WorldWideScience

Sample records for exterior physical security

  1. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  2. Generalized exterior algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  3. 32 CFR 700.826 - Physical security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical security. 700.826 Section 700.826... Commanding Officers in General § 700.826 Physical security. (a) The commanding officer shall take appropriate... officer shall take action to protect and maintain the security of the command against dangers from...

  4. Generalized exterior algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.

  5. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  6. Physical Security of Sensitive Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-16

    tractor or on a duress to a security control center flatbed trailer. The dromedary is or to other personnel in a position demountable by the use of a... dromedary must be met. and the DoD Component determinea compatible arid in compliance with 49 it inappropriate to meet Manual CHR 177 (reference (b...booking 23. Independent Power Source. A restricts over ocean movements from self-contained power source, normally port of embarkation (POE) to port of a

  7. Nuclear Physics for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Douglass

    2006-10-01

    Being a nuclear physicist and working at a national laboratory provides many opportunities to ply one's skills in support of national security and the benefit of all mankind. Over the last 40 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been pioneering the field of Domestic and International Safeguards through the research and development of instrumentation and systems used to monitor nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. With a projected increase in the use of nuclear energy, effective systems must be designed to reduce the possibility that nuclear materials may be diverted for used in weapons. The recent focus has been the many applications of radiation detection used for safeguarding nuclear material and to support Homeland Security. There is a critical need for trained nuclear scientists who can understand and overcome measurement complexities, combinations of multiple sensor inputs, data reduction, and automated analysis for these applications. This talk will focus on the opportunities and experiences afforded physicists in the support of national security, beyond the weapons program and travel to interesting locales.

  8. The Laws of Physics and Cryptographic Security

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of musings that originate mainly from conversations with other physicists, as together we've tried to learn some cryptography, but also from conversations with a couple of classical cryptographers. The main thrust of the paper is an attempt to explore the ramifications for cryptographic security of incorporating physics into our thinking at every level. I begin by discussing two fundamental cryptographic principles, namely that security must not rely on secrecy of the protocol and that our local environment must be secure, from a physical perspective. I go on to explain why by definition a particular cryptographic task, oblivious transfer, is inconsistent with a belief in the validity of quantum mechanics. More precisely, oblivious transfer defines states and operations that do not exist in any (complex) Hilbert space. I go on to argue the fallaciousness of a "black box" approach to quantum cryptography, in which classical cryptographers just trust physicists to provide them with secure qu...

  9. Security analysis of cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, Cyber-Physical System (CPS) has become an important research direction of academic circles and scientific and technological circles at home and abroad, is considered to be following the third wave of world information technology after the computer, the Internet. PS is a multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, deep integration of open systems, Involving the computer, communication, control and other disciplines of knowledge. As the various disciplines in the research theory and methods are significantly different, so the application of CPS has brought great challenges. This paper introduces the definition and characteristics of CPS, analyzes the current situation of CPS, analyzes the security threats faced by CPS, and gives the security solution for security threats. It also discusses CPS-specific security technology, to promote the healthy development of CPS in information security.

  10. The hobbyist phenomenon in physical security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud, E. C. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2009-01-01

    Pro-Ams (professional amateurs) are groups of people who work on a problem as amateurs or unpaid persons in a given field at professional levels of competence. Astronomy is a good example of Pro-Am activity. At Galaxy Zoo, Pro-Ams evaluate data generated by professional observatories and are able to evaluate the millions of galaxies that have been observed but not classified, and report their findings at professional levels for fun. To allow the archiving of millions of galaxies that have been observed but not classified, the website has been engineered so that the public can view and classify galaxies even if they are not professional astronomers. In this endeavor, it has been found that amateurs can easily outperform automated vision systems. Today in the world of physical security, Pro-Ams are playing an ever-increasing role. Traditionally, locksmiths, corporations, and government organizations have been largely responsible for developing standards, uncovering vulnerabilities, and devising best security practices. Increasingly, however, nonprofit sporting organizations and clubs are doing this. They can be found all over the world, from Europe to the US and now South East Asia. Examples include TOOOL (The Open Organization of Lockpickers), the Longhorn Lockpicking Club, Sportsfreunde der Sperrtechnik - Deustcheland e.V., though there are many others. Members of these groups have been getting together weekly to discuss many elements of security, with some groups specializing in specific areas of security. When members are asked why they participate in these hobbyist groups, they usually reply (with gusto) that they do it for fun, and that they view defeating locks and other security devices as an interesting and entertaining puzzle. A lot of what happens at these clubs would not be possible if it weren't for 'Super Abundance', the ability to easily acquire (at little or no cost) the products, security tools, technologies, and intellectual resources

  11. Security Games for Cyber-Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Bruni, Alessandro; Yuksel, Ender

    2013-01-01

    The development of quantitative security analyses that consider both active attackers and reactive defenders is a main challenge in the design of trustworthy Cyber-Physical Systems. We propose a game-theoretic approach where it is natural to model attacker’s and defender’s actions explicitly...

  12. Quantum photonic network and physical layer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-08-06

    Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Quantum photonic network and physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-06-01

    Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  14. Wireless Physical Layer Security with CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have been marked by an enormous growth of wireless communication networks and an extensive use of wireless applications. In return, this phenomenal expansion induced more concerns about the privacy and the security of the users. Physical layer security is one of the most promising solutions that were proposed to enhance the security of next generation wireless systems. The fundamental idea behind this technique is to exploit the randomness and the fluctuations of the wireless channel to achieve security without conditional assumptions on the computational capabilities of the eavesdropper. In fact, while these elements have traditionally been associated with signal deterioration, physical layer security uses them to ensure the confidentiality of the users. Nevertheless, these technical virtues rely heavily on perhaps idealistic channel state information assumptions. In that regard, the aim of this thesis is to look at the physical layer security paradigm from the channel uncertainty perspective. In particular, we discuss the ergodic secrecy capacity of different wiretap channels when the transmitter is hampered by the imperfect knowledge of the channel state information (CSI). We consider two prevalent causes of uncertainty for the CSI at transmitter (CSIT); either an error of estimation occurs at the transmitter and he can only base his coding and the transmission strategies on a noisy version of the CSI, or the CSI feedback link has a limited capacity and the legitimate receivers can only inform the transmitter about the quantized CSI. We investigate both the single-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel and the multi-user broadcast wiretap channel. In the latter scenario, we distinguish between two situations: multiple messages transmission and common message transmission. We also discuss the broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCCM) where the transmitter has one common message to be transmitted to two users and one

  15. Physics design of SSRF synchrotron radiation security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    High brightness of SSRF brings about synchrotron radiation security problems,which will be solved in physics design.The main radiations are generated from bending magnets and insertion devices.Since the fact that radiation power and radiating area are different in these two kinds of synchrotron radiation,the arrangements of photon absorbers,diaphragms and other vacuum components need to be treated distinctively.In addition.SSRF interlock protection threshold is defined and the beam orbit in the straight line is limited.Hence.beam orbit in the bending magnets and IDs are also restricted by the threshold.The orbit restriction is calculated and helps us to arrange the vacuum components.In this paper,beam orbit distortion restricted by interlock protection threshold,radiation power,radiation angle and illuminating area are calculated.From the calculation results,the physics designs in manufacture and installation vacuum components are put forward.By commissioning,it is shown that physics requirements are met rigidly in the engineering process.

  16. Non-Systematic Codes for Physical Layer Security

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Bianchi, Marco; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a first study on the topic of achieving physical layer security by exploiting non-systematic channel codes. The chance of implementing transmission security at the physical layer is known since many years in information theory, but it is now gaining an increasing interest due to its many possible applications. It has been shown that channel coding techniques can be effectively exploited for designing physical layer security schemes, able to ensure that an unauthorized receiver, ...

  17. Joint Scheme for Physical Layer Error Correction and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwayomi Adamo; Varanasi, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a joint scheme that combines both error correction and security at the physical layer. In conventional communication systems, error correction is carried out at the physical layer while data security is performed at an upper layer. As a result, these steps are done as separate steps. However there has been a lot of interest in providing security at the physical layer. As a result, as opposed to the conventional system, we present a scheme that combines error correction and data sec...

  18. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  19. Relay Placement for Physical Layer Security: A Secure Connection Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jianhua; Liu, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the problem of secure connection in cooperative wireless communication with two relay strategies, decode-and-forward (DF) and randomize-and-forward (RF). The four-node scenario and cellular scenario are considered. For the typical four-node (source, destination, relay, and eavesdropper) scenario, we derive the optimal power allocation for the DF strategy and find that the RF strategy is always better than the DF to enhance secure connection. In cellular networks, we show that without relay, it is difficult to establish secure connections from the base station to the cell edge users. The effect of relay placement for the cell edge users is demonstrated by simulation. For both scenarios, we find that the benefit of relay transmission increases when path loss becomes severer.

  20. Physical layer approaches for securing wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the outstanding work of physical-layer (PHY) security, including  the recent achievements of confidentiality and authentication for wireless communication systems by channel identification. A practical approach to building unconditional confidentiality for Wireless Communication security by feedback and error correcting code is introduced and a framework of PHY security based on space time block code (STBC) MIMO system is demonstrated.  Also discussed is a scheme which combines cryptographic techniques implemented in the higher layer with the physical layer security approach

  1. Secure physical layer using dynamic permutations in cognitive OFDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meucci, F.; Wardana, Satya Ardhy; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel lightweight mechanism for a secure Physical (PHY) layer in Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). User's data symbols are mapped over the physical subcarriers with a permutation formula. The PHY layer is secured...... of the permutations are analyzed for several DSA patterns. Simulations are performed according to the parameters of the IEEE 802.16e system model. The securing mechanism proposed provides intrinsic PHY layer security and it can be easily implemented in the current IEEE 802.16 standard applying almost negligible...

  2. Security and Privacy in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Rice, Theora R.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2016-08-30

    As you have seen from the previous chapters, cyber-physical systems (CPS) are broadly used across technology and industrial domains. While these systems enable process optimization and efficiency and allow previously impossible functionality, security and privacy are key concerns for their design, development, and operation. CPS have been key components utilized in some of the highest publicized security breaches over the last decade. In this chapter, we will look over the CPS described in the previous chapters from a security perspective. In this chapter, we explain classical information and physical security fundamentals in the context of CPS and contextualize them across application domains. We give examples where the interplay of functionality and diverse communication can introduce unexpected vulnerabilities and produce larger impacts. We will discuss how CPS security and privacy is inherently different from that of pure cyber or physical systems and what may be done to secure these systems, considering their emergent cyber-physical properties. Finally, we will discuss security and privacy implications of merging infrastructural and personal CPS. Our hope is to impart the knowledge of what CPS security and privacy are, why they are important, and explain existing processes and challenges.

  3. Physical-Layer Security over Correlated Erasure Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, W. K.; Almeida, J; McLaughlin, S. W.; Barros, J.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the additional security obtained by noise at the physical layer in a wiretap channel model setting. Security enhancements at the physical layer have been proposed recently using a secrecy metric based on the degrees of freedom that an attacker has with respect to the sent ciphertext. Prior work focused on cases in which the wiretap channel could be modeled as statistically independent packet erasure channels for the legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. In this paper, we go beyo...

  4. Physical Layer Security: Coalitional Games for Distributed Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Walid; Zhu, Han; Basar, Tamer; Debbah, Merouane; Hjorungnes, Are

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Cooperation between wireless network nodes is a promising technique for improving the physical layer security of wireless transmission, in terms of secrecy capacity, in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. While existing physical layer security literature answered the question “what are the link-level secrecy capacity gains from cooperation?”, this paper attempts to answer the question of “how to achieve those gains in a practical decen- tralized wireless network an...

  5. A Review of Cyber-Physical Energy System Security Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    to the consumption side. This transition entails that the future power system evolves into a complex cyber-physical energy system (CPES) with strong interactions between the power, communication and neighboring energy systems. Current power system security assessment methods are based on centralized computation...... and N-1 contingencies, while these risks should still be considered in the future CPES, additional factors are affecting the system security. This paper serves as a review of the challenges entailed by transforming the power system into a CPES from a security assessment perspective. It gives...... an indication of theoretical solutions to CPES challenges and proposes a new framework for security assessment in CPES....

  6. Physical Layer Security: Coalitional Games for Distributed Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Walid; Basar, Tamer; Debbah, Merouane; Hjørungnes, Are

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation between wireless network nodes is a promising technique for improving the physical layer security of wireless transmission, in terms of secrecy capacity, in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. While existing physical layer security literature answered the question "what are the link-level secrecy capacity gains from cooperation?", this paper attempts to answer the question of "how to achieve those gains in a practical decentralized wireless network and in the presence of a secrecy capacity cost for information exchange?". For this purpose, we model the physical layer security cooperation problem as a coalitional game with non-transferable utility and propose a distributed algorithm for coalition formation. Through the proposed algorithm, the wireless users can autonomously cooperate and self-organize into disjoint independent coalitions, while maximizing their secrecy capacity taking into account the security costs during information exchange. We analyze the resulting coalitional structures, d...

  7. Physical-enhanced secure strategy in an OFDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Yu, Jianjun

    2012-01-30

    The physical layer of optical access network is vulnerable to various attacks. As the dramatic increase of users and network capacity, the issue of physical-layer security becomes more and more important. This paper proposes a physical-enhanced secure strategy for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) by employing frequency domain chaos scrambling. The Logistic map is adopted for the chaos mapping. The chaos scrambling strategy can dynamically allocate the scrambling matrices for different OFDM frames according to the initial condition, which enhance the confidentiality of the physical layer. A mathematical model of this secure system is derived firstly, which achieves a secure transmission at physical layer in OFDM-PON. The results from experimental implementation using Logistic mapped chaos scrambling are also given to further demonstrate the efficiency of this secure strategy. An 10.125 Gb/s 64QAM-OFDM data with Logistic mapped chaos scrambling are successfully transmitted over 25-km single mode fiber (SMF), and the experimental results show that proposed security scheme can protect the system from eavesdropper and attacker, while keep a good performance for the legal ONU.

  8. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-18

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  9. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  10. Behavioral Analysis of Physical Security Job Analyses. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AD-A137 268 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL SECURIT JOB ANALYSES / V0LUME (U) ABBOT ASSOCIATES INC ALEXANDRIA VA WOFER ET AL 01 OCT 80 DNA-5491...ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER DNA 5491F-l 13 /7 4. TITLE (ad Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL...in a companion report entitled " Behavioral Analysis of Physical Security Job Personnel and Environment" (in preparation). The utility of this

  11. Information Networks Secured by the Laws of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the state of the art of the secure key exchange method that is secured by the laws of classical statistical physics, and involves the Kirchhoff's law and the generalized Johnson noise equation, too. We discuss the major characteristics and advantages of these schemes especially in comparison with quantum encryption, and analyze some of the technical challenges of its implementation, too. Finally, we outline some ideas about how to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines to implement unconditionally secure information networks.

  12. A survey on the security of cyber-physical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyu WU; Jian SUN; Jie CHEN

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are integrations of computation, communication, control and physical processes. Typical examples where CPSs are deployed include smart grids, civil infrastructure, medical devices and manufacturing. Security is one of the most important issues that should be investigated in CPSs and hence has received much attention in recent years. This paper surveys recent results in this area and mainly focusses on three important categories:attack detection, attack design and secure estimation and control. We also discuss several future research directions including risk assessment, modeling of attacks and attacks design, counter-attack strategy and testbed and validation.

  13. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system.

  14. Security Implications of Physical Design Attributes in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Pati, Sipra; Harvey, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Security, a subset of safety, is equally important in the efficient delivery of patient care. The emergency department (ED) is susceptible to violence creating concerns for the safety and security of patients, staff, and visitors and for the safe and efficient delivery of care. Although there is an implicit and growing recognition of the role of the physical environment, interventions typically have been at the microlevel. The objective of this study was to identify physical design attributes that potentially influence safety and efficiency of ED operations. An exploratory, qualitative research design was adopted to examine the efficiency and safety correlates of ED physical design attributes. The study comprised a multimeasure approach involving multidisciplinary gaming, semistructured interviews, and touring interviews of frontline staff in four EDs at three hospital systems across three states. Five macro physical design attributes (issues that need to be addressed at the design stage and expensive to rectify once built) emerged from the data as factors substantially associated with security issues. They are design issues pertaining to (a) the entry zone, (b) traffic management, (c) patient room clustering, (d) centralization versus decentralization, and (e) provisions for special populations. Data from this study suggest that ED security concerns are generally associated with three sources: (a) gang-related violence, (b) dissatisfied patients, and (c) behavioral health patients. Study data show that physical design has an important role in addressing the above-mentioned concerns. Implications for ED design are outlined in the article. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  16. Security Issues and Solutions in Wireless Communications at Physical Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yue; Yi Ping; Li Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    The properties of broadcast nature,high densities of deployment and severe resource limitations of sensor and mobile networks make wireless networks more vulnerable to various attacks,including modification of messages,eavesdropping,network intrusion and malicious forwarding.Conventional cryptography-based security may consume significant overhead because of low-power devices,so current research shifts to the wireless physical layer for security enhancement.This paper is mainly focused on security issues and solutions for wireless communications at the physical layer.It first describes the RSSI-based and channel based wireless authentication methods respectively,and presents an overview of various secrecy capacity analyses of fading channel,MIMO channel and cooperative transmission,and then examines different misbehavior detection methods.Finally it draws conclusions and introduces the direction of our future work.

  17. S3A: Secure System Simplex Architecture for Enhanced Security of Cyber-Physical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Sibin; Betti, Emiliano; Yun, Heechul; Sha, Lui; Caccamo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, cyber-physical systems, especially those with safety-critical properties that manage critical infrastructure (e.g. power generation plants, water treatment facilities, etc.) were considered to be invulnerable against software security breaches. The recently discovered 'W32.Stuxnet' worm has drastically changed this perception by demonstrating that such systems are susceptible to external attacks. Here we present an architecture that enhances the security of safety-critical cyber-physical systems despite the presence of such malware. Our architecture uses the property that control systems have deterministic execution behavior, to detect an intrusion within 0.6 {\\mu}s while still guaranteeing the safety of the plant. We also show that even if an attack is successful, the overall state of the physical system will still remain safe. Even if the operating system's administrative privileges have been compromised, our architecture will still be able to protect the physical system from coming to harm.

  18. The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, Jean Christian

    The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain

  19. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS.

  20. 6 CFR 37.15 - Physical security features for the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security features for the driver's..., Verification, and Card Issuance Requirements § 37.15 Physical security features for the driver's license or... of features that are effectively combined and provide multiple layers of security. States...

  1. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sajal K; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide reach of the Internet allows malicious cyber criminals to coordinate and launch attacks on both cyber and cyber-physical infrastructure from anywhere in the world. This purpose of this handbook is to introduce the theoretical foundations and practical solution techniques for securing critical cyber and physical infrastructures as well as their underlying computing and communication architectures and systems. Examples of such infrastructures include utility networks (e.g., electrical power grids), ground transportation systems (automotives, roads, bridges and tunnels), airports a

  2. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  3. Physical Layer Security Jamming: Theoretical Limits and Practical Designs in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai; Xing, Hong; Xu, Peng; Zheng, Gan; Dai, Xuchu; Nallanathan, Arumugam; Ding, Zhiguo; Karagiannidis, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Physical layer security has been recently recognizedas a promising new design paradigm to provide security inwireless networks. In addition to the existing conventional cryp-tographic methods, physical layer security exploits the dynamicsof fading channels to enhance secured wireless links. In thisapproach, jamming plays a key role by generating noise signalsto confuse the potential eavesdroppers, and significantly improvesquality and reliability of secure communications between legitimate te...

  4. Physical Layer Security Jamming: Theoretical Limits and Practical Designs in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai; Xing, Hong; Xu, Peng; Zheng, Gan; Dai, Xuchu; Nallanathan, Arumugam; Ding, Zhiguo; Karagiannidis, George K.

    2017-01-01

    Physical layer security has been recently recognized as a promising new design paradigm to provide security in wireless networks. In addition to the existing conventional cryptographic methods, physical layer security exploits the dynamics of fading channels to enhance secured wireless links. In this approach, jamming plays a key role by generating noise signals to confuse the potential eavesdroppers, and significantly improves quality and reliability of secure communications between legitima...

  5. On Physically Secure and Stable Slotted ALOHA System

    CERN Document Server

    Sarikaya, Yunus

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the standard discrete-time slotted ALOHA with a finite number of terminals with infinite size buffers. In our study, we jointly consider the stability of this system together with the physical layer security. We conduct our studies on both dominant and original systems, where in a dominant system each terminal always has a packet in its buffer unlike in the original system. For N = 2, we obtain the secrecy-stability regions for both dominant and original systems. Furthermore, we obtain the transmission probabilities, which optimize system throughput. Lastly, this paper proposes a new methodology in terms of obtaining the joint stability and secrecy regions.

  6. Physical security and vulnerability modeling for infrasturcture facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozick, Linda Karen; Jones, Dean A.; Davis, Chad Edward; Turnquist, Mark Alan

    2006-07-01

    A model of malicious intrusions in infrastructure facilities is developed, using a network representation of the system structure together with Markov models of intruder progress and strategy. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to estimate the probability of successful breaches of physical security, and to evaluate potential improvements. Simulation is used to analyze varying levels of imperfect information on the part of the intruders in planning their attacks. An example of an intruder attempting to place an explosive device on an airplane at an airport gate illustrates the structure and potential application of the model.

  7. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  8. Memristive crypto primitive for building highly secure physical unclonable functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yansong; Ranasinghe, Damith C; Al-Sarawi, Said F; Kavehei, Omid; Abbott, Derek

    2015-08-04

    Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) exploit the intrinsic complexity and irreproducibility of physical systems to generate secret information. The advantage is that PUFs have the potential to provide fundamentally higher security than traditional cryptographic methods by preventing the cloning of devices and the extraction of secret keys. Most PUF designs focus on exploiting process variations in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In recent years, progress in nanoelectronic devices such as memristors has demonstrated the prevalence of process variations in scaling electronics down to the nano region. In this paper, we exploit the extremely large information density available in nanocrossbar architectures and the significant resistance variations of memristors to develop an on-chip memristive device based strong PUF (mrSPUF). Our novel architecture demonstrates desirable characteristics of PUFs, including uniqueness, reliability, and large number of challenge-response pairs (CRPs) and desirable characteristics of strong PUFs. More significantly, in contrast to most existing PUFs, our PUF can act as a reconfigurable PUF (rPUF) without additional hardware and is of benefit to applications needing revocation or update of secure key information.

  9. Research on applying physical chaos generator to spacecraft information security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a short-length message extension method based on physical chaos generator was analyzed and the entropy of the extended message was calculated in this paper.The analysis demon-strated that with the mentioned method the entropy of short-length messages,which are repeatedly used in spacecraft data systems,is obviously increased,and the security of transmission is enhanced as well.This paper also presented an improvement of the protocol for secret key agreement presented by M.J.Gander and U.M.Maurer.Instead of depending on characteristics of communication channel,this method takes advantage of the random data produced by physical chaos generator to preset the initial parameters of the procedure on both sides of communication,so that the procedure and quantity of cipher key can be precisely controlled.This method can be used to cipher key management of se-cure communication between long life-span spacecraft and ground system.

  10. Research on applying physical chaos generator to spacecraft information security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO HePing

    2009-01-01

    Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094, China (small: zhpcast@ hotmail.com) The effectiveness of a short-length message extension method based on physical chaos generator was analyzed and the entropy of the extended message was calculated in this paper. The analysis demon-strated that with the mentioned method the entropy of short-length messages, which are repeatedly used in spacecraft data systems, is obviously increased, and the security of transmission is enhanced as well. This paper also presented an improvement of the protocol for secret key agreement presented by M. J. Gander and U. M. Maurer. Instead of depending on characteristics of communication channel,this method takes advantage of the random data produced by physical chaos generator to preset the initial parameters of the procedure on both sides of communication, so that the procedure and quantity of cipher key can be precisely controlled. This method can be used to cipher key management of se-cure communication between long life-span spacecraft and ground system.

  11. Portunes: generating attack scenarios by finding inconsistencies between security policies in the physical, digital and social domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    The security goals of an organization are implemented through security policies, which concern physical security, digital security and security awareness. An insider is aware of these security policies, and might be able to thwart the security goals without violating any policies, by combining physi

  12. Portunes: generating attack scenarios by finding inconsistencies between security policies in the physical, digital and social domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2009-01-01

    The security goals of an organization are implemented through security policies, which concern physical security, digital security and security awareness. An insider is aware of these security policies, and might be able to thwart the security goals without violating any policies, by combining

  13. Evaluating Security Technologies Used to Enhance Physical Security Capabilities at Domestic and Deployed Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    secure wireless communications, behavioral analysis , and installation access control 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Secure Wireless Communications  Installation Access Control  Integrated Waterside Security  Behavioral Analysis , and  Other areas as prescribed...Wireless Communications  Installation Access Control  Situational Awareness  Behavioral Analysis  Integrated Waterside Security, and  Other areas

  14. Optimal Cooperative Relaying Schemes for Improving Wireless Physical Layer Security

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiangyuan; Weber, Steven

    2010-01-01

    We consider a cooperative wireless network in the presence of one of more eavesdroppers, and exploit node cooperation for achieving physical (PHY) layer based security. Two different cooperation schemes are considered. In the first scheme, cooperating nodes retransmit a weighted version of the source signal in a decode-and-forward (DF) fashion. In the second scheme, while the source is transmitting, cooperating nodes transmit weighted noise to confound the eavesdropper (cooperative jamming (CJ)). We investigate two objectives, i.e., maximization of achievable secrecy rate subject to a total power constraint, and minimization of total power transmit power under a secrecy rate constraint. For the first design objective with a single eavesdropper we obtain expressions for optimal weights under the DF protocol in closed form, and give an algorithm that converges to the optimal solution for the CJ scheme; while for multiple eavesdroppers we give an algorithm for the solution using the DF protocol that is guarantee...

  15. Bloom Filter-Based Secure Data Forwarding in Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-physical systems (CPSs connect with the physical world via communication networks, which significantly increases security risks of CPSs. To secure the sensitive data, secure forwarding is an essential component of CPSs. However, CPSs require high dimensional multiattribute and multilevel security requirements due to the significantly increased system scale and diversity, and hence impose high demand on the secure forwarding information query and storage. To tackle these challenges, we propose a practical secure data forwarding scheme for CPSs. Considering the limited storage capability and computational power of entities, we adopt bloom filter to store the secure forwarding information for each entity, which can achieve well balance between the storage consumption and query delay. Furthermore, a novel link-based bloom filter construction method is designed to reduce false positive rate during bloom filter construction. Finally, the effects of false positive rate on the performance of bloom filter-based secure forwarding with different routing policies are discussed.

  16. Integrated assessment and mitigation of physical and digital security threats: Case studies on virtualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeff, van André; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roel; Tiel, van F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the enabling technologies of cloud computing. It turns once dedicated physical computing resources such as servers into digital resources that can be provisioned on demand. Cloud computing thus tends to replace physical with digital security controls, and cloud security must

  17. Physical Layer Security Game: Interaction between Source, Eavesdropper, and Friendly Jammer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Han; Ninoslav Marina; Mérouane Debbah; Are Hjørungnes

    2009-01-01

    Special issue on physical layer security; International audience; Physical layer security is an emerging security area that explores possibilities of achieving perfect secrecy data transmission between the intended network nodes, while possible malicious nodes that eavesdrop the communication obtain zero information. The so-called secrecy capacity can be improved using friendly jammers that introduce extra interference to the eavesdroppers. Here, we investigate the interaction between the sou...

  18. Physical Layer Security Using Two-Path Successive Relaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Qian Yu; Leow, Chee Yen; Ding, Zhiguo

    2016-06-09

    Relaying is one of the useful techniques to enhance wireless physical-layer security. Existing literature shows that employing full-duplex relay instead of conventional half-duplex relay improves secrecy capacity and secrecy outage probability, but this is at the price of sophisticated implementation. As an alternative, two-path successive relaying has been proposed to emulate operation of full-duplex relay by scheduling a pair of half-duplex relays to assist the source transmission alternately. However, the performance of two-path successive relaying in secrecy communication remains unexplored. This paper proposes a secrecy two-path successive relaying protocol for a scenario with one source, one destination and two half-duplex relays. The relays operate alternately in a time division mode to forward messages continuously from source to destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Analytical results reveal that the use of two half-duplex relays in the proposed scheme contributes towards a quadratically lower probability of interception compared to full-duplex relaying. Numerical simulations show that the proposed protocol achieves the ergodic achievable secrecy rate of full-duplex relaying while delivering the lowest probability of interception and secrecy outage probability compared to the existing half duplex relaying, full duplex relaying and full duplex jamming schemes.

  19. Physical Layer Security Using Two-Path Successive Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yu Liau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaying is one of the useful techniques to enhance wireless physical-layer security. Existing literature shows that employing full-duplex relay instead of conventional half-duplex relay improves secrecy capacity and secrecy outage probability, but this is at the price of sophisticated implementation. As an alternative, two-path successive relaying has been proposed to emulate operation of full-duplex relay by scheduling a pair of half-duplex relays to assist the source transmission alternately. However, the performance of two-path successive relaying in secrecy communication remains unexplored. This paper proposes a secrecy two-path successive relaying protocol for a scenario with one source, one destination and two half-duplex relays. The relays operate alternately in a time division mode to forward messages continuously from source to destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Analytical results reveal that the use of two half-duplex relays in the proposed scheme contributes towards a quadratically lower probability of interception compared to full-duplex relaying. Numerical simulations show that the proposed protocol achieves the ergodic achievable secrecy rate of full-duplex relaying while delivering the lowest probability of interception and secrecy outage probability compared to the existing half duplex relaying, full duplex relaying and full duplex jamming schemes.

  20. Towards an Experimental Testbed Facility for Cyber-Physical Security Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Manz, David O.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2012-01-07

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are under great scrutiny due to large Smart Grid investments and recent high profile security vulnerabilities and attacks. Research into improved security technologies, communication models, and emergent behavior is necessary to protect these systems from sophisticated adversaries and new risks posed by the convergence of CPSs with IT equipment. However, cyber-physical security research is limited by the lack of access to universal cyber-physical testbed facilities that permit flexible, high-fidelity experiments. This paper presents a remotely-configurable and community-accessible testbed design that integrates elements from the virtual, simulated, and physical environments. Fusing data between the three environments enables the creation of realistic and scalable environments where new functionality and ideas can be exercised. This novel design will enable the research community to analyze and evaluate the security of current environments and design future, secure, cyber-physical technologies.

  1. A formal definition and a new security mechanism of physical unclonable functions

    CERN Document Server

    Plaga, Rainer; 10.1007/978-3-642-28540-0_24

    2012-01-01

    The characteristic novelty of what is generally meant by a "physical unclonable function" (PUF) is precisely defined, in order to supply a firm basis for security evaluations and the proposal of new security mechanisms. A PUF is defined as a hardware device which implements a physical function with an output value that changes with its argument. A PUF can be clonable, but a secure PUF must be unclonable. This proposed meaning of a PUF is cleanly delineated from the closely related concepts of "conventional unclonable function", "physically obfuscated key", "random-number generator", "controlled PUF" and "strong PUF". The structure of a systematic security evaluation of a PUF enabled by the proposed formal definition is outlined. Practically all current and novel physical (but not conventional) unclonable physical functions are PUFs by our definition. Thereby the proposed definition captures the existing intuition about what is a PUF and remains flexible enough to encompass further research. In a second part w...

  2. A Security Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems Architecture for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Seifert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the available system architectures for cyber-physical systems. Several candidate architectures are examined using a series of essential qualities for cyber-physical systems for healthcare. Next, diagrams detailing the expected functionality of infusion pumps in two of the architectures are analyzed. The STRIDE Threat Model is then used to decompose each to determine possible security issues and how they can be addressed. Finally, a comparison of the major security issues in each architecture is presented to help determine which is most adaptable to meet the security needs of cyber-physical systems in healthcare.

  3. Security-aware design for cyber-physical systems a platform-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chung-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the rising security issues during the design stages of cyber-physical systems, this book develops a systematic approach to address security at early design stages together with all other design constraints. Cyber-attacks become more threatening as systems are becoming more connected with the surrounding environment, infrastructures, and other systems. Security mechanisms can be designed to protect against attacks and meet security requirements, but there are many challenges of applying security mechanisms to cyber-physical systems including open environments, limited resources, strict timing requirements, and large number of devices. Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is valuable for individuals working in network systems, security mechanisms, and system design. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science. .

  4. Secure and Resilient Functional Modeling for Navy Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    release; distribution is unlimited. Page 1 of 4 Secure & Resilient Functional Modeling for Navy Cyber -Physical Systems FY17 Quarter 2 Technical Progress...team defined the following attack models for cyber -physical systems: - 6 basic attacks targeting signals. - 1 basic attack targeting control... Cyber -Physical Systems” and submitted for publication to IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE) 2017. Functional Editor (SCCT

  5. Service Users' Views of Physical Restraint Procedures in Secure Settings for People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter; Kroese, Biza Stenfert

    2007-01-01

    The appropriateness and justification of physical restraint procedures in secure learning disability settings is an emotive issue. This paper examines the views of service users (n = 10) from secure residential facilities who are restrained frequently. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, Service users were interviewed about their restraint…

  6. Analysing the Efficacy of Security Policies in Cyber-Physical Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir; Barthe, Gilles; Markatos, Evangelos; Samarati, Pierangela

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question for an ICT organization wishing to improve its security is whether a security policy together with physical access controls protects from socio-technical threats. We study this question formally. We model the information flow defined by what the organization’s employees do (copy,

  7. Analysing the Efficacy of Security Policies in Cyber-Physical Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir; Barthe, Gilles; Markatos, Evangelos; Samarati, Pierangela

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question for an ICT organization wishing to improve its security is whether a security policy together with physical access controls protects from socio-technical threats. We study this question formally. We model the information flow defined by what the organization’s employees do (copy,

  8. Guidelines for Automatic Data Processing Physical Security and Risk Management. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    These guidelines provide a handbook for use by federal organizations in structuring physical security and risk management programs for their automatic data processing facilities. This publication discusses security analysis, natural disasters, supporting utilities, system reliability, procedural measures and controls, off-site facilities,…

  9. Principles of Physical Layer Security in Multiuser Wireless Networks: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Amitav; Fakoorian, S. A. A.; Huang, Jing; Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the domain of physical layer security in multiuser wireless networks. The essential premise of physical-layer security is to enable the exchange of confidential messages over a wireless medium in the presence of unauthorized eavesdroppers without relying on higher-layer encryption. This can be achieved primarily in two ways: without the need for a secret key by intelligently designing transmit coding strategies, or by exploiting the wireless commu...

  10. Increasing Physical Layer Security through Scrambled Codes and ARQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Marco; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    We develop the proposal of non-systematic channel codes on the AWGN wire-tap channel. Such coding technique, based on scrambling, achieves high transmission security with a small degradation of the eavesdropper's channel with respect to the legitimate receiver's channel. In this paper, we show that, by implementing scrambling and descrambling on blocks of concatenated frames, rather than on single frames, the channel degradation needed is further reduced. The usage of concatenated scrambling allows to achieve security also when both receivers experience the same channel quality. However, in this case, the introduction of an ARQ protocol with authentication is needed.

  11. Quantum-secure authentication of a physical unclonable key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorden, S.A.; Horstmann, M.; Mosk, A.P.; Skoric, B.; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Authentication of persons and objects is a crucial aspect of security. We experimentally demonstrate quantumsecure authentication (QSA) of a classical multiplescattering key. The key is authenticated by illuminating it with a light pulse containing fewer photons than spatial degrees of freedom and v

  12. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify the u...

  13. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  14. Joint Schemes for Physical Layer Security and Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Oluwayomi

    2011-01-01

    The major challenges facing resource constraint wireless devices are error resilience, security and speed. Three joint schemes are presented in this research which could be broadly divided into error correction based and cipher based. The error correction based ciphers take advantage of the properties of LDPC codes and Nordstrom Robinson code. A…

  15. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  16. Physical layer security in CO-OFDM transmission system using chaotic scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Yu, Jianjun

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for the optical OFDM system to improve the physical layer security based on chaotic scrambling. The 1-D Logistic map is adopted for chaos mapping. The chaotic scrambling algorithm can dynamically change the scrambling matrices according to the secure key, which further enhances the confidentiality of the physical layer. The experiment with Logistic mapped chaos scrambling is also given to demonstrate the efficiency of security algorithm. Meanwhile, the benchmark performance of the optical OFDM system is experimentally investigated in terms of the bit error rate (BER). The analysis indicates that the system can be robust against eavesdropping.

  17. The Role of Physical Layer Security in IoT: A Novel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pecorella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of securing the configuration phase of an Internet of Things (IoT system. The main drawbacks of current approaches are the focus on specific techniques and methods, and the lack of a cross layer vision of the problem. In a smart environment, each IoT device has limited resources and is often battery operated with limited capabilities (e.g., no keyboard. As a consequence, network security must be carefully analyzed in order to prevent security and privacy issues. In this paper, we will analyze the IoT threats, we will propose a security framework for the device initialization and we will show how physical layer security can effectively boost the security of IoT systems.

  18. Physical and data-link security techniques for future communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

     This book focuses on techniques that can be applied at the physical and data-link layers of communication systems in order to secure transmissions against eavesdroppers. Topics ranging from information theory-based security to coding for security and cryptography are discussed, with presentation of cutting-edge research and innovative results from leading researchers. The characteristic feature of all the contributions is their relevance for practical embodiments: detailed consideration is given to applications of security principles to a variety of widely used communication techniques such as multiantenna systems, ultra-wide band communication systems, power line communications, and quantum key distribution techniques. A further distinctive aspect is the attention paid to both unconditional and computational security techniques, providing a bridge between two usually distinct worlds. The book comprises extended versions of contributions delivered at the Workshop on Communication Security, held in Ancona, I...

  19. Physics and National Security: The Spectrum of Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Physicists reflexively tend to approach their role in addressing national security problems by reaching for technologies and inventing devices or systems. While this is appropriate, the space for contribution is much larger. The application of technology is frequently constrained by doctrinal, operational, financial, and logistic constraints, not to mention those of security. The speaker, who has played a role in technology development, field operations, advisory processes, and policy considerations will discuss the role physicists can have in definition of the threat space, creation and assessment of technologies needed, and helping with response and recovery. In particular, he will address the opportunities and risks for both academic and industrial physicists in trying to assist in these matters, i.e., when in career to address such problems, what are the obstacles or consequences, and when do you know you have contributed?

  20. A Novel Secure Transmission Scheme in MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels with Physical Layer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issue has been considered as one of the most pivotal aspects for the fifth-generation mobile network (5G due to the increasing demands of security service as well as the growing occurrence of security threat. In this paper, instead of focusing on the security architecture in the upper layer, we investigate the secure transmission for a basic channel model in a heterogeneous network, that is, two-way relay channels. By exploiting the properties of the transmission medium in the physical layer, we propose a novel secure scheme for the aforementioned channel mode. With precoding design, the proposed scheme is able to achieve a high transmission efficiency as well as security. Two different approaches have been introduced: information theoretical approach and physical layer encryption approach. We show that our scheme is secure under three different adversarial models: (1 untrusted relay attack model, (2 trusted relay with eavesdropper attack model, and (3 untrusted relay with eavesdroppers attack model. We also derive the secrecy capacity of the two different approaches under the three attacks. Finally, we conduct three simulations of our proposed scheme. The simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis illustrating that our proposed scheme could achieve a better performance than the existing schemes.

  1. Physical Layer Security Game: How to Date a Girl with Her Boyfriend on the Same Table

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Han; Ninoslav, Marina; Debbah, Merouane; Hjorungnes, Are

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Physical layer security is an emerging security technology that achieves perfect secrecy data transmission between the intended network nodes, while the eavesdrop- ping malicious nodes obtain zero information. The so-called secrecy capacity can be improved using friendly jammers that introduce extra interference to the eavesdropping ma- licious nodes while the interference to the intended desti- nation is limited. In this paper, we investigate the interac- tion between...

  2. The Physical Layer Security Experiments of Cooperative Communication System with Different Relay Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yishan; Han, Guangyao; Fu, Xiaomei; Xu, Naishen; Jin, Zhigang

    2017-04-06

    Physical layer security is an attractive security mechanism, which exploits the randomness characteristics of wireless transmission channel to achieve security. However, it is hampered by the limitation of the channel condition that the main channel must be better than the eavesdropper channel. To alleviate the limitation, cooperative communication is introduced. Few studies have investigated the physical layer security of the relay transmission model. In this paper, we performed some experiments to evaluate the physical layer security of a cooperative communication system, with a relay operating in decode-and-forward (DF) cooperative mode, selfish and malicious behavior in real non-ideal transmission environment. Security performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of non-zero secrecy capacity. Experiments showed some different results compared to theoretical simulation: (1) to achieve the maximum secrecy capacity, the optimal relay power according to the experiments result is larger than that of ideal theoretical results under both cooperative and selfish behavior relay; (2) the relay in malicious behavior who forwards noise to deteriorate the main channel may deteriorate the eavesdropper channel more seriously than the main channel; (3) the optimal relay positions under cooperative and selfish behavior relay cases are both located near the destination because of non-ideal transmission.

  3. Agricultural, Nutritional, and Physical Fitness Policies That Support National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    physical_education_and_school_performance (accessed November 10, 2010). 70 Ibid. 71 Ibid. 72 James Dao, ―Making Soldiers Fit to Fight, Without the Situps,‖ August...syrup-a278376 (accessed October 9, 2010). 79 Julian M. Alston, Bradley J. Rickard , and Abigail M. Okrent, ―Farm Policy and Obesity in the United

  4. Physical security and IT convergence: Managing the cyber-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreight, Tim; Leece, Doug

    The convergence of physical security devices into the corporate network is increasing, due to the perceived economic benefits and efficiencies gained from using one enterprise network. Bringing these two networks together is not without risk. Physical devices like closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), card access readers, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning controllers (HVAC) are typically not secured to the standards we expect for corporate computer networks. These devices can pose significant risks to the corporate network by creating new avenues to exploit vulnerabilities in less-than-secure implementations of physical systems. The ASIS Information Technology Security Council (ITSC) developed a white paper describing steps organisations can take to reduce the risks this convergence can pose, and presented these concepts at the 2015 ASIS/ISC2 Congress in Anaheim, California.(1) This paper expands upon the six characteristics described by ITSC, and provides business continuity planners with information on how to apply these recommendations to physical security devices that use the corporate network.

  5. Virtualization and Programming Support for Video Sensor Networks with Application to Wireless and Physical Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestavros, Azer; Ocean, Michael J.

    Network Security Systems are heavily anchored in the digital plane of "cyber space" and hence cannot be used effectively to derive the physical identity of an intruder in order to prevent further malicious wireless broadcasts (i.e., escorting an intruder off the premises based on physical evidence). Embedded Sensor Networks (SNs) can be used to bridge the gap between digital and physical security planes, and thus can provide reciprocal benefit to security tasks on both planes. Toward that end, we present our experience integrating wireless networking security services into snBench (the Sensor Network workBench). snBench provides an extensible framework that enables the rapid development and automated deployment of SN applications on a shared, embedded sensing and actuation infrastructure. snBench's extensible architecture allows an engineer to quickly integrate new sensing and response capabilities into the snBench framework, while high-level languages, compilers and execution environments allow novice SN programmers to compose SN service logic, unaware of the lower-level components on which their services rely. Concrete examples are provided to illustrate the power and potential of Wireless Security Services that span both the physical and digital plane.

  6. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  7. Physical Layer Secret-Key Generation Scheme for Transportation Security Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-06-28

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in different disciplines, including transportation systems, agriculture field environment monitoring, healthcare systems, and industrial monitoring. The security challenge of the wireless communication link between sensor nodes is critical in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a new physical layer secret-key generation scheme for transportation security sensor network. The scheme is based on the cooperation of all the sensor nodes, thus avoiding the key distribution process, which increases the security of the system. Different passive and active attack models are analyzed in this paper. We also prove that when the cooperative node number is large enough, even when the eavesdropper is equipped with multiple antennas, the secret-key is still secure. Numerical results are performed to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  8. Comment on the Exterior Solutions and Their Geometry in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    We study series of stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent to the exterior solutions in some class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then establish a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optical scalar equations and find some anomalous behavior of the null geodesics.

  9. Comment on the exterior solutions and their geometry in scalar-tensor theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchida, T; Tsuchida, Tooru; Watanabe, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    We study series of the stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent with the exterior solutions in some class of the scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of the solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of the static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then show a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optica...

  10. Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.

  11. Power and Subcarrier Allocation for Physical-Layer Security in OFDMA-based Broadband Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaowei; Mo, Jianhua; Xu, Youyun

    2011-01-01

    Providing physical-layer security for mobile users in future broadband wireless networks is of both theoretical and practical importance. In this paper, we formulate an analytical framework for resource allocation in a downlink OFDMA-based broadband network with coexistence of secure users (SU) and normal users (NU). The SU's require secure data transmission at the physical layer while the NU's are served with conventional best-effort data traffic. The problem is formulated as joint power and subcarrier allocation with the objective of maximizing average aggregate information rate of all NU's while maintaining an average secrecy rate for each individual SU under a total transmit power constraint for the base station. We solve this problem in an asymptotically optimal manner using dual decomposition. Our analysis shows that an SU becomes a candidate competing for a subcarrier only if its channel gain on this subcarrier is the largest among all and exceeds the second largest by a certain threshold. Furthermore,...

  12. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  13. DSSS with ISAKMP Key Management Protocol to Secure Physical Layer for Mobile Adhoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Padmavathi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The wireless and dynamic nature of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs leaves them more vulnerable to security attacks than their wired counterparts. The nodes act both as routers and as communication endpoints. This makes the physical layer more prone to security attacks. The MANET physical layer is challenging to DoS attack and also some passive attacks. The physical layer protocol in MANETs is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. The proposed model combines spread spectrum technology Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS with key management technique ISAKMP to defend against signal jamming denial-of-service attacks in physical layer of MANET.DSSS with ISAKMP is found to be a good security solution even with its known security problems. The simulation is done using network simulator qualnet 5.0 for different number of mobile nodes. The proposed model has shown improved results in terms of Average throughput, Average end to end delay, Average packet delivery ratio, and Average jitter.

  14. Improving the physical layer security of wireless communication networks using spread spectrum coding and artificial noise approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available in progress on a proposed hybrid spread spectrum coding and artificial noise approach to improving the physical layer security of wireless communication channels. The authors are optimistic that, the proposed method will further improve the physical layer...

  15. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tongtong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  16. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongtong Li

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  17. Cooperative Wireless Communications and Physical Layer Security : State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    in the mobile equipment is not feasible due to resource constraints. Cooperative wireless communication (CWC) is the upcoming virtual MIMO technique to combat fading and achieve diversity through user cooperation. Physical layer security (PLS) is the imminent security guarantee for the cooperative communication....... was present there started shouting ”stop, stop the bus”. And the sound finally reached the bus driver and he stopped the bus and the employee could catch it in time. This analogy from everyday realistic life simply depicts the spirit of cooperative wireless communication which utilizes the information...

  18. Exterior and interior metrics with quadrupole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2010-01-01

    We present the Ernst potential and the line element of an exact solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that contains as arbitrary parameters the total mass, the angular momentum, and the quadrupole moment of a rotating mass distribution. We show that in the limiting case of slowly rotating and slightly deformed configuration, there exists a coordinate transformation that relates the exact solution with the approximate Hartle solution. It is shown that this approximate solution can be smoothly matched with an interior perfect fluid solution with physically reasonable properties. This opens the possibility of considering the quadrupole moment as an additional physical degree of freedom that could be used to search for a realistic exact solution, representing both the interior and exterior gravitational field generated by a self-gravitating axisymmetric distribution of mass of perfect fluid in stationary rotation.

  19. Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  20. A Chaos MIMO Transmission Scheme for Channel Coding and Physical-Layer Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Eiji

    In recent wireless communication systems, security is ensured mainly in the upper-layer techniques such as a password or a cryptography processing. However, security needs not be restricted to the upper-layer and the addition of physical-layer security also would yield a much more robust system. Therefore, in this paper, we exploit chaos communication and propose a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme which achieves physical-layer security and additional channel-coding gain. A chaotic modulation symbol is multiplied to the data to be transmitted at each MIMO antenna to exploit the MIMO antenna diversity, and at the receiver, the joint MIMO detection and chaos decoding is done by maximum likelihood decoding (MLD). The conventional chaos modulation suffers from bit error rate (BER) performance degradation, while the coding gain is obtained in the proposed scheme by the chaos modulation in MIMO. We evaluate the performances of the proposed scheme by an analysis and computer simulations.

  1. An Overview of Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems With CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-09-21

    The concept of physical layer security builds on the pivotal idea of turning the channel\\'s imperfections, such as noise and fading, into a source of security. This is established through appropriately designed coding techniques and signal processing strategies. In this vein, it has been shown that fading channels can enhance the transmission of confidential information and that a secure communication can be achieved even when the channel to the eavesdropper is better than the main channel. However, to fully benefit from what fading has to offer, the knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is of primordial importance. In practical wireless communication systems, CSIT is usually obtained, prior to data transmission, through CSI feedback sent by the receivers. The channel links over which this feedback information is sent can be either noisy, rate-limited, or delayed, leading to CSIT uncertainty. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of recent and ongoing research works on physical layer security with CSIT uncertainty. We focus on both information theoretic and signal processing approaches to the topic when the uncertainty concerns the channel to the wiretapper or the channel to the legitimate receiver. Moreover, we present a classification of the research works based on the considered channel uncertainty. Mainly, we distinguish between the cases when the uncertainty comes from an estimation error of the CSIT, from a CSI feedback link with limited capacity, or from an outdated CSI.

  2. Three tenets for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.

  3. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2006-01-01

    Access Control Systems and Methodology. Telecommunications and Network Security. Security Management Practices. Application Program Security. Cryptography. Computer, System, and Security Architecture. Operations Security. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery Planning. Law, Investigation and Ethics. Physical Security.

  4. Engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems the specification PEARL approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gumzej, Roman

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system’s safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system’s architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.

  5. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  6. Design Impedance Mismatch Physical Unclonable Functions for IoT Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new design, Physical Unclonable Function (PUF scheme, for the Internet of Things (IoT, which has been suffering from multiple-level security threats. As more and more objects interconnect on IoT networks, the identity of each thing is very important. To authenticate each object, we design an impedance mismatch PUF, which exploits random physical factors of the transmission line to generate a security unique private key. The characteristic impedance of the transmission line and signal transmission theory of the printed circuit board (PCB are also analyzed in detail. To improve the reliability, current feedback amplifier (CFA method is applied on the PUF. Finally, the proposed scheme is implemented and tested. The measure results show that impedance mismatch PUF provides better unpredictability and randomness.

  7. Physical secure enhancement in optical OFDMA-PON based on two-dimensional scrambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Bo; Yin, Xiaoli

    2012-12-10

    This paper proposes a novel physical-enhanced chaotic secure strategy for optical OFDMA-PON based on two-dimensional (2-D) scrambling. In order to enhance the physical security, a multi-layer chaotic mapping is proposed to generate the scrambling vectors. It can enhance the chaotic characteristic of Logistic mapping and increase the key space. Furthermore, the 2-D scrambling jointly utilizing frequency subcarriers and time-slots can improve the system resistance to eavesdropper. The feasibility of 15.6 Gb/s 2-D encrypted 64QAM-OFDM downstream signal has been successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The robustness of the proposed method shows its prospect in future OFDM access network.

  8. Physical Layer Security for Two-Way Untrusted Relaying with Friendly Jammers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rongqing; Han, Lingyang song Zhu; Jiao, Bingli

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-way relay network where two sources can communicate only through an untrusted intermediate relay, and investigate the physical layer security issue of this two-way relay scenario. Specifically, we treat the intermediate relay as an eavesdropper from which the information transmitted by the sources needs to be kept secret, despite the fact that its cooperation in relaying this information is essential. We indicate that a non-zero secrecy rate is indeed achievab...

  9. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  10. A Secured Health Care Application Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jin; Lee, Sungyoung; Shu, Lei; Xia, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) can be viewed as a new generation of systems with integrated control, communication and computational capabilities. Like the internet transformed how humans interact with one another, cyber-physical systems will transform how people interact with the physical world. Currently, the study of CPS is still in its infancy and there exist many research issues and challenges ranging from electricity power, health care, transportation and smart building etc. In this paper, an introduction of CPeSC3 (cyber physical enhanced secured wireless sensor networks (WSNs) integrated cloud computing for u-life care) architecture and its application to the health care monitoring and decision support systems is given. The proposed CPeSC3 architecture is composed of three main components, namely 1) communication core, 2) computation core, and 3) resource scheduling and management core. Detailed analysis and explanation are given for relevant models such as cloud computing, real time scheduling and secu...

  11. Secure Fusion Estimation for Bandwidth Constrained Cyber-Physical Systems Under Replay Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Ho, Daniel W C; Hu, Guoqiang; Yu, Li

    2017-07-03

    State estimation plays an essential role in the monitoring and supervision of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), and its importance has made the security and estimation performance a major concern. In this case, multisensor information fusion estimation (MIFE) provides an attractive alternative to study secure estimation problems because MIFE can potentially improve estimation accuracy and enhance reliability and robustness against attacks. From the perspective of the defender, the secure distributed Kalman fusion estimation problem is investigated in this paper for a class of CPSs under replay attacks, where each local estimate obtained by the sink node is transmitted to a remote fusion center through bandwidth constrained communication channels. A new mathematical model with compensation strategy is proposed to characterize the replay attacks and bandwidth constrains, and then a recursive distributed Kalman fusion estimator (DKFE) is designed in the linear minimum variance sense. According to different communication frameworks, two classes of data compression and compensation algorithms are developed such that the DKFEs can achieve the desired performance. Several attack-dependent and bandwidth-dependent conditions are derived such that the DKFEs are secure under replay attacks. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  12. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1999-02-22

    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.

  13. Evaluation of Physical Components of Public Spaces and their Impact on Social Security of Babolsar Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Lotfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction   Security has been one of the most fundamental needs of human society and the incidence of crime is one of the most important problems in cities. Security feeling in urban spaces is one of the crucial indicators of a good space quality which is dependent upon different aspects of socio-economic and cultural status of each society. Today social scientists try to identify the factors which impact and influence the incidence of crime in public spaces. Urban planners analyze the role of physical and environmental variables in the level of public security in urban communities. The present research attempted to study the connection between public space security and spatial and environmental factors to formulate the main planning guidelines for maintaining security and prevent crime occurrence in the city of Babolsar.     Materials and Methods   The city of Babolsar is located in the southern part of the Caspian Sea and is one of the important tourist destinations in Mazandaran province. The methodology of the research is based on descriptive and analytical approaches and the required data and information were collected by conducting a field work to complete the research questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was justified by Cronbach Alfa coefficient (0.792 and the validity of the questions were confirmed by the help of several experts. The statistical society of the present research includes 14422 households of Babolsar city and the sample was selected via Cochran formula (350 household heads. In general, nine main components and 35 indicators were used to measure the physical components of public spaces. Also three components and 22 indicators were applied for investigating the social security in this research. The data was processed vial SPSS and different statistical tests such as Pearson regression and T test were used to determine the possible relationships among the variables.     Discussion of Results and

  14. Security engineering: Phisical security measures for high-risk personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena S. Cice

    2013-06-01

    terrorist or criminal targets based on their grade, assignment, symbolic value, criticality, and threat and vulnerability assessment. Levels of protection The recommendations contained in this criterion are intended to minimize the possibility of HRP casualties in buildings or portions of buildings in which they work and live. These recommendations provide appropriate and implementable measures to establish a level of protection against terrorist attacks where no known threat of terrorist activity currently exists. While complete protection against all potential threats is cost prohibitive, the intent of these recommendations can be achieved through prudent master planning, real estate acquisition, and design and construction practices. Tag number The tag number at the beginning of each physical security measure (recommendation is unique and is intended to be a communication aid when linking the requirement (recommendation to the supporting text or commentary. The three-character tag number uses the following legend. Tag Number First Character -The first character is an abbreviation for the defense zone layer that is most applicable for the countermeasure. “S” is used to represent site or external zone issues. “P” is used to represent the perimeter zone. “G” is used to represent issues relative to the property grounds. “E” is used to represent issues associated with the building exterior of the HRP office or residence. “I” is used to represent issues associated with the building interior. “H” is used to represent issues associated with the safe room or safe haven. Tag Number Second Character - The second character is a sequential number for countermeasures in a given zone - a requirement or a recommendation. This number ensures a unique tag number. Tag Number Third Character- The third character indicates whether the countermeasure is applicable to offices, residences, or both (common. “O” indicates a requirement or recommendation unique to

  15. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1998-10-26

    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  16. An approach for physical layer security enhancement and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junxin; Zhu, Zhi-liang

    2017-07-01

    This work develops a solution for simultaneous physical layer security enhancement and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) systems. The encryption is carried out within the subcarriers with the help of three-dimensional (3-D) chaotic cat map. Experimental results demonstrate that the OFDM-PON system under the protection of the proposed technique is high sensitive to the secret key, invalid optical network units cannot obtain any useful information from the ciphertext. Besides, the PAPR of the OFDM symbols has also been significantly reduced, and hence the system is more robust against various nonlinear disturbances.

  17. Exterior Powers of Symmetric Bilinear Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seán McGarraghy

    2002-01-01

    We study exterior powers of classes of symmetric bilinear forms in the Witt-Grothendieck ring of a field of characteristic not equal to 2, and derive their basic properties. The exterior powers are used to obtain annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms in the Witt ring.

  18. Japón: sector exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrín Solé, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Introducción al comercio exterior, al análisis de los principales sectores importadores y exportadores. Evolución de la inversión directa de Japón en el exterior. Análisis de la distribución geográfica y sectorial.

  19. Using virtual reality in the training of security staff and evaluation of physical protection barriers in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Mol, Pedro C.; Sales, Douglas S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: silas@ien.gov.br, e-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, e-mail: pedro98@gmail.com, e-mail: dsales@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The physical security of facilities containing radioactive objects, an already important matter, now has a new aggravating factor: the existence of groups intending to obtain radioactive materials for the purpose of intentionally induce radioactive contamination incidents, as for example the explosion of dirty bombs in populated regions, damaging both people and environment. In this context, the physical security of such facilities must be reinforced so to reduce the possibilities of such incidents. This paper presents a adapted game engine used as a virtual reality system, enabling the modeling and simulation of scenarios of nuclear facilities containing radioactive objects. In these scenarios, the physical protection barriers, as fences and walls, are simulated along with vigilance screens. Using a computer network, several users can participate simultaneously in the simulation, being represented by avatars. Users can play the roles of both invaders and security staff. The invaders have as objective to surpass the facility's physical protection barriers to steal radioactive objects and flee. The security staff have as objective to prevent and stop the theft of radioactive objects from the facility. The system can be used to analysis simulated scenarios and train vigilance/security staff. A test scenario was already developed and used, and the preliminary tests had satisfactory results, as they enabled the evaluation of the physical protection barriers of the virtual facility, and the training of those who participated in the simulations in the functions of a security staff. (author)

  20. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ovalle, J; Pasqua, A; Sotomayor, A

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach (MGD) is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein's field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation ${\\cal U}^+$ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior "dark pressure" ${\\cal P}^+$ always reduces them.

  1. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Linares, F.; Pasqua, A.; Sotomayor, A.

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein’s field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation U^+ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior ‘dark pressure’ P^+ always reduces them.

  2. Cyber-Physical System Security of a Power Grid: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Che Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the smart grid development, more and more technologies are developed and deployed on the power grid to enhance the system reliability. A primary purpose of the smart grid is to significantly increase the capability of computer-based remote control and automation. As a result, the level of connectivity has become much higher, and cyber security also becomes a potential threat to the cyber-physical systems (CPSs. In this paper, a survey of the state-of-the-art is conducted on the cyber security of the power grid concerning issues of: (1 the structure of CPSs in a smart grid; (2 cyber vulnerability assessment; (3 cyber protection systems; and (4 testbeds of a CPS. At Washington State University (WSU, the Smart City Testbed (SCT has been developed to provide a platform to test, analyze and validate defense mechanisms against potential cyber intrusions. A test case is provided in this paper to demonstrate how a testbed helps the study of cyber security and the anomaly detection system (ADS for substations.

  3. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  4. Physical-layer security analysis of PSK quantum-noise randomized cipher in optically amplified links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Huatao

    2017-08-01

    The quantitative security of quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) in optically amplified links is analyzed from the perspective of physical-layer advantage. Establishing the wire-tap channel models for both key and data, we derive the general expressions of secrecy capacities for the key against ciphertext-only attack and known-plaintext attack, and that for the data, which serve as the basic performance metrics. Further, the maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. Based on the same framework, the secrecy capacities of various cases can be assessed and compared. The results indicate perfect secrecy is potentially achievable for data transmission, and an elementary principle of setting proper number of photons and bases is given to ensure the maximal data secrecy capacity. But the key security is asymptotically perfect, which tends to be the main constraint of systemic maximal secrecy rate. Moreover, by adopting cascaded optical amplification, QNRC can realize long-haul transmission with secure rate up to Gb/s, which is orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems.

  5. Physically Transient Memory on a Rapidly Dissoluble Paper for Security Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dongil; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Daewon; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Ahn, Daechul; Park, Sang-Jae; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    We report the transient memory device by means of a water soluble SSG (solid sodium with glycerine) paper. This material has a hydroscopic property hence it can be soluble in water. In terms of physical security of memory devices, prompt abrogation of a memory device which stored a large number of data is crucial when it is stolen because all of things have identified information in the memory device. By utilizing the SSG paper as a substrate, we fabricated a disposable resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has good data retention of longer than 106 seconds and cycling endurance of 300 cycles. This memory device is dissolved within 10 seconds thus it can never be recovered or replicated. By employing direct printing but not lithography technology to aim low cost and disposable applications, the memory capacity tends to be limited less than kilo-bits. However, unlike high memory capacity demand for consumer electronics, the proposed device is targeting for security applications. With this regards, the sub-kilobit memory capacity should find the applications such as one-time usable personal identification, authentication code storage, cryptography key, and smart delivery tag. This aspect is attractive for security and protection system against unauthorized accessibility.

  6. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-05-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  7. Secure estimation, control and optimization of uncertain cyber-physical systems with applications to power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Fayez

    Transportation networks, wearable devices, energy systems, and the book you are reading now are all ubiquitous cyber-physical systems (CPS). These inherently uncertain systems combine physical phenomena with communication, data processing, control and optimization. Many CPSs are controlled and monitored by real-time control systems that use communication networks to transmit and receive data from systems modeled by physical processes. Existing studies have addressed a breadth of challenges related to the design of CPSs. However, there is a lack of studies on uncertain CPSs subject to dynamic unknown inputs and cyber-attacks---an artifact of the insertion of communication networks and the growing complexity of CPSs. The objective of this dissertation is to create secure, computational foundations for uncertain CPSs by establishing a framework to control, estimate and optimize the operation of these systems. With major emphasis on power networks, the dissertation deals with the design of secure computational methods for uncertain CPSs, focusing on three crucial issues---(1) cyber-security and risk-mitigation, (2) network-induced time-delays and perturbations and (3) the encompassed extreme time-scales. The dissertation consists of four parts. In the first part, we investigate dynamic state estimation (DSE) methods and rigorously examine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed routines under dynamic attack-vectors and unknown inputs. In the second part, and utilizing high-frequency measurements in smart grids and the developed DSE methods in the first part, we present a risk mitigation strategy that minimizes the encountered threat levels, while ensuring the continual observability of the system through available, safe measurements. The developed methods in the first two parts rely on the assumption that the uncertain CPS is not experiencing time-delays, an assumption that might fail under certain conditions. To overcome this challenge, networked unknown input

  8. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyusung; Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS) of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS) scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique and the selection combining (SC) technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP), closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS) scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI) estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks. PMID:28212286

  9. Virtual dosimetry applied to the physical security of a nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Machado, Daniel M.; Chelles, Daniel R.; Goncalves, Deise G.S., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com, E-mail: daniel.chelles@gmail.com, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An important activity to be held in radiation protection is the location of radioactive sources. The present work was devoted to the development of a virtual dosimetry tool for locating and detecting such sources. To this end, was created a three-dimensional virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN, endowed with virtual characters (avatars), capable of move and interact with the environment, radiation detectors (fixed and mobile) and radioactive sources. Aiming to assist in planning physical security of nuclear installations, the tool developed allows the detection simulation of individuals carrying radioactive sources through detectors installed at strategic points of the site. In addition, it is possible to detect and locate sources by handling portable detectors, operated by characters within the virtual environment. The results obtained show the behavior of the radiation detectors on continuous profile of radioactive sources, allowing calculate the dose rate at any position of the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of security officers, as well as in evaluating the radiological safety of the nuclear site. (author)

  10. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusung Shim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC technique and the selection combining (SC technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP, closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks.

  11. Physical Layer Security Game: Interaction between Source, Eavesdropper, and Friendly Jammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical layer security is an emerging security area that achieves perfect secrecy data transmission between intended network nodes, while malicious nodes that eavesdrop the communication obtain zero information. The so-called secrecy capacity can be improved using friendly jammers that introduce extra interference to the eavesdroppers. We investigate the interaction between the source that transmits the useful data and friendly jammers who assist the source by “masking” the eavesdropper. To obtain distributed solution, we introduce a game theoretic approach. The game is defined such that the source pays the jammers to interfere the eavesdropper, therefore, increasing the secrecy capacity. The friendly jammers charge the source with a certain price for the jamming, and there is a tradeoff for the price. If too low, the profit of the jammers is low; and if too high, the source would not buy the “service” (jamming power or would buy it from other jammers. To analyze the game outcome, we investigate a Stackelburg type of game and construct a distributed algorithm. Our analysis and simulation results show the effectiveness of friendly jamming and the tradeoff for setting the price. The distributed game solution is shown to have similar performances to those of the centralized one.

  12. Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Opportunistic Scheduling in Multiuser Multirelay Cooperative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyusung; Do, Nhu Tri; An, Beongku

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we study the physical layer security (PLS) of opportunistic scheduling for uplink scenarios of multiuser multirelay cooperative networks. To this end, we propose a low-complexity, yet comparable secrecy performance source relay selection scheme, called the proposed source relay selection (PSRS) scheme. Specifically, the PSRS scheme first selects the least vulnerable source and then selects the relay that maximizes the system secrecy capacity for the given selected source. Additionally, the maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique and the selection combining (SC) technique are considered at the eavesdropper, respectively. Investigating the system performance in terms of secrecy outage probability (SOP), closed-form expressions of the SOP are derived. The developed analysis is corroborated through Monte Carlo simulation. Numerical results show that the PSRS scheme significantly improves the secure ability of the system compared to that of the random source relay selection scheme, but does not outperform the optimal joint source relay selection (OJSRS) scheme. However, the PSRS scheme drastically reduces the required amount of channel state information (CSI) estimations compared to that required by the OJSRS scheme, specially in dense cooperative networks.

  13. Physical Layer Security Game: Interaction between Source, Eavesdropper, and Friendly Jammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ninoslav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical layer security is an emerging security area that achieves perfect secrecy data transmission between intended network nodes, while malicious nodes that eavesdrop the communication obtain zero information. The so-called secrecy capacity can be improved using friendly jammers that introduce extra interference to the eavesdroppers. We investigate the interaction between the source that transmits the useful data and friendly jammers who assist the source by "masking" the eavesdropper. To obtain distributed solution, we introduce a game theoretic approach. The game is defined such that the source pays the jammers to interfere the eavesdropper, therefore, increasing the secrecy capacity. The friendly jammers charge the source with a certain price for the jamming, and there is a tradeoff for the price. If too low, the profit of the jammers is low; and if too high, the source would not buy the "service" (jamming power or would buy it from other jammers. To analyze the game outcome, we investigate a Stackelburg type of game and construct a distributed algorithm. Our analysis and simulation results show the effectiveness of friendly jamming and the tradeoff for setting the price. The distributed game solution is shown to have similar performances to those of the centralized one.

  14. Brane-world stars with a solid crust and vacuum exterior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Jorge; Gergely, László Á.; Casadio, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach is employed to show the existence of brane-world stellar distributions with a vacuum Schwarzschild exterior, thus without energy leaking from the exterior of the brane-world star into the extra dimension. The interior satisfies all the elementary criteria of physical acceptability for a stellar solution, namely, it is regular at the origin, the pressure and density are positive and decrease monotonically with increasing radius, and all energy conditions are fulfilled. A very thin solid crust with negative radial pressure separates the interior from the exterior, having a thickness Δ inversely proportional to both the brane tension σ and the radius R of the star, i.e. {{Δ }-1}˜ Rσ . This brane-world star with Schwarzschild exterior would appear only thermally radiating to a distant observer and be fully compatible with the stringent constraints imposed on stellar parameters by observations of gravitational lensing, orbital evolutions or properties of accretion disks.

  15. The Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Townsend, M.; Barker, D.; Lee, P.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the changes in seismic energy as it travels from the near field to the far field is the ultimate goal in monitoring for explosive events of interest. This requires a clear understanding of explosion phenomenology as it relates to seismic, infrasound, and acoustic signals. Although there has been much progress in modeling these phenomena, this has been primarily based in the empirical realm. As a result, the logical next step in advancing the seismic monitoring capability of the United States is to conduct field tests that can expand the predictive capability of the physics-based modeling currently under development. The Source Physics Experiment at the Nevada National Security Site (SPE) is the first step in this endeavor to link the empirically based with the physics-based modeling. This is a collaborative project between National Security Technologies (NSTec), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and the Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC). The test series require both the simple and complex cases to fully characterize the problem, which is to understand the transition of seismic energy from the near field to the far field; to understand the development of S-waves in explosives sources; and how anisotropy controls seismic energy transmission and partitioning. The current series is being conducted in a granite body called the Climax Stock. This location was chosen for several reasons, including the fairly homogenous granite; the location of previous nuclear tests in the same rock body; and generally the geology has been well characterized. The simple geology series is planned for 7 shots using conventional explosives in the same shot hole surrounded by Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time Experiment (CORRTEX), Time of Arrival (TOA), Velocity of Detonation (VOD), down-hole accelerometers, surface

  16. 24 CFR 3285.801 - Exterior close-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exterior close-up. 3285.801 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.801 Exterior close-up. (a) Exterior siding and roofing necessary to join all sections of the home must be...

  17. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  18. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  19. Securing Physical and network layer using SNAuth-SPMAODV with DSSS for Mobile adhoc networks in Military Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Devi Aruna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, fast emerging today for deployment in variety of applications. During deployment, security emerges as a central requirement due to many attacks that affects the performance of the ad hoc networks. Particularly Denial of Service attack is one such severe attack against network and physical layer which is a challenging one to defend against in military communication environments.. The physical layer protocol in MANETs is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes and network layer is responsible to provide security services for both routing information and data message. This paper consider military scenarios and evaluate the performance of Security-enhanced-Multipath AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing routing protocol called SNAuth-SPMAODV (Secure Neighbor Authentication Strict Priority Multipath Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing with spread spectrum technology Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS to defend against signal jamming denial-of-service attacks in physical layer and network layer for MANET.The protocol discovers multiple paths between sender and receiver nodes without introducing extra packets into the network and authenticates the neighbor offering robustness in a secured MANET. SNAuth-SPMAODV with DSSS is found to be a good security solution even with its known security problems. The simulation is done using network simulator Qualnet 5.0 for different number of mobile nodes. The proposed model has shown improved results in terms of Average throughput, Average end to end delay, Average packet delivery ratio, Routing overhead and Average jitter.

  20. Development of a computer-adaptive physical function instrument for Social Security Administration disability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Chan, Leighton

    2013-09-01

    To develop and test an instrument to assess physical function for Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, the SSA-Physical Function (SSA-PF) instrument. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to (1) create a calibrated item bank for each of the factors identified in prior factor analyses, (2) assess the fit of the items within each scale, (3) develop separate computer-adaptive testing (CAT) instruments for each scale, and (4) conduct initial psychometric testing. Cross-sectional data collection; IRT analyses; CAT simulation. Telephone and Internet survey. Two samples: SSA claimants (n=1017) and adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). None. Model fit statistics, correlation, and reliability coefficients. IRT analyses resulted in 5 unidimensional SSA-PF scales: Changing & Maintaining Body Position, Whole Body Mobility, Upper Body Function, Upper Extremity Fine Motor, and Wheelchair Mobility for a total of 102 items. High CAT accuracy was demonstrated by strong correlations between simulated CAT scores and those from the full item banks. On comparing the simulated CATs with the full item banks, very little loss of reliability or precision was noted, except at the lower and upper ranges of each scale. No difference in response patterns by age or sex was noted. The distributions of claimant scores were shifted to the lower end of each scale compared with those of a sample of U.S. adults. The SSA-PF instrument contributes important new methodology for measuring the physical function of adults applying to the SSA disability programs. Initial evaluation revealed that the SSA-PF instrument achieved considerable breadth of coverage in each content domain and demonstrated noteworthy psychometric properties. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  2. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo [Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: lenozhengxie@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-06-27

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms.

  3. Enhancement of the physical protection of waste storages. A step to maintain the nuclear security regime in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmyak, Ihor; Kravtsov, Valery [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kushka, Victor [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive wastes are unavoidable by-products in the use of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources and concurrently pose the threat to radiation safety. Ukraine has an advanced infrastructure of nuclear power engineering and is attaching great importance to nuclear security and particularly physical protection of not only nuclear facilities and nuclear materials but radioactive wastes as well. Furthermore, Ukraine has unique practices of ensuring nuclear safety and security of radioactive wastes and fuel-containing materials generated after the accident at Chornobyl NPP and during its decommissioning. To this end, the continuous improvement of physical protection systems for storages of radioactive wastes of industrial, medical and scientific origin, Chornobyl facilities containing radioactive materials, including the Shelter, takes place in our country. Such activities in synergy with nuclear and radiation safety measures are of great significance for implementation and maintenance of nuclear security regime in Ukraine. This paper is dedicated to activities on modernization of physical protection systems for radioactive wastes and some other radioactive materials and concise review of nuclear security regime status in Ukraine. (orig.)

  4. Stackelberg Game Based Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security of Device-to-device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Junyue; Cai, Yueming; Wu, Dan; Chen, Hualiang

    2014-05-01

    The problem of power allocation for device-to-device (D2D) underlay communication to improve physical layer security is addressed. Specifically, to improve the secure communication of the cellular users, we introduce a Stackelberg game for allocating the power of the D2D link under a total power constraint and a rate constraint at the D2D pair. In the introduced Stackelberg game the D2D pair works as a seller and the cellular UEs work as buyers. Firstly, because the interference signals from D2D pair are unknown to both the legitimate receiver and the illegitimate eavesdropper, it is possible that a cellular UE decline to participate in the introduced Stackelberg game. So the condition under which a legitimate user will participate in the introduced Stackelberg game is discussed. Then, based on the Stackelberg game, we propose a semi-distributed power allocation algorithm, which is proved to conclude after finite-time iterations. In the end, some simulations are presented to verify the performance improvement in the physical layer security of cellular UEs using the proposed power allocation algorithm. We can determine that with the proposed algorithm, while the D2D pair's communication demand is met, the physical layer security of cellular UEs can be improved.

  5. Physical security and cyber security issues and human error prevention for 3D printed objects: detecting the use of an incorrect printing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of characteristics of 3D printed objects have been linked to impaired structural integrity and use-efficacy. The printing material can also have a significant impact on the quality, utility and safety characteristics of a 3D printed object. Material issues can be created by vendor issues, physical security issues and human error. This paper presents and evaluates a system that can be used to detect incorrect material use in a 3D printer, using visible light imaging. Specifically, it assesses the ability to ascertain the difference between materials of different color and different types of material with similar coloration.

  6. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  7. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  8. A threat-vulnerability based risk analysis model for cyber physical system security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ledwaba, Lehlogonolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available processes leaves CPSs vulnerable to security attacks. A threat-vulnerability based risk model is developed through a detailed analysis of CPS security attack structures and threats. The Stuxnet malware attack is used to test the viability of the proposed...

  9. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured on living animal

  10. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured o

  11. Nonstatic vacuum strings: Exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-06-15

    New nonstatic cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent stringlike objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a nonvacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string.

  12. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  13. On realizations of exterior calculus with dN = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V.

    1998-11-01

    We study realizations of the q-exterior calculus with exterior differential d satisfying d N = 0, N > 2 on the free associative algebra with one generator and on the generalized Clifford algebras. Analogs of the notions of connection and curvature are discussed in the case of the q-exterior calculus on the generalized Clifford algebra. We show that the q-exterior calculus on the free associative algebra with one generator is related to q-calculus on the braided line.

  14. A Conceptual Foundation for Measures of Physical Function and Behavioral Health Function for Social Security Work Disability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  15. A NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR EXTERIOR 3-D PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-hao Yu; Ji-ming Wu; Ji-ming Wu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction(cf. [4, 13, 15]), is developed to solve the boundary value problem in exterior three-dimensional domain of general shape. Convergence analyses both for the exterior spherical domain and the general exterior domain are made. Some numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the method.

  16. An Overview of Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems With CSIT Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    .... In this vein, it has been shown that fading channels can enhance the transmission of confidential information and that a secure communication can be achieved even when the channel to the eavesdropper...

  17. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified

  18. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  19. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, Garrett [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Wagner, Rachel [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Schirber, Tom [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  20. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, William [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  1. Network Physics - the only company to provide physics-based network management - secures additional funding and new executives

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Network Physics, the only provider of physics-based network management products, today announced an additional venture round of $6 million in funding, as well as the addition of David Jones as president and CEO and Tom Dunn as vice president of sales and business development" (1 page).

  2. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  3. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  4. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  5. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  6. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Virtual reality in the creation of a tool to support planning of physical security at nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.; Goncalves, Deise Galvao de S.; Marins, Eugenio; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com, E-mail: eugenio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio De Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years was observed the importance of improving the physical security of nuclear facilities, mainly due to the increasing advancement of brazilian nuclear program. The present work aims to develop a tool that allows the visualization and planning of action strategies in a virtual environment, in order to improve this security. To this end, was created a virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), which is located on Ilha do Fundao - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. This environment is a three-dimensional model, with representations close to reality, where virtual characters (avatars) can move and interact in real time. In this virtual world, it was developed a dynamic weather system, where is possible to change between day and night, and climate changes such as: rain, storms, snow, among other features. Furthermore, the tool has a surveillance system using virtual cameras, allowing the monitoring of the environment. This way, making possible to simulate strategies approach, allowing an evaluation of the procedures performed, as well as assisting in the training of security installations subject to radiation. (author)

  8. Mediating Cyber and Physical Threat Propagation in Security Smart Grid Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, Clifford; Tan, Kymie

    2011-10-01

    The power grid is a federated system. Regions of the system are controlled by different organizations and security of the grid is imposed from above through regulation of the security techniques used by the federants. This approach will be less effective as we move to a smart grid, where control of some elements of the grid rests in the customer’s home through technologies that enable remote access to appliances. These regions of the smart grid are less trusted, yet they interact in various ways with other parts of the grid. This paper demonstrates threat propagation in the smart grid from such regions, and discusses architectural approaches to mediating the impact of such flows.

  9. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The history of the probability amplitude equation |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to |ψ>=(|x ,y >-|y ,x >) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  10. Improved Wireless Security through Physical Layer Protocol Manipulation and Radio Frequency Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    FINGERPRINTING I. Introduction Modern wireless communications networks have revolutionized the ways in which information is shared. Inexpensive low-rate wireless ... Wireless Intrusion Detection and Device Fingerprinting through PHY Manipulation 2.1 Introduction Properly securing low-rate LR-WPANs is challenging due... wireless interference or are completely uninterpretable by the receiver. Influence of wireless noise is mitigated by operating on IEEE 802.15.4 channel

  11. APPLICATIONS OF FRACTIONAL EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of fractional calculus and fractional differential forms was firstly given. The fractional exterior transition to curvilinear coordinate at the origin were discussed and the two coordinate transformations for the fractional differentials for three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates to spherical and cylindrical coordinates are obtained, respectively. In particular, for v = m = 1 , the usual exterior transformations, between the spherical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, as well as the cylindrical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, are found respectively, from fractional exterior transformation.

  12. Signal processing approaches to secure physical layer communications in multi-antenna wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Y-W Peter; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces various signal processing approaches to enhance physical layer secrecy in multi-antenna wireless systems. Wireless physical layer secrecy has attracted much attention in recent years due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and its inherent vulnerability to eavesdropping. While most articles on physical layer secrecy focus on the information-theoretic aspect, we focus specifically on the signal processing aspects, including beamforming and precoding techniques for data transmission and discriminatory training schemes for channel estimation. The discussions will c

  13. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  14. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  15. Mobile detection assessment and response systems (MDARS): a force protection physical security operational success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-05-01

    MDARS is a Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle with intrusion detection & assessment, product & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities. MDARS is in Systems Development and Demonstration (SDD) under the Product Manager for Force Protection Systems (PM-FPS). MDARS capabilities include semi-autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance, motion detection, day and night imagers, radio frequency tag inventory/barrier assessment and audio challenge and response. Four SDD MDARS Patrol Vehicles have been undergoing operational evaluation at Hawthorne Army Depot, NV (HWAD) since October 2004. Hawthorne personnel were trained to administer, operate and maintain the system in accordance with the US Army Military Police School (USAMPS) Concept of Employment and the PM-FPS MDARS Integrated Logistic Support Plan. The system was subjected to intensive periods of evaluation under the guidance and control of the Army Test and Evaluation Center (ATEC) and PM-FPS. Significantly, in terms of User acceptance, the system has been under the "operational control" of the installation performing security and force protection missions in support of daily operations. This evaluation is intended to assess MDARS operational effectiveness in an operational environment. Initial observations show that MDARS provides enhanced force protection, can potentially reduce manpower requirements by conducting routine tasks within its design capabilities and reduces Soldier exposure in the initial response to emerging incidents and situations. Success of the MDARS program has been instrumental in the design and development of two additional robotic force protection programs. The first was the USAF Force Protection Battle Lab sponsored Remote Detection Challenge & Response (REDCAR) concept demonstration

  16. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  17. 无线物理层信息安全探析%Information Security Analysis of the Wireless Physical Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰

    2012-01-01

    In the wireless transmission process,the communication signal is often easy to be third-party eavesdropping,in order to prevent such a situation,the use of artificial noise can be reduced by the multi-beam emission technology,can the physical layer of the secure communication of information security,the signal sender signal and artificial noise,while sending,receiving orientation of the antenna pattern main lobe of the weighted information,can effectively eliminate noise interference.%在无线传输的过程中,通信的信号往往容易被第三方窃听,为了防止这类情况出现,利用多波束发射技术可以减少的人工噪声干扰,能够物理层安全通信信息的安全,在信号的发送端将信号和人工噪声同时发送,通过天线加权调整信息的方向图主瓣的接收方位,能够有效的消除噪声干扰。

  18. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.516 Building exterior envelope....

  19. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  20. On modeling of electrical cyber-physical systems considering cyber security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-nan WANG; Zhi-yun LIN; Xiao LIANG; Wen-yuan XU; Qiang YANG; Gang-feng YAN

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a new framework for modeling electrical cyber-physical systems (ECPSs), integrating both power grids and communication networks. To model the communication network associated with a power transmission grid, we use a mesh network that considers the features of power transmission grids such as high-voltage levels, long-transmission distances, and equal importance of each node. Moreover, bidirectional links including data uploading channels and command downloading channels are assumed to connect every node in the communication network and a corresponding physical node in the transmission grid. Based on this model, the fragility of an ECPS is analyzed under various cyber attacks including denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, replay attacks, and false data injection attacks. Control strategies such as load shedding and relay protection are also verified using this model against these attacks.

  1. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2007-07-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  2. Distributed beamforming designs to improve physical layer security in wireless relay networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mujun; Liu, Chen; Fu, Youhua

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates security-oriented beamforming designs in a relay network composed of a source-destination pair, multiple relays, and a passive eavesdropper. Unlike most of the earlier works, we assume that only statistical information of the relay-eavesdropper channels is known to the relays. We propose beamforming solutions for amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks to improve secrecy capacity. In an AF network, the beamforming design is obtained by approximating a product of two correlated Rayleigh quotients to a single Rayleigh quotient using the Taylor series expansion. Our study reveals that in an AF network, the secrecy capacity does not always grow as the eavesdropper moves away from the relays or as total relay transmit power increases. Moreover, if the destination is nearer to the relays than the eavesdropper is, a suboptimal power is derived in closed form through monotonicity analysis of secrecy capacity. While in a DF network, secrecy capacity is a single Rayleigh quotient problem which can be easily solved. We also found that if the relay-eavesdropper distances are about the same, it is unnecessary to consider the eavesdropper in a DF network. Numerical results show that for either AF or DF relaying protocol, the proposed beamforming scheme provides higher secrecy capacity than traditional approaches.

  3. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  4. Local newforms and formal exterior square L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Miyauchi, Michitaka

    2012-01-01

    Let F be a non-archimedean local field of characteristic zero. Jacquet and Shalika attached a family of zeta integrals to unitary irreducible generic representations $\\pi$ of GL_n(F). In this paper, we show that Jacquet-Shalika integral attains a certain L-function, so called the formal exterior square L-function, when the Whittaker function is associated to a newform for $\\pi$. By consideration on the Galois side, formal exterior square L-functions are equal to exterior square L-functions for some principal series representations.

  5. Spontaneously induced general relativity with holographic interior and general exterior

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The general relativity (GR) might be viewed as a spontaneously induced theory from the scalar-tensor gravity, in which the would-have-been horizon connects the exterior solution of GR with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. Using a simple but robust analytic method, we give the nontrivial core metric for the general exterior. Then we show that all the nontrivial features of the core, including the locally holographic entropy packing, are not influenced by the general exterior. We also investigate whether other modified theories of gravity can permit the nontrivial core.

  6. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yan; Dong, Wei; Qian, Jin; Jing, Tao

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS), which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes during the clustering formation, so as to intend to benefit from networks. This behavior may degrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes. PMID:28264469

  7. Coalition Game-Based Secure and Effective Clustering Communication in Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the low efficiency of cluster-based communication for the crossroad scenario in the Vehicular Cyber-Physical System (VCPS, which is due to the overload of the cluster head resulting from a large number of transmission bandwidth requirements. After formulating the issue as a coalition formation game, a coalition-based clustering strategy is proposed, which could converge into a Nash-stable partition to accomplish the clustering formation process. In the proposed strategy, the coalition utility is formulated by the relative velocity, relative position and the bandwidth availability ratio of vehicles among the cluster. Employing the coalition utility, the vehicles are denoted as the nodes that make the decision whether to switch to a new coalition or stay in the current coalition. Based on this, we can make full use of the bandwidth provided by cluster head under the requirement of clustering stability. Nevertheless, there exist selfish nodes duringtheclusteringformation,soastointendtobenefitfromnetworks. Thisbehaviormaydegrade the communication quality and even destroy the cluster. Thus, we also present a reputation-based incentive and penalty mechanism to stop the selfish nodes from entering clusters. Numerical simulation results show that our strategy, CG-SECC, takes on a better performance for the tradeoff between the stability and efficiency of clustering communication. Besides, a case study demonstrates that the proposed incentive and penalty mechanism can play an important role in discovering and removing malicious nodes.

  8. Comercio exterior del sector porcino mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica del comercio exterior porcino mexicano, y el efecto de las importaciones de productos porcinos en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción en México. Para la dinámica se analizaron las tasas de crecimiento (decremento y las variaciones tanto en volumen y valor del subsector, de las fracciones arancelarias agrupadas en dos grandes rubros: a animales vivos y b carnes y despojos comestibles, que tienen un impacto directo en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción nacional. El desplazamiento y sustitución se calcularon con la suma de los valores de las importaciones, su relación con los pesos en canal de los animales durante los años analizados, y su equivalente en porcentaje a número de animales. El estudio comprende de 1990 a 2008. La balanza comercial al inicio del estudio fue de -180 mil toneladas equivalente a 1.4 millones de cerdos desplazados y al 13 % de la producción nacional. Para el 2008, la balanza comercial fue -581 mil toneladas, los cerdos desplazados se incrementaron a 5.9 millones equivalente al 39 % de la producción nacional.

  9. Analyzing Cyber Security Threats on Cyber-Physical Systems Using Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhner, Aleksandr; Pomerantz, Marc; Tan, Kymie; Campuzano, Brian; Dinkel, Kevin; Pecharich, Jeremy; Nguyen, Viet; Steele, Robert; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The spectre of cyber attacks on aerospace systems can no longer be ignored given that many of the components and vulnerabilities that have been successfully exploited by the adversary on other infrastructures are the same as those deployed and used within the aerospace environment. An important consideration with respect to the mission/safety critical infrastructure supporting space operations is that an appropriate defensive response to an attack invariably involves the need for high precision and accuracy, because an incorrect response can trigger unacceptable losses involving lives and/or significant financial damage. A highly precise defensive response, considering the typical complexity of aerospace environments, requires a detailed and well-founded understanding of the underlying system where the goal of the defensive response is to preserve critical mission objectives in the presence of adversarial activity. In this paper, a structured approach for modeling aerospace systems is described. The approach includes physical elements, network topology, software applications, system functions, and usage scenarios. We leverage Model-Based Systems Engineering methodology by utilizing the Object Management Group's Systems Modeling Language to represent the system being analyzed and also utilize model transformations to change relevant aspects of the model into specialized analyses. A novel visualization approach is utilized to visualize the entire model as a three-dimensional graph, allowing easier interaction with subject matter experts. The model provides a unifying structure for analyzing the impact of a particular attack or a particular type of attack. Two different example analysis types are demonstrated in this paper: a graph-based propagation analysis based on edge labels, and a graph-based propagation analysis based on node labels.

  10. Experiment investigation on existence of physical layer security%物理层安全的存在性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹霖; 付晓梅; 赵艳玲

    2014-01-01

    物理层安全常用的衡量指标是安全容量,实际多变环境下很难一直满足信道条件制约,此时安全性用安全容量来衡量不够全面。在基于GNU Radio搭建起的软件无线电实验平台上研究了实际工程中表征物理层安全性的参数以及合法信道条件与窃听信道条件的相对关系对物理层安全存在性的影响,实验结果表明安全容量大于零的概率在实际中能较全面反映物理层安全的存在性。同时,还研究了协作拥塞对系统安全性的影响,分析结果表明协作拥塞技术是一种可突破信道条件制约的、有效的物理层安全技术。%The physical layer security capacity is often used as the parameter to evaluate the physical layer security performance. But when the condition of main channel is worse than that of eavesdropper channel, the physical layer security capacity does not exist. If the channel limitation is not strictly satisfied, which parameter is more suitable to evaluate the security performance in practice? An experiment platform has been built based on the software defined radio to evaluate the security parameters in practice. The experimental results show that the probability of that security capacity is greater than zero can comprehensively reflect the existence of the physical layer security. Meanwhile, the cooperative jamming technology is also investigated. It can be shown that the cooperative jamming is able to break through the restriction of channel condition to achieve physical layer security.

  11. Cyber Physical System Security and Related Measures%信息物理系统安全及相关措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢静宇; 张立臣

    2014-01-01

    开放互联的网络和信息与物理组件的交互使得信息物理系统面临着巨大的安全挑战,通过研究信息物理系统的安全目标和攻击模型,给出了分层的信息物理系统安全体系。信息物理系统安全主要是解决在恶意攻击下的加密技术,访问控制策略,弹性机制等问题,在介绍了信息物理系统安全方面的相关研究后,对信息物理系统安全体系中的关键技术--访问控制策略和隐私数据保护进行了深入的研究。%Cyber physical system is facing enormous security challenges because of open and interconnected network and the interaction between cyber components and physical components. There is a description of layered cyber physical system security hierarchy by studying the security objectives and attack model of cyber physical system. Cyber physical system security is mainly to solve the encryption technology, access control strategy and resilience schema, etc. After the introduction of the related research of cyber physical system, gives a depth research about the key technologies of cyber physical system which including access control strategy and privacy data protection.

  12. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  13. Indices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garavito, Aaron; Lopez, David; Montes, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Los indices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el analisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un pais y su repercusion sobre...

  14. Fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fire Protection Research Foundation has funded a research project on “fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible composites”. This paper presents preliminary findings from the project. In particular, statistics relating to exterior wall fires have been reviewed. Exterior wall fires appear to account for somewhere between 1.3% and 3% of structure fires in the selected property types investigated. Fires involving combustible exterior wall assemblies are low frequency events however the resulting consequences in terms of extent of fire spread and injuries and fatalities can be large as demonstrated by selected fire incident case studies. An overview of this project and it's further work is provided.

  15. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  16. Physical Layer Security: Survey and Future%物理层安全技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙航; 袁广翔; 王静; 刘元安

    2011-01-01

    Physical layer security is becoming an emerging research area of information security and wireless communications. In this paper, the background and state-of-the-art of physical layer security are reviewed and the future of research is pointed out. The variance and exclusion of wireless resource, as well as the development of physical layer transmission techniques, bring up plenty of opportunities for physical layer security. Based on the secrecy capacity research of the wire-tap channel, physical layer authentication/key generation/identification methods are the current popular research topics.%物理层安全技术的研究正逐渐成为信息安全和无线通信两个领域的交叉热点.回顾了物理层安全技术的背景和研究现状,并对其未来的发展进行了展望.物理层资源的多样性和惟一性等特征以及十几年来物理层传输技术的涌现和发展,为物理层安全技术的研究开展提供了广阔的空间.目前物理层安全技术的研究以引入各种新技术之后的窃听信道容量分析为基础,并且已经出现了物理层鉴权技术、物理层密钥产生技术和物理层加密技术等新兴的研究方向.

  17. Salazarismo y política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  18. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  19. 电力系统中信息物理安全风险传播机制%Propagation Mechanism of Cyber Physical Security Risks in Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶夏明; 福拴; 尚金成; 何洋

    2015-01-01

    In a cyber-physical power system, cyber space risks can result in the failure of a power system. Thus, it is necessary to study the propagation mechanism of cyber physical security risks. In this paper, the basic propagation path of cyber physical security risks in a cyber-physical power system is first analyzed. Then, a risk propagation model of the cyber physical security is proposed based on the cellular automata and the characteristics of a cyber-physical power system. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out based on a 9-bus system in MATPOWER. Through these simulations, some important impact factors on the propagation of cyber physical security risks are discussed, such as the transfer probability and recovery rate. The impacts of the simulation time interval on simulation results are discussed as well.%在电力信息物理融合系统(cyber physical system,CPS)中,信息空间中的风险有可能传递到电力空间中并导致电力设备故障。为此,有必要研究信息安全风险在电力 CPS 中的传播机制。首先,阐述了电力 CPS 中信息安全风险跨空间传播的基本形式,指出智能终端设备是安全风险跨空间传播的必经之路;之后,根据电力 CPS 的特点和细胞自动机理论的特征,建立了电力 CPS 中信息物理安全风险的传播模型。最后,以 MATPOWER 中自带的三机九节点系统为例,通过仿真计算分析了风险跨空间传递概率、故障细胞治愈概率等因素对风险传播的影响,也讨论了仿真时间间隔对仿真结果的影响。

  20. Multilayered security and privacy protection in Car-to-X networks solutions from application down to physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Stübing, Hagen

    2013-01-01

    Car-to-X (C2X) communication in terms of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication aims at increasing road safety and traffic efficiency by exchanging foresighted traffic information. Thereby, security and privacy are regarded as an absolute prerequisite for successfully establishing the C2X technology on the market. Towards the paramount objective of covering the entire ITS reference model with security and privacy measures, Hagen Stübing develops dedicated solutions for each layer, respectively. On application layer a security architecture in terms of a Public Key Infras

  1. The Radially Symmetric Euler Equations as an Exterior Differential System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roy; Ramsey, Scott; Schmidt, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    This work develops the Euler equations as an exterior differential system in radially symmetric coordinates. The Euler equations are studied for unsteady, compressible, inviscid fluids in one-dimensional, converging flow fields with a general equation of state. The basic geometrical constructions (for example, the differential forms, tangent planes, jet space, and differential ideal) used to define and analyze differential equations as systems of exterior forms are reviewed and discussed for converging flows. Application of the Frobenius theorem to the question of the existence of solutions to radially symmetric converging flows is also reviewed and discussed. The exterior differential system is further applied to derive and analyze the general family of characteristic vector fields associated with the one-dimensional inviscid flow equations.

  2. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  3. 信息物理系统安全威胁与措施%Security threats and measures for the cyber-physical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钊; 彭勇; 谢丰; 高洋; 陈冬青; 徐国爱

    2012-01-01

    Governments,companies and research institutes are pushing the research and development of cyber-physical systems(CPS).However,the development of cyber-physical systems is constrained by security and privacy threats.This paper summarizes security threats to cyber-physical systems as a theoretical reference for the study of cyber-physical systems and to provide useful security measures.The architecture of the cyber-physical systems is used to classify threats for the perception-execution layer,transport layer and application-control layer.The perception-execution layer threats include security threats for nodes such as sensors and actuators.Transport layer threats include data leakage or damage and security issues during massive data integration.Application-control layer threats include the loss of user privacy,incorrect access control policies and inadequate security standards.Finally,this paper gives security measures and recommendations for all types of security threats.%随着信息物理系统(cyber-physical systems,CPS)理念的提出,各国政府、企业和科研机构纷纷加入信息物理系统的研究和建设工作。信息物理系统的建设与发展必然受到信息物理系统安全和隐私问题的制约,为理清信息物理系统目前存在的安全威胁、为信息物理系统安全与隐私保护提供理论参考,本文总结了信息物理系统面临的安全威胁,提出了相应的安全措施。根据信息物理系统目前主流体系架构,分别从感知执行层、数据传输层和应用控制层对安全威胁进行研究。感知执行层安全威胁研究主要针对传感器、执行器等节点的安全问题。数据传输层安全威胁研究主要针对数据泄露或破坏以及海量数据融合等安全问题。应用控制层安全威胁研究主要针对用户隐私泄露、访问控制措施设置不当与安全标准不完善等问题。最后,针对各类安全威胁给出了相应的安全措施及建议。

  4. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  5. Deformed exterior algebra, quons and their coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    El-Baz, M

    2002-01-01

    We review the notion of the deformation of the exterior wedge product. This allows us to construct the deformation of the algebra of exterior forms over a vector space and also over an arbitrary manifold. We relate this approach to the generalized statistics and we study quons, as a particular case of these generalized statistics. We also give their statistical properties. A large part of the work is devoted to the problem of constructing coherent states for the deformed oscillators. We give a review of all the approaches existing in the literature concerning this point and enforce it with many examples.

  6. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  7. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  8. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T. N.

    2004-09-01

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a 'reduction to computation' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wavefunction can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  10. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  11. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5...

  12. On sets without tangents and exterior sets of a conic

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Geertrui

    2012-01-01

    A set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$ is a set of points S such that no line meets S in exactly one point. An exterior set of a conic $\\mathcal{C}$ is a set of points $\\E$ such that all secant lines of $\\E$ are external lines of $\\mathcal{C}$. In this paper, we first recall some known examples of sets without tangents and describe them in terms of determined directions of an affine pointset. We show that the smallest sets without tangents in $\\PG(2,5)$ are (up to projective equivalence) of two different types. We generalise the non-trivial type by giving an explicit construction of a set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$, $q=p^h$, $p>2$ prime, of size $q(q-1)/2-r(q+1)/2$, for all $0\\leq r\\leq (q-5)/2$. After that, a different description of the same set in $\\PG(2,5)$, using exterior sets of a conic, is given and we investigate in which ways a set of exterior points on an external line $L$ of a conic in $\\PG(2,q)$ can be extended with an extra point $Q$ to a larger exterior set of $\\mathcal{C}$. It turns out that ...

  13. 36 CFR 910.38 - Building exterior illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building exterior illumination. 910.38 Section 910.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... specified in the Pennsylvania Avenue Lighting Plan of the Corporation. ...

  14. Spinoza y el naturalismo: el problema del mundo exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    El conocimiento del mundo exterior se presenta como un problema difícil para el racionalismo clásico, encarnado en Descartes. En este ensayo, se examinará el argumento que permite a Spinoza solucionar esta dificultad mediante un naturalismo muy singular que determina un profundo sesgo anticartesiano en su obra.

  15. Modeling of Exterior Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines with Concentrated Windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Xuan, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis modeling, analysis, design and measurement of exterior rotor permanent magnet (PM) machines with concentrated windings are dealt with. Special attention is paid to slotting effect. The PM machine is integrated in flywheel and used for small-scale ship application. Analytical model and

  16. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs.

  17. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  18. Second order perturbations of rotating bodies in equilibrium; the exterior vacuum problem

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A. H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Raul

    2005-01-01

    We study the exterior vacuum problem for first and second order stationary and axially symmetric perturbations of static bodies. The boundary conditions and their compatibility for the existence of an asymptotically flat exterior solution are discussed.

  19. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  20. The Spanish system of Physical Security of the facilities, activities and radioactive nuclear fuels; El sistema Espanol de Seguridad Fisica de las instalaciones, actividades y materiales nucleares radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E.; Gutierrez, M.

    2008-07-01

    The use of nuclear and radioactive materials has, from the very beginning, been characterized by the implementation of significant safety measures that are developed in parallel to the technology itself. The two facets of nuclear safety technological and physical have evolved at the same time as the technological advances, and also in terms of the social environment and awareness. Thus, the TMI and Chernobyl accidents were an important incentive for the evolution of technological safety, and the new context of the need for overall safety is providing the impetus for the evolution of physical security around the world. In Spain this impetus has materialized in the design and implementation of a physical security system for nuclear and radioactive installations, activities and materials, and putting it into practice has required the joint efforts of the public authorities and the private sector. The system is developed on the basis of three main components: installation protection, crime prevention, and preparation of the response to emergency situations caused by criminals acts. It is complemented by a series of horizontal actions aimed at improving institutional coordination, international collaboration, training of the agents involved in its implementation, and updating of the applicable regulatory framework. (Author)

  1. Security method of wireless physical layer security based on multipath channel random delay%基于多径信道随机延时的物理层全算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞宏伟; 王雪明; 吉江; 李翔宇; 金梁

    2012-01-01

    For the wire-tapping in wireless communication system, this paper presented an encrypting method based on channel multipath delay-time information to ensure the security of physical layer in wireless communication system. In this method, the transmitter made the time to transmit symbol random with channel multipath delay-time information that estimated, and made the received signal of legitimate receiver stronger at the synchronization location. So the legitimate could receive the information normally. While the received signal of eavesdropper turned random for different channel information, such as phase and range. Then the eavesdropper couldn' t recover the information with the random received signal, and the error probability was high,which increased the security of legitimate receiver. The simulations show that the method can keep the eavesdropper' s error probability at a high level, so as to increase the system security. Finally, it comes to the conclusion that this method can ensure the security of physical layer in wireless communication system with channel multipath.%针对无线通信遇到的第三方窃听问题,利用无线通信系统信道多径延时丰富的特征,提出了一种保证物理层安全传输的加密算法.该算法中,数据发送用户根据估计的多径延时信息随机提前符号发送时间,使授权用户的同步位置有较强的多径信号到达,授权接收用户在保持同步状态不变的情况下可以正常接收信息.而窃听用户具有不同的信道多径延时特征,接收到的信号幅度和相位会随机变化,难以进行同步跟踪,因此接收到的符号会产生大量的误码,从而提高授权用户之间的安全传输性能.仿真结果表明,该算法能有效提高窃听方的误码率,提高授权用户通信的安全性,从而可在多径环境中有效保证物理层通信安全.

  2. An Integrated Approach for Physical and Cyber Security Risk Assessment: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Common Risk Model for Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Headquarters, Office of Homeland Security, Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Program. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our... benefits of implementing a particular risk-mitigation strategy and, consequently, enable return-on- investment analyses for multiple physical and...known as the vulnerability or P(S|A)), can be determined using the following expression :6 P(S|A) = P(S|A)L1 x P(S|A)L2 x P(S|A)L3 (4) A team

  3. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  4. PyDEC: Software and Algorithms for Discretization of Exterior Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms, features and implementation of PyDEC, a Python library for computations related to the Discretization of Exterior Calculus (DEC). PyDEC facilitates inquiry into both physical problems on manifolds as well as purely topological problems on abstract complexes. We describe efficient algorithms for constructing the operators and objects that arise in DEC and related topological problems. Our algorithms are formulated in terms of high-level matrix operations which extend to arbitrary dimension. As a result, our implementations map well to the facilities of numerical libraries such as NumPy and SciPy. The availability of such libraries makes Python suitable for prototyping numerical methods. We demonstrate how PyDEC is used to solve physical and topological problems through several concise examples.

  5. Infrasound Observations from the Source Physics Experiment (Tests 1 and 2) at the Nevada National Security Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Mendenhal, T. (2004). Recent studies using infrasound sensors to remotely monitor avalanche activity, in Proceedings of the 2004 International Snow Science...acoustic observations from both of these tests as well as describe future work, including detailed modeling of infrasound generation at the surface in...describe future work, including detailed modeling of infrasound generation at the surface in the area above the explosion. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY

  6. Canine Supply for Physical Security: An Analysis of the Royal Australian Air Force Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    characteristics, it is equally , if not more important , to decide which dependent variables to use as measures of performance. I use the binary...a means to provide effective security for RAAF assets. This thesis conducts two areas of research. First, an econometric analysis of MWD gender ...for RAAF assets. This thesis conducts two areas of research. First, an econometric analysis of MWD gender , breed, and source against select dependent

  7. 信息物理融合系统安全问题研究综述%Research Survey on Security Issues in Cyber-Physical Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昆仑; 彭伟; 王东霞; 邢倩倩

    2016-01-01

    A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a complex system which integrates information systems with physical systems. It realizes the function of real-time sensing and dynamical control of the physical world by environment perception and the integration of computing, communication and control process. CPS is viewed as the next information revolution after the Internet and security problem is one of the key issues affecting the wide application of CPS. This paper introduces the requirements and goals of CPS security, as well as security challenges that a CPS faces. Attacks on a CPS from physical layer, transport layer and application layer are also discussed in detail. By analyzing current research on techniques of anti-attack, identity authentication, privacy preservation and risk assessment in CPS, the paper discusses the future research trends in this area.%信息物理融合系统(Cyber-PhysicalSystem,CPS)是信息系统与物理系统紧密融合一体化的复杂系统,通过环境检测并将计算、通信、控制过程高效结合,实现对物理世界实时感知和动态控制的功能。CPS是继互联网之后的又一场信息革命,而安全问题是决定CPS能否被广泛使用的关键因素之一。文章首先阐述了CPS的安全要求、安全目标和面临的安全挑战,接着具体讨论了在物理层、传输层、应用层这三个层次所面临的攻击方式,然后重点分析了CPS在抗攻击技术、身份认证技术、隐私保护技术和风险评估技术等方面的研究现状,最后对CPS的安全研究进行了展望。

  8. Combined peak-to-average power ratio reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2016-07-01

    A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.

  9. THE MODERN STYLE IN INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska Sandeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The style is a way of expression, which is characterized by all the features that distinguish it from the rest. In the art indicates overall characteristics of an artist or art school, direction or time. Modern design is difficult to define. The term "modern" refers to the impact of modern art to the design of interiors and exteriors. Modern design is defined more by its own trends, which is largely unchanged for several decades. One of the most important elements in modern design of interiors and exteriors is the form. Modern design uses geometric forms including rigid squares and rectangles, with a smooth, even and curved ends. Perfect circles and oval shapes are also common in modern design. Modern design is also plain and simple.

  10. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  11. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  12. Advanced exterior sensor project : final report, September 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. Rodema

    2004-12-01

    This report (1) summarizes the overall design of the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) system to include detailed descriptions of system components, (2) describes the work accomplished throughout FY04 to evaluate the current health of the original prototype and to return it to operation, (3) describes the status of the AES and the AES project as of September 2004, and (4) details activities planned to complete modernization of the system to include development and testing of the second-generation AES prototype.

  13. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, WIlliam E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  14. Overview on Physical Layer Security Issues in Multiple Antennas System%多天线系统中物理层安全问题研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘樵; 李晖

    2016-01-01

    Physical layer security lies in the benefit of key sharing needlessness. The premise of physical layer security is based on the wiretap channel to prevent the transmitted signals cannot be recovered by the undesired eavesdroppers with signal processing or coding methods. Meantime, multiple antennas technique has been proved a efficient to improve channel capacity, besides that the redundancy brought by the multiple antennas technique can provide more possibilities to reduce the wiretapping level of the eavesdroppers. Thus, it is desired to overview the existing physical layer schemes. The existing researches on physical layer security issues in multiple antennas system can be classiifed as four categories: ifrstly MIMO wiretap channel has been investigated as the basic model;secondly, multiple users with multiple antennas is another important model including broadcast channel, multiple access channel, and interface channel; thirdly, focusing on MIMO cooperation communication, the existing researchers consider trusted relay and untrusted relay scenarios; lastly, cross layer security framework including physical layer is also desired to be considered with two key problems, physical layer key sharing and physical layer authentication. By summarizing the existing scheme design principle, the future research direction is demonstrated.%物理层安全是一种密钥缺省的安全方案,其研究模型基于窃听信道,并利用物理层传输资源通过信号处理或编码等技术保证合法接收者正常通信,同时抑制非认证的窃听者通信,使其不能恢复发送消息。与此同时,多天线技术除在提高信道容量上的优势外,还为无线通信系统提供了更多冗余来进行物理层安全方案设计,因此多天线系统中的物理层安全问题有着广阔的研究前景。文章对多天线系统中物理层安全问题的四个主要研究方向进行综述,首先是多天线窃听信道问题,该模型是经

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  16. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  17. Limit and end functors of dynamical systems via exterior spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Calcines, J M Garcia; Rodriguez, M Teresa Rivas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze some applications of the category of exterior spaces to the study of dynamical systems (flows). We study the notion of an absorbing open subset of a dynamical system; i.e., an open subset that contains the "future part" of all the trajectories. The family of all absorbing open subsets is a quasi-filter which gives the structure of an exterior space to the flow. The limit space and end space of an exterior space is used to construct the limit spaces and end spaces of a dynamical system. On the one hand, for a dynamical system two limits spaces $L^{\\r}(X)$ and $\\bar L^{\\r}(X)$ are constructed and their relations with the subflows of periodic, Poisson stable points and $\\Omega^{\\r}$-limits of $X$ are analyzed. On the other hand, different end spaces are also associated to a dynamical system having the property that any positive semi-trajectory has an end point in these end spaces. This type of construction permits us to consider the subflow containing all trajectories finishing at an end...

  18. On Bounded Rationality in Cyber-Physical Systems Security: Game-Theoretic Analysis with Application to Smart Grid Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a general model for cyber-physical systems (CPSs), that captures the diffusion of attacks from the cyber layer to the physical system, is studied. In particular, a game-theoretic approach is proposed to analyze the interactions between one defender and one attacker over a CPS. In this game, the attacker launches cyber attacks on a number of cyber components of the CPS to maximize the potential harm to the physical system while the system operator chooses to defend a number of c...

  19. Vilnius Gediminas Technical Universty and Mykolas Riomeris University Faculty of Public Security Female Student Physical Activity Evaluation 2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of scientific researches show that female student physical and functional condition getting worst, which optimal function have big influence for human psychological and social health. Female student physical maturity makes up significant psychophysical foundation for the future professional activities. It is extremely important to pay more attention for women physical activity solution. 186 VGTU and 131 MRU FPS female students were analyzed during our research in 2010–2012. Evaluation of physical development (height, weight, vital lung capacity, body composition (body mass index, thickness of fat skinfold, waist and hip volume ration, percentage of fat mass indicators and other important components of fitness (balance, static stamina of arms and shoulders, core flexibility, and knee tendon stiffness, static power of palm, speed of arm movement, agility, power and stamina of core muscles supplementing up to date information about Lithuanian female student physical capacity. Analytical research results shows that 89% of researched female students had normal weight, 8% indicated as overweight, 3% were underweight. Collected data revealed that researched same age peers of higher education schools waist and hip volume ratio and body mass index were normal.

  20. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  1. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  2. Transmit Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security in Cooperative Multi-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Sohn, Illsoo; Kim, Yong-Hwa

    2016-10-17

    In this paper, we consider a transmit power allocation problem for secure transmission in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF) full-duplex relay (FDR) networks, where multiple FDRs are located at each hop and perform cooperative beamforming to null out the signal at multiple eavesdroppers. For a perfect self-interference cancellation (PSIC) case, where the self-interference signal at each FDR is completely canceled, we derive an optimal power allocation (OPA) strategy using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to maximize the achievable secrecy rate under an overall transmit power constraint. In the case where residual self-interferences exist owing to imperfect self-interference cancellation (ISIC), we also propose a transmit power allocation scheme using the geometric programming (GP) method. Numerical results are presented to verify the secrecy rate performance of the proposed power allocation schemes.

  3. Transmit Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security in Cooperative Multi-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a transmit power allocation problem for secure transmission in multi-hop decode-and-forward (DF full-duplex relay (FDR networks, where multiple FDRs are located at each hop and perform cooperative beamforming to null out the signal at multiple eavesdroppers. For a perfect self-interference cancellation (PSIC case, where the self-interference signal at each FDR is completely canceled, we derive an optimal power allocation (OPA strategy using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT conditions to maximize the achievable secrecy rate under an overall transmit power constraint. In the case where residual self-interferences exist owing to imperfect self-interference cancellation (ISIC, we also propose a transmit power allocation scheme using the geometric programming (GP method. Numerical results are presented to verify the secrecy rate performance of the proposed power allocation schemes.

  4. The exterior field of slowly and rapidly rotating neutron stars: Rehabilitating spacetime metrics involving hyperextreme objects

    CERN Document Server

    Manko, V S

    2016-01-01

    The 4-parameter exact solution presumably describing the exterior gravitational field of a generic neutron star is presented in a concise explicit form defined by only three potentials. In the equatorial plane, the metric functions of the solution are found to be given by particularly simple expressions that make them very suitable for the use in concrete applications. Following Pappas and Apostolatos, we perform a comparison of the multipole structure of the solution with the multipole moments of the known physically realistic Berti-Stergioulas numerical models of neutron stars to argue that the hyperextreme sectors of the solution are not less (but possibly even more) important for the correct description of rapidly rotating neutron stars than the subextreme sector involving exclusively the black-hole constituents. We have also worked out in explicit form an exact analog of the well-known Hartle-Thorne approximate metric.

  5. A scattering theory for the wave equation on Kerr black hole exteriors

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Mihalis; Shlapentokh-Rothman, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    We develop a definitive physical-space scattering theory for the scalar wave equation on Kerr exterior backgrounds in the general subextremal case |a|

  6. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  8. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  9. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  10. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  11. Implantación de ascensores exteriores en edificios existentes

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Herrero, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    En la ciudad de Barcelona desde 2001 se han construido ascensores por el exterior de edificios ya existentes, edificios los cuales no disponían. El objetivo es estudiar cómo se inicia el fenómeno, las problemáticas surgidas y soluciones adoptadas y enmarcar a nivel socio-cultural y urbanístico el origen de los barrios donde se ubican los edificios de viviendas afectados. El método empleado, limites de estudio (ciudad de Barcelona), la organización de la investigación (almacenamien...

  12. Regression on manifolds: Estimation of the exterior derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Tomlin, Claire; 10.1214/10-AOS823

    2011-01-01

    Collinearity and near-collinearity of predictors cause difficulties when doing regression. In these cases, variable selection becomes untenable because of mathematical issues concerning the existence and numerical stability of the regression coefficients, and interpretation of the coefficients is ambiguous because gradients are not defined. Using a differential geometric interpretation, in which the regression coefficients are interpreted as estimates of the exterior derivative of a function, we develop a new method to do regression in the presence of collinearities. Our regularization scheme can improve estimation error, and it can be easily modified to include lasso-type regularization. These estimators also have simple extensions to the "large $p$, small $n$" context.

  13. Perturbation of essential spectra of exterior elliptic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    For a second-order symmetric strongly elliptic differential operator on an exterior domain in ℝ n , it is known from the works of Birman and Solomiak that a change in the boundary condition from the Dirichlet condition to an elliptic Neumann or Robin condition leaves the essential spectrum...... an extension of the spectral asymptotics formula for the difference between inverses of elliptic problems. The proofs rely on Kreĭn-type formulae for differences between inverses, and cutoff techniques, combined with results on singular Green operators and their spectral asymptotics....

  14. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Obi, Curtis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  15. Securing a cyber physical system in nuclear power plants using least square approximation and computational geometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawand, Hemangi Laxman [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Computer Section, BARC, Mumbai (India); Bhattacharjee, A. K. [Reactor Control Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Roy, Kallol [BHAVINI, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-04-15

    In industrial plants such as nuclear power plants, system operations are performed by embedded controllers orchestrated by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software. A targeted attack (also termed a control aware attack) on the controller/SCADA software can lead a control system to operate in an unsafe mode or sometimes to complete shutdown of the plant. Such malware attacks can result in tremendous cost to the organization for recovery, cleanup, and maintenance activity. SCADA systems in operational mode generate huge log files. These files are useful in analysis of the plant behavior and diagnostics during an ongoing attack. However, they are bulky and difficult for manual inspection. Data mining techniques such as least squares approximation and computational methods can be used in the analysis of logs and to take proactive actions when required. This paper explores methodologies and algorithms so as to develop an effective monitoring scheme against control aware cyber attacks. It also explains soft computation techniques such as the computational geometric method and least squares approximation that can be effective in monitor design. This paper provides insights into diagnostic monitoring of its effectiveness by attack simulations on a four-tank model and using computation techniques to diagnose it. Cyber security of instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear power plants is of paramount importance and hence could be a possible target of such applications.

  16. Seismic Experimental Study on New-Type Composite Exterior Wallboard with Integrated Structural Function and Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and ductility coefficient, damping and energy dissipation, stiffness degradation as well as material strain of the exterior wallboards were analyzed with emphasis and compared with interior wallboards. Results of the experiment and analysis showed that both interior and exterior wallboards exhibited outstanding seismic performance. Due to the existence of insulation layer and externally bonded single gypsum board, the capacity of elastoplastic deformation and seismic energy dissipation of the exterior wallboards was improved and each seismic performance indicator of the exterior wallboards outperformed the interior wallboards.

  17. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...... will be of particular interest to students of critical security studies, sociology, science and technology studies, and IR/security studies in general....

  18. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  19. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  1. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Obi, Curtis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  4. Measurement of spatial object's exterior attitude based on linear CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to realize real-time measurement of exterior attitude by the traditional systems based on the area image sensor which have conflict between speed and accuracy.The subsystem for three-dimensional (3D) coordinate rcconstruction of point target (S3DCRPT) which is composed of three one-dimensional (1D) cameras based on linear charge-coupled device (CCD) can determine the distant light spots' spatial position. The attitude angle of the measured object is determined by the spatial solution while the coordinate reconstruction is separately carried on by the S3DCRPT with some point cooperation targets (PCTs) on the measured object. A new optical system is designed to solve the interference problem with one-to-one relationship between the PCTs and the S3DCRPT optical subsystems,which improves the measurement accuracy and saves space. The mathematical model of the attitude measurement is established,and partial and global calibrations are realized for the multi-camera attitude measurement system.The test results show the feasibility of the exterior attitude measurement based on linear CCD.

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO JOVEM BRASILEIRO QUE VIAJA AO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nascimento Moraes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O Estudo para compreender as características dos jovens que viaja ao exterior, foi realizada por meio de um questionário ao qual a amostra de jovens pode responder. O questionário sintético buscou entender quem era nossa amostra, como faixa etária, renda familiar e avaliar alguns dados como o envolvimento do mesmo com projetos sociais e visão de mundo, os questionamentos abrangentes e específicos nos possibilitou atingir nossa finalidade que é assimilar diversos aspectos que possam ter motivado o jovem brasileiro a viajar para o exterior. O enfoque do proposto estudo é captar e interpretar as mudanças que este jovem pós-viagem, possa ter passado após o contato com outra (s cultura, costumes e experiências que podem ter e reflexos e influenciar de maneira significante, por esse novo ambiente de contato. O trabalho busca também compreender o como a crise econômica brasileira (e mundial tem na decisão de viajar, possibilitando um novo rumo longe de famílias e amigos, em busca de novas experiências.

  6. The Search for Durable Exterior Clear Coatings for Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Evans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a durable exterior clear coating has eluded generations of coatings technologists, despite long-standing desire amongst the public for such a coating. The journey towards this goal initially focused on modifications to coating formulation, but took a completely different direction when it was found that a UV-transparent silicone clear coating on wood modified with chromic acid met consumer expectations of coating durability. This finding sparked world-wide interest in wood pre-treatments as a way of enhancing the durability of clear coatings. This interest initially focused on transition metal compounds, but has now shifted in the direction of organic and inorganic photostabilizers or even more drastic pre-treatments. Pre-treatments that dimensionally stabilize wood, protect it from microbial degradation and photostabilize lignin, when combined with flexible, photostable, coatings provide the next way-stop on the journey towards achieving the goal of durable exterior clear coatings for wood. This paper reviews this journey, drawing upon our research and that of other groups who have focused on this elusive goal.

  7. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  8. 保障无线物理层安全的不适定理论与应用%(Ⅲ)-Posed Theory and Applications for Guaranteeing the Security of Wireless Physical Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文宇; 金梁; 黄开枝

    2011-01-01

    The Ill-posed security theoretical framework for guaranteeing wireless physical-layer security is proposed in the paper, by introducing the concept of ill-posed. Firstly, the ill-posed security transforms non-unique and instability of solutions into information redundancy, which transforms the original problem into two randomized problems with redundancy combining the theory of perturbation. The framework includes the first kind ill-posed secure theory based on non-unique solutions and the second kind ill-posed secure theory based on instable solutions of an ill-posed problem. The first one utilizes the non-uniqueness of ill-posed problem to introduce redundancy for the transmitted preceding parameters, which is used to randomize transmitted signals for guaranteeing physical-layer security. The second one utilizes the instability of ill-posed problem to introduce redundancy for the transmitted precoding parameters, which can be used to guarantee physical-layer security at a little cost of legitimate users' performance. Secondly, the security of the proposed framework is measured by using secrecy capacity with imperfect channel statement information. At last, some typical examples are researched under the theoretical framework of ill-posed security. The results reveal that the existing signal processing based physical-layer security methods are all the special cases of the framework.%本文将不适定的思想引入无线物理层安全领域,提出不适定安全理论框架.首先,把不适定问题解的不唯一性或者不稳定性转化为信息冗余,然后结合扰动理论,使原问题转化为两类冗余信息随机化问题,形成了保障无线物理层安全的第一、二类不适定理论框架;然后,在存在信道估计误差的情况下,利用安全容量概念对理论框架的安全性能进行度量;最后,应用不适定安全理论框架研究了几个典型实例,结果表明:现有基于信号处理的物理层安全传输方法均为该理论框架的特例.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF PROCEDURES FOR CARRYING OUT EMERGENCY PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING AFTER DETECTING ANOMALY EVENTS CONCERNING NM SECURITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALENTE,J.FISHBONE,L.ET AL.

    2003-07-13

    In the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE, Obninsk), which is under Minatom jurisdiction, the procedures for carrying out emergency physical inventory taking (EPIT) were developed and tested in cooperation with the Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). Here the emergency physical inventory taking means the PIT, which is carried out in case of symptoms indicating a possibility of NM loss (theft). Such PIT often requires a verification of attributes and quantitative characteristics for all the NM items located in a specific Material Balance Area (MBA). In order to carry out the exercise, an MBA was selected where many thousands of NM items containing highly enriched uranium are used. Three clients of the computerized material accounting system (CMAS) are installed in this MBA. Labels with unique (within IPPE site) identification numbers in the form of digit combinations and an appropriate bar code have been applied on the NM items, containers and authorized locations. All the data to be checked during the EPIT are stored in the CMAS database. Five variants of anomalies initiating EPIT and requiring different types of activities on EPIT organization are considered. Automatic working places (AWP) were created on the basis of the client computers in order to carry out a large number of measurements within a reasonable time. In addition to a CMAS client computer, the main components of an AWP include a bar-code reader, an electronic scale and an enrichment meter with NaI--detector--the lMCA Inspector (manufactured by the Canberra Company). All these devices work together with a client computer in the on-line mode. Special computer code (Emergency Inventory Software-EIS) was developed. All the algorithms of interaction between the operator and the system, as well as algorithms of data exchange during the measurements and data comparison, are implemented in this software. Registration of detected

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  11. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  12. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  13. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  14. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  15. Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    module interfaces; roles, services, and authentication; finite state machine model ; physical security; operating system security; cryptographic key...15 4.4 Finite State Machine Model .......................................................................................................... 17...These areas include cryptographic module specification; module interfaces; roles, services, and authentication; finite state machine model ; physical

  16. LTE security

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, Dan; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the security solutions for LTE, a cellular technology from Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), this book shows how LTE security substantially extends GSM and 3G security. It also encompasses the architectural aspects, known as SAE, to give a comprehensive resource on the topic. Although the security for SAE/LTE evolved from the security for GSM and 3G, due to different architectural and business requirements of fourth generation systems the SAE/LTE security architecture is substantially different from its predecessors. This book presents in detail the security mechanisms em

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  19. Making Our Buildings Safer: Security Management and Equipment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses three major components of library security: physical security of the environment; operating procedures for library staff, the public, and security personnel; and a contract security force (or campus security in academic institutions.) Topics include risk management; maintenance; appropriate technology, including security systems and…

  20. INFINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE EXTERIOR PROBLEMS OF THE HELMHOLTZ EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-an Ying

    2000-01-01

    There are two cases of the exterior problems of the Helmholtz equation. If λ > 0 the bilinear form is coercive, and if λ < 0 it is the scattering problem.We give a new approach of the infinite element method, which enables us to solve these exterior problems as well as corner problems. A numerical example of the scattering problem is given.

  1. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  2. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  3. Relaciones exteriores de la Unión Europea

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Sara; Ruiz, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Distintos estudios sobre las relaciones económicas externas de la Unión Europea a través de tres apartados: una Introducción sobre el propio proceso de integración; Análisis sectorial de las políticas coumunes de agricultura, medio ambiente, cooperación para el desarrollo, política exterior y seguridad común y un tercer bloque sobre el Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales con América Latina, Europa Central y Oriental, la política mediterránea y asiática y las relaciones con los p...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  6. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  7. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  8. 公安院校警察体育课程教学中存在的问题与对策%The Teaching Problems and Countermeasures of Police Physical Education Curriculum for Public Security Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷红; 罗凯平

    2011-01-01

    By taking henan province as an example,it investigates the current situation of police physical education curriculum for public security colleges,analyzes teaching problems and discusses the development countermeasures of the police physical education.It aims to explore the teaching reform for the police physical education curriculum,promotes further development for police physical education of public security colleges,and offers advice to police physical education curriculum of public security colleges.%以河南省为例,调查公安院校警察体育的现状,分析警察体育课程教学中的问题,深入探讨警察体育发展的对策,旨在探讨公安院校警察体育课程教学的改革途径,促进公安院校警察体育的进一步发展,为公安院校警体课程改革提供一定的参考。

  9. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  10. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR... INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must be... information. The facility may obtain defensive security, threat awareness, and other education and training...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  14. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  15. The Cloud's Core Virtual Infrastructure Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Annette; von Solms, Sebastiaan

    Cloud service providers (CSPs) should institute the necessary security controls, including restricting physical and logical access to hypervisor and other forms of employed virtualization layers. To enact relevant security measures, the core elements communicating with the hypervisor need to be secured. A proposed security model will introduce some of the aspects that need to be secured in the virtual environment to ensure a secure and sound cloud computing environment. This paper will discuss the core aspects of the virtualized architecture explaining the security risks, including a discussion pertaining to the relevant security core concepts to mitigate the risks.

  16. Node security

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that will give you all the information you need to secure your Node applications.If you are a developer who wishes to secure your Node applications, whether you are already using Node Security in production, or are considering using it for your next project, then this book will enable you to ensure security of your applications. An understanding of JavaScript is a prerequisite, and some experience with Node is recommended, though not required.

  17. Being Secure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As the world wrestles with challenges from nontraditional security threats, a new concept of security management is emerging Security has traditionally been seen as the means of defending a territory, primarily through the use of military power. However, as the world evolves through the process of globalization, so too does the concept of security. It now incorporates military, political, economic, societal and environmental issues, as well as the many links that bind them. Yet for most people in the wor...

  18. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  5. 多天线多载波系统物理层安全研究进展%Research Progress of Physical-layer Security in Multiple Antenna/Multi-carrier Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翔; 秦浩浩

    2014-01-01

    无线通信传播媒介的开放性,使得无线通信的安全问题无处不在,并且成为了无线通信网络的重要研究课题。而物理层安全技术是指在物理层利用无线信道的随机特性,通过调制编码等技术实现信息的保密传输目标,是未来实现无线网络安全的重要技术分支。随着物理层先进传输技术---多天线、多载波技术的广泛采用,为物理层安全技术提供了更多的可行方案。针对多天线多载波技术推动的无线物理层安全研究最新进展,重点介绍了正交频分复用系统采用时域人造噪声提高安全速率的新方法,最后对未来无线物理层安全的若干潜在研究方向进行了展望。%Due to open propagation environments,security issues are everywhere for wireless communications,and have been important research topics in wireless networks.Physical-layer security,which explores the random characteristics of wireless medium to implement the confidential transmission at the physical-layer through technologies such as coding and modulation,is one of important branches for future wireless network security.With wide adoption of advanced physical-layer techniques,such as multiple antenna and multi-carrier,more feasible schemes are available for physical-layer security. Recent research progresses in multiple antenna/multi-carrier based wireless physical-layer security are reviewed,in which a time-domain artificial noise design scheme for orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing(OFDM)systems is introduced emphatically.Finally,some potential research directions in future wireless physical-layer security are presented.

  6. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  7. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  8. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  9. Experimental study on fire propagation over combustible exterior facades in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fire protection for exterior walls of building, only the fire resistance has been considered, according to the current building law of Japan. In the previous studies of the authors, a new test method for evaluation of fire propagation along combustible cladding was proposed using primarily test specimens of façade walls with exterior thermal insulation without vent layers. In this paper, newly obtained test results are discussed on other specimens of combustible façades such as wood, sandwich panel, photovoltaic sheet mounted on composite panel, combustible coating material, and exterior thermal insulation with vent layer.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  14. Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2010-11-07

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

  15. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  16. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  17. Data Security : An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.B.Thorat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is intense of cyber attach through electronic media, so it calls for data security practice. Internet technology becomes very pervasive to exchange data through online. Various Government and private sectors mostly depends on Information Technology and facing problem of security breach. The precious thing on internet is the data. This data need to be protected from any damage and errors. The first step in protecting yourself is to recognize the risks and become familiar with some of the terminology associated with them. There are many way to protect from the cyber space. The data can be protected using various techniques such as Anti-viruses, antimalware,spyware, encryption, access control, physical security, keep backup of data regularly, and good security habit.

  18. La política exterior de Sudáfrica post Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El embajador de Sudáfrica en Argentina realiza aquí un seguimiento de cuestiones centrales en el diseño de la política exterior de su país en los últimos 10 años. Para ello aborda 4 ejes centrales: el significado del año 2004 para Sudáfrica; los fundamentos de su política exterior, la política de relaciones exteriores de Sudáfrica dentro del sistema mundial y la dirección de la política de relaciones exteriores durante la primera década de democracia en el país. Los posicionamientos, sus razo...

  19. CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE ON VELOCITY FOR THE BACKWARD DYNAMO EQUATION ON AN EXTERIOR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study solutions to a forward Dynamo equation depending continuously on the velocity on an exterior domain,using Logarithmic Convexity Methods.We obtain some more weaker conditions by introducing the unbounded domain.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  1. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  2. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  3. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative Communication Network Using Stackelberg Game%协作通信中基于斯塔科尔伯格博弈的物理层安全分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨

    2012-01-01

    物理层安全不是利用传统的密钥加密,而是利用信道的传输特性使得合法的通信双方实现安全传输的方法.无线协作通信中节点行为对物理层安全的影响是至关重要的.本文应用斯塔科尔伯格博弈模型研究节点之间的利益,在中继自私的协作放大转发网络中,得到网络中节点之间的效用平衡的最优解存在条件,并提出一种分布式算法,找到网络平衡下的最优安全性能解.%Physical layer security is to make the network node to transmit the data in security and to maximize the security capaci-ty, instead of relaying on the traditional encryption methods. The node behavior's influence is crucial on physical layer security in cooperative wireless communication. The paper proposes a buyer/seller (Stackelberg) game over the cooperative wireless com-munication to study the utility function between nodes. In the amplify-forward cooperative network where the relay node is selfish, the equilibrium and the optimal security capacity is got. To analyze the game outcome, a distributed algorithm to find the optimal solution is constructed.

  4. Curvature in mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This original Dover textbook is based on an advanced undergraduate course taught by the author for more than 50 years. It introduces semi-Riemannian geometry and its principal physical application, Einstein's theory of general relativity, using the Cartan exterior calculus as a principal tool. Prerequisites include linear algebra and advanced calculus. 2012 edition.

  5. Securing Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Sudheesh

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will focus mainly on the key security tools and implementation techniques of Hadoop security.This book is great for Hadoop practitioners (solution architects, Hadoop administrators, developers, and Hadoop project managers) who are looking to get a good grounding in what Kerberos is all about and who wish to learn how to implement end-to-end Hadoop security within an enterprise setup. It's assumed that you will have some basic understanding of Hadoop as well as be familiar with some basic security concepts.

  6. Security Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    attacks cannot be completely addressed by traditional perimeter security solutions [ Wulf and Jones, 2009], as they have been in the past. A new...the mainstay of the current cyber security solution space [ Wulf and Jones, 2009]. This has enabled the system engineering and security communities...Number: H98230-08-D-0171 DO 002 TO 002 RT 028 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-028 January 31, 2012 UNCLASSIFIED 37 W. A. Wulf and A. K. Jones, Reflections on cyber security, Science Magazine, vol. 326, 2009, pp. 943-944.

  7. Grid Security

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  8. Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

    2011-10-18

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational

  9. 基于并行随机相位旋转的物理层安全算法%Physical layer security algorithm based on parallel random phase rotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婕; 高宝建; 罗永玲; 柳斯婧; 王玉洁; 郝露微

    2013-01-01

    In view of the security issues of signal in the LTE system, a new encryption algorithm is proposed to study parallel symbolic encryption. The algorithm introduced key matrix E that based on the LTE system model to achieve encryption to ensure the physical layer security through the matrix and the constellation symbols vector parallel multiplying. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that using the security algorithm in LTE system, ensure signal security while almost has no effect on the symbol error rate, the PAPR, bandwidth and other performance.%针对信号在移动通信长期演进LTE (Long Term Evolution)系统中传输的安全问题,提出了一种物理层并行符号加密算法.该算法在LTE系统模型的基础上引入密钥矩阵E,通过将该矩阵与星座映射后的符号向量进行并行相乘实现加密,确保物理层安全.理论分析和仿真结果表明:在LTE系统中使用该安全算法,在有效保证信号安全性的同时对系统误符号率、峰均比、带宽等性能几乎无影响.

  10. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  11. Initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Leis, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Based on the author's lectures at the University of Bonn in 1983-84, this book introduces classical scattering theory and the time-dependent theory of linear equations in mathematical physics. Topics include proof of the existence of wave operators, some special equations of mathematical physics, exterior boundary value problems, radiation conditions, and limiting absorption principles. 1986 edition.

  12. Mathematical formulation of Leibnizian world: a theory of individual-whole or interior-exterior reflective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagomi, Teruaki

    2003-04-01

    A world model, suggested by Leibniz's monadology, is formulated as a mathematical axiomatic system. The purpose of this world model is to provide a general scheme for describing a system of individuals having consciousness or internal worlds that communicate with each other and make a unified whole world, and moreover, the latter is reflected into the respective internal worlds and appears as an external world. Examples of such monadological structure of interior-exterior (or individual-whole) reflection can be observed in bio- or socio-systems and recently in computer networks. Moreover, a most elemental version of this structure can be found in the basic level of quantum physics. The model not only gives a prototype of monadological systems but also has an evolutionary ability to produce a hierarchy of monadological systems, which are interpreted as corresponding to various levels of consciousness.

  13. The physical layer security performance of wireless network based on Cooperation%利用协作技术实现无线通信物理层安全的方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大维; 付晓梅; 张立

    2011-01-01

    The physical layer security performance uses the fading and noise of wireless network, to make the main channel secure communication,according to secrecy singal equivocation of main channel larger than the equivocation of wiretap channel. Adopting Decode and Forward may help secure communication in main channel even wiretap channel is better than main channel. Recent research just focuses main channel secure when the relay decodes received data correctly,regardless of the relay channels secure. A dynamic cooperative strategy is designed to forward the received data or Cooperative Jamming signal to achieve the relay channels secure on the premise of secure communication in main channel. In addition,nested code and cooperative jamming secure are discussed.%物理层安全技术是利用无线信道的衰落和噪声,使合法接收者获得保密信息的疑义度大于窃听者得到的保密信息的疑义度,实现安全传输.利用中继解码转发协作技术可以在窃听信道好于合法信道条件时,帮助主信道实现安全传输.现有研究只是考虑了中继解码正确转发的主信道安全性,而忽略了中继信道的安全性.本文研究了中继解码正确和不正确两种情形,满足主信道安全传输前提下的中继信道的安全性能,提出一种中继动态地选择转发接收到的数据或是发送协作拥塞以实现物理层安全的方法,并探讨了利用巢状码和随机拥塞码的安全性能.

  14. Research on security access control model of the Web-based database of nonfer-rous metal physical & chemical properties%基于Web有色金属物性数据库安全访问控制模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李尚勇; 谢刚; 俞小花; 周明

    2009-01-01

    针对基于Web的有色金属物性数据库的访问特点,分析了有色金属物性数据库在多层架构体系中存在的非法入侵、越权访问、信息重放攻击等安全性问题,提出了适应其软件架构要求的安全访问控制模型.并对所提出的安全模型分别进行了访问性能和安全性测试,测试结果表明,访问模型安全性较好,性能稳定.%According to accessing characteristic of the Web-based database of non-ferrous metal physical & chemical properties, the se-curity issues are discussed in Multi-tier Application Architecture of database of non-ferrous metal physical & chemical properties, such as illegal invasion, unauthorized access, and information replay attack. The security access control model which is adaptive to charac-teristic of Multi-tier Application Architecture is proposed and tested in accessing performance and security. The test results show that the model is better in accessing performance and stability.

  15. Wireless physical-layer security model based on perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis%基于扰动理论无线物理层安全模型及敏度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫红权; 罗文宇; 兰巨龙; 陈鸿昶

    2013-01-01

      针对无线物理层安全多种代表模型在理论描述或者实际应用方面存在一定的局限性这一问题,基于扰动理论研究,提出了一种适用于频率选择性衰落环境的物理层安全模型,该模型能够通过调节扰动阈值来平衡实际系统的可用性和安全性。最后通过敏度分析和应用实例说明了模型的有效性和可靠性。%  Many typical models had been proposed for wireless physical-layer security, which have some disadvantages and limitations in theoretical analysis or implementation respectively. Considering these shortages brought about by the existing works, a physical-layer security model used in frequency selective fading channel based on perturbation theory was proposed. The proposed model finds a tradeoff between the availability and the security of the practical system by adjusting the threshold of perturbation. At last, the validity and feasibility are illustrated by the sensitivity analysis and application example.

  16. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  17. Theoretical and Legal Reflections on Securities Dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holub Dušan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the number of materialised securities for the benefit of electronic securities has led to distinctions between commercial and legal opinions on securities transactions. Contemporary financial markets only trade electronic securities held in securities accounts. Securities law enhances adjustments to economic realities and not to legal principles. Discrepancies between economic realities and securities regulation should be resolved in order to find a balance between successfully functioning transactions of electronic securities and legal schemes which are based on transfers of physically existing assets, which include securities, as a result of the theory of incorporations, in certain legal regulations. This article is a theoretical and legal reflection on selected issues connected with the transfer of securities with reference to discrepancies between economic realities and legal regulations.

  18. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  19. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  20. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  1. Secure Objectives for School Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  2. Selection, training and retention of an armed private security department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, David B

    2009-01-01

    To arm or not to arm security officers? One hospital which has opted for arming its officers is Cook Children's Healthcare System, Fort Worth, TX, an integrated pediatric healthcare facility with over 4000 employees. Because of its location in a major metropolitan area and based on several factors including demographics, exterior risk assessments and crime statistics, the hospital's Administration and its Risk Manager supported the decision to operate as an armed security force, according to the author. In this article he shares its current program and presents some thoughts and ideas that may benefit others who are considering this important step.

  3. Security Bingo

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Want to check your security awareness and win one of three marvellous books on computer security? Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us by 31 October 2011 at either Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710.   Winners[1] must show that they fulfil at least five good practices in a continuous vertical, horizontal or diagonal row. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. I personally…   …am concerned about computer security. …run my computer with an anti-virus software and up-to-date signature files. …lock my computer screen whenever I leave my office. …have chosen a reasonably complex password. …have restricted access to all my files and data. …am aware of the security risks and threats to CERN’s computing facilities. &hell...

  4. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  5. Junos Security

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  6. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  7. Wireless Security

    CERN Document Server

    Osterhage, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the growing use of wireless communications, new types of security risks have evolved. Wireless Security covers the major topic of wireless communications with relevance both to organizations and private users. The technological background of these applications and protocols is laid out and presented in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the IEEE 802.11x-Standards that have been introduced for WLAN technology. Other technologies covered besides WLAN include: mobile phones, bluetooth and infrared. In each chapter a major part is devoted to security risks and provisions includin

  8. 成都市保安员参加体育锻炼情况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Present Situation of Security Guards’ Physical Activity in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树玲; 伍文娟; 李雪

    2015-01-01

    In this paper uses questionnaires statistical and Analysis of Security Guard participation in physical exercise and the current situation. Concluded that 92.5%of the security guards like physical exercise, and they agree with the view that certainly physical exercise is a good effect or for health. But they think its poor physical exercise effect, the reasons may be that Security guards as manual workers, their work a long time, labor is characterized by long standing, coupled with restrictions sports, economic and other reasons, it did not form part in physical exercise habits, bring risks to their health. For this phenomenon, Recommend social and departments should pay attention to this class worker's health, to take effective measures to enable them to actively participate in physical exercise, to improve their physical health, quality of life and efficient service to the community.%本文采用问卷调查法统计保安员参加体育锻炼的情况,并对其现状进行分析,结果显示:92.5%被调查的保安员表示喜欢体育锻炼,并对“体育锻炼可促进身体健康”观点表示认同。但他们主观认为其体育锻炼的效果不佳,分析其原因为:保安员作为体力劳动者,其工作时间较长、劳动特点为久站,再加上运动场所的限制、经济原因等,没有形成参加体育锻炼的习惯,为其身体健康带来隐患。建议社会及有关部门应该关注这一类职业人群的身体健康,采取有效措施使他们能够积极参加体育锻炼,从而改善其身体健康状况,提高生活质量,高效服务社会。

  9. The Avascular Tumour Growth in the Presence of Inhomogeneous Physical Parameters Imposed from a Finite Spherical Nutritive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Kariotou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-known mathematical model of radially symmetric tumour growth is revisited in the present work. Under this aim, a cancerous spherical mass lying in a finite concentric nutritive surrounding is considered. The host spherical shell provides the tumor with vital nutrients, receives the debris of the necrotic cancer cells, and also transmits to the tumour the pressure imposed on its exterior boundary. We focus on studying the type of inhomogeneity that the nutrient supply and the pressure field imposed on the host exterior boundary, can exhibit in order for the spherical structure to be supported. It turns out that, if the imposed fields depart from being homogeneous, only a special type of interrelated inhomogeneity between nutrient and pressure can secure the spherical growth. The work includes an analytic derivation of the related boundary value problems based on physical conservation laws and their analytical treatment. Implementations in cases of special physical interest are examined, and also existing homogeneous results from the literature are fully recovered.

  10. Physical Layer Security Transmission Condition for Finite Alphabet Input System%有限字符输入系统的物理层安全传输条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔波; 刘璐; 金梁

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the problem that the artificial noise method can be cracked by the eavesdropper with multiple antennas in wireless communication systems, a sufficient condition is proposed for secure physical layer transmission with finite alphabet inputs. Under this guideline, a signal-like artificial noise method is designed to ensure the system security transmission. Analysis reveals that the equivalent channel between the finite alphabet input and the eavesdropper’s noise-free output is a Discrete Noisy Lossless Channel (DNLC). Since the reversibility of the input under a DNLC provides the necessary condition for eavesdropping, the eavesdropper can augment its antennas to successfully squeeze out the secure information, nullifying the system’s secrecy mutual information. As a result, destroying the reversibility of the input signal becomes a sufficient condition for the secure physical layer transmission with finite alphabet inputs. The signal-like artificial noise method satisfies the sufficient condition, which can ensure the secure physical layer transmission. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of this method.%针对无线数字通信系统中人工噪声方法可被多天线窃听者破解的问题,该文提出有限字符输入下物理层安全传输的一个充分条件,并以此为指导设计了一种类符号人工噪声方法。分析表明,人工噪声方法下,有限字符输入信号和窃听者无噪接收信号之间的等效信道是一个离散有噪无损信道(Discrete Noisy Lossless Channel, DNLC)。由于DNLC输入信号的可逆性为窃密提供了必要条件,窃听者通过增加天线可使窃听信道容量达到合法用户的信道容量上限,致使系统的保密互信息为零,因此破坏输入信号的可逆性是有限字符输入下物理层安全传输的一个充分条件。类符号人工噪声方法满足这一充分条件,可以保证物理层安全传输,仿真结果也表明了该方法的有效性。

  11. Reworking on affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, Peano and his school

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Gabriele H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a construction of affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, with a special attention to the revisitation of this subject operated by Peano and his School, is examined from a historical viewpoint. Even if the exterior algebra over a vector space is a well known concept, the construction of an exterior algebra over an affine space, in which points and vectors coexist, has been neglected. This paper wants to fill this lack. Some attention is given to the introduction of defining by abstraction (today called definition by quotienting or by equivalence relation), a procedure due to and used by Peano to define geometric forms, basic elements of an affine exterior algebra. This Peano's innovative way of defining, is a relevant contribution to mathematics. It is observed that in the construction of an affine exterior algebra on the Euclidean three-dimensional space, Grassmann and Peano make use of metric concepts: an accurate analysis shows that, in some cases, the metric aspects can be eliminated, putting ...

  12. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  13. Secure portal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing

  14. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  15. Security Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Security Studies has firmly established itself as a leading journal on international security issues. The journal publishes theoretical, historical and policy-oriented articles on the causes and consequences of war, and the sources and conditions of peace. The journal has published articles on balancing vs. bandwagoning, deterrence in enduring rivalries, the Domino theory, nuclear weapons proliferation, civil-military relations, political reforms in China, strategic culture in Asia and the P...

  16. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  17. Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With an increasing number of countries becoming industrialized, energy, the so-called blood of modern economies, is becoming increasingly important Energy security has become an important factor that directly influences world economic stability and international relations. In an article posted on People's Daily Online, Liu Jianfei, professor at the International Strategic Research Center of the Party School of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, shares his opinions on energy security.

  18. Citizen Security

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Abizanda

    2011-01-01

    This is a presentation for the Caribbean Regional ConSoc Retreat held on June 16, 2011 in Kingston, Jamaica. This document outlines crime and violence as major roadblocks to development in the Caribbean; citing statistics and providing examples of the economic costs to the region. This presentation then goes on to describe the IDB's strategy with regard to citizen security and highlights IDB Funded security programs in the region. The presentation also identifies Civil Society as a potentiall...

  19. Convergence of Corporate and Information Security

    CERN Document Server

    Syed,; Donahue, Shannon E

    2010-01-01

    As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper reports on how organizations have traditionally managed asset protection, why that is changing and how to establish convergence to optimize security value to the business within an enterprise.

  20. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  1. Port security in the Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    The United States and the international community have implemented numerous measures since 2001 designed to improve the security of maritime commerce. Special attention has been paid to the vulnerability of port facilities to exploitation by terrorists or other illicit actors. While the implementation of enhanced port security measures in Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Iraq may have improved some aspects of maritime security, significant vulnerabilities remain. While strong physical security at ...

  2. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the contraction operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second ord...

  3. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  4. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  5. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  7. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  8. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  9. Security bingo for administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about the security of your service(s) or system(s)? Show us and win one of three marvellous books on computer security! Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us at Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710, by November 14th 2011.   Winners[1] must show us that they follow at least five good practices in a continuous horizontal row, vertical column or diagonal. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. My service or system…   …is following a software development life-cycle. …is patched in an automatic and timely fashion. …runs a tightened local ingress/egress firewall. …uses CERN Single-Sign-On (SSO). …has physical access protections in place. …runs all processes / services / applications with least privileges. …has ...

  10. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago—a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  11. The George W. Woodruff Physical Education Center at Atlanta's Emory University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Clyde

    1985-01-01

    The George W. Woodruff Physical Education Center was designed to exude openness and space which would encourage participation while preserving existing playing fields and programs. Exterior and interior design of the facility are described. (DF)

  12. 基于物理层安全的最优化跨层调度方案%An Optimized Cross-layer Scheduling Scheme based on Physical Layer Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一萌; 吴越

    2012-01-01

    It is required that the scheduling scheme of wireless network should take network parameters, including link quality, transmission rate and delay, as the reference in controlling and managing transmission behavior of the network nodes. The existing scheduling schemes take no security into account, although the security plays a critical role in network performance. In this paper, a new scheduling scheme of wireless network is proposed, and this scheme could achieve perfect security of physical layer. By incorporating this new scheduling scheme into the distributed coordination function(DCF) of IEEE 802.11 MAC (medium access control), a secure MAC protocol called SecDCF could thus be realized. Simulation with Matlab on SecDCF indicates that SecDCF could significantly outperform IEEE 802.11 DCF in achieving physical layer security.%无线网络的调度方案要求以链路质量、传输率和时延等网络参数作为主要参考依据,控制和管理网络中节点的传输行为。现有的无线网络调度方案中都没有把网络安全纳入考虑,但是通常情况下,网络安全正是影响网络性能的重要因素。文中设计了一个新的无线网络调度方案,该方案可以在物理层实现通信的完美保密。通过把这个调度方案和IEEE802.11的Mac协议中已有的分布式协调功能(DCF)相结合,从而可以实现一个保证了物理层安全的新Mac协议——SecDCF。文中采用Madab对该协议进行仿真,仿真结果显示在实现物理层安全的前提下,SecDCF相比传统的DCF可以显著提升性能。

  13. A Multicarrier-based Physical Layer Security Scheme for the Multicast Systems%一种基于多载波的多播系统物理层安全方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林通; 黄开枝; 罗文宇

    2013-01-01

      受限于发送方天线数目,无线多播系统整体信道通常不存在零空间,无法利用传统的物理层安全技术保证其安全传输。针对这一问题,该文提出一种基于多载波的多播系统物理层安全方案。首先,建立了多载波多播系统物理层安全通信模型;之后,通过分配载波产生合法用户的信道零空间,在零空间内引入人工噪声保证系统的安全传输;最后,以最大化保密传输速率为目标,在系统总功率受限情况下,利用 Kuhn-Tucher 条件对各子载波功率进行了优化。仿真结果表明:该方案不受限于发送方天线数目,并且所提功率分配方法的系统保密传输速率比等功率分配方法提升约2 bit/(s Hz)×。%Traditional physical layer security methods, such as artificial noise, commonly require that the sender has more antennas than eavesdroppers, which is not practical in the multicasting system. To solve this problem, a multicarrier-based physical layer security scheme for the multicast systems is proposed, which takes the advantage of both space and frequency domain to form a relatively virtual multi-antennas system. Through subcarrier allocation the existence of null space in every subcarrier channel matrix is guaranteed, so that the artificial noise can be added to ensure a secure communication. Based on the Kuhn-Tucher condition, an optimal power allocation method is also proposed to maximize the security rates under the restriction of total power. Simulation results indicate that this scheme is unlimited by the amount of the sender antennas, and it improves the security rates by 2 bit/(s Hz)× than the average power allocation method.

  14. BOUNDARY INTEGRAL FORMULAS FOR ELASTIC PLANE PROBLEM OF EXTERIOR CIRCULAR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zheng-zhu; LI Shun-cai; YU De-hao

    2006-01-01

    After the stress function and the normal derivative on the boundary for the plane problem of exterior circular domain are expanded into Laurent series, comparing them with the Laurent series of the complex stress function and making use of some formulas in Fourier series and the convolutions, the boundary integral formula of the stress function is derived further. Then the stress function can be obtained directly by the integration of the stress function and its normal derivative on the boundary. Some examples are given. It shows that the boundary integral formula of the stress function is convenient to be used for solving the elastic plane problem of exterior circular domain.

  15. La política exterior colombiana en la era de Santos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las actuaciones en el escenario internacional desde el comienzo de la administración de Santos han suscitado un debate alrededor de la existencia o no de una nueva estrategia en política exterior. Para algunos esta transformación ha significado un cambio con relación al gobierno anterior en términos de cooperación, no confrontación y diversificación, lo que ha sido resultado de una lectura que no se reduce a convertir la política exterior en un instrumento de la política interna, sino que ha ...

  16. Gastrodiplomacia como herramienta de política exterior. estudio de caso: Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Acevedo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la manera mediante la cual Perú ha incor- porado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural como componente de su política exterior. Con el fin de cumplir este propósito, se va a defender que desde el 2008 el país Inca ha incorporado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural em- pleando dos herramientas. Primero, a través de su Plan de Política Exterior Cultural, en donde se señalan objetivos claros en te...

  17. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria Regina Soares de; Santos,Fabiano

    2001-01-01

    Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1) da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2) do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desen...

  18. Stationary axisymmetric exteriors for perturbations of isolated bodies in general relativity, to second order

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Ra\\"ul

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed stationary axisymmetric isolated bodies, e.g. stars, represented by a matter-filled interior and an asymptotically flat vacuum exterior joined at a surface where the Darmois matching conditions are satisfied, are considered. The initial state is assumed to be static. The perturbations of the matching conditions are derived and used as boundary conditions for the perturbed Ernst equations in the exterior region. The perturbations are calculated to second order. The boundary conditions are overdetermined: necessary and sufficient conditions for their compatibility are derived. The special case of perturbations of spherical bodies is given in detail.

  19. EXPONENTIAL MESH APPROXIMATIONS FOR A 3D EXTERIOR PROBLEM IN MAGNETIC INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Séraphin M. Mefire

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method combining the approaches of C.I. Goldstein and L.-A. Ying is used for the simulation in three-dimensional magnetostatics related to an exterior problem in magnetic induction. Recently introduced, this method is based on the use of a graded mesh obtained by gluing homothetic layers in the exterior domain and has been performed in the case of edge element discretizations. In this work, the theoretical and practical aspects of the method are inspected in the case of face element and volume element discretizations,for computing a magnetic induction. Error estimates, implementations, and numerical results are provided.

  20. THE OVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR HARMONIC EQUATION OVER EXTERIOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ming Wu; De-hao Yu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the overlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction[1] and first suggested in [2], is applied to slove the exterior boundary value problem of harmonic equation over three-dimensional domain. The convergence and error estimates both for the continuous case and the discrete case are given. The contraction factor for the exterior spherical domain is also discussed. Moreover, numerical results are given which show that the accuracy and the convergence are in accord with the theoretical analyses.

  1. First Principles Study of Double Photoionization of H2 UsingExterior Complex Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N.; Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin,Fernando; McCurdy, C. William

    2006-07-21

    Exterior complex scaling provides a practical path forfirst-principles studies of atomic and molecular ionizationproblemssince it avoids explicit enforcement of asymptotic boundary conditionsfor 3-body Coulomb breakup. We have used the method of exterior complexscaling, implemented with both the discrete variable representation andB-splines, to obtain the first-order wave function for molecular hydrogencorresponding to a single photon having been absorbed by a correlatedinitial state. These wave functions are used to construct convergedtriple differential cross sections for double photoionization of alignedH2 molecules.

  2. DIRAC Security

    CERN Document Server

    Casajús Ramo, A

    2006-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  3. Security enhancement of 802.11i by wireless physical layer key%利用无线物理层密钥增强802.11i的安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴华; 尚昭辉; 杨丹; 马建峰

    2013-01-01

    To solve IEEE 802.11i security threats of DoS attacks,no user identity protection and loss of MSK resulting in information leakage because of no provision of security protection for management frames and control frames,a physical layer security solution of iJam was introduced.The physical layer key of Ki between STA and AP before 802.11i authentication was generated to prevent management frames and control frames from DoS attack,and to protect user identity and enhance the PTK security.The scheme of WLAN security enhancement was proposed to analyze the 802.11i security,the increased delay and energy and the compatibility after iJam introduction.The results show that the security threats of 802.11i are overcome with enhanced security by the proposed scheme proposal,while the introduced delay and energy consumption is very limited.The introduction of iJam has little effect on the framework of 802.11i.%针对目前IEEE 802.11i存在的不能为管理帧和控制帧提供安全保护导致DoS攻击、不能为用户提供身份隐私保护、会话主密钥MSK的丢失引起信息泄露等安全威胁,引入物理层安全方案iJam,于802.11i认证之前在移动站STA和接入点AP之间生成物理层密钥Ki.使用生成的Ki保护802.11i的管理帧和控制帧,防止DoS攻击;并在后续认证过程中对消息加密,保护用户的身份信息;参与PTK的生成,增强PTK的安全性.给出了WLAN安全性增强的方案,并对引入iJam后802.11i的安全性、增加的时延、能耗及兼容性进行了分析,结果表明,所提出的方案克服了目前802.11i存在的安全威胁,对其安全性进行了增强;但所引入时延和能耗都非常有限;同时引入Jam并不会对802.11i的框架造成影响.

  4. Veneer-reinforced particleboard for exterior structural composition board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Hui Pan; Fu Feng

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the physical and mechanical characteristics of panels consisting of a veneer face and a particleboard core composed of mixed wood particles/powdered-recycled polyethylene (PE) bag waste (MWP) using urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin as a binder. The addition of 25 percent powdered-recycled PE bag waste to the MWP panels did not...

  5. 一种基于不可复制功能的RFID认证协议的安全性分析%Security analysis of a RFID authentication protocol based on physically unclonable function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙翔

    2012-01-01

    The Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) authentication protocols based on Physically Unclonale Function (PUF) is a hot research field recent years. In 2011, Bassil et al. proposed a new RFID authentication protocol based on PUF in international conference on Internet technology and secured transactions (BASSIL R, EL-BEAINO W, KAYSSI A, et al. A PUF-based ultra-lightweight mutual-authentication RFID protocol [C]// 2011 International Conference on Internet Technology and Secured Transactions. Piscataway: IEEE, 2011: 495 -499). The paper analyzed the security of this protocol by an imaginative adversary and found that it cannot resist secret disclosure attack, traceability attack, reader impersonation attack and desynchronization attack. The paper described the details of these attacks and computed their success probabilities and computation complexities.%基于不可复制功能(PUF)的射频识别(RFID)认证协议是近年来的研究热点.2011年,Bassil等在TST国际会议上提出了一种新的基于PUF的RFID认证协议(BASSIL R,EL-BEAINO W,KAYSSI A,et al.A PUF-based ultra-lightweight mutual-authentication RFID protocol[C]//2011 International Conference on Internet Technology and Secured Transactions.Piscataway:IEEE,2011:495-499).分析了该认证协议的安全性,通过假设敌手参与协议,指出其不能抵抗密钥泄露攻击、跟踪攻击,也不能抵抗阅读器冒充攻击以及同步破坏攻击;同时描述了这些攻击的细节,并给出了它们的成功概率和计算复杂度.

  6. 基于有限反馈的非可信中继系统的物理层安全性能分析%Performance Analysis of Physical Layer Security of Untrusted Relay System Based on Limited Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚峰; 赵睿; 贺玉成; 谢维波

    2015-01-01

    在基于有限反馈获得部分信道状态信息的条件下,研究了放大转发非可信中继系统的物理层安全传输技术。通过目的节点发送人工噪声干扰信息,使系统获得了正安全容量。推导了安全中断概率和传输中断概率的闭合表达式,分析了反馈比特数对系统安全性和可靠性的影响,进而提出了能同时兼顾系统安全性和可靠性的最优反馈比特数的自适应选择方案。%Under the condition of partial channel state information that is obtained from limited feedback,a physical layer se-curity transmission technique is investigated for amplify-and-forward untrusted relay systems,where the positive secrecy capacity is obtained through the artificial noise interference information transmitted by the destination node.Closedform expressions for security outage probability and transmission outage probability are derived,and the impacts of the number of feedback bits on security and reliability are analyzed.Furthermore,an adaptive selection scheme for the optimal number of feedback bits is proposed in order to si-multaneously satisfy both required security and reliability.

  7. Data security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  8. Cyberspace security system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  9. Cyberspace security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  10. 基于迭代加密的OFDM系统物理层安全算法%Algorithm for OFDM physical layer security based on iterative encryp-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳斯婧; 高宝建; 吴谦; 赵小宁; 曹艳君

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a physical layer security algorithm combined with OFDM modulation is proposed, in order to overcome the disadvantages of the existing physical layer security algorithms which can not resist plaintext cipher-text attack. The modulation process is controlled by a secret key, namely the iterative interpolation of the IFFT input symbols. Theoretical analysis and simulation results have showed that the algorithm not only has a large key space, but also can resist plaintext cipher-text attack. With almost no obviously impact on the original system performance except for a small PAPR increase, the proposed algorithm has great encryption effect and anti-attack ability, which shows a high security.%针对现有的基于OFDM调制的物理层安全算法不能抵抗明文密文对攻击的缺点,提出了一种结合OFDM调制,通过密钥控制调制过程,对IFFT变换前的符号进行迭代插值的物理层安全算法。理论分析和仿真实验表明,算法具有较大的密钥空间,能够抵抗明文密文对攻击。除了峰均比有少量增加外,该算法几乎不改变原系统的性能,具有很好的加密效果和抗攻击能力,表现出较高的安全性。

  11. Privatising Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mindova-Docheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.

  12. Analysis on construction technology of exterior insulation of building exterior wall%建筑外墙外保温施工技术解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左敬宏

    2015-01-01

    Building energy efficiency has become the inevitable trend of the development of modern architecture, building exterior insulation construction technology can effectively achieve the building energy efficiency,promote the development of China’s building energy efficiency. Exterior insulation construction of building exterior wall requires the use of external wall material and the corresponding construction technology,which can meet the requirements of energy conservation.Therefore,the construction technology of external insulation construction can not only improve people’s quality of life,but also promote the improvement of energy efficiency.In view of the construction technology of exterior insulation construction technology of building exterior insulation, external insulation construction technology is studied,and put forward a reasonable solution to promote the development of China’s construction industry.%建筑节能化已经成为了现代建筑发展的必然趋势,建筑外墙的外保温施工技术可以有效的实现建筑节能,促进我国建筑节能化的发展。建筑外墙的外保温施工需要使用符合节能要求的外部墙体材料以及相应的施工技术,保证建筑物内部的能源利用效率得到有效的提高,达到建筑节能的目的。所以建筑外墙外保温施工技术不仅可以提高人们的生活质量,还能促进能源利用效率的提升。针对建筑外墙外保温施工技术的相关问题,对外保温施工技术进行研究,提出合理的解决措施,促进我国建筑行业的发展。

  13. Computer Network Security- The Challenges of Securing a Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Vincent, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to give the reader an overall perspective on what it takes to design, implement, enforce and secure a computer network in the federal and corporate world to insure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. While we will be giving you an overview of network design and security, this article will concentrate on the technology and human factors of securing a network and the challenges faced by those doing so. It will cover the large number of policies and the limits of technology and physical efforts to enforce such policies.

  14. Portunes: representing attack scenarios spanning through the physical, digital and social domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2010-01-01

    The security goals of an organization are realized through security policies, which concern physical security, digital security and security awareness. An insider is aware of these security policies, and might be able to thwart the security goals by combining physical, digital and social means. A sy

  15. Human security from paradigm shift to operationalisation: job description for a human security worker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how human security has functioned as both a paradigm-shifting and a bridging concept, with its most significant implications being, first, the shift from a focus on state security to one on human rights, and, second, the indivisibility of physical and material security. The articl

  16. Computer Network Security: Best Practices for Alberta School Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    This paper provides a snapshot of the computer network security industry and addresses specific issues related to network security in public education. The following topics are covered: (1) security policy, including reasons for establishing a policy, risk assessment, areas to consider, audit tools; (2) workstations, including physical security,…

  17. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  18. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    of the general security situation and to identify both the explicit and the implicit agendas of the primary state actors. The region contains all the ingredients for confrontation and conflict but the economical potential for all the parties concerned creates a general interest in dialogue and cooperation...

  19. Secure Ties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joep de Hart; Frans Knol; Cora Maas - de Waal; Theo Roes

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Zekere banden. Discussions about the Netherlands of today often throw up terms such as 'social cohesion', 'social integration', 'liveability' and 'security'. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP has carried out a study of this phenomenon and presents the results in this

  20. Secured transactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I describe the work that is currently under way, within the Network of Excellence charged with creating a draft Common Frame of Reference, to draft rules on security over moveable assets. After a brief introduction, I deal with two broad questions: (1) the general aims and scope of the

  1. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no state

  2. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  3. Design of the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior facing of the facade thermal insulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Veliborka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various facade facings - systems made of thermal insulation materials with the finishing facade renders which are directly applied to the facade walls are simple for construction and are applied in the newly built structures and they are also suitable for the application in the cases of the energy revitalization of the existing buildings. The exterior walls, and especially their outer layers, are exposed to various atmospheric influences. They cause different effects in the walls, one of them being the occurrence of the water vapor condensation. In the walls with the facade thermal insulation systems, the occurrence of the water vapor condensation may be caused by the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior render. At certain temperatures and humidity of the external and internal air, there are several conditions for the occurrence of the water vapor condensation in the wall with the facade thermal insulation system, when the exterior render is of higher relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion. Therefore, it is useful to determine the vapor diffusion characteristics, that is, highest values of the relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion of the exterior renders which will not cause the condensation of the water vapor in the wall, or at least those that will not cause the impermissible dampening of the wall material, and will allow for the possibility of moisture drying.

  4. Exact Solution for the Exterior Field of a Rotating Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I; Sanabria-Gómez, J D; Manko, Vladimir S.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Sanabria-Gómez, José D.

    2000-01-01

    A four-parameter class of exact asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations involving only rational functions is presented. It is able to describe the exterior field of a slowly or rapidly rotating neutron star with poloidal magnetic field.

  5. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  6. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  7. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  8. Convergence Behaviour of Some Iteration Procedures for Exterior Point Method of Centres Algorithms,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    in Reference 4, while Staha and Himmelblau 9 reported very favourably on their application of Newton’s method to the exterior point method of centres...34. .4cfta Poll- technica Scandinavica, Trondheim, 13 (1966). 9. Staha, R. L., and Himmelblau . D. M., "Evaludtion of Constrained Nonlinear Programming

  9. The Exterior Tricomi Problem for Generalized Mixed Equations with Parabolic Degeneracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chun WEN

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the exterior Tricomi problem for generalized mixed equations with parabolic degeneracy. Firstly the representation of solutions of the problem for the equations is given, and then the uniqueness and existence of solutions are proved by a new method.

  10. Exterior 3D lamb problem: Harmonic load distributed over a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, Kh. Kh.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Sekerzh-Zen'kovich, S. Ya.

    2016-06-01

    The solutions of the exterior Lamb problem with a distributed harmonic surface load acting on the boundary of an elastic half-space are studied. A load normal to the surface and distributed over the surface as the Poisson kernel is considered. The solution is constructed with the use of integral transforms and the finite-element method.

  11. Tres décadas de política exterior y democracia: interpretaciones y tensiones

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta exposición nos proponemos analizar las diversas interpretaciones de la política exterior argentina democrática; para ello haremos un breve recorrido por las principales tensiones explicativas existentes. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)

  12. Los Derechos Humanos y la política exterior de los Estados Unidos.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Forman parte de la política exterior estadounidense tres categorías principales  de derechos humanos: a) el derecho a la integridad personal; b) el derecho a satisfacer las necesidades económicas vitales; y c) los derechos civiles y políticos.

  13. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  14. Shape-selective n-alkane hydroconversion at exterior zeolite surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, Th.L.M.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Smit, B.; Calero, S.; Castillo Sanchez, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the adsorption and catalysis of n- and methylalkanes demonstrates that the interior surface of TON- and MTT-type zeolites dominates both adsorption and catalysis, and that the contribution from the exterior surface is negligible. For both n- and methylalkane isomers, the experim

  15. Durability of fire retardant treated wood products at humid and exterior conditions. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, B.; Voss, A.; Hughes, A.; Hovde, P.J.; Grexa, O.

    2001-01-01

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the fire properties of wood products, but the durability, e.g. in exterior applications, has not been addressed fully. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience mainly from the USA with the aim of supporting further development in Europe. The r

  16. Stokes coupling method for the exterior flowPart III: regularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Stokes coupling method for solving the two-dimensional exterior unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the existence of the strong solution of the Stokes coupling equations is proven. And the regularity of the solution for the reduced Stokes coupling equations is discussed.

  17. A Dynamical Approach to the Exterior Geometry of a Perfect Fluid as a Relativistic Star

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare some of the solution classes, which were presented for a perfect charged fluid in Ref. [8], through studying the motion of a test charged particle on a relativistic charged star. We will show that how the interior solutions of such star, can affect its exterior geometry, by illustrating the corresponding effective potentials.

  18. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  19. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  20. Opinions about Component Energetic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Elena GOLUMBEANU (GEORGESCU)

    2012-01-01

    Collective security (international) represent the morphological expression of individual security components. According to the Report presented at the United Nations Development Programme, collective security (international) as well as national security, is the expression of seven synergistic dimensions as follows: economic security, food security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security and individual security. As part of economic security, energy an...

  1. Hybrid secure beamforming and vehicle selection using hierarchical agglomerative clustering for C-RAN-based vehicle-to-infrastructure communications in vehicular cyber-physical systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Dongyang; Ren, Pinyi; Du, Qinghe; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    ...–enhancing mechanisms in the physical layer. In this article, we propose a hybrid beamforming and vehicle-selection framework for vehicle-to-infrastructure communications to broadcast high-speed confidential messages...

  2. 面向物理层安全的一种打孔极化编码方法%A Method Based on Puncturing Polar Codes for Physical Layer Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易鸣; 季新生; 黄开枝; 金梁; 王婧

    2014-01-01

    为了解决物理层安全编码中安全性和可靠性之间的矛盾和提高保密速率,该文提出一种基于打孔极化码的安全编码方法。根据信道极化理论,该方法将私密信息位映射到合法者正常接收而窃听者无法译码的特定逻辑信道输入位,保证私密信息可靠且安全传输。然后,通过分析极化码的校验关系树,利用3个参数表征输出节点对私密信息位的影响,再按照影响程度大小确定打孔位置。理论分析与仿真结果表明,该方法保证私密信息传输安全性和可靠性的同时,提高了私密信息传输的有效性。%To solve the confliction between the security and reliability of physical layer security codes and improve the secrecy rate, a security coding method based on puncturing polar codes is proposed. In order to keep the security and reliability, the confidential information is mapped to the specific input proposition which could be decoded by legal receiver but be equivocal for eavesdropper based on channel polarization theory. By analyzing the check trees of polar codes, the puncturing pattern is designed based on the influences of outputs on confidential information which are described by three parameters. The theoretical analysis and simulation results verify that the proposed method is able to guarantee simultaneously the security and reliability while improving the efficiency of the confidential information.

  3. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  4. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  5. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami K Asfar; Hilal M Al-Sayer; Talib H Juma

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel.METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients,of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (selfinflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia).Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound.One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure.RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ±2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophagojejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure(MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed.CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available.

  6. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  7. Energetic particle fluxes in the exterior cusp and the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere: statistical results from the Cluster/RAPID instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Asikainen

    2005-09-01

    high-latitude dayside plasma sheet is the main source of energetic particles in the exterior cusp. Energetic particles can reach HLPS from the near-Earth tail. The closed field lines of HLPS act as storage for these particles. Direct diffusion (for electrons and high-energy protons and magnetic reconnection in the high-latitude magnetopause near HLPS (for low energy protons control the number of particles released into the exterior cusp. Note that this explanation, in contrast to other suggested theories, works both for the energetic protons and electrons in the exterior cusp.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection

  8. CYBER SECURITY FOR AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s information age, government organizations and business enterprises are heavily relying on interconnected computer systems to manage a variety of public services including energy, transportation, water, etc. While this increased connectivity has many operational advantages benefitting the public, they have also become vulnerable to cyber attacks such as Corporate Security Breaches, Spear Phishing, and Social Media Fraud. The aviation sector is one the critical infrastructure systems that is not only vulnerable to physical threats, but also cyber threats, especially with the increased use of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD at airports. It has been recognized that there is currently no cyber security standards established for airports in the United States as the existing standards have mainly focused on aircraft Control System (CS. This paper summarizes the need, background, ongoing developments and research efforts with respect to the establishment of cyber-security standards and best practices at U.S. airports with special emphasis on cyber security education and literacy.

  9. Metaphors for cyber security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  10. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K R

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  11. Computer Security: the security marathon

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    If you believe that “security” is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is good, that once you are secure your life will be easy... then let me convince you otherwise.   An excellent example of this is when the summer students join us at CERN. As the summer period is short, software projects must be accomplished quickly, like a sprint. Rush, rush! But often, this sprint ends with aching muscles. Regularly, these summer students approach us to have their project or web server made visible to the Internet. Regularly, quick security reviews of those web servers diagnose severe underperformance with regards to security: the web applications are flawed or use insecure protocols; the employed software tools, databases or web frameworks are sub-optimal and not adequately chosen for that project; the operating system is non-standard and has never been brought up-to-date; and ...

  12. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    , but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral power. The Great War proves that these laws provided an adequate tool to be wielded by the politicians actually in office during that conflict. Following....... Moreover, they estimated that armed defence was a priori hopeless and possibly even dangerous as it might attract unnecessary attention by a would-be belligerent. Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During...... the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe, but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral...

  13. Image Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- ers...protection for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  14. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  15. 基于最小信息泄漏的线性随机化实现物理层安全传输%Linear randomization with lowest information leakage for physical layer secure transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桥龙; 金梁

    2013-01-01

      为设计实用物理层安全传输机制,给出了线性随机化预处理模型。该模型指出,基于无线信道的特征差异,恰当地设计加性和乘性随机化模块可以为合法用户提供信道优势。从信息理论安全角度论证了加性随机化权值和乘性随机化权值具有最小信息泄漏时应满足的最佳分布。最后提出一种随机子载波参考安全传输机制对乘性随机化权值的优化设计进行了实例化分析。%Linear randomization pre-processing framework was presented to design feasible physical layer secure trans-mission schemes. The framework show that, based on characteristic differentiae of wireless channels, additive and multi-plicative randomization modules with suitable design would create channel advantage for legitimate users. In the view point of information theory security, the optimal distributions of the additive randomization weights and the multiplica-tive randomization weights to induce the lowest information leakage to the eavesdropper were verified. Finally, A random sub-carrier referencing security scheme was proposed as an instantiation analysis for the optimization design of multipli-cative randomization weights.

  16. Towards hardware-intrinsic security foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Tuyls, Pim

    2010-01-01

    Hardware-intrinsic security is a young field dealing with secure secret key storage. This book features contributions from researchers and practitioners with backgrounds in physics, mathematics, cryptography, coding theory and processor theory.

  17. Security of supply

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Paul Isbell revisits the energy security debate; John Gault considers European security and natural gas supplies; William C. Ramsay discusses security of energy supplies in a global market; Hasan M. Qabazard outlines OPEC’s abiding commitment to energy security.

  18. THz and Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sizov, Fedir; Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited papers from highly experienced researchers in THz technology and security applications. THz detection of explosives represents one of the most appealing technologies to have recently emerged in dealing with terrorist attacks encountered by civil security and military forces throughout the world. Discussed are the most advanced technologies and developments, the various points of operational strength and weaknesses as well as are suggestions and predictions the best technological solutions to  overcome current operational limits.  The current status of various levels of cooling in THz detectors, sources and associated electronics are also addressed. The goal was to provide a clear view on the current technologies available and the required advances needed in order to achieve more efficient systems. This goal was outlined in part by establishing the baseline of current uncertainty estimations in physics-based modelling and the identification of key areas which require additi...

  19. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  20. Statistical security for Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  1. Enhanced Physical-Layer Security through Joint Transmit Antenna Selection and Artificial Noise%增强物理层安全的联合发射天线选择和人工噪声技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓赟; 黄庭金; 朱艳; 范伟

    2014-01-01

    针对未来多天线通信系统的安全问题,提出了一种增强无线物理层安全的传输策略。该策略基于发射天线的选择以及人工噪声,并采用Alamouti编码。它可以使发射机和接收机以较低的复杂度代价提高合法信道的分集增益,同时有效干扰窃听信道,使通信系统获得更高的安全容量。对系统安全容量、天线数量、以及信息信号与人工噪声之间的功率分配等问题进行了研究,仿真结果表明,该传输策略能够有效地增强物理层安全。%In this paper,an enhanced physical layer security communication scheme is proposed for the multiple antenna systems.The scheme employing transmit antenna selection and artificial noise,also Alamouti coding,improved diversity gain in legitimate channel with low complexity in the transmitter and receiver,and at the same time efficiently jammed the wiretap channel.Consequently it can increase the system secrecy capacity.We analyze the system secrecy capacity and the impacts of the number of antennas and the power allocation between the information signal and artificial noise.Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively enhance the physical layer security.

  2. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  3. El futuro de la Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones y la política exterior de España

    OpenAIRE

    Celestino del ARENAL

    1992-01-01

    RESUMEN: La proyección iberoamericana de España es una de las dimensiones claves de su política exterior y, en consecuencia, una de las prioridades de su acción exterior. Sólo asumiendo este hecho, que al mismo tiempo constituye un reto para la futura política exterior española después de 1992, el proyecto de Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones, continuará con su proceso de consolidación y desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The iberoamerican dimension of Spain is one of the key aspects of the Spanish Fore...

  4. Physical layer security scenario using artificial noise in correlation MISO channel%一种基于人工噪声的MISO相关信道物理层安全方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申少君; 黄开枝; 李印海

    2013-01-01

    现有基于人工噪声的物理层安全方法都假设信道是相互独立的,但是多天线通信系统中存在的信道空间相关性会降低系统安全容量.针对这一问题,设计了一种基于人工噪声的多入单出(MISO)相关信道物理层安全方法.通过合法用户信道参数的协方差矩阵得到发送端的信道相关矩阵,利用该矩阵与合法用户信道参数乘积的零空间作为人工噪声的生成空间,随机生成人工噪声对窃听方实现干扰.仿真结果表明,在存在信道空间相关性的情况下,本方法比现有方法的平均系统安全容量提高了约0.5 bit/s/Hz.%Prior work on artificial noise approach of physical layer security has assumed the independency of different channels. However, in a practical multiple antenna system, the spatial correlation among channel taps would decline the security capacity. This paper explored a robust alternative for secure transmission on correlated multiple-input single-output ( MISO) channel based on artificial noise. The channel state information between transmitter and the legitimate user could provide the correlated matrix of the spatial correlation. With the null space of the product of the correlated matrix and channel state information, the transmitter produced random artificial interference to prevent from eavesdropping. The simulation result indicates that the robust method improves the average secure capacity about 0. 5 bit/s/Hz with the proposed method when channel correlation exists.

  5. 关于体育课堂安全问题的策略研究%Research on the Strategies of Security Issues in Physical Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建秾

    2014-01-01

    In the continuous development of sports career today,especially in the face of the classroom teaching of physical education, teacher must adhere to the premise of the“safety first”,to“the development of sports,to enhance the physical fitness of students”as the guiding ideology,to encourage students to strengthen physical exercise,to promote the healthy development of students,so that China’s sports can get better development.%在体育事业不断发展的今天,尤其面对体育课堂教学,教师必须坚持“安全第一”的教育前提,以“发展体育运动,增强学生体质”为指导思想,鼓励学生加强体育锻炼,促进学生身心健康成长,从而使我国的体育事业能够得到更好的发展。

  6. Physical Properties of Spectroscopically-Confirmed Galaxies at $z\\ge6$. III. Stellar Populations from SED Modeling with Secure Ly$\\alpha$ Emission and Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Linhua; Cohen, Seth H; Egami, Eiichi; Windhorst, Rogier A; Fan, Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Mechtley, Matthew; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Clement, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of stellar populations in a sample of spectroscopically-confirmed Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) at $5.7secure redshifts. By incorporating nebular emission estimated from the observed Ly$\\alpha$ flux, we are able to break the strong degeneracy of model spectra between young galaxies with prominent nebular emission and older galaxies with strong Balmer breaks. The results show that our galaxies cover a wide range of ages from several to a few hundred million years (Myr), and a wide range of stellar masses from $\\sim10^8$ to $\\sim10^{11}$ $M_{\\odot}$. These galaxies can be roughly divided into an `old' subsample and a `young' subsample. The `old' subsample consists of galaxies older than 100 Myr,...

  7. Research of the peak-to-average power ratio problem for physical layer security communication system aided by artificial noise%人工噪声辅助物理层安全通信系统峰均比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪涛; 李志鹏

    2016-01-01

    针对人工噪声辅助的物理层安全通信系统发射信号高峰均比问题,分析了不同发射天线条件下发射信号峰均比的互补累积分布以及峰均比问题对于期望接收机通信性能的影响。在不影响系统安全性能的前提下,提出了一种基于噪声子空间旋转不变特性的峰均比优化算法,采用差分遗传算法得到了噪声子空间旋转角度的近似最优解。同时,为了降低峰均比算法工程实现的计算复杂度,给出了一种部分旋转角度的次优算法。仿真结果表明,本文提出的峰均比降低算法能有效地降低人工噪声辅助的物理层安全通信信号高峰均比特性,从而保证期望接收机的通信性能。%To solve the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)problem for the physical layer security com-munication system aided by artificial noise,the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF)of the PAPR problem and the impact of the PAPR problem on the communication performance of the legal user are ana-lyzed.On the premise of keeping the security capacity of this physical layer security communication system,a PAPR reduction algorithm based on the rotation invariant of artificial noise subspace is proposed.The differential genetic algorithm is also employed to obtain the near optimum solution rotation angle of artificial noise subspace. Furthermore,a partial rotation angle sub-optimal algorithm is presented to reduce the computational complexity of the PAPR reduction algorithm.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the PAPR per-formance effectively to guarantee the communication performance of the legal user.

  8. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  9. Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W. Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...

  10. Game Theory Meets Network Security and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Manshaei, Mohammadhossein; Zhu, Quanyan; Alpcan, Tansu; Basar, Tamer; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This survey provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the research contributions that analyze and solve security and privacy problems in computer networks by game-theoretic approaches. A selected set of works are presented to highlight the application of game theory in order to address different forms of security and privacy problems in computer networks and mobile applications. The presented works are classified into six main categories based on their topics: security of the physic...

  11. Securing the energy industry : perspectives in security risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, G.L. [Anadarko Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This presentation offered some perspectives in security risk management as it relates to the energy sector. Since the events of September 11, 2001 much attention has been given to terrorism and the business is reviewing protection strategies. The paper made reference to each of the following vulnerabilities in the energy sector: information technology, globalization, business restructuring, interdependencies, political/regulatory change, and physical/human factors. The vulnerability of information technology is that it can be subject to cyber and virus attacks. Dangers of globalization lie in privacy and information security, forced nationalization, organized crime, and anti-globalization efforts. It was noted that the Y2K phenomenon provided valuable lessons regarding interdependencies and the effects of power outages, water availability, transportation disruption, common utility corridor accidents, and compounding incidents. The paper also noted the conflict between the government's desire to have a resilient infrastructure that can withstand and recover from attacks versus a company's ability to afford this capability. The physical/human factors that need to be considered in risk management include crime, domestic terrorism, and disasters such as natural disasters, industrial disasters and crisis. The energy industry has geographically dispersed vulnerable systems. It has done a fair job of physical security and has good emergency management practices, but it was noted that the industry cannot protect against all threats. A strategy of vigilance and awareness is needed to deal with threats. Other strategies include contingency planning, physical security, employee communication, and emergency response plans. tabs., figs.

  12. Information security becoming a priority for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaides, S. [Numerex, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    As part of North America's national critical infrastructure, utilities are finding themselves at the forefront of a security issue. In October 2007, a leading security service provider reported a 90 per cent increase in the number of hackers attempting to attack its utility clients in just one year. Utilities are vulnerable to cyber attacks that could disrupt power production and the transmission system. This article discussed the need for intelligent technologies in securely enabling resource management and operational efficiency of the utilities market. It discussed the unique security challenges that utilities face at a time of greater regulatory activity, heightened environmental concerns, tighter data security requirements and an increasing need for remote monitoring and control. A new tool has emerged for cyber security in the form of an international standard that may offer a strong guideline to work toward 11 security domains. These include security policy; organization of information security; asset management; human resources security; physical and environmental security; communications and operations management; access control; information systems acquisition; development and maintenance; information security incident management; business continuity management; and compliance. 2 figs.

  13. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  14. La política exterior de Canadá y la sociedad civil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    En la ponencia se analizará la proyección de la politica exterior canadiense y la participación de la sociedad civil en su diseño. Se abordarán los temas de la cooperación internacional de Canada, la participación en Operaciones de Paz de Naciones Unidas, la disfusión de la democracia, su proyección hacia América Latina y la Argentina, y las IED canadienses. Una faceta importante en el análisis será la vincualción con los Estados Unidos y los cambios que se pueden dar en la politica exterior ...

  15. Posmodernismo y constructivismo: su utilidad para analizar la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvajal H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior colombiana tradicionalmente ha sido diseñada y ejecutada de manera reactiva e improvisada, sin mayores reflexiones teóricas y conceptuales sobre el entorno internacional en el que se desarrolla, ni sobre las variables que la afectan, los objetivos que busca, ni en relación con las herramientas con las que se construirá dicha política pública. Este artículo presenta, en forma sucinta, los planteamientos de las teorías del posmodernismo y el constructivismo en relaciones internacionales, y reflexiona sobre el poder explicativo que tales marcos conceptuales tienen en la política exterior de Colombia.

  16. La evolución de la política exterior China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad, que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: el comunismo, el nacionalismo y el pragmatismo. A modo de conclusión se subraya que, a pesar de sus vaivenes, la política exterior de Pekín ha mantenido tres objetivos fundamentales en las últimas siete décadas: modernización, reconocimiento internacional como gran potencia y reunificación nacional.

  17. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  18. OS IMPACTOS MACROECONÔMICOS DOS INVESTIMENTOS BRASILEIROS DIRETOS NO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Augusto Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A globalização produtiva tem gerado importantes debates sobre as implicações da mesma. Nesse sentido, quais seriam as conseqüências para a nação do investimento das empresas domésticas no exterior? Tal pergunta não possui evidências empíricas robustas que corroborem um ou outro ponto de vista. Assim, o presente artigo objetiva investigar, por meio de uma abordagem econométrica, os impactos dos Investimentos Diretos Brasileiros no Exterior (IDBE sobre algumas das principais variáveis macroeconômicas brasileiras. Os resultados mostraram que o IDBE tem impactos estatisticamente significantes sobre o PIB, Investimento doméstico, Saldo na Balança de Capitais e Importações. Tais resultados convergem ao encontrado por alguns trabalhos presentes na literatura.

  19. Importance of location and exterior of city hotels as elements of guest satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavčević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business practices and attitudes of tourists show that hospitality represents the primary factor in the development of urban tourism. It is considered that, besides the exclusive appearance, there is no business success for hotel properties without a proper location. It is known that a typical tourist would like to be close enough to tourist attractions, to be able to reach them on foot. This paper deals with the importance of location and exterior of urban hotels on guests decision on the selection and overall satisfaction with hotel products. The survey was conducted in the hotels two largest urban centers in Serbia (Belgrade and Novi Sad. The aim of the research is an insight into the real impact of location and exterior when assessing the guest satisfaction. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical data processing.

  20. Physical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  1. Energy decay for solutions to semilinear systems of elastic waves in exterior domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio V. Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamical system of elasticity in the exterior of a bounded open domain in 3-D with smooth boundary. We prove that under the effect of "weak" dissipation, the total energy decays at a uniform rate as $t o +infty$, provided the initial data is "small" at infinity. No assumptions on the geometry of the obstacle are required. The results are then applied to a semilinear problem proving global existence and decay for small initial data.

  2. La evolución de la política exterior China

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad), que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: e...

  3. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  4. O lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO PAUTASSO

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do presente artigo de conjuntura é compreender o lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro. O argumento proposto é que a condição da China de maior parceiro comercial do Brasil representa mais do que uma mudança de hierarquia, mas transformações nas relações bilaterais e no próprio sistema internacional.

  5. Comparative analysis of urethane-alkyd and water based coatings for exterior wood

    OpenAIRE

    Jaić, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The protection of wood elements in the exterior use, such as window frames and doors, can be performed with various type of coatings. The most diffused in use are conventional coatings – solvent-based (alkyd, modified alkyds etc.). Last years, because of the restrictive normative regarding the solvent emission, the trend of coatings development leads to the reduction of volatile organic components. Organic solvents are reduced or substituted by environmentally safer solvents such as water or ...

  6. Classical geometries defined by exterior differential systems on higher frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.; Wahlquist, Hugo D.

    1989-01-01

    Exterior differential ideals are discussed, and sets of invariant generators presented, for Reimannian, conformal and projective geometries, and for specializations such as Ricci-flat, self-dual and Einstein-Maxwell theories. The Cartan characteristic integers are explicitly calculated, and involutory basis forms found, for each of these (specialized to four dimensions), exposing their algebraic structure and showing how they generate well-posed sets of partial differential equations.

  7. Investigación - Colombia y las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación pone en evidencia las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior en Colombia para hacer frente al reto exportador. Así, el documento dará claridad al gremio, mostrando las alternativas de financiamiento y apoyo no económico para poder aprovechar las oportunidades que brindan los tratados de libre comercio, y otros acuerdos comerciales que tiene Colombia.

  8. On certain realizations of the q-deformed exterior differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Richard; Abramov, Viktor

    1999-04-01

    We investigate two particular realizations of a q-deformed differential calculus at q being a primitive root of unity, qN = 1. Particular attention is paid to the Z3-graded case N = 3. First we construct an analogue of the exterior differential calculus on a manifold, then we introduce a discrete realization of such a calculus on generalized Clifford algebras. Finally, combining both constructions, we discuss a ZN-graded generalization of gauge theory.

  9. Black Holes in the Framework of the Metric Tensor Exterior to the Sun and Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E.N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the Sun and oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system to reduce to black holes is investigated. The metric tensor exterior to oblate spheroidal masses indicates that for the Sun to reduce to a black hole, its mass must condense by a factor of 2 : 32250 10 5 . Using Schwarzschild’s metric, this factor is obtained as 2 : 3649 10 5 . Similar results are obtained for oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system.

  10. Security Verification of Secure MANET Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    the destination. The route discovery phase is complete upon receipt of the RREP at the requesting node. The DYMO protocol is a simpler version of AODV ...described in this appendix. The protocols are Secure AODV (SAODV), Secure Efficient Distance Vector (SEAD), and Secure Link State Routing Protocol (SLSP...SECURITY VERIFICATION OF SECURE MANET ROUTING PROTOCOLS THESIS Matthew F. Steele, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/12-03 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR

  11. Security for small computer systems a practical guide for users

    CERN Document Server

    Saddington, Tricia

    1988-01-01

    Security for Small Computer Systems: A Practical Guide for Users is a guidebook for security concerns for small computers. The book provides security advice for the end-users of small computers in different aspects of computing security. Chapter 1 discusses the security and threats, and Chapter 2 covers the physical aspect of computer security. The text also talks about the protection of data, and then deals with the defenses against fraud. Survival planning and risk assessment are also encompassed. The last chapter tackles security management from an organizational perspective. The bo

  12. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  13. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Gašparović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32. Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  14. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, Mateo; Jurjević, Luka

    2017-02-18

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32). Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  15. La Política Exterior de Rusia en Oriente Medio. ¿Continuidad o Cambio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pérez del Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El recorrido histórico por la política exterior de la URSS/Rusia hacia Oriente Medio en el último siglo presenta una línea de continuidad, apenas alterada por las dinámicas espacio-temporales vividas por el país. Rusia ha ejecutado una política exterior más orientada a responder a los movimientos norteamericanos en la región que a consolidar una presencia activa, de iniciativas propias. Sin embargo, la situación creada tras los levantamientos de 2011 y el conflicto sirio le han permitido a Moscú recuperar una activa presencia regional en temas político-militares y obtener ventajas económicas y comerciales. Con una limitada intervención militar en Siria, Rusia ha consolidado su posición mundial de gran jugador estratégico, y ha obtenido unas ventajas político-diplomáticas que le permiten ejecutar una política exterior dictada por el carácter instrumental de sus propios intereses.

  16. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  17. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  18. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  19. Towards a cyber security aware rural community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available communities, but the current focus has been in the rural areas. The program takes on an informal work session approach with presentations and discussion sessions. The cyber security awareness program modules are divided into four main themes: physical security...

  20. Advance Achieved for Global Secure Quantum Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In today's Information Age, the protection of information is of .critical importance for national security, business firms, and private individuals. The common long-distance communication technology is poor in keeping privacy as it is vulnerable to eavesdropping. Quantum cryptography, a new approach to communication based on certain phenomena of quantum physics, is considered the absolute secure method in this regard.

  1. The (social) construction of information security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    While the philosophical foundations of information security have been unexamined, there is an implicit philosophy of what protection of information is. This philosophy is based on the notion of containment, taken from analogies with things that offer physical security (e.g., buildings, safes,

  2. E-Commerce Privacy and Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is a public networks consisting of thousand of private computer network connected together. Private computer network system is exposed to potential threats from anywhere on the public network. In physical world, crimes often leave evidence finger prints, footprints, witnesses, video on security comes and so on. Online a cyber –crimes, also leaves physical, electronic evidence, but unless good security measures are taken, it may be difficult to trace the source of cyber crime. In certain e-commerce-related areas, such as networking, data transfer and data storage, researchers applied scanning and testing methods, modeling analysis to detect potential risks .In the Security system ,Questions are related to online security in which given options are Satisfied, Unsatisfied ,Neutral, Yes, No. and weak password , Strong password. it is revealed that it is quite difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that which online security is best. Online security provide the flexibility, efficiency of work, provide the better security of net banking . The main feature of the research that the data is safe in banking management for long time and open any account after along time. The Future scope of the study of Security is use to reduce threats. Security is used in the long run results in the reduction of number of branches, saying rentals of related and properties. If the better Security operate than net banking and emarketing will be increase.

  3. Los mecanismos multilaterales como instrumento de la proyección española en el exterior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracia Abad

    2014-01-01

    ... de la Transición Política. Desde entonces, España ha tratado de incrementar su presencia en organizaciones internacionales y mecanismos multilaterales como forma de ejecutar su política exterior...

  4. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  5. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  6. Computer Security: the security marathon, part 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Do you recall our latest article on the “Security Marathon” (see here) and why it’s wrong to believe that computer security is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug-fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is a good idea, that once you are secure, your life is cosy?   In fact, security is a marathon for us too. Again and again, we have felt comfortable with the security situation at CERN, with dedicated protections deployed on individual hosts, with the security measures deployed by individual service managers, with the attentiveness and vigilance of our users, and with the responsiveness of the Management. Again and again, however, we subsequently detect or receive reports that this is wrong, that protections are incomplete, that security measures are incomplete, that security awareness has dropped. Thus, unfortunately, we often have to go back to square one and address similar issues over and over...

  7. Securing mobile code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called &apos

  8. Peace, Security, Globalisation & Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for a positive, comprehensive conception of peace that goes beyond the mere absence of war and a more integrated conception of human security that encompasses a wider range of issues than threats of physical violence. Education is one of humanity’s most effective social institutions for redirecting the violent physical energies of destruction into higher avenues of civilization and culture as an instrument of conscious social evolution. Organization is knowledge of higher accomplishment. Organization has the power to vastly accelerate and multiply the potentials of education for the promotion of peace and security. Peace and Security have a mutually reinforcing effect on each other in the sense that peace results in security while security results in peace. Physical violence eventually led to the development of the knowledge needed for the avoidance of violence by means of diplomacy, trade and cultural exchanges, marking the beginning of the transition from the physical to the mental level of evolution. Trade requires travel, transport, human interaction, exchange, trust with respect to products, and reliable mechanisms for the exchange of a stable currency that can only be effectively founded on an enduring peace that generates confidence among the traders. Isolated communities evolve a communal consciousness as they mature into organized social units founded on shared customs and culture, which later develop into a common legal framework. What began as diplomacy so many centuries ago has now evolved into a near universal recognition of fundamental human rights and the rule of law. The evolution of diplomacy in previous centuries is the foundation for the remarkable betterment of human life witnessed in recent times. The world is in the process of evolving a unifying global culture founded on universal values and recognition of the rich contributions of different cultures to humanity’s progress. As physical force once

  9. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  10. Security Requirements Reusability and the SQUARE Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    creation of SQUARE. Section 3 briefly describes the SQUARE metho - dology. Section 4 presents an argument for reuse in security requirements...be per- formed for each request. physical protection. Secure systems must be protected not only from electronic attack but also physical threats...this is often cost ver- sus benefit. Various other options are explored in SQUARE case studies, including triage, Win- Win, and mathematical models

  11. Design of Millimeter Wave Physical Layer Security in 5 G Multi Antenna System%5G多天线系统中毫米波物理层安全设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆民; 龚家乐; 曾桂根; 刘传顺

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional Multiple Input Multiple Output (3D MIMO) is one of potential techniques to improve coverage and spec-trum efficiency of 5G networks. Three-dimensional channel model (3D SCM),as an important part of 3D MIMO technology,has the ad-ditional vertical dimension of freedom compared with Two-dimensional channel model (2D SCM). The effect of 3D SCM to the physi-cal layer security design is discussed in this paper where mmWave communications are considered. Firstly it outlines the 2D SCM and the 3D SCM model,and then by using the mmWave path loss models,analyzes the effect on security capacity of 5G mmWave communica-tions systems based on 3D SCM. In this paper,the 1. 9 GHz band and two millimeter wave frequency bands,28 GHz and 73 GHz,are used, and the two path loss models are introduced. Finally the secure capacity performance of the millimeter-wave communication scheme is eval-uated by using computer simulations under the different carrier frequencies and different base station downtilts. The results show that com-pared with traditional 2D SCM,the security capacity of 3D SCM has a certain increase under the 28 GHz band and the 73 GHz band. Mean-while,right adjustment of the base station antenna array tilt angle can also be benefit to optimize the security capacity of the desired user.%三维MIMO(3D Multiple Input Multiple Output,3D MIMO)技术是一种提高第5代( The Fifth Generation,5G)无线网络覆盖和频谱效率的潜在技术。三维信道空间模型(Three-Dimensional SCM,3D SCM)作为3D MIMO技术的一部分,它在2D SCM的基础上增加了垂直维自由度。在考虑毫米波段传输方案基础上,文中重点探讨了3D SCM对物理层安全设计的影响。首先简述了2D SCM和3D SCM模型,接着基于毫米波段路径损耗模型,主要研究3D SCM如何影响毫米波段的安全容量。文中采用1.9 GHz频段和28 GHz及73 GHz两个毫米波频段,引入相应的路径损耗模型,最后在不同载波频率以及基站

  12. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  13. Information Systems Security Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  14. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  15. Security by Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    1993-01-01

    School districts across the country are taking measures in the design and renovation of school buildings that will protect students and staff members. Exterior and interior design possibilities are listed. Schools are also advised to have a districtwide crisis intervention plan, a school safety plan, and an annual safety audit. (MLF)

  16. 放大转发中继网络中绿色的物理层安全通信技术%Green Communications Based on Physical-layer Security for Amplify-and-forward Relay Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 李永成; 白铂; 王满喜

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a green communication scheme based on physical layer security is addressed considering the energy and secrecy constraints. This scheme maximizes the secure Energy Efficiency (EE) of the network by power allocation subject to the maximum power constraint of each node and the target secrecy rate constraint of the network. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm for power allocation is developed based on fractional programming, dual decomposition, and Difference of Convex functions (DC) programming. It is verified by simulations that the proposed algorithm can lead to a significant gain of secure EE yet with some loss of secrecy rate compared with secrecy rate maximization. This is because that there is an inherent tradeoff between EE and secrecy. However, the achievable secrecy rate of the proposed scheme is still superior over that of total transmission power minimization.%该文基于物理层安全理论,针对能量受限的无线中继网络提出一种绿色的保密通信方案。该方案在节点功率约束和系统最小目标保密速率要求下,通过最优功率控制实现系统的安全能效最大化,并基于分式规划、对偶分解和DC(Difference of Convex functions)规划理论提出了一种迭代的功率分配算法。通过仿真比较,能效优化可以显著提升系统的安全能效,然而相对于保密速率最大化会有一定保密速率损失,这是由于能效和保密之间存在固有的折中。但是,能效优化的保密速率仍然大于发送总功率最小化的保密速率。

  17. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  18. Conducting an information security audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D . Gheorghe Popescu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and dramatic advances in information technology (IT in recent years have withoutquestion generated tremendous benefits. At the same time, information technology has created significant,nunprecedented risks to government and to entities operations. So, computer security has become muchmore important as all levels of government and entities utilize information systems security measures toavoid data tampering, fraud, disruptions in critical operations, and inappropriate disclosure of sensitiveinformation. Obviously, uses of computer security become essential in minimizing the risk of malicious attacksfrom individuals and groups, considering that there are many current computer systems with onlylimited security precautions in place.As we already know financial audits are the most common examinations that a business manager en-counters.This is a familiar area for most executives: they know that financial auditors are going to examine the financial records and how those records are used. They may even be familiar with physical securityaudits. However, they are unlikely to be acquainted with information security audits; that is an audit ofhow the confidentiality, availability and integrity of an organization’s information are assured. Any way,if not, they should be, especially that an information security audit is one of the best ways to determine thesecurity of an organization’s information without incurring the cost and other associated damages of a securityincident.

  19. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.

  20. Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, George; Perkins, Casey J.; Lancaster, Mary J.; MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Patrick, Scott W.; Key, Bradley Robert

    2015-07-28

    Computer-implemented security evaluation methods, security evaluation systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one aspect, a computer-implemented security evaluation method includes accessing information regarding a physical architecture and a cyber architecture of a facility, building a model of the facility comprising a plurality of physical areas of the physical architecture, a plurality of cyber areas of the cyber architecture, and a plurality of pathways between the physical areas and the cyber areas, identifying a target within the facility, executing the model a plurality of times to simulate a plurality of attacks against the target by an adversary traversing at least one of the areas in the physical domain and at least one of the areas in the cyber domain, and using results of the executing, providing information regarding a security risk of the facility with respect to the target.