic field in Maxwell theory.

  1. Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Abajyan, H. G.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N 2 numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to

  2. Influence of Tailored Applied Magnetic Fields on High-Power MPD Thruster Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of tailored, externally-applied magnetic fields on current transport and near-anode processes in the plasma discharge of a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). Electrical and plasma diagnostics were used to investigate how localized applied magnetic fields could mitigate the effects of the "onset" phenomena, including large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations and high anode fall voltages associated with unstable operation and anode erosion. An MPDT with a multi-channel hollow cathode was developed and tested with quasi-steady pulses of 1 millisecond duration at power levels of 36 kilowatts (20 volts, 1800 amperes) to 3.3 milliwatts (255 volts, 13.1 kiloamperes) with argon propellant in three different magnetic configurations: self-field, applied B field tangential to the anode lip near the exit plane, and applied cusp B field. The current pattern and current densities redistributed to follow the applied poloidal magnetic field lines, which created increased conduction paths to the anode. Also, the anode fall voltage was substantially reduced with both applied B field topologies over a large range of currents. For example, at 10.7 kiloamperes, the cusp applied magnetic field decreased anode fall voltages from 45-83 volts down to 15 volts or lower along much of the anode. The amplitude and frequency of the voltage fluctuations were also reduced over a broad range of currents with the applied fields. E.g., the standard deviations of the fluctuations were lowered by 37-49 percent at 8-9 kiloamperes. In addition, decreases in the mean terminal voltages as large as 31 percent were measured with the applied magnetic fields. These effects are shown to be associated with the increased current conduction along the applied magnetic field lines in the near-anode region. These results also suggest a reduction in frequency and intensity of current-concentrating filaments and anode spots, which contribute to erosion. Overall, both applied

  3. Influence of Tailored Applied Magnetic Fields on High-Power MPD Thruster Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Robert C.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of tailored, externally-applied magnetic fields on current transport and near-anode processes in the plasma discharge of a magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (MPDT). Electrical and plasma diagnostics were used to investigate how localized applied magnetic fields could mitigate the effects of the "onset" phenomena, including large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations and high anode fall voltages associated with unstable operation and anode erosion. An MPDT with a multi-channel hollow cathode was developed and tested with quasi-steady pulses of 1 millisecond duration at power levels of 36 kilowatts (20 volts, 1800 amperes) to 3.3 milliwatts (255 volts, 13.1 kiloamperes) with argon propellant in three different magnetic configurations: self-field, applied B field tangential to the anode lip near the exit plane, and applied cusp B field. The current pattern and current densities redistributed to follow the applied poloidal magnetic field lines, which created increased conduction paths to the anode. Also, the anode fall voltage was substantially reduced with both applied B field topologies over a large range of currents. For example, at 10.7 kiloamperes, the cusp applied magnetic field decreased anode fall voltages from 45-83 volts down to 15 volts or lower along much of the anode. The amplitude and frequency of the voltage fluctuations were also reduced over a broad range of currents with the applied fields. E.g., the standard deviations of the fluctuations were lowered by 37-49 percent at 8-9 kiloamperes. In addition, decreases in the mean terminal voltages as large as 31 percent were measured with the applied magnetic fields. These effects are shown to be associated with the increased current conduction along the applied magnetic field lines in the near-anode region. These results also suggest a reduction in frequency and intensity of current-concentrating filaments and anode spots, which contribute to erosion. Overall, both applied

  4. Parametric instabilities in shallow water magnetohydrodynamics of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimachkov, D. A.; Petrosyan, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows of a thin rotating layer of astrophysical plasma in external magnetic field. We use the shallow water approximation to describe thin rotating plasma layer with a free surface in a vertical external magnetic field. The MHD shallow water equations with external vertical magnetic field are revised by supplementing them with the equations that are consequences of the magnetic field divergence-free conditions and reveal the existence of third component of the magnetic field in such approximation providing its relation with the horizontal magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of a vertical magnetic field significantly changes the dynamics of the wave processes in astrophysical plasma compared to the neutral fluid and plasma layer in a toroidal magnetic field. The equations for the nonlinear wave packets interactions are derived using the asymptotic multiscale method. The equations for three magneto-Poincare waves interactions, for three magnetostrophic waves interactions, for the interactions of two magneto-Poincare waves and for one magnetostrophic wave and two magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave interactions are obtained. The existence of parametric decay and parametric amplifications is predicted. We found following four types of parametric decay instabilities: magneto-Poincare wave decays into two magneto-Poincare waves, magnetostrophic wave decays into two magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave decays into one magneto-Poincare wave and one magnetostrophic wave, magnetostrophic wave decays into one magnetostrophic wave and one magneto-Poincare wave. Following mechanisms of parametric amplifications are found: parametric amplification of magneto-Poincare waves, parametric amplification of magnetostrophic waves, magneto-Poincare wave amplification in magnetostrophic wave presence and magnetostrophic wave amplification in magneto-Poincare wave presence. The instabilities growth rates

  5. External Fields and the Dynamics of Fundamental Flavours in Holographic Duals of Large N Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2010-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality we study strongly coupled dynamics of fundamental flavours in large N_c gauge theories in a constant external field. We primarily focus on the effects of an external magnetic field. We use two holographic models realized in the Type IIB and Type IIA supergravity and present a comparative case study. In both these models, by studying the dynamics of probe branes, we explicitly demonstrate and discuss the magnetically induced chiral symmetry breaking effect ("magnetic catalysis") in the flavour sector. We also study the associated thermodynamics and the meson spectrum and realize e.g. Zeeman splitting, stability enhancement of the mesons in the presence of an external magnetic field etc. By studying the quasinormal modes of the probe brane fluctuation in the hydrodynamic limit we also obtain an analytic dispersion relation in the presence of a magnetic field in the Type IIA model. This dispersion relation consists of a propagating sound mode in the otherwise diffusive channel and...

  6. Properties of a Si2N molecule under an external electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guo-Liang; Xie Hui-Xiang; Yuan Wei; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Liu Yu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In the present work,we adopt the ccsd/6-31g(d)method to optimize the ground state structure and calculate the vibrational frequency of the Si2N molecule.The calculated frequencies accord satisfactorily with the experimental values,which helps confirm the ground state structure of the molecule.In order to find how the external electric field affects the Si2N molecule,we use the density functioual method B3P86/6-31g(d)to optimize the ground state structure and the time-dependent density functional theory TDDFT/6-31g(d)to study the absorption spectra,the excitation energies,the oscillator strengths,and the dipole moments of the Si2N molecule under different external electric fields.It is found that the absorption spectra,the excitation energies,the oscillator strengths,and the dipole moments of the Si2N molecule are affected by the external electric field.One of the valuable results is that the absorption spectra of the yellow and the blue-violet light of the Si2N molecule each have a red shift under the electric field.The luminescence mechanism in the visible light region of the Si2N molecule is also investigated and compared with the experimental data.

  7. Active contour external force using vector field convolution for image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Acton, Scott T

    2007-08-01

    Snakes, or active contours, have been widely used in image processing applications. Typical roadblocks to consistent performance include limited capture range, noise sensitivity, and poor convergence to concavities. This paper proposes a new external force for active contours, called vector field convolution (VFC), to address these problems. VFC is calculated by convolving the edge map generated from the image with the user-defined vector field kernel. We propose two structures for the magnitude function of the vector field kernel, and we provide an analytical method to estimate the parameter of the magnitude function. Mixed VFC is introduced to alleviate the possible leakage problem caused by choosing inappropriate parameters. We also demonstrate that the standard external force and the gradient vector flow (GVF) external force are special cases of VFC in certain scenarios. Examples and comparisons with GVF are presented in this paper to show the advantages of this innovation, including superior noise robustness, reduced computational cost, and the flexibility of tailoring the force field.

  8. Gamma neutron method applied to field measurement of hydrodynamic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F.; Pappalardo, A.; Couchat, Ph.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma neutron method is applied to the study of solute movements during field irrigations under steady-state and transient hydrodynamic conditions. Two different types of behavior are discussed. In the first, the labeled water pulse velocity matches the conservation of the vertical rate of water and, when the deuterated water concentration profiles are mass-conservative, the experimental results are accurately described by the equation of dispersion. In the second, the pore water velocity differs considerably from that of strictly vertical displacements and the concentration profiles are not massconservative.

  9. On the influence of applied fields on spinel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KORTE,C.; FARER,J.K.; RAVISHANKAR,N.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.; SCHMALZRIED,J.; CARTER,C.B.

    2000-04-04

    Interfaces play an important role in determining the effect of electric fields on the mechanism of the formation spinel by solid-state reaction. The reaction occurs by the movement of phase boundaries but the rate of this movement can be affected by grain boundaries in the reactants or in the reaction product. Only by understanding these relationships will it be possible to engineer their behavior. As a particular example of such a study, MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be formed by the reaction between single-crystal MgO substrate and a thin film of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with or without an applied electric field. High-resolution backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used to obtain complementary chemical and crystallographic information.

  10. Charged Polymers Transport under Applied Electric Fields in Periodic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nedelcu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the transport of charged polymers in applied electric fields in confining environments, which were straight cylinders of uniform or non-uniform diameter. In the simulations, the solvent was modeled explicitly and, also, the counterions and coions of added salt. The electrophoretic velocities of charged chains in relation to electrolyte friction, hydrodynamic effects due to the solvent, and surface friction were calculated. We found that the velocities were higher if counterions were moved away from the polymeric domain, which led to a decrease in hydrodynamic friction. The topology of the surface played a key role in retarding the motion of the polyelectrolyte and, even more so, in the presence of transverse electric fields. The present study showed that a possible way of improving separation resolution is by controlling the motion of counterions or electrolyte friction effects.

  11. Ground-State Behavior of the Quantum Compass Model in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ke-Wei; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ground-state(GS)properties of the two-dimensional(2D)quantum compass model in an external field on a square 5×5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization(ED)method.We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions,nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter.As the external field is presented,the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.%Ground-state (GS) properties of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum compass model in an external Geld on a square 5x5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization (ED) method. We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions, nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter. As the external Geld is presented, the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.

  12. Derivation of a non-local interfacial model for 3D wetting in an external field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardino, N R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Parry, A O [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rascon, C [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Romero-Enrique, J M [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado de Correos 1065, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2009-11-18

    We extend recent studies of 3D short-ranged wetting transitions by deriving an interfacial Hamiltonian in the presence of an arbitrary external field. The binding potential functional, describing the interaction of the interface and the substrate, can still be written in a diagrammatic form, but now includes new classes of diagrams due to the coupling to the external potential, which are determined exactly. Applications to systems with long-ranged (algebraically decaying) and short-ranged (exponentially decaying) external potentials are considered at length. We show how the familiar 'sharp-kink' approximation to the binding potential emerges, and determine the corrections to this arising from interactions between bulk-like fluctuations and the external field. A connection is made with earlier local effective interfacial Hamiltonian approaches. It is shown that, for the case of an exponentially decaying potential, non-local effects have a particularly strong influence on the approach to the critical regime at second-order wetting transitions, even when they appear to be sub-dominant. This is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation studies of a discretized version of a non-local interfacial model.

  13. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, F.; Forquin, P.

    2012-08-01

    For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s-1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula) remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative `load cell'. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young's modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  14. Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2016-01-01

    In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor......-type interaction under the strong external magnetic field, it is shown that a quark spin polarized phase is realized in all regions of the quark chemical potential under consideration within the lowest Landau level approximation. In the axial-vector-type interaction, it is also shown that the quark spin polarized...... phase appears in the wide range of the quark chemical potential. In both the interactions, the quark mass in zero and small chemical potential regions increases which indicates that the chiral symmetry breaking is enhanced, namely the magnetic catalysis occurs....

  15. Orientational instabilities in nematics with weak anchoring under combined action of steady flow and external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Nasibullayev, I S; Krekhov, A P; Kramer, L

    2005-01-01

    We study the homogeneous and the spatially periodic instabilities in a nematic liquid crystal layer subjected to steady plane {\\em Couette} or {\\em Poiseuille} flow. The initial director orientation is perpendicular to the flow plane. Weak anchoring at the confining plates and the influence of the external {\\em electric} and/or {\\em magnetic} field are taken into account. Approximate expressions for the critical shear rate are presented and compared with semi-analytical solutions in case of Couette flow and numerical solutions of the full set of nematodynamic equations for Poiseuille flow. In particular the dependence of the type of instability and the threshold on the azimuthal and the polar anchoring strength and external fields is analysed.

  16. Effects of Magnetic Nanoparticles and External Magnetostatic Field on the Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-01

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  17. The Behavior of Ultrafine Particles in the Absence and Presence of External Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Bentham, Craig; Elliott, James

    2007-03-01

    Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultrafine particles (0.1 - 1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical ihalation applications. We develop a numerical model for these systems using the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction between the particles and their contact mechanical interactions. We study the dynamics of these systems in the absence and presence of gravity by controlling the particle size, and thereby, the surface properties of the particles. Finally, we explore the response of these systems to external fields by studying the evolution of the internal microstructure under contant load and shear strain.

  18. Effects of external magnetic field on oblique propagation of ion acoustic cnoidal wave in nonextensive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad Kiyaei, Forough; Dorranian, Davoud

    2017-01-01

    Effects of the obliqueness and the strength of external magnetic field on the ion acoustic (IA) cnoidal wave in a nonextensive plasma are investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the corresponding KdV equation for the IA wave. Sagdeev potential is extracted, and the condition of generation of IA waves in the form of cnoidal waves or solitons is discussed in detail. In this work, the domain of allowable values of nonextensivity parameter q for generation of the IA cnoidal wave in the plasma medium is considered. The results show that only the compressive IA wave may generate and propagate in the plasma medium. Increasing the strength of external magnetic field will increase the frequency of the wave and decrease its amplitude, while increasing the angle of propagation will decrease the frequency of the wave and increase its amplitude.

  19. Effects of magnetic nanoparticles and external magnetostatic field on the bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yi, Chao; Liu, Chang; Hu, Xiaowen; Chuang, Steven; Gong, Xiong

    2015-03-18

    The price of energy to separate tightly bound electron-hole pair (or charge-transfer state) and extract freely movable charges from low-mobility materials represents fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic devices. In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs), approximately 50% of the total efficiency lost among all energy loss pathways is due to the photogenerated charge carrier recombination within PSCs and low charge carrier mobility of disordered organic materials. To address these issues, we introduce magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and orientate these MNPS within BHJ composite by an external magnetostatic field. Over 50% enhanced efficiency was observed from BHJ PSCs incorporated with MNPs and an external magnetostatic field alignment when compared to the control BHJ PSCs. The optimization of BHJ thin film morphology, suppression of charge carrier recombination, and enhancement in charge carrier collection result in a greatly increased short-circuit current density and fill factor, as a result, enhanced power conversion efficiency.

  20. Enhancement of wave and acceleration of electron in plasma in the external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the enhancement of Langmuir and ion-acoustic wave and the acceleration of the electron in collisionless plasma.in the presence of an external transverse field.Based on hydrodynamic equations,an equation formulizing the parametric instability was derived.Furthermore,the formula for ponderomotive force and the expression that describes the electron acceleration were obtained.The results show that Langmuir and ion-acoustic wave are enhanced and the charged particles can be accelerated by the coupling of wave-wave.In addition,it can be concluded that ponderomotive force,due to the coupling of the external field(pump)to the Langmuir wave(ion-acoustic wave),is the driving force to excite the parametric instability and comprises the high- and low-frequency components.

  1. Si3O cluster: excited properties under external electric field and oxygen-deficient defect models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Guo-Liang; Liu Xue-Feng; Xie Hui-Xiang; Zhang Xian-Zhou; Liu Yu-Fang

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the excited states of Si3O molecule by using the single-excitation configuration interaction and density functional theory. It finds that the visible light absorption spectrum of SisO molecule comprises the yellow and the purple light without external electric field, however all the visible light is included except the green light under the action of external electric field. Oxygen-deficient defects, which also can be found in Si3O molecule, have been used to explain the luminescence from silicon-based materials but the microstrnctures of the materials are still uncertain.Our results accord with the experimental values perfectly, this fact suggests that the structure of Si3O molecule is expected to be one of the main basic structures of the materials, so the oxygen-deficient defect structural model for Si3O molecule also has been provided to research the structures of materials.

  2. Complete Form of Fermion Self-energy in NJL Model with External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Song; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Xia, Yong-Hui; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to study the complete form of self-energy in fermion propagator within two-flavor NJL model in the case of finite temperature, chemical potential and external magnetic field. Through self-consistency analysis we prove that the self-energy is not simply proportional to dynamical mass in the presence of chemical potential, moreover, it could be more complicated after introducing external magnetic field. We find out the appropriate and complete form of self-energy and establish new gap equations. The numerical results show that the dynamical mass only has small quantitative modification rather than qualitative change by using these new gap equations, but the new self-energy does generate split in the dispersion relation with fixed momentum and Landau level.

  3. Far-infrared conductivity measurements of pair breaking in superconducting Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N thin films induced by an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Hwang, J; Martin, C; Tanner, D B; Carr, G L

    2010-12-17

    We report the complex optical conductivity of a superconducting thin film of Nb 0.5 Ti 0.5 N in an external magnetic field. The field was applied parallel to the film surface and the conductivity extracted from far-infrared transmission and reflection measurements. The real part shows the superconducting gap, which we observe to be suppressed by the applied magnetic field. We compare our results with the pair-breaking theory of Abrikosov and Gor'kov and confirm directly the theory's validity for the optical conductivity.

  4. Drag with external and pressure drop with internal flows: a new and unifying look at losses in the flow field based on the second law of thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwig, Heinz; Schmandt, Bastian, E-mail: h.herwig@tuhh.de [Hamburg University of Technology, Institute for Thermo-Fluid Dynamics, Denickestr. 17, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Internal and external flows are characterized by friction factors and drag coefficients, respectively. Their definitions are based on pressure drop and drag force and thus are very different in character. From a thermodynamics point of view in both cases dissipation occurs which can uniformly be related to the entropy generation in the flow field. Therefore we suggest to account for losses in the flow field by friction factors and drag coefficients that are based on the overall entropy generation due to the dissipation in the internal and external flow fields. This second law analysis (SLA) has been applied to internal flows in many studies already. Examples of this flow category are given together with new cases of external flows, also treated by the general SLA-approach. (paper)

  5. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from -1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  6. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of spherical quantum dot inside external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus, 68100 Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2017-04-01

    We have calculated the wavefunctions and energy eigenvalues of spherical quantum dot with infinite potential barrier inside uniform magnetic field. In addition, we have investigated the magnetic field effect on optical transitions between Zeeman energy states. The results are expressed as a function of dot radius, incident photon energy and magnetic field strength. The results present that, in large dot radii, the external magnetic field affects strongly the optical transitions between Zeeman states. In the strong spatial confinement case, energy level is relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, and electron spatial confinement prevails over magnetic confinement. Also, while m varies from −1 to +1, the peak positions of the optical transitions shift toward higher energy (blueshift).

  7. Control of transmission of right circularly polarized laser light in overdense plasma by applied magnetic field pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangjin; Yu, Wei; Yu, M Y; Luan, Shixia; Wu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The effect of a transient magnetic field on right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) laser light propagation in overcritical-density plasma is investigated. When the electron gyrofrequency is larger than the wave frequency, RHCP light can propagate along the external magnetic field in an overcritical density plasma without resonance or cutoff. However, when the magnetic field falls to below the cyclotron resonance point, the propagating laser pulse will be truncated and the local plasma electrons resonantly heated. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when applied to a thin slab, the process can produce intense two-cycle light pulses as well as long-lasting self-magnetic fields.

  8. Gauge Covariant Fermion Propagator in the Presence of Arbitrary External Gauge Field and Its Schwinger-Dyson Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; WANG Qing

    2008-01-01

    @@ Gauge covariance for Green's functions of a gauge theory through a fermion propagator in the presence of arbitrary external gauge field is proven and a formalism of gauge and Lorentz covariant Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion propagator with external gauge field is built up within ladder approximation.

  9. The response of metal clusters to q- and L-dependent external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ll.; Garcias, F. (Universidad de las Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. de Fisica); Barberan, N.; Barranco, M. (Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Estructura y Constituyentes de la Materia); Navarro, J. (Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular); Rubio, A. (Valladolid Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear)

    1991-01-01

    We have calculated the static polarizability and mean excitation energy of metal clusters submitted to q-and L-dependent external fields of j{sub L} (qr) Y{sub LO}({Omega}) type. Use has been made of an Extended Random-Phase Approximation which includes exchange and correlation effects within a local model, and of the spherical jellium model to describe the neutralizing positive background. (orig.).

  10. Particle with spin 2 and anomalous magnetic moment in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kisel, V V; Red'kov, V M

    2011-01-01

    Tensor 50-component form of the first order relativistic wave equation for a particle with spin 2 and anomalous magnetic moment is extended to the case of an arbitrary curved space-time geometry. An additional parameter considered in the presence of only electromagnetic field as related to anomalous magnetic moment, turns to determine additional interaction terms with external geometrical background through Ricci R_{kl} and Riemann R_{klmn} tensors.

  11. Schwinger pair creation in Dirac semimetals in the presence of external magnetic and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramchuk, R. A.; Zubkov, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the Schwinger pair creation process for the system of massless Dirac fermions in the presence of constant external magnetic and electric fields. The pair production rate remains finite unlike the vacuum decay rate. In the recently discovered Dirac semimetals, where the massless Dirac fermions emerge, this pair production may be observed experimentally through the transport properties. We estimate its contribution to the ordinary conductivity of the semimetals.

  12. Certain Properties of a Quantum Information Network Driven by External Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Qiao; FANG Jin-Qing; ZOU Qin

    2006-01-01

    @@ A quantum information network with the structure of the Gaussian channel is proposed. The network topological property and information characteristic is studied. Under the catastrophic and exponential external field driving,the degree distribution has the spatial and temporal characteristics, and the positive or negative power index appears, which can influence the assortativity coefficient. This is possibly helpful to open a way to using the different type of driving to introduce the expected properties for the network.

  13. $Er^{3+}$ luminescence as a sensor of high pressure and strong external magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valiente, R.; Millot, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Gonzalez, J.; Broto, J-M.; George, S.; Garcia-Revilla, S.; Romanyuk, Y.; Pollnau, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the combined effect of high pressure (up to 7.5 GPa) and strong external magnetic fields (up to 28.5 T) on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of $Er^{3+}–Yb^{3+}$ co-doped single-crystal thin films of well-oriented $KY(WO_4)_2$ at low temperat

  14. Electronic properties of bilayer graphenes strongly coupled to interlayer stacking and an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changwon; Ryu, Junga; Hong, Suklyun; Sumpter, Bobby; Kim, Gunn; Yoon, Mina

    2015-03-01

    In the design of bilayer graphene (BLG)-based switching devices, it is critical to understand the complex stacking structures observed experimentally and their impact on the overall electronic properties. Using a maximally localized Wannier function, a highly accurate tight-binding Hamiltonian based on density functional theory was constructed and the stacking-dependent evolution of BLGs electronic band structures and their response to an external electric field were systematically investigated. Although the crossing band structures remain at any stacking configurations (i.e., no energy gap opens), the wavefunction characteristics around the Fermi level can differ qualitatively for different stackings. This difference is conveyed to energy gap opening properties in the presence of an external electric field. We, for the first time, established a phase diagram summarizing the stacking-dependent electronic structures of BLG, separating metallic and semiconducting characteristics for a given external field. The research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  15. QED with external field: Hamiltonian treatment for anisotropic medium formed by the Lorentz-non-invariant vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba-Chavez, Selym

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included, is considered against the Lorentz-noninvariant external field background, treated as an anisotropic medium. Hamiltonian formalism is applied to electromagnetic excitations over the background, and entities of electrodynamics of media, such as field inductions and intensities, are made sense in terms of canonical variables. Both conserved and nonconserved generators of space-time translations and rotations are defined on the phase space, and their Hamiltonian equations of motion and Dirac-bracket relations, different from the Poincar\\'e algebra, are established. Nonsymmetric, but -- in return -- gauge-invariant, energy-momentum (EMT) tensor suggests a canonical momentum density other than the Poynting vector. A photon magnetic moment is found to govern the evolution of the photon angular momentum. It is determined by the antisymmetric part of EMT.

  16. Effect of a weak external electric field on the kinetics of the ordering of ferroelectrics upon first-order phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, O. Yu.; Stefanovich, L. I.; Yurchenko, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The kinetics of the formation and growth of 180° domains in a weak quasi-stationary external electric field has been considered in the framework of the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau model using the example of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) crystals that undergo a first-order ferroelectric phase transition of the order-disorder type. The influence of the rate and temperature of quenching, as well as the strength of an external electric field, on the subsequent evolution of the system toward the thermodynamic equilibrium state has been analyzed. It has been shown that, by varying a weak external electric field applied to the ferroelectric crystal after quenching, it is possible to obtain both single-domain and multi-domain ordered structures. It has been established that the formation of nonequilibrium ("virtual") multi-domain structures of the asymmetric type is possible for particular strengths of the electric field applied to the ferroelectric after quenching. A similar effect can be achieved by varying the depth of quenching of the sample. It has been found that, if the size of the order parameter inhomogeneities formed at the stage of quenching does not exceed a critical value, they can be reoriented partially or completely into domains of opposite sign. For this purpose, the relaxation after quenching should be performed in an external electric field of the appropriate sign.

  17. 2D and 3D fault basis for fuel cell diagnosis by external magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifrek, Lyes; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Bultel, Yann; Rosini, Sébastien; Rouveyre, Luc

    2017-07-01

    An original approach used for the identification of faults in fuel cell stacks is presented. It is based on the 3D reconstruction of the current density from external magnetic field measurements which is an ill-posed magnetostatic linear inverse problem. A suitable and original current density and magnetic field basis are proposed in order to define both local and global faults on a fuel cell stack. The inverse problem is regularized by truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) to ensure the uniqueness of the solution. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  18. Hadronic matter under an external magnetic field: in medium modification of the pion mass

    CERN Document Server

    Aguirre, R

    2016-01-01

    The covariant propagator of a fermion with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with an uniform external magnetic field at finite temperature and baryonic density is presented . The case of a scalar boson is also considered. The final expressions are given in terms of a 4-dimensional momentum representation. These results, which take account of the full effect of the magnetic field, are used to evaluate the modification of the pion mass at zero temperature as a function of the density and the magnetic intensity. For this purpose a self-consistent calculation, including one and two pion vertices, is employed.

  19. Electronic properties of pentaorgano[60]fullerenes under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Sho; Okada, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of pentaorgano[60]fullerene under an external electric field were studied by combining the density functional theory with the effective screening medium method. Pentaorgano[60]fullerene possess a dipole moment because of their asymmetric molecular form owing to their five functionalized groups. When electrons and holes are injected into the molecule, the magnetic states of the molecule change from S = 1/2 to nonmagnetic and S = 1 triplet states for electron and hole doping, respectively. The asymmetric molecular shape causes the unusual distribution of the accumulated carriers depending on their mutual molecular arrangement in the electric field.

  20. Recurrence relations for the three-dimensional Ising-like model in the external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The method for calculation of the partition function of lattice model for the magnet in the external field near critical point (CP is proposed. The recurrence relations and their explicit solution near the critical point are founded. It is shown that dependence on temperature of thermodynamic functions near CP, when the field value comes down to zero, is in good agreement with the previous results obtained using the collective variable method. The phase transition temperature (when h=0 is calculated and the dependence on parameters of interaction potential is found.

  1. On Equations for a Spin-2 Particle in External Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bogush, A A; Tokarevskaya, N G; Redkov, V M

    2003-01-01

    30-component, of the first order, equation for a spin 2 particle, equivalent to the second order Pauli-Fierz one, is generalized to presence of an external electromagnetic field as well as a curved background space-time geometry. The essential property of the generally covariant wave equation obtained is that here from the very beginning, in accordance with requirement of the Pauli-Fierz approach, a set of additional relations on 30-component wave function for eliminating complementary spin 0 and spin 1 fields is present at the starting equation.

  2. Geometric Phase of Polarized Hydrogenlike Atoms in an External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhong; Finkelstein, David

    1995-04-01

    We show that the motion of polarized hydrogenlike atoms in an external magnetic field B is a cyclic evolution. The geometric phase they exhibit is dependent on both the initial state and the Hamiltonian. Properties of the geometric phase in the cases of weak (called Zeeman limit) and strong (called Paschen-Back limit) magnetic fields are presented. We point out that the results of the two limits are interpolated in the intermediate B region. Some observable effects in a specially devised interferometer are predicted.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Magnetization at Zero Applied Magnetic Field in Nearly Two Dimensional Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki

    2012-12-01

    NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.

  4. Modulated systems in external fields: Conditions for the presence of reentrant phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Coto, Alejandro; Billoni, Orlando V.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a coarse-grained model capable of describing the phase behavior of two-dimensional ferromagnetic systems with competing exchange and dipolar interactions, as well as an external magnetic field. An improved expression for the mean-field entropic contribution allows us to compute the phase diagram in the whole temperature versus external field plane. We find that the topology of the phase diagram may be qualitatively different depending on the ratio between the strength of the competing interactions. In the regime relevant for ultrathin ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy we confirm the presence of inverse-symmetry breaking from a modulated phase to a homogeneous one as the temperature is lowered at constant magnetic field, as reported in experiments. For other values of the competing interactions we show that reentrance may be absent. Comparing thermodynamic quantities in both cases, as well as the evolution of magnetization profiles in the modulated phases, we conclude that the reentrant behavior is a consequence of the suppression of domain wall degrees of freedom at low temperatures at constant fields.

  5. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2011-03-21

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ(2)∕εσ(3) ≤ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  6. Phase transitions of two-dimensional dipolar fluids in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidle, Heiko; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we study condensation phase transitions of two-dimensional Stockmayer fluids under additional external fields using Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble. We employ two recently developed methods to determine phase transitions in fluids, namely Wang-Landau (WL) MC simulations and successive-umbrella (SU) sampling. Considering first systems in zero field (and dipolar coupling strengths μ2/ɛσ3 ⩽ 6), we demonstrate that the two techniques yield essentially consistent results but display pronounced differences in terms of efficiency. Indeed, comparing the computation times for these systems on a qualitative level, the SU sampling turns out to be significantly faster. In the presence of homogeneous external fields, however, the SU method becomes plagued by pronounced sampling difficulties, yielding the calculation of coexistence lines essentially impossible. Employing the WL scheme, on the other hand, we find phase coexistence even for strongly field-aligned systems. The corresponding critical temperatures are significantly shifted relative to the zero-field case.

  7. Residential magnetic field: Accounting for external sources and residential grounding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D.A.

    1989-06-14

    A project to characterize the sources of magnetic fields in residential locations was established as part of Ontario Hydro's program to assess the risks, if any, posed by fields due to the electric power system. In this report, a simple model for the strength of the magnetic field at 60 Hz found inside houses is developed to account for the house wiring, and for sources external to the house. In the model the house wiring is reduced to a single circuit carrying the net current on the service drop to the house and the service grounding current. All sources external to the house are combined and represented as a single ambient field assumed to be spatially uniform throughout the volume of the house. This model and a measurmement procedure were tested on 5 houses in locations inside the houses remote from appliances, which were not included in the model. In the main, good agreement was found between actual measured field strengths and those predicted by the model. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. SU(3) Polyakov linear-σ model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, Niseem

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, we analyze the effects of an external magnetic field on the chiral critical temperature Tc of strongly interacting matter. In doing this, we can characterize the magnetic properties of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) strongly interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We investigate this in the framework of the SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma model (PLSM). To this end, we implement two approaches representing two systems, in which the Polyakov-loop potential added to PLSM is either renormalized or non-normalized. The effects of Landau quantization on the strongly interacting matter are conjectured to reduce the electromagnetic interactions between quarks. In this case, the color interactions will be dominant and increasing, which in turn can be achieved by increasing the Polyakov-loop fields. Obviously, each of them equips us with a different understanding about the critical temperature under the effect of an external magnetic field. In both systems, we obtain a paramagnetic response. In one system, we find that Tc increases with increasing magnetic field. In the other one, Tc significantly decreases with increasing magnetic field.

  9. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Koichi; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  10. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Onishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  11. Synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by ultrasonic bath: effect of external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2012-07-01

    A novel technique was used for the synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by applying an external magnetic field (EMF) on the precursor solution before sonication with ultrasonic bath. The results were compared in the presence and absence of EMF. Manganese acetate solution as precursor was circulated by a pump at constant speed (7 rpm, equal to flow rate of 51.5 mL/min) in an EMF with intensity of 0.38 T in two exposure times (t(MF), 2h and 24h). Then, the magnetized solution was irradiated indirectly by ultrasonic bath in basic and neutral media. One experiment was designed for the effect of oxygen atmosphere in the case of magnetic treated solution in neutral medium. The as prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, TEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis. In neutral medium, the sonication of magnetized solution (t(MF), 24h) led mainly to a mixture of Mn(3)O(4) (hausmannite) and γ-MnOOH (manganite) and sonication of unmagnetized solution led to a pure Mn(3)O(4). In point of particle size, the larger and smaller size of nanoparticles was obtained with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. In addition, the EMF was retarded the nucleation process, accelerated the growth of the crystal, and increased the amount of rod-like structure especially in oxygen atmosphere. In basic medium, a difference was observed on the composition of the products between magnetic treated and untreated solution. For these samples, the magnetic measurements as a function of temperature were exhibited a reduction in ferrimagnetic temperature to T(c)=39K, and 40K with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. The ferrimagnetic temperature was reported for the bulk at T(c)=43K. A superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature without any saturation magnetization and hysteresis in the measured

  12. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  13. Charged scalar fields in an external magnetic field: Renormalisation and universal diamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Debnarayan

    1996-02-01

    The physical and mathematical mechanism behind diamagnetism of N (finite) spinless bosons (relativistic or non-relativistic) is well known. The mathematical signature of this diamagnetism follows from Kato's inequality while its physical way of understanding goes back to Van Leeuwen. One can guess that it might be true in the field theoretic case also. While the work on systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom suggests that the same result is true in a field theory, it does not by any means prove it. In the field theoretic context one has to develop a suitable regularisation scheme to renormalise the free energy. We show that charged scalar fields in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions are always diamagnetic, even in the presence of interactions and at finite temperatures. This generalises earlier work on the diamagnetism of charged spinless bosons to the case of infinite degrees of freedom. We also discuss possible applications of the theory.

  14. Dielectric properties of KDP-type ferroelectric crystals in the presence of external electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trilok Chandra Upadhyay; Ramendra Singh Bhandari; Birendra Singh Semwal

    2006-09-01

    Considering external electric field as well as third- and fourth-order phonon anharmonic interaction terms in the pseudospin-lattice coupled mode (PLCM) model Hamiltonian for KDP-type ferroelectrics, expressions for field-dependent shift, width, renormalized soft mode frequency, Curie temperature, dielectric constant and dielectric loss are evaluated. For the calculation, method of statistical double-time temperature-dependent Green's function has been used. By fitting model values of physical quantities, temperature and electric field dependences of soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss have been calculated which compare well with experimental results of Baumgartner [8] and Choi and Lockwood [9]. Both dielectric constant and loss decrease with electric field.

  15. Effect of an External Oriented Magnetic Field on Entropy Generation in Natural Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef El Jery

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an external oriented magnetic field on entropy generation in natural convection for air and liquid gallium is numerically studied in steady-unsteady states by solving the mass, the momentum and the energy conservation equations. Entropy generation depends on five parameters which are: the Prandtl number, the irreversibility coefficients, the inclination angle of the magnetic field, the thermal Grashof and the Hartmann numbers. Effects of these parameters on total and local irreversibilities as well as on heat transfer and fluid flow are studied. It was found that the magnetic field tends to decrease the convection currents, the heat transfer and entropy generation inside the enclosure. Influence of inclination angle of the magnetic field on local irreversibility is then studied.

  16. Topological phases of silicene and germanene in an external magnetic field: Quantitative results

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the topological phases of silicene and germanene that arise due to the strong spin-orbit interaction in an external perpendicular magnetic field. Below and above a critical field of 10 T, respectively, we demonstrate for silicene under 3% tensile strain quantum spin Hall and quantum anomalous Hall phases. Not far above the critical field, and therefore in the experimentally accessible regime, we obtain an energy gap in the meV range, which shows that the quantum anomalous Hall phase can be realized experimentally in silicene, in contrast to graphene (tiny energy gap) and germanene (enormous field required). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Behaviour of the order parameter of the simple magnet in an external field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.Kozlovskii

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a homogeneous external field on the three-dimensional uniaxial magnet behaviour near the critical point is investigated within the framework of the nonperturbative collective variables method using the ρ4 model. The research is carried out for the low-temperature region. The analytic explicit expressions for the free energy, average spin moment and susceptibility are obtained for weak and strong fields in comparison with the field value belonging to the pseudocritical line. The calculations are performed on the microscopic level without any adjusting parameters. It is established that the long-wave fluctuations of the order parameter play a crucial role in forming a crossover between the temperature-dependence and field-dependence critical behaviour of the system.

  18. Effect of external and internal magnetic fields on the bias stability in a Zeeman laser gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbas, Yu Yu; Saveliev, I I; Khokhlov, N I [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-30

    With the specific features of electronic systems of a Zeeman laser gyroscope taken into account, the basic physical mechanisms of the magnetic field effect on the bias stability and the factors giving rise to the internal magnetic fields are revealed. The hardware-based methods of reducing the effect of external and internal magnetic fields are considered, as well as the algorithmic methods for increasing the stability of the bias magnetic component by taking into account its reproducible temperature and time dependences. Typical experimental temperature and time dependences of the magnetic component of the Zeeman laser gyro bias are presented, and by their example the efficiency of the proposed methods for reducing the effect of magnetic fields is shown. (laser gyroscopes)

  19. Donor impurity states and related optical response in a lateral coupled dot-ring system under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J.D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-09-01

    A study on the effects of an externally applied electric field on the linear optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with transitions between off-center donor impurity states in laterally coupled quantum dot-ring system is reported. Electron states are calculated within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations by means of an exact diagonalization procedure. The states and the optical response in each case show significant sensitivity to the geometrical distribution of confining energies as well as to the strength of the applied field.

  20. Laser ablation with applied magnetic field for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishcheva, Alla; Batishchev, Oleg; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    2012-10-01

    Using ultrafast lasers with tera-watt-level power allows efficient ablation and ionization of solid-density materials [1], creating dense and hot (˜100eV) plasma. We propose ablating small droplets in the magnetic nozzle configurations similar to mini-helicon plasma source [2]. Such approach may improve the momentum coupling compared to ablation of solid surfaces and facilitate plasma detachment. Results of 2D modeling of solid wire ablation in the applied magnetic field are presented and discussed. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev et al, Ultrafast Laser Ablation for Space Propulsion, AIAA technical paper 2008-5294, -16p, 44th JPC, Hartford, 2008.[0pt] [2] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  1. GENERAL: Concurrence of Quantum States: Algebraic Dynamical Method Study XXX Models in a Time-Depending Random External Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuan-Ji; Zhu, Qin-Sheng; Wu, Shao-Yi

    2010-06-01

    Based on algebraic dynamics and the concept of the concurrence of the entanglement, we investigate the evolutive properties of the two-qubit entanglement that formed by Heisenberg XXX models under a time-depending external held. For this system, the property of the concurrence that is only dependent on the coupling constant J and total values of the external field is proved. Furthermore, we found that the thermal concurrence of the system under a static random external field is a function of the coupling constant J, temperature T, and the magnitude of external held.

  2. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J. D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M. E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C. A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-06-07

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  3. Donor impurity states and related terahertz range nonlinear optical response in GaN cylindrical quantum wires: Effects of external electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2014-06-01

    We report a study on the optical absorption coefficient associated to hydrogenic impurity interstate transitions in zinc-blende GaN quantum wires of cylindrical shape taking into account the effects of externally applied static electric and magnetic fields. The electron states emerge within the effective mass approximation, via the exact diagonalization of the donor-impurity Hamiltonian with parabolic confinement and external field effects. The nonlinear optical absorption is calculated using a recently derived expression for the dielectric susceptibility, obtained via a nonperturbative solution of the density-matrix Bloch equation. Our results show that this treatment eliminates not only the intensity-dependent bleaching effect but also the change in sign of the nonlinear contribution due to the combined effect of asymmetric impurity location and the applied electric field.

  4. Effect of biaxial strain and external electric field on electronic properties of MoS2 monolayer: A first-principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, making use of density functional theory (DFT) computations, we systematically investigate the effect of biaxial strain engineering and external electric field applied perpendicular to the layers on the band gaps and electronic properties of monolayer MoS2. The direct-to-indirect band gaps and semiconductor-to-metal transition are observed in monolayer MoS2 when strain and electric field are applied in our calculation. We show that when the biaxial strain and external electric field are introduced, the electronic properties including band gaps of monolayer MoS2 can be reduced to zero. Our results provide many useful insights for the wide applications of monolayer MoS2 in electronics and optoelectronics.

  5. MoS2/MX2 heterobilayers: bandgap engineering via tensile strain or external electrical field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Guo, Hongyan; Li, Lei; Dai, Jun; Wang, Lu; Mei, Wai-Ning; Wu, Xiaojun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2014-02-01

    We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se, all heterobilayers show semiconducting characteristics with an indirect bandgap with the exception of the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer which retains the direct-bandgap character of the constituent monolayer. For M = Fe, V; X = S, Se, the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers exhibit metallic characters. Particular attention of this study has been focused on engineering the bandgap of the TMD heterobilayer materials via application of either a tensile strain or an external electric field. We find that with increasing either the biaxial or uniaxial tensile strain, the MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can undergo a semiconductor-to-metal transition. For the WSe2/MoS2 heterobilayer, a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition may occur beyond a critical biaxial or uniaxial strain. For M (=Fe, V) and X (=S, Se), the magnetic moments of both metal and chalcogen atoms are enhanced when the MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers are under a biaxial tensile strain. Moreover, the bandgap of MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W; X = S, Se) heterobilayers can be reduced by the vertical electric field. For two heterobilayers MSe2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr), PBE calculations suggest that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition may occur under an external electric field. The transition is attributed to the enhanced spontaneous polarization. The tunable bandgaps in general and possible indirect-direct bandgap transitions due to tensile strain or external electric field make the TMD heterobilayer materials a viable candidate for optoelectronic applications.We have performed a comprehensive first-principles study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers MX2/MoS2 (M = Mo, Cr, W, Fe, V; X = S, Se). For

  6. First-principles study on magnetism of Ru monolayer under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Yukie; Imamura, Hiroshi

    Electric field control of magnetic properties such as magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy has been attracted. For the 4 d TM films, on the other hand, it was recently reported that the ferromagnetism Pd thin-film is induced by application of an external electric field otherwise Pd thin-film shows paramagnetic. However, little attention has been paid to the magnetism of other 4 d TMs. Here, we investigate the magnetism of the free-standing Ru monolayer and that on MgO(001) substrate under an external electric field by using first-principles FLAPW method. We found that the free-standing Ru monolayer is ferromagnet with magnetic moment of 1.50 ¥muB /atom. The MA energy is 3.45 meV/atom, indicating perpendicular MA, at zero electric field (E=0) and increases up to 3.84 meV/atom by application of E=1 (V/¥AA). The Ru monolayer on MgO(001) substrate is also ferromagnet with magnetic moment of 0.89 ¥muB /atom. The MA energy is 1.49 meV/atom, indicating perpendicular MA, at E=0 and decreases to 1.33 meV/atom by application of E=1 (V/¥AA).

  7. Effects of cycle duration of an external electrostatic field on anammox biomass activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Qiao, Sen; Zhou, Jiti

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different cycle durations of an external electrostatic field on an anammox biomass were investigated. The total application time per day was 12 h at 2 V/cm for different cycle durations (i.e., continuous application-resting time) of 3 h-3 h, 6 h-6 h, and 12 h-12 h. Compared with the control reactor, the nitrogen removal rates (NRRs) increased by 18.7%, 27.4% and 8.50% using an external electrostatic field application with a continuous application time of 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. Moreover, after the reactor was running smoothly for approximately 215 days under the optimal electrostatic field condition (mode 2, continuous application-rest time: 6 h-6 h), the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate reached a peak value of approximately 6468 g-N/m3/d, which was 44.7% higher than the control. The increase in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers, heme c content and enzyme activities were demonstrated to be the main reasons for enhancement of the NRR of the anammox process. Additionally, transmission electron microscope observations proved that a morphological change in the anammox biomass occurred under an electrostatic field application.

  8. Quantum entanglement and criticality of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Li, Ruo-Yan; Tian, Guang-Shan

    2012-06-27

    By Lanczos exact diagonalization and the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) technique, the two-site entanglement as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) model under an external field are investigated. With increasing external field, the small size system shows some distinct upward magnetization stairsteps, accompanied synchronously with some downward two-site entanglement stairsteps. In the thermodynamic limit, the two-site entanglement, as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization are calculated, and the critical magnetic field h(c) = 2.0 is determined exactly. Our numerical results show that the quantum entanglement is sensitive to the subtle changing of the ground state, and can be used to describe the magnetization and quantum phase transition. Based on the discontinuous behavior of the first-order derivative of the entanglement entropy and fidelity per site, we think that the quantum phase transition in this model should belong to the second-order category. Furthermore, in the magnon existence region (h entanglement which can be described by a free bosonic field theory is observed, and the central charge c is determined to be 1.

  9. Angular dependence of direct current decay in a closed YBCO double-pancake coil under external AC magnetic field and reduction by magnetic shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Zhang, H.; Li, C.; Zhang, X.; Shen, B.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    High T c superconducting (HTS) coils are ideal candidates in the use of high field magnets. HTS coils carrying a direct current, however, suffer a non-negligible loss when they are exposed to an external AC magnetic field. Although this phenomenon is well known, no study concerning AC magnetic field angular dependence of direct current decay has ever been shown. In this work, we experimentally investigate the direct current decay characteristics in a closed double pancake coil made of a YBCO coated conductor under external AC field. AC field of different angles with respect to the coil plane is applied. Results show that the current decay rate presents a strong angular dependence. The fastest decay occurs when the field is parallel to the coil plane, in which case the surface of the tape in the outermost layer experiences most flux variation. To reduce the decay rate, we propose wrapping superconducting tapes around the outermost layer of the coil to shield external AC field. This method significantly reduces direct current decay rate under parallel field, without affecting the perpendicular self-field of the coil.

  10. Effects of a external magnetic field in ISB/SNR phenomena in a scalar field theory at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Ricardo Luciano Sonego; Teixeira Junior, Daniel Lombelo [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del Rey (UFSJ), MG (Brazil); Ramos, Rudnei de Oliveira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Many efforts have been dedicated to understand the behavior of relativistic field theories under extreme conditions. Phase transition phenomena in quantum field theories are typically of non-perturbative nature and thus naive perturbation theory based on an expansion in the coupling constant cannot be employed. This is clearly the case of phase changes at high temperatures, where perturbation theory becomes unreliable because powers of the coupling constant become surmounted by powers of the temperature. We know that a symmetry broken in low temperature is restored as the temperature is increased. However, in a work made in 1974, Weinberg showed that was possible, in a multi-field model, the existence of cases in that a symmetry broken in low temperature is not restored in high temperature or that the symmetry is broken in high temperature. It is possible when the coupling constant between the fields receive a negative value. This phenomenon was called SNR, Symmetry Non-restoration or ISB, Inverse symmetry breaking. Many studies were made to investigate the existence of ISB/SNR using different approaches like resummation, Monte Carlo approach etc, obtain contradictories results. Our purpose in this work is investigate the appearance of ISB/SNR in a scalar field theory at finite temperature in the presence of external magnetic field. We used the method known like OPT(Optimized Perturbation Theory) to show how ISB/SNR is present in a multi-scalar field theory. (author)

  11. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  12. Calculation of the Helmholtz potential of an elastic strand in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliullin, Renat N; Schieber, Jay D

    2011-02-14

    We derive from statistical mechanics the Gibbs free energy of an elastic random-walk chain affected by the presence of an external electric field. Intrachain charge interactions are ignored. In addition, we find two approximations of the Helmholtz potential for this system analogous to the gaussian and Cohen-Padé approximations for an elastic strand without the presence of an electric field. Our expressions agree well with exact numerical calculations of the potential in a wide range of conditions. Our analog of the gaussian approximation exhibits distortion of the monomer density due to the presence of the electric field, and our analog of the Cohen-Padé approximation additionally includes finite chain extensibility effects. The Helmholtz potential may be used in modeling the dynamics of electrophoresis experiments.

  13. External field effects on aging phenomenon of acceptor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Guo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our experiments on ferroelectric aging phenomena of a series of acceptor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics demonstrate that after well-aging, all samples show a similar double hysteresis loop under smaller applied electric field, regardless of ionic radius or ionic valence of the acceptor. However, with increasing the applied electric field, the completely constricted loops gradually start to open, indicating the aging effect becomes weak under larger electric field. The unified microscopic mechanism responsible for the similar aging behavior in different acceptor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics may be that the larger field is considered to kinetically facilitate a part of oxygen vacancies short-range hopping. As a result, the defect dipole field provided by oxygen vacancies and the associated defect dipoles frozen in the original states decreases, thus contributing to the weaker aging effect.

  14. QCD spectroscopy and quark mass renormalisation in external magnetic fields with Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar; Endrodi, Gergely; Glaessle, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We study the change of the QCD spectrum of low-lying mesons in the presence of an external magnetic field using Wilson fermions in the quenched approximation. Motivated by qualitative differences observed in the spectra of overlap and Wilson fermions for large magnetic fields, we investigate the dependence of the additive quark mass renormalisation on the magnetic field. We provide evidence that the magnetic field changes the critical quark mass both in the free case and on our quenched ensemble. The associated change of the bare quark mass with the magnetic field affects the spectrum and is relevant for the magnetic field dependence of a number of related quantities. We derive Ward identities for lattice and continuum QCD+QED from which we can extract the current quark masses. We also report on a first test of the tuning of the quark masses with the magnetic field using the current quark masses, and show that this tuning resolves the qualitative discrepancy between the Wilson and overlap spectra.

  15. Influence of AC external magnetic field on guidance force relaxation between HTS bulk and NdFeB guideway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longcai; Wang, Suyu; Wang, Jiasu; Zheng, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Superconducting maglev vehicle is one of the most promising applications of HTS bulks. In such a system, the HTS bulks are always exposed to time-varying external magnetic field, which is generated by the inhomogeneous surface magnetic field of the NdFeB guideway. So it is required to study whether the guidance force of the bulks is influenced by the inhomogeneity. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of the guidance force relaxation between the HTS bulk and the NdFeB guideway by an experiment in which AC external magnetic field generated by an electromagnet was used to simulate the time-varying external magnetic field caused by the inhomogeneity of the guideway. From the experiment results, it was found that the guidance force was decreased with the application of the AC external magnetic field, and the decay increased with the amplitude and was almost independent of the frequency.

  16. Effect of External Magnetic Field on Critical Current for the Onset of Virtual Cathode Oscillations in Relativistic Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Morozov, Mikhail; Mushtakov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter we research the space charge limiting current value at which the oscillating virtual cathode is formed in the relativistic electron beam as a function of the external magnetic field guiding the beam electrons. It is shown that the space charge limiting (critical) current decreases with growth of the external magnetic field, and that there is an optimal induction value of the magnetic field at which the critical current for the onset of virtual cathode oscillations in the electron beam is minimum. For the strong external magnetic field the space charge limiting current corresponds to the analytical relation derived under the assumption that the motion of the electron beam is one-dimensional [High Power Microwave Sources. Artech House Microwave Library, 1987. Chapter~13]. Such behavior is explained by the characteristic features of the dynamics of electron space charge in the longitudinal and radial directions in the drift space at the different external magnetic fields.

  17. Influence of external magnetic and laser radiation fields on Feshbach resonances in collision of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gazazyan, E A; Chaltykyan, V O

    2012-01-01

    We study collision of two atoms with formation of Feshbach resonance at combined interaction with the external magnetic field and laser radiation. In cases of one- and two-photon resonances of laser radiation with two discrete vibrational molecular levels, we show that Feshbach resonances appear at interaction of external magnetic field with dressed states formed via Autler-Townes effect. In addition, in case of one-photon resonance the lower vibrational molecular state is coupled by laser radiation with the continuum of the elastic channel and forms laser-induced Feshbach resonance via both Autler-Townes effect and LICS mechanism. We study the combined process of formation of Feshbach resonances; this enables the control of Feshbach resonance by varying the magnetic field and intensity and frequency of laser radiation. We obtain the cross-sections of elastic and inelastic scattering and show that quenching of resonance occurs at the energy equal to that of the systems ground state. Dependence of the cross-se...

  18. Temperature gradients in equilibrium: Small microcanonical systems in an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alberto; Larralde, Hernán; Leyvraz, François

    2014-11-01

    We consider the statistical mechanics of a small gaseous system subject to a constant external field. As is well known, in the canonical ensemble, that the system (i) obeys a barometric formula for the density profile, and (ii) the kinetic temperature is independent of height, even when the system is small. We show here that in the microcanonical ensemble the kinetic temperature of the particles affected by the field is not constant with height, but that rather, generally speaking, it decreases with a gradient of order 1/N. Even more, if we have a mixture of two species, one which is influenced by the field and the other which is not, we find that the two species' kinetic temperatures are generally different, even at the same height. These facts are shown in detail by studying a simple mechanical model: a Lorentz Gas where particles and spinning disks interact and the particles are subjected to a constant external force. In the microcanonical ensemble, the kinetic temperature of the particles is indeed found to vary with height; the disks' kinetic temperature, on the other hand, is height-independent, and thus, differs from that of the particles with which they interact.

  19. SU(3) Polyakov Linear Sigma-Model in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we analyse the effects of an external magnetic field on the chiral critical temperature $T_c$ of strongly interacting matter. In doing this, we can characterize the magnetic properties of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) strong interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We investigate this in the framework of the SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma-model (PLSM). To this end, we implement two approaches representing two systems, in which the Polyakov-loop potential added to PLMS either renormalized or non-normalized. The effects of Landau quantization on the strongly interacting matter is conjectures to reduce the electromagnetic interactions between quarks. In this case, the color interactions will be dominant and increasing, which - in turn - can be achieved by increasing of the Polyakov-loop fields. Obviously, each of them equips us with a different understanding about the critical temperature under the effect of an external magnetic field. In both systems, we obtain a paramagnetic respo...

  20. The classical particle coupled to external electromagnetic field: symmetries and conserved quantities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Gabriel Duarte; Ferreira, Renata Rosa; Thibes, Ronaldo [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We consider a classical particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field, in both non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. The coupling is constructed via the electromagnetic potential which is assumed to satisfy the classical Maxwell equations. We review Noether's theorem at classical level associating infinitesimal symmetries to conserved quantities. The fundamental space-time symmetries are investigated considering a non-relativistic action, a relativistic action in a particular reference frame and an explicitly Lorentz invariant Lagrangian. We work out in detail the corresponding conserved quantities for each case. The well-known Noether's theorem establishes a connection between continuous infinitesimal symmetries of the action and conserved quantities - given a particular action, for each infinitesimal symmetry there exists an explicit conserved quantity. In particular, a single particle subjected to an external electromagnetic field gives rise to an action which may enjoy space-time symmetries. For the non-relativistic particle, we analyze translations in space and time and spatial rotations, calculating the conserved quantities - linear momentum, energy and angular momentum. The relativistic particle enjoys space-time Lorentz symmetry. Thus we check the six symmetries of the homogeneous Lorentz group, corresponding to three spatial rotations and three boosts, and the four space-time translations extending to the non-homogeneous Lorentz group (Poincare group). We consider two distinct actions describing the relativistic particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field - the first one describes the particle in a particular frame of reference enforcing the relativistic generalization of Newton's second law with the Lorentz force while the second one is obtained from a Lorentz scalar Lagrangian. In all cases the conserved quantities are explicitly calculated via Noether's theorem. (author)

  1. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  2. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing. PMID:21301636

  3. Droplet charging regimes for ultrasonic atomization of a liquid electrolyte in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2011-01-01

    Distinct regimes of droplet charging, determined by the dominant charge transport process, are identified for an ultrasonic droplet ejector using electrohydrodynamic computational simulations, a fundamental scale analysis, and experimental measurements. The regimes of droplet charging are determined by the relative magnitudes of the dimensionless Strouhal and electric Reynolds numbers, which are a function of the process (pressure forcing), advection, and charge relaxation time scales for charge transport. Optimal (net maximum) droplet charging has been identified to exist for conditions in which the electric Reynolds number is of the order of the inverse Strouhal number, i.e., the charge relaxation time is on the order of the pressure forcing (droplet formation) time scale. The conditions necessary for optimal droplet charging have been identified as a function of the dimensionless Debye number (i.e., liquid conductivity), external electric field (magnitude and duration), and atomization drive signal (frequency and amplitude). The specific regime of droplet charging also determines the functional relationship between droplet charge and charging electric field strength. The commonly expected linear relationship between droplet charge and external electric field strength is only found when either the inverse of the Strouhal number is less than the electric Reynolds number, i.e., the charge relaxation is slower than both the advection and external pressure forcing, or in the electrostatic limit, i.e., when charge relaxation is much faster than all other processes. The analysis provides a basic understanding of the dominant physics of droplet charging with implications to many important applications, such as electrospray mass spectrometry, ink jet printing, and drop-on-demand manufacturing.

  4. Structurization of ferrofluids in the absence of an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubarev, A. Yu., E-mail: Andrey.Zubarev@usu.ru; Iskakova, L. Yu. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Structural transformations in a model ferrofluid in the absence of an external magnetic field have been theoretically studied. The results agree with well-known laboratory experiments and computer simulations in showing that, if the concentration of particles and their magnetic interaction energy are below certain critical values, most particles form separate linear chains. If these parameters exceed the critical values, most particles concentrate so as to form branched network structures. The passage from chains to network has a continuous character rather than represents a discontinuous first-order phase transition.

  5. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K. [Ariel University (Israel)

    2016-01-22

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  6. Critical Behavior of Gaussian Model on X Fractal Lattices in External Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; KONG Xiang-Mu; HUANG Jia-Yin

    2003-01-01

    Using the renormalization group method, the critical behavior of Gaussian model is studied in external magnetic fields on X fractal lattices embedded in two-dimensional and d-dimensional (d > 2) Euclidean spaces, respectively. Critical points and exponents are calculated. It is found that there is long-range order at finite temperature for this model, and that the critical points do not change with the space dimensionality d (or the fractal dimensionality dr). It is also found that the critical exponents are very different from results of Ising model on the same lattices, and that the exponents on X lattices are different from the exact results on translationally symmetric lattices.

  7. The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator coupled to an external field and its connection to quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Seligman, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator is an elegant example of an exactly solvable quantum relativistic model that under certain circumstances can be mapped onto the Jaynes-Cummings model in quantum optics. In this work we show, how to do this in detail. Then we extend it by considering its coupling with an external (isospin) field and find the conditions that maintain solvability. We use this extended system to explore entanglement in relativistic systems and then identify its quantum optical analog: two different atoms interacting with an electromagnetic mode. We show different aspects of entanglement which gain relevance in this last system, which can be used to emulate the former.

  8. The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator coupled to an external field and its connection to quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan Mauricio; Sadurní, Emerson; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2010-12-01

    The Dirac-Moshinsky oscillator is an elegant example of an exactly solvable quantum relativistic model that under certain circumstances can be mapped onto the Jaynes-Cummings model in quantum optics. In this work we show, how to do this in detail. Then we extend it by considering its coupling with an external (isospin) field and find the conditions that maintain solvability. We use this extended system to explore entanglement in relativistic systems and then identify its quantum optical analog: two different atoms interacting with an electromagnetic mode. We show different aspects of entanglement which gain relevance in this last system, which can be used to emulate the former.

  9. Impurity breakdown and terahertz luminescence in n-GaN epilayers under external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, V. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Firsov, D. A.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Sofronov, A. N.; Melentyev, G. A.; Antonov, A. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Andrianov, A. V.; Zakharyin, A. O.; Suihkonen, S.; Törma, P. T.; Ali, M.; Lipsanen, H.

    2009-12-01

    We report on the observation and experimental studies of impurity breakdown and terahertz luminescence in n-GaN epilayers under external electric field. The terahertz electroluminescence is observed in a wide range of doping levels (at noncompensated donor density from 4.5×1016 to 3.4×1018 cm-3). Spectra of terahertz luminescence and photoconductivity are studied by means of Fourier transform spectrometry. Distinctive features of the spectra can be assigned to intracenter electron transitions between excited and ground states of silicon and oxygen donors and to hot electron transitions to the donor states.

  10. Holographic Superconductors with Logarithmic Nonlinear Electrodynamics in an External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, A

    2016-01-01

    Based on the matching method, we explore the effects of adding an external magnetic field on the $s$-wave holographic superconductor when the gauge field is in the form of the logarithmic nonlinear source. First, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics and understand that they depend on the nonlinear parameter $b$. We show that the critical temperature decreases with increasing $b$, which implies that the nonlinear gauge field makes the condensation harder. Then, we turn on the magnetic field in the bulk and find the critical magnetic field, $B_c$, in terms of the temperature, which also depends on the nonlinear parameter $b$. We observe that for temperature smaller than the critical temperature, $Tfield increases with increasing $b$ and goes to zero as $T\\rightarrow T_c$, independent of the nonlinear parameter $b$. In the limiting case where $ b\\rightarrow0 $, all results restore those of ...

  11. Applied statistics for agriculture, veterinary, fishery, dairy and allied fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at a wide range of readers who lack confidence in the mathematical and statistical sciences, particularly in the fields of Agriculture, Veterinary, Fishery, Dairy and other related areas. Its goal is to present the subject of statistics and its useful tools in various disciplines in such a manner that, after reading the book, readers will be equipped to apply the statistical tools to extract otherwise hidden information from their data sets with confidence. Starting with the meaning of statistics, the book introduces measures of central tendency, dispersion, association, sampling methods, probability, inference, designs of experiments and many other subjects of interest in a step-by-step and lucid manner. The relevant theories are described in detail, followed by a broad range of real-world worked-out examples, solved either manually or with the help of statistical packages. In closing, the book also includes a chapter on which statistical packages to use, depending on the user’s respecti...

  12. Modulation of electronic structures of MoSe2/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructure by external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Wei; Dai, Xianqi

    2017-10-01

    By using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of MoSe2/WSe2 van der Waals(vdW) heterostructure by applying external electric field(Eext) perpendicular to the layers. It is demonstrated that MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructure is a type-II vdW heterostructure. The band gap of MoSe2/WSe2 is significantly modulated by Eext, eventually a semiconductor-to-metal transition can be realized. The positive and negative Eext have different effects on the band gap due to the intrinsic spontaneous electric polarization in MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructure. Moreover, MoSe2/WSe2 heterobilayer experiences transitions from type-II to type-I and then to type-II under various Eext. The present study provides great application potential of ultrathin MoSe2/WSe2 heterostructure in future nano- and optoelectronics.

  13. Response properties of AgCl and AgBr under an external static electric field: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, C. S.; Kokalj, A.; Rérat, M.; Valant, M.

    2012-10-01

    Density functional theory has been applied to investigate the effect of electric field on the electronic properties of AgCl and AgBr crystals using a static electric field perturbation. A reduction in the band gap value and widening of the band widths are observed with increase in the macroscopic field value indicating a considerable red shift in the absorption spectrum of AgCl and AgBr in the presence of an external electric field. Further, dielectric properties and lattice vibrations at the gamma point are calculated with three different functionals using the CPKS and the Berry phase approach as implemented in CRYSTAL09 code. Finally, the breakdown strength of AgCl and AgBr crystal is evaluated using Callen's equation. In contrast to the case of alkali halides, it is found that the inclusion of the numerically calculated effective mass ratio into the Callen's equation considerably improves the agreement between the calculated dielectric strength and the available experimental datum.

  14. Application of the general Jacobi diagonalization method to the optical properties of a medium perturbed by an external field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek

    2006-11-10

    An analytical approach is presented for studying the convergence of the general Jacobi method applied to diagonalizing the second-rank tensors that describe the optical properties of a medium subjected to an external field. This approach utilizes the fact that the components of such tensors are usually given in field-free principal axes as power series in the field strength, neglecting terms beyond a chosen power of the field. It is shown that for a biaxial or uniaxial medium, the finite number of iterations, which guarantees exact reduction of all the initial terms up to the required power in the series expansions of all off-diagonal elements, can always be found. Moreover, a fixed sequence of rotations in the Jacobi algorithm can be predicted. These findings allow one to derive analytical formulas in noniterative form for a given highest order of the effects being considered and also to optimize numerical iterative diagonalization procedures. Formulas for eigenvalues and eigenvectors applicable to biaxial and uniaxial mediums perturbed by the linear and quadratic effects are presented. Illustrations are given of the electro-optic and piezo-optic effects for the point group 3m. Conditions for biaxial and uniaxial perturbation of a uniaxial crystal are discussed.

  15. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, D; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-11-21

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  16. Quantum systems subjected to periodic and quasiperiodic external fields; Sistemas quanticos sujeitos a campos externos periodicos e quaseperiodicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, Heyder

    1996-12-31

    We have study three quantum systems under time dependent external fields. The first one is an harmonic oscillator and the external field is quasiperiodic. We prove that the autocorrelation spectrum is absolutely transient continuous covering the real line on the resonant case or pure point under supplementary diophantine conditions. The second one refers to the spin tunneling. We show that an external periodic field may causes a blocking of spin tunneling. The last problem concerns to the resonances of the Floquet spectrum on the non-perturbative region of parameters for the model of an atom with one bound state under an external periodic field. The problems of Quantum Chaology and Quantum Stability are the predominant points of view in this work. (author) 59 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal under reverse external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J

    2014-10-01

    The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=Is/Ib) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.

  18. Mass transport model of ions within biofilms under the effect of external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; TANG Xue-xi

    2006-01-01

    A mass transport model was developed to predict the transport rate of ions within biofilms, which was experimentally verified using the fluxes ofNH4+ and Ca2+ through the heterotrophic biofilms with the thickness varying from 230 to 1430 μm under the effect of external field in the range of-20 V/m to 60 V/m. It is found that the result predicted by the model is in agreement with the experimentally obtained one, with the error less than 5 percent for the thin biofilms. The error increases with the increase of the biofilm thickness. The transport rate of ions caused by electric migration is affected by the charges, field strength, and biofilm thickness and so on.

  19. PADC Detected External Neutron Field by Nuclear Tracks at RFX-mod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measured neutron signals relevant for plasma diagnostics on Reversed Field pinch eXperiment, RFX-mod, are obtained by nuclear track methodology with PADC-NTD’s. This technique provides the external neutron field values around the RFX-mod installation during pulsed operation. Charged particles from (n, p and (n, α reactions are related to formed latent tracks. These are etched in a thermoregulated water bath with a 6.25M, KOH solution at 60o C. Observed tracks were analyzed to determine track density from which neutron fluence spatial values should be derived. Results indicate that the neutron density in the surrounding environment change at most 40%. The epithermal component is 60% higher than that corresponding to the thermal region. The estimated neutron fluence for the whole experiment is 7.5×1010 neutrons cm2 /s.

  20. The influence of laser pulse on the photoabsorption spectra of Li atom in strong external field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Dehua; LIN; Shenglu

    2006-01-01

    Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and the calculation formula of the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of the atom in strong external fields, we calculate the single- and double-pulse absorption spectra of Li atom in strong magnetic field for different pulse widths. The results show that a pulse of some width can reduce the contribution of the short period closed orbits and eliminate the contribution of the long period orbits. Compared with the single-pulse absorption spectra, we found that for some phase differences, the double-pulse laser absorption spectra are strengthened; while for others, they are reduced. Therefore, we can use the pulse laser to control the oscillation of the absorption spectra and obtain the optimization object.

  1. Impact of ultra-light particles on polarization of laser light in strong external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yi

    2009-01-01

    The recent results by the PVLAS group on possible changes of polarization of laser light in a transverse magnetic field are beyond the QED expectations by many orders of magnitude. If confirmed, they may indicate new physics associated with ultra-light particles. I describe here how the polarization of light is modified in an external magnetic field by interactions with a spin-zero particle of no definite parity. While the PVLAS-type experiments cannot tell such a particle from one with definite parity, the parity property could be studied in photon regeneration experiments if the polarization of the regenerated photons could be measured. This talk was based on my recent work.

  2. Ultimate kinematic characteristics of rail electromagnetic launchers with metal armatures in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, S. V.; Shvetsov, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the Joule heating of the armature and rails in rail launchers of metal bodies with one or two augmenting rails generating an external magnetic field. The ultimate projectile velocity is calculated under the assumption that the Joule heating of the armature and rails during acceleration does not exceed the melting temperature of the materials of which they are made. It is shown that, with an appropriate choice of the position of the coils generating the augmenting magnetic field with respect to the launcher channel and the current magnitude in them, the heat load on the rails and armature in electromagnetic launchers of solids can be substantially reduced and the ultimate kinematic characteristics of these launchers in crisis-free regimes can be considerably increased.

  3. Characterization and Moment Stability Analysis of Quasilinear Quantum Stochastic Systems with Quadratic Coupling to External Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Igor G

    2012-01-01

    The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear...

  4. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional large- Q Potts model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling algorithm to map out the phase diagram of a Q-state Potts model with Q⩽10 in an external field H that couples to one state. Finite-size scaling analyses show that for large Q the first-order phase transition point at H=0 is in fact a triple point at which three first-order phase transition lines meet. One such line is restricted to H=0; another line has H⩽0. The third line, which starts at the H=0 triple point, ends at a critical point (T,H) which needs to be located in a two-dimensional parameter space. The critical field H(Q) is positive and decreases with decreasing Q, which is in qualitative agreement with previous predictions.

  5. Effective Response of Nonlinear Composite under External AC and DC Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ye; LIANG Fang-Chu; SHEN Hong-Liang

    2005-01-01

    A perturbation method is used to study effective response of nonlinear Kerr composites, which are subject to the constitutive relation of electric displacement and electric field, Dα = εαE + xα|E|2E. Under the external AC and DC electric field Eapp = Eα(1 + sinwt), the effective nonlinear responses and local potentials are induced by the cubic nonlinearity of Kerr materials at all harmonics. As an example in three dimensions, we have investigated this kind of nonlinear composites with spherical inclusions embedded in a host. At all harmonic frequencies, the potentials in inclusion and host regions are derived. Furthermore, the formulae of the effective linear and nonlinear responses are given in the dilute limit.

  6. Holes localized in nanostructures in an external magnetic field: g-factor and mixing of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semina, M. A.; Suris, R. A., E-mail: suris@theory.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The energy spectrum and wave functions of holes in the valence band in semiconductor nanosystems, including quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, in an external magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The dependence of Zeeman splitting of the hole ground state upon variation in the size-quantization parameters with regard to the complex structure of the valence band and magnetic field-induced mixing of hole states is traced. Analytical formulas for describing the Zeeman effect in the valence band in the limiting cases of a quantum disk, spherically symmetric quantum dot, and quantum wire are presented. It is demonstrated that the g-factor of a hole is extremely sensitive to the hole-state composition (heavy or light hole) and, consequently, to the geometry of the size-quantization potential.

  7. The three-dimensional, three state Potts model in a negative external field

    CERN Document Server

    Bonati, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the critical behaviour of the three-dimensional, three state Potts model in presence of a negative external field $h$, i.e. disfavouring one of the three states. A genuine phase transition is present for all values of $|h|$, corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of a residual $Z_2$ symmetry. The transition is first/second order respectively for small/large values of $|h|$, with a tricritical field $h_{\\rm tric}$ separating the two regimes. We provide, using different and consistent approaches, a precise determination of $h_{\\rm tric}$; we also compare with previous studies and discuss the relevance of our investigation to analogous studies of the QCD phase diagram in presence of an imaginary chemical potential.

  8. Giant enhancement of fluctuation in small biological systems under external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kumiko; Hasegawa, Shin; Tsunoda, Satoshi P.

    2016-05-01

    The giant enhancement (GE) of fluctuation under an external field is a universal phenomenon predicted by the theoretical analysis given in (Reimann et al 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett.). Here, we propose the application of the theory of the GE of fluctuation to estimate the energy barrier of a biomolecule that exhibits its function subject to thermal noise. The rotary motor protein F1 was used as a model, which is a component of FoF1 adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-synthase. In the single-molecule experiment on F1, the diffusion coefficients of a rotary probe attached to F1, which characterised the fluctuation of the system, were measured under the influence of an electro-rotary field. These diffusion coefficients were then used to estimate a high-energy barrier of the rotary potential of F1 based on the theory of the GE of fluctuation. Furthermore, the ion channel protein channelrhodopsin (ChR) was used as another research model. The current fluctuations of ions moving through ChR were numerically investigated using a simulation model of the protein in the presence of an external voltage. The energy barrier for ion conduction is discussed based on the current fluctuations.

  9. Experimental investigation on heat transfer rate of Co–Mn ferrofluids in external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margabandhu M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese substituted cobalt ferrite (Co1–xMnxFe2O4 with x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation method. The synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were investigated by various characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA. The XRD results confirmed the presence of cubic spinel structure of the prepared powders and the average crystallite size of magnetic particles ranging from 23 to 45 nm. The VSM results showed that the magnetic properties varied with an increase in substituted manganese while SEM analysis showed the change in the morphology of obtained magnetic nanoparticles. The TG/DTA analysis indicated the formation of crystalline structure of the synthesized samples. The heat transfer rate was measured in specially prepared magnetic nanofluids (nanoparticles dispersed in carrier fluid transformer oil as a function of time and temperature in presence of external magnetic fields. The experimental analysis indicated enhanced heat transfer rate of the magnetic nanofluids which depended upon the strength of external magnetic field and chemical composition.

  10. How external magnetic fields alter the parameter dependence of reflectivity in stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winjum, B. J.; Tableman, A.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-10-01

    We show the parameter dependence of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) reflectivity over a range of electron temperatures and densities, laser intensities, and external magnetic field (B0) amplitudes and orientations in particle-in-cell simulations with kλD = 0.2 - 0.4 for the backscatter plasma wave. B0 can modify kinetic SRS by altering the phasespace dynamics of trapped particles. We show how B0 (both in amplitude and in orientation relative to the incident laser wavevector) affects the onset intensity and threshold values for reflectivity. Without an external field, and for constant kλD , lower electron densities have lower reflectivities, since SRS saturates at amplitudes for which the detuning rate due to the nonlinear frequency shift is on the order of the growth rate. Lower reflectivities are also seen for shorter speckle lengths in multi-speckle ensembles. The sensitivity of SRS reflectivity to B0 depends on the underlying kinetic physics, though we comment on generalities and the parameter regimes for which B0 eliminates kinetic SRS reflectivity. Supported under Grant DE-NA0001833; simulations were carried out on the Dawson2 cluster, Edison, Mira, and BlueWaters.

  11. Positioning and aligning CNTs by external magnetic field to assist localised epoxy cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariu G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the generation of conductive networks through the localised alignment of nano fillers, such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. The feasibility of alignment and positioning of functionalised MWCNTs by external DC magnetic fields was investigated. The aim of this manipulation is to enhance resin curing through AC induction heating due to hysteresis losses from the nanotubes. Experimental analyses focused on in-depth assessment of the nanotube functionalisation, processing and characterisation of magnetic, rheological and cure kinetics properties of the MWCNT solution. The study has shown that an external magnetic field has great potential for positioning and alignment of CNTs. The study demonstrated potential for creating well-ordered architectures with an unprecedented level of control of network geometry. Magnetic characterisation indicated cobalt-plated nanotubes to be the most suitable candidate for magnetic alignment due to their high magnetic sensitivity. Epoxy/metal-plated CNT nanocomposite systems were validated by thermal analysis as induction heating mediums. The curing process could therefore be optimised by the use of dielectric resins. This study offers a first step towards the proof of concept of this technique as a novel repair technology.

  12. Theory of diatomic molecules in an external electromagnetic field from first quantum mechanical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2006-04-27

    We study a general problem of the translational/rotational/vibrational/electronic dynamics of a diatomic molecule exposed to an interaction with an arbitrary external electromagnetic field. The theory developed in this paper is relevant to a variety of specific applications, such as alignment or orientation of molecules by lasers, trapping of ultracold molecules in optical traps, molecular optics and interferometry, rovibrational spectroscopy of molecules in the presence of intense laser light, or generation of high order harmonics from molecules. Starting from the first quantum mechanical principles, we derive an appropriate molecular Hamiltonian suitable for description of the center of mass, rotational, vibrational, and electronic molecular motions driven by the field within the electric dipole approximation. Consequently, the concept of the Born-Oppenheimer separation between the electronic and the nuclear degrees of freedom in the presence of an electromagnetic field is introduced. Special cases of the dc/ac-field limits are then discussed separately. Finally, we consider a perturbative regime of a weak dc/ac field, and obtain simple analytic formulas for the associated Born-Oppenheimer translational/rotational/vibrational molecular Hamiltonian.

  13. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnak, M.; Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K.; Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R.; Avdeev, M. V.; Petrenko, V. I.; Feoktystov, A.

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance.

  14. A crawling and drilling microrobot driven by an external oscillating or precessional magnetic field in tubular environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Jang, G. H.; Jeon, S. M.; Nam, J. K.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a crawling and drilling microrobot actuated by an external precessional magnetic field (EPMF) to effectively unclog obstructed blood vessels. Conventional crawling microrobots can only generate crawling motions using an external oscillating magnetic field. The proposed microrobot can generate navigating (crawling) and drilling motions selectively or simultaneously by controlling the EPMFs. We prototyped the proposed microrobot, and conducted several experiments to verify the efficacy of the crawling and drilling ability of the microrobot in a tubular environment.

  15. Engineering the electronic structure and band gap of boron nitride nanoribbon via external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2016-06-01

    By using the third nearest neighbor modified tight binding (3NN-TB) method, the electronic structure and band gap of BNNRs under transverse electric fields are explored. The band gap of the BNNRs has a decreasing with increasing the intensity of the applied electric field, independent on the ribbon edge types. Furthermore, an analytic model for the dependence of the band gap in armchair and zigzag BNNRs on the electric field is proposed. The reduction of E g is similar for some N a armchair and N z zigzag BNNRs independent of their edges.

  16. Electronic structure of a spherical quantum dot: Effects of the Kratzer potential, hydrogenic impurity, external electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehyar, A.; Rezaei, G.; Zamani, A.

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the simultaneous effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the energy spectrum of an electron bound to an impurity confined in a spherical quantum dot with Kratzer potential. To this end, energy eigenvalues are obtained using the asymptotic iteration method. The energy dependencies upon the confinement potential and external fields are reported. Our results indicate that the confinement potential, external electric and magnetic fields have a great influence on the energy eigenvalues of the system. We found that, an increase in the magnetic field increases the energy eigenvalues of the states with positive magnetic quantum number, m ≽ 0 . While, the states with negative m decrease, reaching to their minimum values and increase again, with increasing the magnetic field. Moreover, an increase in electric field strength leads to decrease the confinement effects and energy eigenvalues of the system.

  17. A novel 1D/2D model for simulating conjugate heat transfer applied to flow boiling in tubes with external fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocłoń, Paweł; Łopata, Stanisław; Nowak, Marzena

    2015-04-01

    This study presents a novel, simplified model for the time-efficient simulation of transient conjugate heat transfer in round tubes. The flow domain and the tube wall are modeled in 1D and 2D, respectively and empirical correlations are used to model the flow domain in 1D. The model is particularly useful when dealing with complex physics, such as flow boiling, which is the main focus of this study. The tube wall is assumed to have external fins. The flow is vertical upwards. Note that straightforward computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of conjugate heat transfer in a system of tubes, leads to 3D modeling of fluid and solid domains. Because correlation is used and dimensionality reduced, the model is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The benefit of the proposed approach is that it can be applied to large systems of tubes as encountered in many practical applications. The modeled equations are discretized in space using the finite volume method, with central differencing for the heat conduction equation in the solid domain, and upwind differencing of the convective term of the enthalpy transport equation in the flow domain. An explicit time discretization with forward differencing was applied to the enthalpy transport equation in the fluid domain. The conduction equation in the solid domain was time discretized using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. The model is applied in different boundary conditions and the predicted boiling patterns and temperature fields are discussed.

  18. Applying Bourdieu’s Field Theory to MLS Curricula Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wien, Charlotte; Dorch, Bertil F.

    in understanding and explaining fields of tension is Bourdieu’s Field Theory. It explains the structures in a given social world (i.e. a library), including the power struggles inside: These struggles are about how to obtain the positions that give the most prestige. No field is ever static since struggles...

  19. Applying informational entropy to the field of metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oprean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing whether the field of metallurgy in Romania is informationally efficient or not. This field is important for the real Romanian and world-wide economy, that is why the answer to this dilemma is important, and it will determine the investment behaviour of portfolio managers. The Shannon Entropy is our measure for the informational efficiency of the field of metallurgy. The results obtained indicate that the field of metallurgy in Romania is characterized by a weak informational efficiency. Perhaps the most important effect of this result is the impossibility to make predictions in this field. In this context, a technical or chartist analysis is useless.

  20. First-principles study of anharmonic phonon effects in tetrahedral semiconductors via an external electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, Zohreh; Kazempour, Ali; Sadeghzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-11-01

    The strength of phonon anharmonicity is investigated in the framework of the Density Functional Perturbation Theory via an applied constant electric field. In contrast to routine approaches, we have employed the electric field as an effective probe to quest after the quasi-harmonic and anharmonic effects. Two typical tetrahedral semiconductors (diamond and silicon) have been selected to test the efficiency of this approach. In this scheme the applied field is responsible for establishing the perturbation and also inducing the anharmonicity in systems. The induced polarization is a result of changing the electronic density while ions are located at their ground state coordinates or at a specified strain. Employing this method, physical quantities of the semiconductors are calculated in presence of the electron-phonon interaction directly and, phonon-phonon interaction, indirectly. The present approach, which is in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental studies, can be introduced as a benchmark to simply investigate the anharmonicity and pertinent consequences in materials.

  1. Effect of External Radiation Filed on the Properties of the Atoms and Cavity Field in the Tavis-Cummings Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the Tavis-Cummings Model where the two atoms interact each other and also are driven by an external classical field.We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state.After work out the atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings Model, we do numerical analysis of them, and pay special attention to the dynamical behavior of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  2. Role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of astrophysical ices in protostellars environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson Monteiro Rocha, Will; Pilling, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    The astrophysical ices survival is directly related with the temperature and ionizing radiation field in protostellars environments such as disks and envelopes. Computational models has shown that pure volatile molecules like CO and CH _{4} should survive only inside densest regions of molecular clouds or protoplanetary disks On the other hand, solid molecules such as H _{2}O and CH _{3}OH can be placed around 5 - 10 AU from the central protostar. Unlike of the previous models, we investigate the role of the UV external radiation field on the presence of ices in disks and envelopes. Once that a star-forming region is composed by the formation of many protostars, the external radiation field should be an important component to understand the real localization of the ices along the sight line. To address this topic it was employed the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D based on the Monte Carlo method. The code was used to model the spectrum and the near-infrared image of Elias 29. The initial parameters of the disk and envelope was taken from our previous paper (Rocha & Pilling (2015), ApJ 803:18). The opacities of the ices were calculated from the complex refractive index obtained at laboratory experiments perfomed at Grand Accélerateur National d'Íons Lourds (GANIL), by using the NKABS code from Rocha & Pilling (2014), SAA 123:436. The partial conclusions that we have obtained shows that pure CO volatile molecule cannot be placed at disk or envelope of Elias 29, unlike shown in our paper about Elias 29. Once it was observed in Elias 29 spectrum obtained with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 2.5 - 190 μm, this molecule should be placed in foreground molecular clouds or trapped in the water ice matrix. The next calculations will be able to show where are placed the ices such as CH _{3}OH and CH _{3}CHO observed in Elias 29 spectrum.

  3. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  4. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Hu, S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.; Betti, R.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles, occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. We present initial results of experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP facility on magnetic reconnection between colliding, magnetized blowoff plasmas. While in previous experiments the magnetic fields were self-generated in the plasma by the Biermann battery effect, in these experiments the seed magnetic field is generated by pulsing current through a pair of external foils using the MIFEDS current generator (Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System) developed at LLE. Time-resolved images of the magnetic fields and plasma dynamics are obtained from proton radiography and x-ray self-emission, respectively. We present initial results of the experiments, including comparison to ``null'' experiments with zero MIFEDS magnetic field, and associated modeling using the radiation-hydro code DRACO and the particle-in-cell code PSC.

  5. Controlling the Goos-Hänchen shift with external electric and magnetic fields in an electro-optic/magneto-electric heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Bentivegna, F. F. L.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Petrov, R. V.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.; Bichurin, M. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the Goos-Hänchen effect upon light reflection from a heterostructure consisting of an electro-optic film deposited on a magneto-electric film grown on a nonmagnetic dielectric substrate. It is shown that the linear magneto-electric interaction leads to an increase of the lateral shift even in the absence of any applied electric field. The presence of the electro-optic layer enables the control of the Goos-Hänchen shift and of the position of its maximum (with respect to the angle of incidence) through a variation of the magnitude and orientation of an applied electric field. It is also demonstrated that applying an external magnetic field in order to reverse the magnetization in the magnetic layer results (under the influence of the magneto-electric interaction in the system) in a sign reversal of the lateral shift but a nonreciprocal change of its amplitude.

  6. Why should we apply more metrological knowledge to field measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Kraemer, M.; Rolf, C.; Wagner, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Ebert, V.

    2016-12-01

    Metrology, the science of measurement, defines the SI, the international system of measurement units, their realization and aims to provide a traceable linkage of measurements to the SI. Primary standards at the national metrology institutes (NMIs) provide the highest achievable accuracy levels linked to the SI and thus are ideal scale reference points to establish long-term comparability between instruments in large networks e.g. in global atmospheric monitoring. However, NMIs offer much more than traceable standards. Metrological communities share internally a large valuable knowledge about "how to measure", e.g. how to calculate, assess and estimate impacts which deteriorate measurements or how to minimize negative impacts and address them in a systematic way with a scientific approach. Over the last years WMO, the world meteorological organization, as well as sub communities in the environmental sciences (e.g. the TCCON or GRUAN network), have greatly increased their efforts to integrate metrological principles and improved the comparability across the network. Prominent examples are airborne water vapor measurements, which, despite the well validated global metrological water scale for industry applications, are only very rarely linked to it, mainly due to the lack of established transfer standards. During the last years our group at PTB developed a new class of optical hygrometers and related validation strategies, in order to reduce deviations of up to 20% found in AquaVIT, a large scale, lab based comparison of leading airborne field hygrometers (Fahey et al, AMT, 7, 3159-3251, 2014) down to a long-term stability over 18 month of 0.35%, making this instrument (SEALDH-II) the first dTDLAS-based airborne transfer standards for atmospheric humidity. These and other examples lead to the conclusion that scientific communities starting to enroll metrological principles significantly improve their measurements and eventually the validity as well as interpretation

  7. Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo

    2016-02-01

    Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

  8. Semantic Data And Visualization Techniques Applied To Geologic Field Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. I. Q.; Royo-Leon, M.; Munoz, R.; Estrada, E.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Pennington, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic field mapping involves the use of technology before, during, and after visiting a site. Geologists utilize hardware such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) connected to mobile computing platforms such as tablets that include software such as ESRI's ArcPad and other software to produce maps and figures for a final analysis and report. Hand written field notes contain important information and drawings or sketches of specific areas within the field study. Our goal is to collect and geo-tag final and raw field data into a cyber-infrastructure environment with an ontology that allows for large data processing, visualization, sharing, and searching, aiding in connecting field research with prior research in the same area and/or aid with experiment replication. Online searches of a specific field area return results such as weather data from NOAA and QuakeML seismic data from USGS. These results that can then be saved to a field mobile device and searched while in the field where there is no Internet connection. To accomplish this we created the GeoField ontology service using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Protégé software. Advanced queries on the dataset can be made using reasoning capabilities can be supported that go beyond a standard database service. These improvements include the automated discovery of data relevant to a specific field site and visualization techniques aimed at enhancing analysis and collaboration while in the field by draping data over mobile views of the site using augmented reality. A case study is being performed at University of Texas at El Paso's Indio Mountains Research Station located near Van Horn, Texas, an active multi-disciplinary field study site. The user can interactively move the camera around the study site and view their data digitally. Geologist's can check their data against the site in real-time and improve collaboration with another person as both parties have the same interactive view of the data.

  9. Chemical reactions induced by oscillating external fields in weak thermal environments

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Galen T; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2015-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates must increasingly be determined in systems that evolve under the control of external stimuli. In these systems, when a reactant population is induced to cross an energy barrier through forcing from a temporally varying external field, the transition state that the reaction must pass through during the transformation from reactant to product is no longer a fixed geometric structure, but is instead time-dependent. For a periodically forced model reaction, we develop a recrossing-free dividing surface that is attached to a transition state trajectory [T. Bartsch, R. Hernandez, and T. Uzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 058301 (2005)]. We have previously shown that for single-mode sinusoidal driving, the stability of the time-varying transition state directly determines the reaction rate [G. T. Craven, T. Bartsch, and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 041106 (2014)]. Here, we extend our previous work to the case of multi-mode driving waveforms. Excellent agreement is observed between the rates pred...

  10. Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field B˜1 T and laser prepulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Mizuta, Yoshio; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2010-03-01

    Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as ˜0.02 π mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, B˜1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in the electron energy distribution.

  11. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe2O4, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe2O4 ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices.

  12. A New Approach to Isolating External Magnetic Field Components in Spacecraft Measurements of the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Global Positioning System observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Hajj, G.

    1994-01-01

    We review the problem of separating components of the magnetic field arising from sources in the Earth's core and lithosphere, from those contributions arising external to the Earth, namely ionospheric and magnetospheric fields, in spacecraft measurements of the Earth's magnetic field.

  13. Embryonic zebrafish neuronal growth is not affected by an applied electric field in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Peter; Robinson, Kenneth R

    2007-01-10

    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) have been implicated in cell guidance during embryonic development and adult wound healing. Embryonic Xenopus laevis neurons sprout preferentially towards the cathode, turn towards the cathode, and migrate faster towards the cathode in the presence of an external EF in vitro. A recent Phase 1 clinical trial has investigated the effects of oscillating EFs on human spinal cord regeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether embryonic zebrafish neurons respond to an applied EF, and thus extend this research into another vertebrate system. Neural tubes of zebrafish embryos (16-17 somites) were dissected and dissociated neuroblasts were plated onto laminin-coated glass. A 100 mV/mm EF was applied to cell cultures for 4 or 20 h and the responses of neurons to the applied EFs were investigated. After 4h in an EF neurites were significantly shorter than control neurites. No other statistically significant effects were observed. After 20 h, control and EF-exposed neurites were no different in length. No length difference was seen between cathodally- and anodally-sprouted neurites. Application of an EF did not affect the average number of neurons in a chamber. Growth cones did not migrate preferentially towards either pole of the EF and no asymmetry was seen in neurite sprout sites. We conclude that zebrafish neurons do not respond to a 100 mV/mm applied EF in vitro. This suggests that neurons of other vertebrate species may not respond to applied EFs in the same ways as Xenopus laevis neurons.

  14. Cultivating Kuumba: Applying Art Based Strategies to Any Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Auburn Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    There are many contemporary issues to address in adult education. This paper explores art-based strategies and the utilization of creativity (Kuumba) to expand learning for global communities in any field of practice. Benefits of culturally grounded approaches to adult education are discussed. Images from ongoing field research can be viewed at…

  15. Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg [College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.

  16. Excess vibrational modes of a crystal in an external non-affine field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SASWATI GANGULY; SURAJIT SENGUPTA

    2017-07-01

    Thermal displacement fluctuations in a crystal may be classified as either “affine” or “non-affine”. While the former couples to external stress with familiar consequences, the response of a crystal when nonaffine displacements are enhanced using the thermodynamically conjugate field, is relatively less studied. We examine this using a simple model of a crystal in two dimensions for which analytical calculations are possible. Enhancing non-affine fluctuations destabilises the crystal. The population of small frequency phonon modesincreases, with the phonon density of states shifting, as a whole, towards zero frequency. Even though the crystal is free of disorder, we observe growing length and time scales. Our results, which may have implications for the glass transition and structural phase transitions in solids, are compared to molecular dynamics simulations. Possibility of experimental verification of these results is also discussed.

  17. Quasiclassical Green function in an external field and small-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, R N; Strakhovenko, V M

    1999-01-01

    The quasiclassical Green functions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations in the external electric field are obtained with the first correction taken into account. The relevant potential is assumed to be localized, while its spherical symmetry is not required. Using these Green functions, the corresponding wave functions are found in the approximation similar to the Furry-Sommerfeld-Maue approximation. It is shown that the quasiclassical Green function does not coincide with the Green function obtained in the eikonal approximation and has a wider region of applicability. It is illustrated by the calculation of the small-angle scattering amplitude for a charged particle and the forward photon scattering amplitude. For charged particles, the first correction to the scattering amplitude in the non-spherically symmetric potential is found. This correction is proportional to the scattering angle. The real part of the amplitude of forward photon scattering in a screened Coulomb potential is obtained.

  18. Numerical simulation on internal and external flow field of a SCAL indirect air cooling tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Songfeng; CHAI Yanqin; XIANG Tongqiong; ZHOU Guangsha

    2014-01-01

    According to the actual size of cooling tube bundle and the arrangement of cooling triangle of a surface condenser aluminum exchangers (SCAL)natural draft cooling tower,the geometric model of heat transfer elements at the tower bottom was established.On the basis of the RNG k-εturbulence model and porous medium model,three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for the inner and external flow field of the air cooling tower,to investigate the influence of environmental conditions on the tower's operation performance.The results show that,with an increase in ambient wind speed,the inlet air speed at windward side of the tower increases gradually,while that at crosswind side and lee side decreases and tends to be obvious;the tower ventilation rate and outlet air speed increases at first and then decreases,and their maximum values appear when the wind speed is 2 m/s.

  19. Generalized local frame transformation theory for Rydberg atoms in external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakeas, P; Robicheaux, F

    2016-01-01

    A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local frame transformation theory (GLFT). A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local frame transformation theory developed initially by Fano and Harmin. This revised GLFT theory yields non-trivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semi-analytical GLFT Stark spectra with {\\it ab initio} numerical simulations yields errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.

  20. High-power microwave amplifier based on overcritical relativistic electron beam without external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkin, S. A., E-mail: KurkinSA@gmail.com; Koronovskii, A. A. [Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Frolov, N. S.; Hramov, A. E. [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Rak, A. O. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus); Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Kuraev, A. A. [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-04-13

    The high-power scheme for the amplification of powerful microwave signals based on the overcritical electron beam with a virtual cathode (virtual cathode amplifier) has been proposed and investigated numerically. General output characteristics of the virtual cathode amplifier including the dependencies of the power gain on the input signal frequency and amplitude have been obtained and analyzed. The possibility of the geometrical working frequency tuning over the range about 8%–10% has been shown. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed virtual cathode amplifier scheme may be considered as the perspective high-power microwave amplifier with gain up to 18 dB, and with the following important advantages: the absence of external magnetic field, the simplicity of construction, the possibility of geometrical frequency tuning, and the amplification of relatively powerful microwave signals.

  1. External control of the Drosophila melanogaster egg to imago development period by specific combinations of 3D low-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Vladimir I; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We report that the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the Drosophila melanogaster, and the imago longevity, are both controllable by combinations of external 3-dimensional (3D) low-frequency electric and magnetic fields (LFEMFs). Both these periods may be reduced or increased by applying an appropriate configuration of external 3D LFEMFs. We report that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes correlates with the duration of the egg-to-imago development period of the respective eggs. We infer that metabolic processes in both eggs and imago are either accelerated (resulting in reduced time periods) or slowed down (resulting in increased time periods). We propose that external 3D LFEMFs induce electric currents in live systems as well as mechanical vibrations on sub-cell, whole-cell and cell-group levels. These external fields induce media polarization due to ionic motion and orientation of electric dipoles that could moderate the observed effects. We found that the longevity of D. melanogaster imagoes is affected by action of 3D LFEMFs on the respective eggs in the embryonic development period (EDP). We interpret this effect as resulting from changes in the regulation mechanism of metabolic processes in D. melanogaster eggs, inherited by the resulting imagoes. We also tested separate effects of either 3D electric or 3D magnetic fields, which were significantly weaker.

  2. The three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin glass in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yllanes, David; Janus Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appears at the glass transition. However, in order for spin glasses to be a faithful model for general glassy physics, we need to introduce an external magnetic field to eliminate their time-reversal symmetry. Unfortunately, little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field in three spatial dimensions. We have carried out a dynamical study combining equilibrium and non-equilibrium data. In particular, using the Janus computer, we have been able to simulate one thousand samples, each with half a million spins, along a time window spanning ten orders of magnitude for several magnetic fields and temperature protocols. Our main conclusion is that the system has a clearly identifiable dynamical transition, which we discuss in terms of different possibilities for the underlying physics (from a thermodynamical spin-glass transition to a mode-coupling crossover). In fact, we are able to make quantitative connections between the Edwards-Anderson spin glass and the physics of supercooled liquids. We also discuss ongoing work in equilibrium from parallel tempering simulations. Supported by the ERC, grant agreement no. 247328.

  3. The structure of MHD turbulence under an external magnetic field: results from simulations on elongated domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence in an electrically conducting fluid in the limit of low magnetic Reynolds number is, because of the Lorentz force due to an external magnetic field, very different from classical turbulence at both the large scales and the small scales. The importance of minimizing finite domain-size effects on the large scale development has often tended to limit the Reynolds number reached in the past. In this work we use periodic domains stretched along the magnetic field with aspect ratio up to 8 and beyond. The initial state is obtained from decaying isotropic turbulence with large-eddy length scales of order 1% of the length of the domain. After a transient period the kinetic energy returns to a power law decay while the integral length scales in the direction parallel to the magnetic field show preferential growth. At early times the parallel velocity component becomes stronger than the other two but this anisotropy is subsequently reversed under the combined effects of anisotropic Joule dissipation and viscous dissipation. The small scales show characteristics of quasi two-dimensional behavior in the transverse plane. Results over a range of magnetic interaction parameters and Reynolds numbers are compared with known theoretical predictions. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1510749 and supercomputer resources at TACC/XSEDE and ALCF.

  4. Generalized local-frame-transformation theory for excited species in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakeas, P.; Greene, Chris H.; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-07-01

    A rigorous theoretical framework is developed for a generalized local-frame-transformation theory (GLFT). The GLFT is applicable to the following systems: Rydberg atoms or molecules in an electric field and negative ions in any combination of electric and/or magnetic fields. A first test application to the photoionization spectra of Rydberg atoms in an external electric field demonstrates dramatic improvement over the first version of the local-frame-transformation theory developed initially by U. Fano [Phys. Rev. A 24, 619 (1981), 10.1103/PhysRevA.24.619] and D. A. Harmin [Phys. Rev. A 26, 2656 (1982), 10.1103/PhysRevA.26.2656]. This revised GLFT theory yields nontrivial corrections because it now includes the full on-shell Hilbert space without adopting the truncations in the original theory. Comparisons of the semianalytical GLFT Stark spectra with ab initio numerical simulations yield errors in the range of a few tens of MHz, an improvement over the original Fano-Harmin theory, whose errors are 10-100 times larger. Our analysis provides a systematic pathway to precisely describe the corresponding photoabsorption spectra that should be accurate enough to meet most modern experimental standards.

  5. Critical behavior of the Gaussian model on fractal lattices in external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    For inhomogeneous lattices we generalize the classical Gaussian model, i.e. it is proposed that the Gaussian type distribution constant and the external magnetic field of site i in this model depend on the coordination number qi of site i, and that the relation bqi/bqj=qi/qj holds among bqi's, where bqi is the Gaussian type distribution constant of site i. Using the decimation real-space renormalization group following the spin-rescaling method, the critical points and critical exponents of the Gaussian model are calculated on some Koch type curves and a family of the diamond-type hierarchical (or DH) lattices. At the critical points, it is found that the nearest-neighbor interaction and the magnetic field of site i can be expressed in the form K*=bqi/qi and h*qi=0, respectively. It is also found that most critical exponents depend on the fractal dimensionality of a fractal system. For the family of the DH lattices, the results are identical with the exact results on translation symmetric lattices, and if the fractal dimensionality df=4, the Gaussian model and the mean field theories give the same results.

  6. Refractive properties of graphene in a medium-strong external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Coquand, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    1-loop quantum corrections are shown to induce large effects on the refraction index $n$ inside a graphene strip in the presence of an external magnetic field $B$ orthogonal to it. To this purpose, we use the tools of Quantum Field Theory to calculate the photon propagator at 1-loop inside graphene in position space, which leads to an effective vacuum polarization in a brane-like theory of photons interacting with massless electrons at locations confined inside the thin strip (its longitudinal spread is considered to be infinite). The effects factorize into quantum ones, controlled by the value of $B$ and that of the electromagnetic coupling $\\alpha$, and a "transmittance function" $U$ in which the geometry of the sample and the resulting confinement of electrons play the major roles. We consider photons inside the visible spectrum and magnetic fields in the range 1-20\\; Teslas. At $B=0$, quantum effects depend very weakly on $\\alpha$ and $n$ is essentially controlled by $U$; we recover, then, an opacity for ...

  7. Chaotic behavior of collective ion dynamics in the presence of an external static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poria, Swarup; Ghosh, Samiran

    2016-06-01

    The two-dimensional nonlinear collective ion dynamics in the presence of external magnetic field in an electron-ion plasma is investigated. The analysis is performed for traveling plane waves to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics. The presence of magnetic field makes the dynamics of the nonlinear wave complex with a complicated phase-space behavior. Thus, the nonlinear wave supports a wide class of nonlinear structures viz., single soliton, multi-soliton, periodic, and quasi-periodic oscillations depending on the values of M (Mach number) and Ω (the ratio of ion gyro-frequency to the ion plasma frequency). The computational results predict the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear wave and the transition to chaos takes place when Ω ≳ 0.35 depending on the direction of propagation and the value of M. The amplitude of the wave depends on the obliqueness of the propagation and Mach number, whereas the magnetic field changes the dispersion properties of the wave.

  8. Quantum dynamics of tight-binding networks coherently controlled by external fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shuo; SONG Zhi; SUN Chang-pu

    2007-01-01

    With some reviews on the investigations on the schemes for quantum state transfer based on spin systems,we discuss the quantum dynamics of magnetically-controlled networks for Bloch electrons. The networks are constructed by connecting several tight-binding chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. The external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals can be used to control the intrinsic properties of the networks. For several typical networks, rigorous results are shown for some specific values of external magnetic field and the connecting hopping integrals: a complicated network can be reduced into a virtual network, which is a direct sum of some independent chains with uniform nearest-neighbor hopping integrals. These reductions are due to the fermionic statistics and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. In application, we study the quantum dynamics of wave packet motion of Bloch electrons in such networks. For various geometrical configurations, these networks can function as some optical devices,such as beam splitters, switches and interferometers. When the Bloch electrons as Gaussian wave packets input these devices, various quantum coherence phenomena can be observed, e.g., the perfect quantum state transfer without reflection in a Y-shaped beam, the multi-mode entanglers of electron wave by star-shaped network, magnetically controlled switches, and Bloch electron interferometer with the lattice Aharonov-Bohm effects. With these quantum coherent features, the networks are expected to be used as quantum information processors for the fermion system based on the possible engineered solid state systems, such as the array of quantum dots that can be implemented experimentally.

  9. Elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junctions in an external magnetic field: the statics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    symmetric electrodes a transverse magnetic field is equivalent to an in-plane field applied in the direction of the current flow. Varying the ellipse eccentricity we reproduce all known results for linear and ring-shaped JTJs. Experimental data on high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb elliptic annular junctions...... or in the perpendicular direction. We report a detailed study of both short and long elliptic annular junctions having different eccentricities. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one the threshold curves are derived and computed even in the case with one trapped Josephson vortex. For longer junctions...

  10. Electronic structure of quantum dots: response to the environment and externally applied fields

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Ortí, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se han estudiado teóricamente las propiedades electrónicas y ópticas de electrones y huecos confinados en puntos cuánticos semiconductores mediante el uso del método k·p dentro de las aproximaciones de masa efectiva y de función envolvente. Para tal fin, se han desarrollado modelos computacionales capaces de describir adecuadamente la estructura electrónica de las bandas de conducción y valencia de sistemas sometidos a varios fenómenos de interés. En concreto, se ha pre...

  11. External electric field effects on AAS oscillations in narrow gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillianfeld, R. B.; Kallaher, R. L.; Davis, D. E.; Heremans, J. J.; Chen, Hong; Goel, N.; Chung, S. J.; Santos, M. B.; van Roy, W.; Borghs, G.

    2008-03-01

    We present experiments on quantum interference phenomena in semiconductors with strong spin-orbit interaction, using mesoscopic parallel ring arrays fabricated on InSb/InAlSb and InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures. A front gate modulates the spin-orbit interaction, which in turn affects the oscillatory interference phenomena. The experiments investigate the low temperature resistance of the ring arrays as a function of weak perpendicularly applied magnetic fields as well as applied gate voltage. The low field magnetoresistance in the arrays has the h/2e periodicity characteristic of Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations. Despite reduced gate action typical of narrow-gap heterostructures (characterized by Hall measurements), we note an effect on the oscillatory magnetoresistance. The AAS oscillation magnitudes acquire a quasi-periodic modulation as function of gate voltage, and the localization background broadens at higher electron densities. The nature of these influences is examined. (NSF DMR-0618235, DMR-0080054, DMR-0209371)

  12. Dynamical symmetry restoration for a higher-derivative four-fermion model in an external electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E; Odintsov, S D; Shilnov, Yu I; Shil'nov, Yu. I.

    1998-01-01

    A four-fermion model with additional higher-derivative terms is investigated in an external electromagnetic field. The effective potential in the leading order of large-N expansion is calculated in external constant magnetic and electric fields. It is shown that, in contrast to the former results concerning the universal character of "magnetic catalysis" in dynamical symmetry breaking, in the present higher-derivative model the magnetic field restores chiral symmetry broken initially on the tree level. Numerical results describing a second-order phase transition that accompanies the symmetry restoration at the quantum level are presented.

  13. Change of Work Function of Pd, Ag, K on Al(001) as a Function of External Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯柱峰; 黄美纯; 朱梓忠; 黄荣彬; 郑兰荪

    2001-01-01

    We present a local density functional calculation of the effect of an external electric field on the work function change of Pd and Ag adsorption on an Al(001) surface. The adsorption of K has also been considered for comparison. We found that the work functions for all the systems increased linearly when the strength of the external electric field was increased. Since the polarized electrons at the interstitial regions between the adsorbate and substrate for Pd/Al(001) and Ag/Al(001) react to the external electric field differently, the subtle differences between Pd/Al(001) and Ag/Al(001) bondings has been characterized through the comparison of the slopes of the work function change versus electric field.

  14. Electronic and Optical Properties of GaN / AlN Multiple Quantum Wells under Static External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Solaimani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated the effect of an external magnetic field and, for the first time, number of wells with constant total effective length to study the degeneracy in electronic energy levels. We have used constant total effective length because it is technologically important. Then we have tried to remove the n-fold degeneracy of the n-well multiple quantum well by means of the external magnetic field but the two-fold degeneracy was remain and not removed. Finally, the effect of the external magnetic field on the number of bound states and the situation of unchanging absorption coefficient in a wide magnetic field interval are also investigated.

  15. Effect of an external radiation field on the properties of the atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠纯; 王琪; 张永生; 郭光灿

    2005-01-01

    We study the properties of atoms and cavity field in the two-atom Tavis-Cummings model where the two atoms interact with each other and are also driven by an external classical field. We consider the special case that the cavity is initially in a coherent state. The atomic inversion, the average photons number and the Mandel parameter in the driven Tavis-Cummings model are given and analysed numerically. We pay special attention to the dynamical behaviour of the atoms and the cavity field modified by the external field.

  16. Thermal quantum and classical correlations in a two-qubit XX model in a nonuniform external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ali Saif M [Department of Physics, University of Amran, Amran (Yemen); Lari, Behzad; Joag, Pramod S, E-mail: alisaif73@gmail.co, E-mail: behzadlari1979@yahoo.co, E-mail: pramod@physics.unipune.ac.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2010-12-03

    We investigate how thermal quantum discord (QD) and classical correlations (CC) of a two-qubit one-dimensional XX Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on the temperature of the bath as well as on nonuniform external magnetic fields applied to two qubits and varied separately. We show that the behavior of QD differs in many unexpected ways from the thermal entanglement (EOF). For the nonuniform case (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}), we find that QD and CC are equal for all values of (B{sub 1} = -B{sub 2}) and for different temperatures. We show that, in this case, the thermal states of the system belong to a class of mixed states and satisfy certain conditions under which QD and CC are equal. The specification of this class and the corresponding conditions are completely general and apply to any quantum system in a state in this class satisfying these conditions. We further find that the relative contributions of QD and CC can be controlled easily by changing the relative magnitudes of B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}. Finally, we connect our results with the monogamy relations between the EOF, CC and the QD of two qubits and the environment.

  17. [Effect on Fermi Resonance by Some External Fields: Investigation of Fermi Resonance According to Raman Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiu-lan; Sun, Cheng-lin; Zhou, Mi; Li, Dong-fei; Men, Zhi-wei; Li, Zuo-wei; Gao, Shu-qin

    2015-03-01

    Fermi resonance is a phenomenon of molecular vibrational coupling and energy transfer occurred between different groups of a single molecule or neighboring molecules. Many properties of Fermi resonance under different external fields, the investigation method of Raman spectroscopy as well as the application of Fermi resonance, etc need to be developed and extended further. In this article the research results and development about Fermi resonance obtained by Raman spectral technique were introduced systematically according to our work and the results by other researchers. Especially, the results of the behaviors of intramolecular and intermolecular Fermi resonance of some molecules under some external fields such as molecular field, pressure field and temperature field, etc were investigated and demonstrated in detail according to the Raman spectra obtained by high pressure DAC technique, temperature variation technique as well as the methods we planed originally in our group such as solution concentration variation method and LCOF resonance Raman spectroscopic technique, and some novel properties of Fermi resonance were found firstly. Concretely, (1) Under molecular field. a. The Raman spectra of C5H5 N in CH3 OH and H2O indicates that solvent effect can influence Fermi resonance distinctly; b. The phenomena of the asymmetric movement of the Fermi resonance doublets as well as the fundamental involved is tuned by the Fermi resonance which had not been found by other methods were found firstly by our variation solution concentration method; c. The Fermi resonance properties can be influenced distinctly by the molecular group reorganization induced by the hydrogen bond and anti-hydrogen bond in solution; d. Fermi resonance can occurred between C7 H8 and m-C8H10, and the Fermi resonance properties behave quite differently with the solution concentration; (2) Under pressure field. a. The spectral lines shift towards high wavenumber with increasing pressure, and

  18. Fielding the magnetically applied pressure-shear technique on the Z accelerator (completion report for MRT 4519).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C. Scott; Haill, Thomas A.; Dalton, Devon Gardner; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Lamppa, Derek C.

    2013-09-01

    The recently developed Magnetically Applied Pressure-Shear (MAPS) experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms was fielded on August 16, 2013 on shot Z2544 utilizing hardware set A0283A. Several technical and engineering challenges were overcome in the process leading to the attempt to measure the dynamic strength of NNSA Ta at 50 GPa. The MAPS technique relies on the ability to apply an external magnetic field properly aligned and time correlated with the MHD pulse. The load design had to be modified to accommodate the external field coils and additional support was required to manage stresses from the pulsed magnets. Further, this represents the first time transverse velocity interferometry has been applied to diagnose a shot at Z. All subsystems performed well with only minor issues related to the new feed design which can be easily addressed by modifying the current pulse shape. Despite the success of each new component, the experiment failed to measure strength in the samples due to spallation failure, most likely in the diamond anvils. To address this issue, hydrocode simulations are being used to evaluate a modified design using LiF windows to minimize tension in the diamond and prevent spall. Another option to eliminate the diamond material from the experiment is also being investigated.

  19. A novel composite conductive microfiltration membrane and its anti-fouling performance with an external electric field in membrane bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Junyao; Zhang, Xingran; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-03-01

    Membrane fouling remains an obstacle to wide-spread applications of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment and reclamation. Herein, we report a simple method to prepare a composite conductive microfiltration (MF) membrane by introducing a stainless steel mesh into a polymeric MF membrane and to effectively control its fouling by applying an external electric field. Linear sweep voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses showed that this conductive membrane had very good electrochemical properties. Batch tests demonstrated its anti-fouling ability in filtration of bovine serum albumin, sodium alginate, humic acid and silicon dioxide particles as model foulants. The fouling rate in continuous-flow MBRs treating wastewater was also decreased by about 50% for this conductive membrane with 2 V/cm electric field compared to the control test during long-term operation. The enhanced electrostatic repulsive force between foulants and membrane, in-situ cleaning by H2O2 generated from oxygen reduction, and decreased production of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances contributed to fouling mitigation in this MBR. The results of this study shed light on the control strategy of membrane fouling for achieving a sustainable operation of MBRs.

  20. Effect of an external field on the structure and the phase transitions of a confined mixture of neutral and dipolar hard spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.; Malherbe, J. G.; Amokrane, S.

    2015-11-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulation the model of a binary mixture of neutral and dipolar hard spheres confined between two widely separated planar walls and subjected to a uniform external field. The goal is to investigate the structural response and the phase transitions of a fluid of hard-sphere-like colloids dispersed in a low-permittivity solvent under the combined effect of geometrical confinement and applied field. In a wide slab, the direction of the field, either normal or perpendicular to the walls, remains one of the most important factors that govern the response of the mixture: in normal field, a wide variety of structural effects are evidenced, including partial wetting or drying of the wall; in parallel field, phase separation is favoured with a specific population of the region close to the wall and a clear separation of the two species. These results suggest possible means to modulate the response of the confined fluid for specific needs.