WorldWideScience

Sample records for exterior physical security

  1. Robotic security vehicle for exterior environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarer, P.R.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a current effort at Sandia National Labs to develop an outdoor robotic vehicle capable of performing limited security functions autonomously in a structured environment. The present stage of development entails application of algorithms originally developed for the SIR vehicle to a testbed vehicle more appropriate to an outdoor environment. The current effort will culminate in a full scale demonstration of autonomous navigation capabilities on routine patrol and teleoperation by a human operator for alarm assessment and response. Various schemes for implementation of the robot system are discussed, as are plans for further development of the system

  2. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  3. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  4. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  5. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Govern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  6. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Work Models in the Design Process for House Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Uherek-Bradecka, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on different types of models of single family houses and multifamily houses. Exterior layout and interior functional layout are the main drivers for the final result of a design. Models are an important medium for presentation of architectural designs and play a pivotal role in explaining the first idea to people and potential clients. Although 3D models have unlimited possibilities of representation, some people cannot understand or ‘feel’ the designed space. The authors try to test how to combine the interior and the exterior in a single synthetic model. Several models of different houses have been presented in the article. All the case studies were developed with physical models, 3D models, and 2D hand sketches. The main focus of the work with the models was to achieve a coherent vision for future feeling of open space in designed houses. The research shows how synthetic models might be helpful in the design process. The research was carried in the URBAN model research group (urbanmodel.org, Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architects. The models reflect architectural experience gathered by the authors during their work on theoretical models, architectural projects and by supervision on site during construction site visits. Conclusions might be helpful for developers, architects, interior designers and architecture students.

  8. Physical security at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Of the 84 non-power research facilities licensed under 10 CFR Part 50, 73 are active (two test reactors, 68 research reactors and three critical facilities) and are required by 10 CFR Part 73.40 to provide physical protection against theft of SNM and against industrial sabotage. Each licensee has developed a security plan required by 10 CFR Part 50.34(c) to demonstrate the means of compliance with the applicable requirements of 10 CFR Part 73. In 1974, the Commission provided interim guidance for the organization and content of security plans for (a) test reactors, (b) medium power research and training reactors, and (c) low power research and training reactors. Eleven TRIGA reactors, with power levels greater than 250 kW and all other research and training reactors with power levels greater than 100 kW and less than or equal to 5,000 kW are designated as medium power research and training reactors. Thirteen TRIGA reactors with authorized power levels less than 250 kW are considered to be low power research and training reactors. Additional guidance for complying with the requirements of 73.50 and 73.60, if applicable, is provided in the Commission's Regulatory Guides. The Commission's Office of Inspection and Enforcement inspects each licensed facility to assure that an approved security plan is properly implemented with appropriate procedures and physical protection systems

  9. 32 CFR 700.826 - Physical security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical security. 700.826 Section 700.826... Commanding Officers in General § 700.826 Physical security. (a) The commanding officer shall take appropriate... officer shall take action to protect and maintain the security of the command against dangers from fire...

  10. Physical security technology base programs for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is the US Department of Energy's lead laboratory for physical security research and development (R and D). In support of this mission, Sandia has maintained for several years an R and D program in each of the following technology areas: Intrusion Detection, Entry Control, CCTV Assessment, Access Delay, Alarm Display, and Guard Equipment and Training. The purpose of the technology base programs is to maintain cognizance of the capabilities of the commercial market, identify improvements and transfer technology to industry and facilities. The output of these programs supports the development of new equipment and advanced system concepts, demonstrations of proof-of-principles and system implementation. This paper will review the status of current developments and discuss trends in new technologies which are being explored for future applications, i.e., artificial intelligence, expert systems, robotics, and more automated systems

  11. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostel, R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  12. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  13. Physical security of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, H.

    1987-01-01

    A serious problem with present security systems at nuclear facilities is that the threats and standards prepared by the NRC and DOE are general, and the field offices are required to develop their own local threats and, on that basis, to prepared detailed specifications for security systems at sites in their jurisdiction. As a result, the capabilities of the systems vary across facilities. Five steps in particular are strongly recommended as corrective measures: 1. Those agencies responsible for civil nuclear facilities should jointly prepare detailed threat definitions, operational requirements, and equipment specifications to protect generic nuclear facilities, and these matters should be issued as policy. The agencies should provide sufficient detail to guide the design of specific security systems and to identify candidate components. 2. The DOE, NRC, and DOD should explain to Congress why government-developed security and other military equipment are not used to upgrade existing security systems and to stock future ones. 3. Each DOE and NRC facility should be assessed to determine the impact on the size of the guard force and on warning time when personnel-detecting radars and ground point sensors are installed. 4. All security guards and technicians should be investigated for the highest security clearance, with reinvestigations every four years. 5. The processes and vehicles used in intrafacility transport of nuclear materials should be evaluated against a range of threats and attack scenarios, including violent air and vehicle assaults. All of these recommendations are feasible and cost-effective. The appropriate congressional subcommittees should direct that they be implemented as soon as possible

  14. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  15. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-01-01

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R and D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  16. Security analysis of cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, Cyber-Physical System (CPS) has become an important research direction of academic circles and scientific and technological circles at home and abroad, is considered to be following the third wave of world information technology after the computer, the Internet. PS is a multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, deep integration of open systems, Involving the computer, communication, control and other disciplines of knowledge. As the various disciplines in the research theory and methods are significantly different, so the application of CPS has brought great challenges. This paper introduces the definition and characteristics of CPS, analyzes the current situation of CPS, analyzes the security threats faced by CPS, and gives the security solution for security threats. It also discusses CPS-specific security technology, to promote the healthy development of CPS in information security.

  17. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  18. Quantum photonic network and physical layer security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masahide; Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Toyoshima, Morio

    2017-08-06

    Quantum communication and quantum cryptography are expected to enhance the transmission rate and the security (confidentiality of data transmission), respectively. We study a new scheme which can potentially bridge an intermediate region covered by these two schemes, which is referred to as quantum photonic network. The basic framework is information theoretically secure communications in a free space optical (FSO) wiretap channel, in which an eavesdropper has physically limited access to the main channel between the legitimate sender and receiver. We first review a theoretical framework to quantify the optimal balance of the transmission efficiency and the security level under power constraint and at finite code length. We then present experimental results on channel characterization based on 10 MHz on-off keying transmission in a 7.8 km terrestrial FSO wiretap channel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  20. Dod physical security equipment application experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the Department of Defense, the subject of physical security is very broad in scope. Its application ranges from countering the shoplifters in the post exchange facilities to the sophisticated terrorist who may attempt to obtain access to one of our nuclear weapons. This paper focuses on the area of specific interest to the members of INMM which is the protection of nuclear devices and the classified information associated with them

  1. Wireless Physical Layer Security with CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have been marked by an enormous growth of wireless communication networks and an extensive use of wireless applications. In return, this phenomenal expansion induced more concerns about the privacy and the security of the users. Physical layer security is one of the most promising solutions that were proposed to enhance the security of next generation wireless systems. The fundamental idea behind this technique is to exploit the randomness and the fluctuations of the wireless channel to achieve security without conditional assumptions on the computational capabilities of the eavesdropper. In fact, while these elements have traditionally been associated with signal deterioration, physical layer security uses them to ensure the confidentiality of the users. Nevertheless, these technical virtues rely heavily on perhaps idealistic channel state information assumptions. In that regard, the aim of this thesis is to look at the physical layer security paradigm from the channel uncertainty perspective. In particular, we discuss the ergodic secrecy capacity of different wiretap channels when the transmitter is hampered by the imperfect knowledge of the channel state information (CSI). We consider two prevalent causes of uncertainty for the CSI at transmitter (CSIT); either an error of estimation occurs at the transmitter and he can only base his coding and the transmission strategies on a noisy version of the CSI, or the CSI feedback link has a limited capacity and the legitimate receivers can only inform the transmitter about the quantized CSI. We investigate both the single-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel and the multi-user broadcast wiretap channel. In the latter scenario, we distinguish between two situations: multiple messages transmission and common message transmission. We also discuss the broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCCM) where the transmitter has one common message to be transmitted to two users and one

  2. Video motion detection for physical security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matter, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Physical security specialists have been attracted to the concept of video motion detection for several years. Claimed potential advantages included additional benefit from existing video surveillance systems, automatic detection, improved performance compared to human observers, and cost-effectiveness. In recent years, significant advances in image-processing dedicated hardware and image analysis algorithms and software have accelerated the successful application of video motion detection systems to a variety of physical security applications. Early video motion detectors (VMDs) were useful for interior applications of volumetric sensing. Success depended on having a relatively well-controlled environment. Attempts to use these systems outdoors frequently resulted in an unacceptable number of nuisance alarms. Currently, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing several advanced systems that employ image-processing techniques for a broader set of safeguards and security applications. The Target Cueing and Tracking System (TCATS), the Video Imaging System for Detection, Tracking, and Assessment (VISDTA), the Linear Infrared Scanning Array (LISA); the Mobile Intrusion Detection and Assessment System (MIDAS), and the Visual Artificially Intelligent Surveillance (VAIS) systems are described briefly

  3. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jianchao

    2018-01-09

    In this correspondence, we investigate the physical layer security for cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems, where both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) protocols are considered. More specifically, some analytical expressions are derived for secrecy outage probability (SOP) and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC). Results show that AF and DF almost achieve the same secrecy performance. Moreover, asymptotic results demonstrate that the SOP tends to a constant at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, our results show that the secrecy performance of considered NOMA systems is independent of the channel conditions between the relay and the poor user.

  4. History of physical security R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myre, W.C.; De Montmollin, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Serious concern about physical protection of nuclear facilities began around 1972. R and D was initiated at Sandia National Laboratory which had developed techniques to protect weapons for many years. Special vehicles, convoy procedures, and a communications system previously developed for weapons shipments were improved and extended for shipments of other sensitive materials. Barriers, perimeter alarms, portal and internal control systems were developed, tested, and published in handbooks and presented at symposia. Training programs were initiated for U.S. and foreign personnel. Containment and surveillance techniques were developed for the IAEA. Presently emphasis is on computer security, active barriers, and techniques to prevent theft or sabotage by ''insiders''

  5. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative NOMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jianchao; Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this correspondence, we investigate the physical layer security for cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) systems, where both amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) protocols are considered. More specifically, some analytical expressions are derived for secrecy outage probability (SOP) and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC). Results show that AF and DF almost achieve the same secrecy performance. Moreover, asymptotic results demonstrate that the SOP tends to a constant at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Finally, our results show that the secrecy performance of considered NOMA systems is independent of the channel conditions between the relay and the poor user.

  6. Physical protection educational program - information security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstoy, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Conceptual approaches for designing an expert training program on object physical protection taking into account information security aspects are examined. A special educational course does not only address the immediate needs for an educational support but also ensures that new professionals include new concepts and knowledge in their practice and encourages current practitioners towards such practice. Features of the modern physical protection systems (PPS) and classification of information circulating at them are pointed out. The requirements to the PPS information protection subsystem are discussed. During the PPS expert training on information security (IS) aspects they should receive certain knowledge, on the basis of which they could competently define and carry out the PPS IS policy for a certain object. Thus, it is important to consider minimally necessary volume of knowledge taught to the PPS experts for independent and competent implementation of the above listed tasks. For the graduate PPS IS expert training it is also necessary to examine the normative and legal acts devoted to IS as a whole and the PPS IS in particular. It is caused by necessity of conformity of methods and information protection tools implemented on a certain object to the federal and departmental IS requirements. The departmental normative IS requirements define an orientation of the PPS expert training. By curriculum development it is necessary to precisely determine for whom the PPS experts are taught. The curriculum should reflect common features of the PPS functioning of the certain object type, i.e. it should be adapted to a certain customer of the experts. The specified features were taken into account by development of an educational course 'Information security of the nuclear facility physical protection systems', taught at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) according to the Russian-American educational program 'Master in Physical

  7. Audit Teknologiinformasiatas Physical Security Control Dan Logical Security Control Serta Penentuan Kondisi Security Risk Studi Kasus: PT Talc Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Inggrid; Arfianti, Rizka I; Utami, Viany

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The fast growth of technology has an impact to the accounting field. This relates to the term of information technology (17) auditing. One of the risI6 of using information technology in business which can be fatal enough i fignored is security risk Security risk can be reduced by security controls which include physical security control and logical security contra Information technology auditing is the process of collecting and evaluating evidence to determine whether or not a co...

  8. Security Games for Cyber-Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Bruni, Alessandro; Yuksel, Ender

    2013-01-01

    The development of quantitative security analyses that consider both active attackers and reactive defenders is a main challenge in the design of trustworthy Cyber-Physical Systems. We propose a game-theoretic approach where it is natural to model attacker’s and defender’s actions explicitly......, associating costs to attacks and countermeasures. Cost considerations enable to contrast different strategies on the basis of their effectiveness and efficiency, paving the way to a multi-objective notion of optimality. Moreover, the framework allows expressing the probabilistic nature of the environment...... and of the attack detection process. Finally, a solver is presented to compute strategies and their costs, resorting to a recent combination of strategy iteration with linear programming....

  9. SOR/84-81, Physical Security Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Physical Security Regulations of 14 January 1983 which establish regulations concerning security systems, equipment and procedures at nuclear installations were amended in particular to take account of Canada's Charter of Rights and to provide for the security of certain information. (NEA)

  10. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  11. Cyber-Physical Systems Security: a Systematic Mapping Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lun, Yuriy Zacchia; D'Innocenzo, Alessandro; Malavolta, Ivano; Di Benedetto, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Due to the tight cyber-physical coupling and to the potentially disrupting consequences of failures, security here is one of the primary concerns. Our systematic mapping study sheds some light on how security is actually addressed when dealing with cyber-physical systems. The provided systematic map of 118 selected studies is based on, for instance, application fields, various system components, relate...

  12. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.; Phillips, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers

  13. On exterior variational calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exterior variational calculus is introduced through examples in field theory. It provides a very simple technique to decide on the existence of Lagrangians for given equations of motions and, in the case, to find them. Only local aspects are discussed but the analogy to exterior calculus on finite dimensional manifolds is complete, strongly suggesting its suitability to the study of topological aspects. (Author) [pt

  14. Physical layer approaches for securing wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This book surveys the outstanding work of physical-layer (PHY) security, including  the recent achievements of confidentiality and authentication for wireless communication systems by channel identification. A practical approach to building unconditional confidentiality for Wireless Communication security by feedback and error correcting code is introduced and a framework of PHY security based on space time block code (STBC) MIMO system is demonstrated.  Also discussed is a scheme which combines cryptographic techniques implemented in the higher layer with the physical layer security approach

  15. Wireless Physical Layer Security with CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have been marked by an enormous growth of wireless communication networks and an extensive use of wireless applications. In return, this phenomenal expansion induced more concerns about the privacy and the security of the users

  16. Physical security technologies for weapons complex reconfiguration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was a member of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S ampersand S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration. The physical security systems in the new and upgraded facilities being considered for the WCR had to meet DOE orders and other requirements set forth in the WCR Programmatic Design Criteria (PDC), incorporate the latest physical security technologies using proven state-of-the-art systems and meet fundamental security principles. The outcome was to avoid costly retrofits and provide effective and comprehensive protection against current and projected threats with minimal impact on operations, costs and schedule. Physical security requirements for WCR facilities include: (1) reducing S ampersand S life-cycle costs, (2) where feasible automating S ampersand S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, (3) increasing the amount of delay to outsider adversary attack, (4) compartmentalizing the facility to minimize the number of personnel requiring access to critical areas and (5) having reliable and maintainable systems. To be most effective against threats physical security must be integrated with facility operations, safety and other S ampersand S activities, such as material control and accountability, nuclear measurements and computer and information security. This paper will discuss the S ampersand S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical security technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed

  17. Future role of AI/Robotics in physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1986-01-01

    Manpower requirements for physical security systems place a heavy burden on operating security budgets. Technology innovations which free personnel or which make security personnel more efficient in carrying out their tasks is an important means of dealing with budget and manpower constraints. It is believed that AI/Robotics will be important technologies to alleviate these problems in the future. There are three types of applications for AI and Robotics technology that may: (l) help security personnel perform their tasks more effectively or efficiently, (2) perform tasks that security personnel would otherwise perform (free up people), and (3) perform tasks that cannot be performed by security personnel at this time. This paper discusses the various types of security applications that are presently being considered for the above areas and briefly describes a few examples of the application of this technology

  18. Cognitive Security of Wireless Communication Systems in the Physical Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Harun Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the wireless communication systems provide the means of connectivity nearly everywhere and all the time, communication security requires more attention. Even though current efforts provide solutions to specific problems under given circumstances, these methods are neither adaptive nor flexible enough to provide security under the dynamic conditions which make the security breaches an important concern. In this paper, a cognitive security (CS concept for wireless communication systems in the physical layer is proposed with the aim of providing a comprehensive solution to wireless security problems. The proposed method will enable the comprehensive security to ensure a robust and reliable communication in the existence of adversaries by providing adaptive security solutions in the communication systems by exploiting the physical layer security from different perspective. The adaptiveness relies on the fact that radio adapts its propagation characteristics to satisfy secure communication based on specific conditions which are given as user density, application specific adaptation, and location within CS concept. Thus, instead of providing any type of new security mechanism, it is proposed that radio can take the necessary precautions based on these conditions before the attacks occur. Various access scenarios are investigated to enable the CS while considering these conditions.

  19. Application of smart cards in physical and information security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreifus, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    Smart Cards, integrated circuits embedded into credit cards, have been proposed for many computer and physical security applications. The cards have shown promise in improving both the security and monitoring of systems ranging from computer network identification through physical protection and access control. With the increasing computational power embedded within these cards, advanced encryption techniques such as public key cryptography can now be realized, enabling more sophisticated uses

  20. RFID security : cryptography and physics perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guajardo, J.; Tuyls, P.T.; Bird, N.; Conrado, C.; Maubach, S.; Schrijen, G.J.; Skoric, B.; Tombeur, A.M.H.; Thueringer, P.; Kitsos, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of mechanisms that are cheap to implement or integrate into RFID tags and that at the same time enhance their security and privacy properties. We emphasize solutions that make use of existing (or expected) functionality on the tag or that are inherently cheap

  1. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  2. SOR/83-77, Physical Security Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These Regulations establish and require the maintenance of security systems, equipment and procedures to implement Canada's international obligations regarding security at those nuclear facilities. The Regulations, which determine the different areas in a nuclear facility, provide for the establishment of security barriers around the ''protected areas'' occupied by facilities and prescribe that the licensees (operators) are required to keep the facilities for which they hold a licence under constant surveillance. They must also make arrangements for a response force - a local, provincial or federal police force detachment or similar force - to provide assistance where necessary. No person may enter a protected area without written authorization from the licensee concerned. Inspectors appointed under the Atomic Energy Control Regulations or designated under an agreement between Canada and the IAEA may be granted an authorization to enter such areas to discharge their duties. The Regulations have been amended by SOR/84-81 of 12 January 1988 to add certain requirements concerning documentary evidence and the duties of the board; by SOR/85-1016 of 25 October 1985 to revise the definition of response force and provide other clarifications; by SOR/91-585 of 10 October 1991 to clarify wording in French. (NEA)

  3. Security analysis of socio-technical physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives that evaluate the security of physical systems with objects as assets and people as agents – here called socio-technical physical systems – have limitations: their agent behavior is too simple, they just estimate feasibility and not the likelihood of attacks, or they do estimate

  4. Physical security in multinational nuclear-fuel-cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1977-01-01

    Whether or not multinationalization will reduce or increase risks of theft or sabotage will depend on the form and location of the enterprise, the precise nature of the physical security arrangements applied to the enterprise, and the future course of crime and terrorism in the nuclear age. If nuclear operations are multinationalized, the host government is likely to insist on physical security measures that are at least as stringent as those for a national or private enterprise subject to its jurisdiction. At the same time, the other participants will want to be sure the host government, as well as criminal groups, do not steal nuclear material from the facility. If designed to be reasonably effective, the physical security arrangements at a multinational nuclear enterprise seem likely to reduce the risk that any participating government will seek to divert material from the facility for use in a nuclear weapons program. Hence, multinationalization and physical security will both contribute to reducing the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation to additional governments. If economic considerations dominate the timing, scale and location of fuel-cycle facilities, the worldwide nuclear power industry is likely to develop along lines where the problems of physical security will be manageable. If, however, nuclear nationalism prevails, and numerous small-scale facilities become widely dispersed, the problem of security against theft and sabotage may prove to be unmanageable. It is ironic, although true, that in attempting to strengthen its security by pursuing self-sufficiency in nuclear power, a nation may be reducing its internal security against criminal terrorists

  5. Security Culture in Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susyanta-Widyatmaka; Koraag, Venuesiana-Dewi; Taswanda-Taryo

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear related field, there are three different cultures: safety, safeguards and security culture. Safety culture has established mostly in nuclear industries, meanwhile safeguards and security culture are relatively new and still developing. The latter is intended to improve the physical protection of material and nuclear facility. This paper describes concept, properties and factors affecting security culture and interactions among these cultures. The analysis indicates that anybody involving in nuclear material and facility should have strong commitment and awareness of such culture to establish it. It is concluded that the assessment of security culture outlined in this paper is still preliminary for developing and conduction rigorous security culture implemented in a much more complex facility such as nuclear power plant

  6. Audit program for physical security systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minichino, C.

    1982-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants conduct audits of their physical security systems to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 73, Physical Protection of Plants and Materials. Section 73.55, Requirements for physical Protection of Licensed Activities in Nuclear Power Reactors Against Radiological Sabotage, requires that the security programs be reviewed at least every 12 months, that the audit be conducted by individuals independent of both security management and security supervision, and that the audit program review all aspects of the physical security system: hardware, personnel, and operational and maintenance procedures. This report contains information for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and for the licensees of nuclear power reactors who carry out these comprehensive audits. Guidance on the overall management of the audit function includes organizational structure and issues concerning the auditors who perform the review: qualifications, independence, due professional care, and standards. Guidance in the audit program includes purpose and scope of the audit, planning, techniques, post-audit procedures, reporting, and follow-up

  7. Implementing Physical Protection Education for an Enhanced Nuclear Security Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyun Chul; Shin, Ick Hyun; Lee, Hyung Kyung; Choe, Kwan Kyoo [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we are going to outline our efforts and experiences at implementing physical protection education. KINAC (as the only designated educational institute) places great effort in delivering an effective and a high-quality education program for physical protection. We have also provided a way for nuclear operators to share the lessons they have gained through their own experiences. We made physical protection education an important communication channel, not only among nuclear operators but also between operators and a regulatory body. There is growing attention given to education and training on the subject of physical protection in order to enhance the nuclear security culture. The IAEA recommends that all personnel in organizations directly involved with the nuclear industry receive regularly education in physical protection according to the recently revised INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which are mainly responsible for the national nuclear security regime, have already recognized the importance of education and training in physical protection. The NSSC enacted its decree on physical protection education and training in 2010. KINAC was designated as the first educational institute in 2011 and implemented physical protection education as mandatory from 2012.

  8. Implementing Physical Protection Education for an Enhanced Nuclear Security Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyun Chul; Shin, Ick Hyun; Lee, Hyung Kyung; Choe, Kwan Kyoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we are going to outline our efforts and experiences at implementing physical protection education. KINAC (as the only designated educational institute) places great effort in delivering an effective and a high-quality education program for physical protection. We have also provided a way for nuclear operators to share the lessons they have gained through their own experiences. We made physical protection education an important communication channel, not only among nuclear operators but also between operators and a regulatory body. There is growing attention given to education and training on the subject of physical protection in order to enhance the nuclear security culture. The IAEA recommends that all personnel in organizations directly involved with the nuclear industry receive regularly education in physical protection according to the recently revised INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which are mainly responsible for the national nuclear security regime, have already recognized the importance of education and training in physical protection. The NSSC enacted its decree on physical protection education and training in 2010. KINAC was designated as the first educational institute in 2011 and implemented physical protection education as mandatory from 2012

  9. Accountancy, physical control and security: a question of balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, D.M.; Wilson, D.W.; Shaver, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The historical development of current domestic safeguards regulations is summarized, from the perspective of an operating licensee nuclear fuel facility, in terms of timing, basis and need. Principal aspects of material accounting and physical security as independent approaches to safeguards control are described and analyzed in terms of overlap and effectiveness. Concerns with the licensee safeguards regulatory process are discussed, and development needs are identified. Recommendations are made which contribute to the evolution and improvement of safeguards based on a ''top-down'' systems approach to regulation using proven accounting, physical control and security principles to attain defined objectives

  10. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2009-01-01

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system

  11. Security Implications of Physical Design Attributes in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Pati, Sipra; Harvey, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Security, a subset of safety, is equally important in the efficient delivery of patient care. The emergency department (ED) is susceptible to violence creating concerns for the safety and security of patients, staff, and visitors and for the safe and efficient delivery of care. Although there is an implicit and growing recognition of the role of the physical environment, interventions typically have been at the microlevel. The objective of this study was to identify physical design attributes that potentially influence safety and efficiency of ED operations. An exploratory, qualitative research design was adopted to examine the efficiency and safety correlates of ED physical design attributes. The study comprised a multimeasure approach involving multidisciplinary gaming, semistructured interviews, and touring interviews of frontline staff in four EDs at three hospital systems across three states. Five macro physical design attributes (issues that need to be addressed at the design stage and expensive to rectify once built) emerged from the data as factors substantially associated with security issues. They are design issues pertaining to (a) the entry zone, (b) traffic management, (c) patient room clustering, (d) centralization versus decentralization, and (e) provisions for special populations. Data from this study suggest that ED security concerns are generally associated with three sources: (a) gang-related violence, (b) dissatisfied patients, and (c) behavioral health patients. Study data show that physical design has an important role in addressing the above-mentioned concerns. Implications for ED design are outlined in the article. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  13. Future role of AI/Robotics in physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1986-06-01

    Manpower requirements for physical security systems place a heavy burden on operating security budgets. Technology innovations which free personnel or which make security personnel more efficient in carrying out their tasks is an important means of dealing with budget and manpower constraints. It is believed that AI/Robotics will be important technologies to alleviate these problems in the future. There are three types of applications for AI and Robotics technology that may: (1) help security personnel perform their tasks more effectively or efficiently, (2) perform tasks that security personnel would otherwise perform (free up people), and (3) perform tasks that cannot be performed by security personnel at this time. This paper will discuss the various types of security applications that are presently being considered for the above areas and will briefly describe a few examples of the application of this technology. Examples will include ground mobile platforms carrying alarm assessment and/or surveillance sensors and operating either autonomously or with telepresence by a remote operator. An airborne platform performing similar functions will also be discussed. An application of a type of robot sentry that would be fixed and incorporate very simple portable displays will also be described. A third type of robot, an interior robot, that could be used in sensitive or hazardous areas to do detection and assessment functions will be reviewed

  14. Physical security, HIPPA, and the HHS wall of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, April

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author a healthcare IT expert, reveals what experts have discovered in analyzing HIPPA data breaches. Most are the result of theft or loss. She explains why this is so, and offers a solution--improved physical security.

  15. Trusted communications with physical layer security for 5G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Duong, Trung Q; Poor, H Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Securely transferring confidential information over a wireless network is a challenging task. This book addresses security issues, not only for 5G but also beyond, using physical layer security technology and techniques.

  16. Emerging Security Mechanisms for Medical Cyber Physical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabas, Ovunc; Soyata, Tolga; Aktas, Mehmet K

    2016-01-01

    The following decade will witness a surge in remote health-monitoring systems that are based on body-worn monitoring devices. These Medical Cyber Physical Systems (MCPS) will be capable of transmitting the acquired data to a private or public cloud for storage and processing. Machine learning algorithms running in the cloud and processing this data can provide decision support to healthcare professionals. There is no doubt that the security and privacy of the medical data is one of the most important concerns in designing an MCPS. In this paper, we depict the general architecture of an MCPS consisting of four layers: data acquisition, data aggregation, cloud processing, and action. Due to the differences in hardware and communication capabilities of each layer, different encryption schemes must be used to guarantee data privacy within that layer. We survey conventional and emerging encryption schemes based on their ability to provide secure storage, data sharing, and secure computation. Our detailed experimental evaluation of each scheme shows that while the emerging encryption schemes enable exciting new features such as secure sharing and secure computation, they introduce several orders-of-magnitude computational and storage overhead. We conclude our paper by outlining future research directions to improve the usability of the emerging encryption schemes in an MCPS.

  17. Secure physical layer using dynamic permutations in cognitive OFDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meucci, F.; Wardana, Satya Ardhy; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel lightweight mechanism for a secure Physical (PHY) layer in Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). User's data symbols are mapped over the physical subcarriers with a permutation formula. The PHY layer is secured...... with a random and dynamic subcarrier permutation which is based on a single pre-shared information and depends on Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA). The dynamic subcarrier permutation is varying over time, geographical location and environment status, resulting in a very robust protection that ensures...... confidentiality. The method is shown to be effective also for existing non-cognitive systems. The proposed mechanism is effective against eavesdropping even if the eavesdropper adopts a long-time patterns analysis, thus protecting cryptography techniques of higher layers. The correlation properties...

  18. The remote security station (RSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletta, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform

  19. Method for Determining the Sensitivity of a Physical Security System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Matthew John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wachtel, Amanda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kittinger, Robert Scott [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Modern systems, such as physical security systems, are often designed to involve complex interactions of technological and human elements. Evaluation of the performance of these systems often overlooks the human element. A method is proposed here to expand the concept of sensitivity—as denoted by d’—from signal detection theory (Green & Swets 1966; Macmillan & Creelman 2005), which came out of the field of psychophysics, to cover not only human threat detection but also other human functions plus the performance of technical systems in a physical security system, thereby including humans in the overall evaluation of system performance. New in this method is the idea that probabilities of hits (accurate identification of threats) and false alarms (saying “threat” when there is not one), which are used to calculate d’ of the system, can be applied to technologies and, furthermore, to different functions in the system beyond simple yes-no threat detection. At the most succinct level, the method returns a single number that represents the effectiveness of a physical security system; specifically, the balance between the handling of actual threats and the distraction of false alarms. The method can be automated, and the constituent parts revealed, such that given an interaction graph that indicates the functional associations of system elements and the individual probabilities of hits and false alarms for those elements, it will return the d’ of the entire system as well as d’ values for individual parts. The method can also return a measure of the response bias* of the system. One finding of this work is that the d’ for a physical security system can be relatively poor in spite of having excellent d’s for each of its individual functional elements.

  20. Additional improvements needed in physical security at nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Since the middle 1970's, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and powerplant operators have taken measures to reduce the vulnerability of powerplants to attempted acts of sabotage. GAO's evaluation disclosed that further improvements can be made by screening nuclear plant employees to reduce the number of potential saboteurs and strengthening the physical security systems to ensure their compatibility with other plant safety systems. The Commission has taken two initiatives addressing these improvements. Therefore, GAO is not making recommendations at this time

  1. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sajal K; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide reach of the Internet allows malicious cyber criminals to coordinate and launch attacks on both cyber and cyber-physical infrastructure from anywhere in the world. This purpose of this handbook is to introduce the theoretical foundations and practical solution techniques for securing critical cyber and physical infrastructures as well as their underlying computing and communication architectures and systems. Examples of such infrastructures include utility networks (e.g., electrical power grids), ground transportation systems (automotives, roads, bridges and tunnels), airports a

  2. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-01-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public

  3. Use of soft probabilities in evaluating physical-security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.N.

    1982-03-01

    The complexity of evaluating how a physical security system would perform against a broad array of threat situations dictates the use by an inspector of methods which are not completely rigorous. Intuition and judgment based on experience have a large role to play. The use of soft probabilities can give meaningful results when the nature of the situation to which they are applied is sufficiently understood. Although the scoring method proposed is based on complex theory, it is feasible to apply on an intuitive basis. 6 figures

  4. Physical security system effectiveness evaluation, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L. Jr.; Nickell, W.C.

    1975-07-01

    A method to permit objective comparisons of physical security is under development and is expected to be useful in the optimization of system design and in cost benefit analysis. The procedure involves identifying the possible or potential characteristics of a postulated adversary, the countermeasures to deny or diminish adversary success, and the response capabilities of the defender. These, in conjunction with system definition information, are evaluated by the use of analytical models which provide a means of ranking systems against threats. This paper describes the status of this effort and includes an overview of the methodology with a brief description of various models being considered for use in effectiveness evaluation. (U.S.)

  5. A Review of Cyber-Physical Energy System Security Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) and electrification of services by implementing distributed energy resources (DER) has caused a paradigm shift in the operation of the power system. The controllability of the power system is predicted to be shifted from the generation side...... to the consumption side. This transition entails that the future power system evolves into a complex cyber-physical energy system (CPES) with strong interactions between the power, communication and neighboring energy systems. Current power system security assessment methods are based on centralized computation...

  6. Physical security and accountancy - capability and limits of integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.

    1984-01-01

    The basis as well as the objectives of physical security are different from those of international safeguards. But it seems to be reasonable to combine measures which provide advantages to both in terms of the inspectorates resources and non-hindrance of plant concept and operational strategy. Starting with a comparison of objectives, principles and measures, common aspects are defined to investigate exemplarily capability and limits in terms of technical feasibility as well as compliance with national regulations and principles of EURATOM/IAEA-Safeguards from the viewpoint of the designer of an industrial German reprocessing plant

  7. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    CPA - Cost and Performance Analysis - is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance analysis tools: ACEIT (Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools) and ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security). ACE is an existing DOD PC-based tool that supports cost analysis over the full life cycle of a system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. Through CPA, the cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making the data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and subsystem levels. The structure of the cost spreadsheets incorporates an activity-based approach to cost estimation. Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting philosophy used by industry to trace direct and indirect costs to the products or services of a business unit. By tracing costs through security sensors and procedures and then mapping the contributions of the various sensors and procedures to system effectiveness, the CPA architecture can provide security managers with information critical for both operational and strategic decisions. The architecture, features and applications of the CPA prototype are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Effective vulnerability assessments for physical security devices, systems, and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The efficacy of devices, systems, and programs used for physical security depend critically on having periodic and effective vulnerability assessments. Effective vulnerability assessments, in turn, require certain conditions and attributes. These include: a proper understanding of their purpose; not confusing vulnerability assessments with other kinds of metrics, analyses, tests, and security exercises; the view that vulnerabilities are inevitable, and that finding them is good news (since they can then be mitigated), not bad news; rejection of findings of no vulnerabilities; avoidance of mere 'compliance mode' rubber stamping; the use of the proper outside, independent, imaginative personnel; psychologically predisposed to finding and demonstrating problems; the absence of conflicts of interest; no unrealistic constraints on the possible attack tools, procedures, personnel, or strategies; efforts to not just find and demonstrate vulnerabilities, but also to suggest possible countermeasures; proper context; input and buy-in from ALL facility security personnel, especially low-level personnel; emphasis on the simplest, most relevant attacks first; no underestimation of potential adversaries; consideration of fault analysis attacks; awareness of Rohrbach's Maxim and Shannon's Maxim. In addition to these factors, we will cover some of the complex issues and problems associated with the design of vulnerability assessments. There will also be suggestions on how to conduct effective vulnerability assessments on a severely limited budget. We will conclude with a discussion of both conventional and unconventional ways of reporting results. (author)

  9. Optimizing a physical security configuration using a highly detailed simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, T.M.A.; Smith, A.E.; Ustun, V.; Smith, J.S.; Lefeber, A.A.J.; Badiru, A.B.; Thomas, M.U.

    2009-01-01

    This research is focused on using a highly detailed simulation model to create a physical security system to prevent intrusions in a building. Security consists of guards and security cameras. The problem is represented as a binary optimization problem. A new heuristic is proposed to do the security

  10. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  11. Physical Watermarking for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems via Packet Drop Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weekrakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Physical watermarking is a well known solution for detecting integrity attacks on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) such as the smart grid. Here, a random control input is injected into the system in order to authenticate physical dynamics and sensors which may have been corrupted by adversaries. Packet drops may naturally occur in a CPS due to network imperfections. To our knowledge, previous work has not considered the role of packet drops in detecting integrity attacks. In this paper, we investigate the merit of injecting Bernoulli packet drops into the control inputs sent to actuators as a new physical watermarking scheme. With the classical linear quadratic objective function and an independent and identically distributed packet drop injection sequence, we study the effect of packet drops on meeting security and control objectives. Our results indicate that the packet drops could act as a potential physical watermark for attack detection in CPSs.

  12. Physical security system effectiveness evaluation: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Nickell, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    A method to permit objective comparisons of physical security systems is under development and is expected to be useful in the optimization of system design and in cost benefit analysis. The procedure involves identifying the possible or potential characteristics of a postulated adversary, the counter-measures to deny or diminish adversary success and the response capabilities of the defender. These, in conjunction with system definition information, are evaluated by the use of analytical models which provide a menas of ranking systems against threats. The status of this effort and an overview of the methodology with a brief description of various models being considered for use in effective evaluation are discussed. (U.S.)

  13. Sandia's experience in designing and implementing integrated high security physical protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    As DOE's lead laboratory for physical security, Sandia National Laboratories has had a major physical security program for over ten years. Activities have ranged from component development and evaluation, to full scale system design and implementation. This paper presents some of the lessons learned in designing and implementing state-of-the-art high security physical protection systems for a number of government facilities. A generic system design is discussed for illustration purposes. Sandia efforts to transfer technology to industry are described

  14. Designing a Physical Security System for Risk Reduction in a Hypothetical Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.A.; Abd Elaziz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical security in a nuclear facility means detection, prevention and response to threat, the ft, sabotage, unauthorized access and illegal transfer involving radioactive and nuclear material. This paper proposes a physical security system designing concepts to reduce the risk associated with variant threats to a nuclear facility. This paper presents a study of the unauthorized removal and sabotage in a hypothetical nuclear facility considering deter, delay and response layers. More over, the study involves performing any required upgrading to the security system by investigating the nuclear facility layout and considering all physical security layers design to enhance the weakness for risk reduction

  15. Securing Wireless Communications of the Internet of Things from the Physical Layer, An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqing; Duong, Trung; Woods, Roger; Marshall, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The security of the Internet of Things (IoT) is receiving considerable interest as the low power constraints and complexity features of many IoT devices are limiting the use of conventional cryptographic techniques. This article provides an overview of recent research efforts on alternative approaches for securing IoT wireless communications at the physical layer, specifically the key topics of key generation and physical layer encryption. These schemes can be implemented and are lightweight, and thus offer practical solutions for providing effective IoT wireless security. Future research to make IoT-based physical layer security more robust and pervasive is also covered.

  16. Physical Layer Security Using Two-Path Successive Relaying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yu Liau

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaying is one of the useful techniques to enhance wireless physical-layer security. Existing literature shows that employing full-duplex relay instead of conventional half-duplex relay improves secrecy capacity and secrecy outage probability, but this is at the price of sophisticated implementation. As an alternative, two-path successive relaying has been proposed to emulate operation of full-duplex relay by scheduling a pair of half-duplex relays to assist the source transmission alternately. However, the performance of two-path successive relaying in secrecy communication remains unexplored. This paper proposes a secrecy two-path successive relaying protocol for a scenario with one source, one destination and two half-duplex relays. The relays operate alternately in a time division mode to forward messages continuously from source to destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Analytical results reveal that the use of two half-duplex relays in the proposed scheme contributes towards a quadratically lower probability of interception compared to full-duplex relaying. Numerical simulations show that the proposed protocol achieves the ergodic achievable secrecy rate of full-duplex relaying while delivering the lowest probability of interception and secrecy outage probability compared to the existing half duplex relaying, full duplex relaying and full duplex jamming schemes.

  17. Tensor spaces and exterior algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Yokonuma, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    This book explains, as clearly as possible, tensors and such related topics as tensor products of vector spaces, tensor algebras, and exterior algebras. You will appreciate Yokonuma's lucid and methodical treatment of the subject. This book is useful in undergraduate and graduate courses in multilinear algebra. Tensor Spaces and Exterior Algebra begins with basic notions associated with tensors. To facilitate understanding of the definitions, Yokonuma often presents two or more different ways of describing one object. Next, the properties and applications of tensors are developed, including the classical definition of tensors and the description of relative tensors. Also discussed are the algebraic foundations of tensor calculus and applications of exterior algebra to determinants and to geometry. This book closes with an examination of algebraic systems with bilinear multiplication. In particular, Yokonuma discusses the theory of replicas of Chevalley and several properties of Lie algebras deduced from them.

  18. Integrated assessment and mitigation of physical and digital security threats: Case studies on virtualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Tiel, F.

    2011-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the enabling technologies of cloud computing. It turns once dedicated physical computing resources such as servers into digital resources that can be provisioned on demand. Cloud computing thus tends to replace physical with digital security controls, and cloud security must

  19. Interim format and content for a physical security plan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The document serves as interim guidance to assist the licensee or applicant in the preparation of a physical security plan. It is to be used in conjunction with interim acceptance criteria for physical security programs, which will be distributed at a later date

  20. Concrete shielding exterior to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurista, P.; Cossairt, D.

    1983-08-01

    A rule of thumb at Fermilab has been to use 3 feet of concrete exterior to iron shielding. A recent design of a shield with a severe dimensional constraint has prompted a re-evaluation of this rule of thumb and has led to the following calculations of the concrete thickness required to nullify this problem. 4 references, 4 figures

  1. Using Bayesian Networks and Decision Theory to Model Physical Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    .... Cameras, sensors and other components used along with the simple rules in the home automation software provide an environment where the lights, security and other appliances can be monitored and controlled...

  2. Physical protection solutions for security problems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.L.; Jacobs, J.

    1980-09-01

    Under Department of Energy sponsorship, Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad technological base of components and integrated systems to address security concerns at facilities of importance, including nuclear reactors. The primary security concern at a light water reactor is radiological sabotage, a deliberate set of actions at a plant which could expose the public to a significant amount of radiation (on the order of 10 CFR 100 limits)

  3. Security-aware design for cyber-physical systems a platform-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chung-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the rising security issues during the design stages of cyber-physical systems, this book develops a systematic approach to address security at early design stages together with all other design constraints. Cyber-attacks become more threatening as systems are becoming more connected with the surrounding environment, infrastructures, and other systems. Security mechanisms can be designed to protect against attacks and meet security requirements, but there are many challenges of applying security mechanisms to cyber-physical systems including open environments, limited resources, strict timing requirements, and large number of devices. Designed for researchers and professionals, this book is valuable for individuals working in network systems, security mechanisms, and system design. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science. .

  4. Inspection methods for physical protection Task III review of other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Task I of this project, the current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) position-on physical security practices and procedures at research reactors were reviewed. In the second task, a sampling of the physical security plans was presented and the three actual reactor sites described in the security plans were visited. The purpose of Task III is to review other agencies' physical security activities for research reactors. During this phase, the actions, procedures and policies of two domestic and two foreign agencies other than the NRC that relate to the research reactor community were examined. The agencies examined were: International Atomic Energy Agency; Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board; Department of Energy; and American Nuclear Insurers

  5. Applications of exterior difference systems to variations in discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Li Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    In discrete mechanics, difference equations describe the fundamental physical laws and exhibit many geometric properties. Can these equations be obtained in a geometric way? Using some techniques in exterior difference systems, we investigate the discrete variational problem. As an application, we give a positive answer to the above question for the discrete Newton's, Euler-Lagrange, and Hamilton's equations

  6. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significance (Category III), and for protection of Restricted Data, National Security Information, Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  7. Analysing the Efficacy of Security Policies in Cyber-Physical Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Mauw, Sjouke; Ouchani, Samir; Barthe, Gilles; Markatos, Evangelos; Samarati, Pierangela

    2016-01-01

    A crucial question for an ICT organization wishing to improve its security is whether a security policy together with physical access controls protects from socio-technical threats. We study this question formally. We model the information flow defined by what the organization’s employees do (copy,

  8. Cooperative Wireless Communications and Physical Layer Security : State of the Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    in the mobile equipment is not feasible due to resource constraints. Cooperative wireless communication (CWC) is the upcoming virtual MIMO technique to combat fading and achieve diversity through user cooperation. Physical layer security (PLS) is the imminent security guarantee for the cooperative communication....

  9. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify the u...... of unconditional UC-security with (malicious) PUFs and stateless tokens, our compiler can be instantiated with any ideal straight-line extractable commitment scheme, thus allowing the use of various setup assumptions which may better fit the application or the technology available....

  10. Joint Schemes for Physical Layer Security and Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Oluwayomi

    2011-01-01

    The major challenges facing resource constraint wireless devices are error resilience, security and speed. Three joint schemes are presented in this research which could be broadly divided into error correction based and cipher based. The error correction based ciphers take advantage of the properties of LDPC codes and Nordstrom Robinson code. A…

  11. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  12. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys: Security against an emulation attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed entity authentication protocol in which a physical unclonable key is interrogated by random coherent states of light, and the quadratures of the scattered light are analyzed by means of a coarse-grained homodyne detection. We derive a sufficient condition for the protocol to be secure against an emulation attack in which an adversary knows the challenge-response properties of the key and moreover, he can access the challenges during the verification. The security analysis relies on Holevo's bound and Fano's inequality, and suggests that the protocol is secure against the emulation attack for a broad range of physical parameters that are within reach of today's technology.

  13. Physical and data-link security techniques for future communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tomasin, Stefano

    2016-01-01

     This book focuses on techniques that can be applied at the physical and data-link layers of communication systems in order to secure transmissions against eavesdroppers. Topics ranging from information theory-based security to coding for security and cryptography are discussed, with presentation of cutting-edge research and innovative results from leading researchers. The characteristic feature of all the contributions is their relevance for practical embodiments: detailed consideration is given to applications of security principles to a variety of widely used communication techniques such as multiantenna systems, ultra-wide band communication systems, power line communications, and quantum key distribution techniques. A further distinctive aspect is the attention paid to both unconditional and computational security techniques, providing a bridge between two usually distinct worlds. The book comprises extended versions of contributions delivered at the Workshop on Communication Security, held in Ancona, I...

  14. The Role of Physical Layer Security in IoT: A Novel Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Pecorella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of securing the configuration phase of an Internet of Things (IoT system. The main drawbacks of current approaches are the focus on specific techniques and methods, and the lack of a cross layer vision of the problem. In a smart environment, each IoT device has limited resources and is often battery operated with limited capabilities (e.g., no keyboard. As a consequence, network security must be carefully analyzed in order to prevent security and privacy issues. In this paper, we will analyze the IoT threats, we will propose a security framework for the device initialization and we will show how physical layer security can effectively boost the security of IoT systems.

  15. Current Methods for Evaluation of Physical Security System Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    nuclear fuel system installation in a - articular way. These entities are thereby identified as more or less significant targets for the security...These publications use non-standard definitions for some safe- guards terms, which is an unfortunate distraction . None of the publications we...when the participant reaches his objective. If this requires more than one time step, he may be distracted by changed circumstances before he completes

  16. Using Bayesian Networks and Decision Theory to Model Physical Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Home automation technologies allow a person to monitor and control various activities within a home or office setting. Cameras, sensors and other...components used along with the simple rules in the home automation software provide an environment where the lights, security and other appliances can be...monitored and controlled. These home automation technologies, however, lack the power to reason under uncertain conditions and thus the system can

  17. A Novel Secure Transmission Scheme in MIMO Two-Way Relay Channels with Physical Layer Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issue has been considered as one of the most pivotal aspects for the fifth-generation mobile network (5G due to the increasing demands of security service as well as the growing occurrence of security threat. In this paper, instead of focusing on the security architecture in the upper layer, we investigate the secure transmission for a basic channel model in a heterogeneous network, that is, two-way relay channels. By exploiting the properties of the transmission medium in the physical layer, we propose a novel secure scheme for the aforementioned channel mode. With precoding design, the proposed scheme is able to achieve a high transmission efficiency as well as security. Two different approaches have been introduced: information theoretical approach and physical layer encryption approach. We show that our scheme is secure under three different adversarial models: (1 untrusted relay attack model, (2 trusted relay with eavesdropper attack model, and (3 untrusted relay with eavesdroppers attack model. We also derive the secrecy capacity of the two different approaches under the three attacks. Finally, we conduct three simulations of our proposed scheme. The simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis illustrating that our proposed scheme could achieve a better performance than the existing schemes.

  18. Security strategy of powered-off SRAM for resisting physical attack to data remanence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kai; Zou Xuecheng; Yu Guoyi; Wang Weixu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a security strategy for resisting a physical attack utilizing data remanence in powered-off static random access memory (SRAM). Based on the mechanism of physical attack to data remanence, the strategy intends to erase data remanence in memory cells once the power supply is removed, which disturbs attackers trying to steal the right information. Novel on-chip secure circuits including secure power supply and erase transistor are integrated into conventional SRAM to realize erase operation. Implemented in 0.25 μm Huahong-NEC CMOS technology, an SRAM exploiting the proposed security strategy shows the erase operation is accomplished within 0.2 μs and data remanence is successfully eliminated. Compared with conventional SRAM, the retentive time of data remanence is reduced by 82% while the operation power consumption only increases by 7%.

  19. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI... the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy... certification to include workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina facility working out of Troy...

  20. Report on Sensor Technology for Battlefield and Physical Security Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    Identification, measurable while others must be estimated. The access authorization and auditing may be satis- number of users, terminals and computers...by the Alarm Classification and Command Assembly ( ACCA ). The ACCA is comprised of visual classification and command status indicators dnd a command... ACCA . All of the subassemblies in the monitoring location are physically configured into a console as depicted in Figure 2. CENTRAL MASTER CONTROL (CMC

  1. Physical security and IT convergence: Managing the cyber-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreight, Tim; Leece, Doug

    The convergence of physical security devices into the corporate network is increasing, due to the perceived economic benefits and efficiencies gained from using one enterprise network. Bringing these two networks together is not without risk. Physical devices like closed circuit television cameras (CCTV), card access readers, and heating, ventilation and air conditioning controllers (HVAC) are typically not secured to the standards we expect for corporate computer networks. These devices can pose significant risks to the corporate network by creating new avenues to exploit vulnerabilities in less-than-secure implementations of physical systems. The ASIS Information Technology Security Council (ITSC) developed a white paper describing steps organisations can take to reduce the risks this convergence can pose, and presented these concepts at the 2015 ASIS/ISC2 Congress in Anaheim, California. 1 This paper expands upon the six characteristics described by ITSC, and provides business continuity planners with information on how to apply these recommendations to physical security devices that use the corporate network.

  2. Unconditionally Secure Credit/Debit Card Chip Scheme and Physical Unclonable Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Entesari, Kamran; Granqvist, Claes-Göran; Kwan, Chiman

    The statistical-physics-based Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) key exchange offers a new and simple unclonable system for credit/debit card chip authentication and payment. The key exchange, the authentication and the communication are unconditionally secure so that neither mathematics- nor statistics-based attacks are able to crack the scheme. The ohmic connection and the short wiring lengths between the chips in the card and the terminal constitute an ideal setting for the KLJN protocol, and even its simplest versions offer unprecedented security and privacy for credit/debit card chips and applications of physical unclonable functions (PUFs).

  3. A preliminary cyber-physical security assessment of the Robot Operating System (ROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, Jarrod; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2013-05-01

    Over the course of the last few years, the Robot Operating System (ROS) has become a highly popular software framework for robotics research. ROS has a very active developer community and is widely used for robotics research in both academia and government labs. The prevalence and modularity of ROS cause many people to ask the question: "What prevents ROS from being used in commercial or government applications?" One of the main problems that is preventing this increased use of ROS in these applications is the question of characterizing its security (or lack thereof). In the summer of 2012, a crowd sourced cyber-physical security contest was launched at the cyber security conference DEF CON 20 to begin the process of characterizing the security of ROS. A small-scale, car-like robot was configured as a cyber-physical security "honeypot" running ROS. DEFFCON-20 attendees were invited to find exploits and vulnerabilities in the robot while network traffic was collected. The results of this experiment provided some interesting insights and opened up many security questions pertaining to deployed robotic systems. The Federal Aviation Administration is tasked with opening up the civil airspace to commercial drones by September 2015 and driverless cars are already legal for research purposes in a number of states. Given the integration of these robotic devices into our daily lives, the authors pose the following question: "What security exploits can a motivated person with little-to-no experience in cyber security execute, given the wide availability of free cyber security penetration testing tools such as Metasploit?" This research focuses on applying common, low-cost, low-overhead, cyber-attacks on a robot featuring ROS. This work documents the effectiveness of those attacks.

  4. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms

  5. Physical Layer Secret-Key Generation Scheme for Transportation Security Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2017-06-28

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used in different disciplines, including transportation systems, agriculture field environment monitoring, healthcare systems, and industrial monitoring. The security challenge of the wireless communication link between sensor nodes is critical in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a new physical layer secret-key generation scheme for transportation security sensor network. The scheme is based on the cooperation of all the sensor nodes, thus avoiding the key distribution process, which increases the security of the system. Different passive and active attack models are analyzed in this paper. We also prove that when the cooperative node number is large enough, even when the eavesdropper is equipped with multiple antennas, the secret-key is still secure. Numerical results are performed to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  6. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bako; Awad, Ali Ismail

    2018-03-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or "things" to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  7. Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.

  8. NPP physical protection and information security as necessary conditions for reducing nuclear and radiation accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosov, O.Yu.; Derevyanko, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the fact that nuclear failures and incidents can lead to radioactive contamination of NPP premises. Nuclear and radiation hazard may be caused by malefactors in technological processes when applying computers or inadequate control in case of insufficient level of information security.The researchers performed analysis of factors for reducing risks of nuclear and radiation accidents at NPPs considering specific conditions related to information security of NPP physical protection systems. The paper considers connection of heterogeneous factors that may increase the risk of NPP accidents, possibilities and ways to improve adequate modelling of security of information with limited access directly related to the functioning of automated set of engineering and technical means for NPP physical protection. Within the overall Hutchinson formalization, it is proposed to include additional functional dependencies on indicators specific for NPPs into analysis algorithms.

  9. 78 FR 69139 - Physical Security-Design Certification and Operating Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Operating Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan--draft section..., ``Physical Security--Design Certification and Operating Reactors.'' The public comment period was originally....regulations.gov and search for Docket ID NRC-2013-0225. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol Gallagher...

  10. Analysis of impact of noncompliance with physical-security requirements at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.N.

    1982-03-01

    Inspectors are required to analyze the impact of instances of noncompliance with physical security requirements at licensed nuclear facilities. A scoring procedure for components and a method for evaluating the effectiveness of the subsystems involved are proposed to reinforce an inspector's judgment about the remaining level of safeguards

  11. 10 CFR 72.186 - Change to physical security and safeguards contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change to physical security and safeguards contingency... contingency plans. (a) The licensee shall make no change that would decrease the safeguards effectiveness of... licensee safeguards contingency plan without prior approval of the Commission. A licensee desiring to make...

  12. Secure and Resilient Functional Modeling for Navy Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    control systems, it was determined that this project will employ the model of a Ship Chilled Water Distribution System as a central use case. This model...Siemens Corporation Corporate Technology Unrestricted. Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...release; distribution is unlimited. Page 1 of 4 Secure & Resilient Functional Modeling for Navy Cyber-Physical Systems FY17 Quarter 1 Technical Progress

  13. Evaluation methodology based on physical security assessment results: a utility theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.; Olascoaga, M.T.

    1978-03-01

    This report describes an evaluation methodology which aggregates physical security assessment results for nuclear facilities into an overall measure of adequacy. This methodology utilizes utility theory and conforms to a hierarchical structure developed by the NRC. Implementation of the methodology is illustrated by several examples. Recommendations for improvements in the evaluation process are given

  14. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material.

  15. Acceptance criteria for the evaluation of Category 1 fuel cycle facility physical security plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.

    1991-10-01

    This NUREG document presents criteria developed from US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the evaluation of physical security plans submitted by Category 1 fuel facility licensees. Category 1 refers to those licensees who use or possess a formula quantity of strategic special nuclear material

  16. Physical-Layer Security with Full-Duplex Transceivers and Multiuser Receiver at Eve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Shafique Ansari, Imran; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    , leading researchers to study other possible applications that can accord higher gains. The potential of full-duplex communication in improving the physical-layer security of a communication link is investigated in this contribution. We specifically present a thorough analysis of the achievable ergodic...

  17. User's guide for evaluating physical security capabilities of nuclear facilities by the EASI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, H.A.

    1977-06-01

    This handbook is a guide for evaluating physical security of nuclear facilities using the ''Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI)'' method and a hand-held programmable calculator. The handbook is intended for use by personnel at facilities where special nuclear materials are used, processed, or stored. It may also be used as a design aid for such facilities by potential licensees

  18. Transweb and trafficking in illicit nuclear materials: beyond the borders of physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, J.D.; Dilger, F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Transweb is a developing threat assessment analytical protocol that uses real time GIS based assessments (a.k.a., GTA for GIS Threat Assessment) to better understand potential trafficking in illicit nuclear materials that may come from energy related sites and/or weapons production facilities. This is not a physical security protocol nor is this program a border check format like the DOE's Second Line of Defense which is designed to detect special nuclear fuels. Transweb is a tool that allows the user to look at surreptitious transportation pathways that may be used to move illicit nuclear materials after they have already breached traditional physical security barriers and allows for movement prediction and potential mitigation/intervention if they are not traveling on the highways or railways, traversing the waterways, or entering ports equipped with detecting equipment like that deployed in Second Line of Defense program. Transweb is for the real world, a world where physical security may be breached and the smugglers that capture these materials do not follow the most traveled highways, railways, or waterways in a given society. Transweb focuses on the less obvious transportation routes that may be the most likely ways that illicit nuclear materials will be transported. Thus this program offers an additional layer of security analysis not currently in use as physical protection or as border mitigation. (author)

  19. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tongtong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  20. Security and privacy in cyber-physical systems foundations, principles, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Houbing; Jeschke, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Written by a team of experts at the forefront of the cyber-physical systems (CPS) revolution, this book provides an in-depth look at security and privacy, two of the most critical challenges facing both the CPS research and development community and ICT professionals. It explores, in depth, the key technical, social, and legal issues at stake, and it provides readers with the information they need to advance research and development in this exciting area. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are engineered systems that are built from, and depend upon the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. Advances in CPS will enable capability, adaptability, scalability, resiliency, safety, security, and usability far in excess of what today's simple embedded systems can provide. Just as the Internet revolutionized the way we interact with information, CPS technology has already begun to transform the way people interact with engineered systems. In the years ahead, smart CPS will drive innovat...

  1. A framework to enhance security of physically unclonable functions using chaotic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanxiang

    2018-05-01

    As a new technique for authentication and key generation, physically unclonable function (PUF) has attracted considerable attentions, with extensive research results achieved already. To resist the popular machine learning modeling attacks, a framework to enhance the security of PUFs is proposed. The basic idea is to combine PUFs with a chaotic system of which the response is highly sensitive to initial conditions. For this framework, a specific construction which combines the common arbiter PUF circuit, a converter, and the Chua's circuit is given to implement a more secure PUF. Simulation experiments are presented to further validate the framework. Finally, some practical suggestions for the framework and specific construction are also discussed.

  2. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  3. Exterior differentials in superspace and Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that two definitions for an exterior differential in superspace, giving the same exterior calculus, yet lead to different results when applied to the Poisson bracket. A prescription for the transition with the help of these exterior differentials from the given Poisson bracket of definite Grassmann parity to another bracket is introduced. It is also indicated that the resulting bracket leads to generalization of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket for the cases of superspace and brackets of diverse Grassmann parities. It is shown that in the case of the Grassmann-odd exterior differential the resulting bracket is the bracket given on exterior forms. The above-mentioned transition with the use of the odd exterior differential applied to the linear even/odd Poisson brackets, that correspond to semi-simple Lie groups, results, respectively, in also linear odd/even brackets which are naturally connected with the Lie superalgebra. The latter contains the BRST and anti-BRST charges and can be used for calculation of the BRST operator cogomology. (author)

  4. An Overview of Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems With CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The concept of physical layer security builds on the pivotal idea of turning the channel's imperfections, such as noise and fading, into a source of security. This is established through appropriately designed coding techniques and signal processing strategies. In this vein, it has been shown that fading channels can enhance the transmission of confidential information and that a secure communication can be achieved even when the channel to the eavesdropper is better than the main channel. However, to fully benefit from what fading has to offer, the knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is of primordial importance. In practical wireless communication systems, CSIT is usually obtained, prior to data transmission, through CSI feedback sent by the receivers. The channel links over which this feedback information is sent can be either noisy, rate-limited, or delayed, leading to CSIT uncertainty. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of recent and ongoing research works on physical layer security with CSIT uncertainty. We focus on both information theoretic and signal processing approaches to the topic when the uncertainty concerns the channel to the wiretapper or the channel to the legitimate receiver. Moreover, we present a classification of the research works based on the considered channel uncertainty. Mainly, we distinguish between the cases when the uncertainty comes from an estimation error of the CSIT, from a CSI feedback link with limited capacity, or from an outdated CSI.

  5. An Overview of Physical Layer Security in Wireless Communication Systems With CSIT Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-09-21

    The concept of physical layer security builds on the pivotal idea of turning the channel\\'s imperfections, such as noise and fading, into a source of security. This is established through appropriately designed coding techniques and signal processing strategies. In this vein, it has been shown that fading channels can enhance the transmission of confidential information and that a secure communication can be achieved even when the channel to the eavesdropper is better than the main channel. However, to fully benefit from what fading has to offer, the knowledge of the channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) is of primordial importance. In practical wireless communication systems, CSIT is usually obtained, prior to data transmission, through CSI feedback sent by the receivers. The channel links over which this feedback information is sent can be either noisy, rate-limited, or delayed, leading to CSIT uncertainty. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of recent and ongoing research works on physical layer security with CSIT uncertainty. We focus on both information theoretic and signal processing approaches to the topic when the uncertainty concerns the channel to the wiretapper or the channel to the legitimate receiver. Moreover, we present a classification of the research works based on the considered channel uncertainty. Mainly, we distinguish between the cases when the uncertainty comes from an estimation error of the CSIT, from a CSI feedback link with limited capacity, or from an outdated CSI.

  6. Three tenets for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jeff; Cybenko, George

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a threat-driven quantitative mathematical framework for secure cyber-physical system design and assessment. Called The Three Tenets, this originally empirical approach has been used by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for secure system research and development. The Tenets were first documented in 2005 as a teachable methodology. The Tenets are motivated by a system threat model that itself consists of three elements which must exist for successful attacks to occur: - system susceptibility; - threat accessibility and; - threat capability. The Three Tenets arise naturally by countering each threat element individually. Specifically, the tenets are: Tenet 1: Focus on What's Critical - systems should include only essential functions (to reduce susceptibility); Tenet 2: Move Key Assets Out-of-Band - make mission essential elements and security controls difficult for attackers to reach logically and physically (to reduce accessibility); Tenet 3: Detect, React, Adapt - confound the attacker by implementing sensing system elements with dynamic response technologies (to counteract the attackers' capabilities). As a design methodology, the Tenets mitigate reverse engineering and subsequent attacks on complex systems. Quantified by a Bayesian analysis and further justified by analytic properties of attack graph models, the Tenets suggest concrete cyber security metrics for system assessment.

  7. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bako Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes.

  8. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in terms of the confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of the data sensed, collected, and exchanged by the IoT objects. These challenges make smart homes extremely vulnerable to different types of security attacks, resulting in IoT-based smart homes being insecure. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possible security risks to develop a complete picture of the security status of smart homes. This article applies the operationally critical threat, asset, and vulnerability evaluation (OCTAVE) methodology, known as OCTAVE Allegro, to assess the security risks of smart homes. The OCTAVE Allegro method focuses on information assets and considers different information containers such as databases, physical papers, and humans. The key goals of this study are to highlight the various security vulnerabilities of IoT-based smart homes, to present the risks on home inhabitants, and to propose approaches to mitigating the identified risks. The research findings can be used as a foundation for improving the security requirements of IoT-based smart homes. PMID:29518023

  9. Role of physical protection and safeguards technology used to Nuclear Material Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Irianto, Ign.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of nuclear materials at any nuclear facility must be in secure and must be known as safeguards purpose such as its position, from or type and amount. The clarification of the amount be reported to the national regulatory body and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the International regulatory body. The national regulatory body and IAEA will then verify that report. The verification must be done to know there is no difference of the amount, and to give the assurance to the International community that any diversion of safeguarded nuclear material from civil use to a prescribed military purpose would be detected. To carry out verification, several verification techniques such as non-destructive analysis, surveillance, unattended and remote monitoring and environmental sampling are explained to convey the impression how those techniques are implemented. According to the security requirement, the physical protection system including all components of physical protection system have to be effectively designed

  10. Engineering safe and secure cyber-physical systems the specification PEARL approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gumzej, Roman

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the concept of holistic design and development of cyber physical systems to achieve their safe and secure operation. It shows that by following the standards for embedded system’s safety and using appropriate hardware and software components inherently safe system’s architectures can be devised and certified. While the standards already enable testing and certification of inherently safe and sound hardware, this is still not the case with software. The book demonstrates that Specification PEARL(SPEARL) addresses this issue and proposes appropriate solutions from the viewpoints of software engineering as well as concrete program components. By doing so it reduces the complexity of cyber physical systems design in an innovative way. Three ultimate goals are being followed in the course of defining this new PEARL standard, namely: 1. simplicity over complexity, 2. inherent real-time ability, and 3. conformity to safety integrity and security capability levels.

  11. Design Impedance Mismatch Physical Unclonable Functions for IoT Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new design, Physical Unclonable Function (PUF scheme, for the Internet of Things (IoT, which has been suffering from multiple-level security threats. As more and more objects interconnect on IoT networks, the identity of each thing is very important. To authenticate each object, we design an impedance mismatch PUF, which exploits random physical factors of the transmission line to generate a security unique private key. The characteristic impedance of the transmission line and signal transmission theory of the printed circuit board (PCB are also analyzed in detail. To improve the reliability, current feedback amplifier (CFA method is applied on the PUF. Finally, the proposed scheme is implemented and tested. The measure results show that impedance mismatch PUF provides better unpredictability and randomness.

  12. DoD Physical Security Technical Support at the 1980 Winter Olympics Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-02

    support were provided to the 1980 Winter Olympic Games were: (1) Physical Security, (2) Communications- Electronics , and (3) Medical via the New York Army...vibration-based Fence Pro- tection System (FPS), manufactured by General Telephone and Electronics (GT& E ) and installed for the Federal Bureau of Prisons...CM (Mr. Woomert) DRSXY-GB (Mr. R. E . Cam) Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Commander US Army Communications and Electronics Material Readiness

  13. SEAPATH: A microcomputer code for evaluating physical security effectiveness using adversary sequence diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) concept was developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to examine physical security system effectiveness. Sandia also developed a mainframe computer code, PANL, to analyze the ASD. The authors have developed a microcomputer code, SEAPATH, which also analyzes ASD's. The Authors are supporting SNL in software development of the SAVI code; SAVI utilizes the SEAPATH algorithm to identify and quantify paths

  14. Transportation Security : federal action needed to enhance security efforts : statement of Peter Guerrero, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-09

    Mr. Guerrero's testimony examines (1) challenges in securing the nation's transportation system; (2) actions transportation operators, as well as state and local governments, have taken since September 11 to enhance security; (3) the federal role in ...

  15. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2007-01-01

    Why this book on the Physics of Societal Issues? The subdivisions of physics - nuclear physics, particle physics, condensed-matter physics, biophysics - have their textbooks, while the subdivision of physics and society lacks an equation-oriented text on the physics of arms, energy and the environment. Physics of Societal Issues is intended for undergraduate and doctoral students who may work on applied topics, or who simply want to know why things are the way they are. Decisions guiding policies on nuclear arms, energy and the environment often seem mysterious and contradictory. What is the science behind the deployment of MIRVed ICBMs, the quest for space-based beam weapons, the fear of powerline EM fields, the wholesale acceptance of SUVs, the issues of climactic change, and the failure of the pre-embargo market to produce buildings and appliances that now save over 50 power plants? Physics of Societal Issues is three "mini-texts" in one: National Security (5 chapters): Weapons, offense, defense, verificat...

  16. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  17. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  18. QCAPUF: QCA-based physically unclonable function as a hardware security primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutaleb, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are increasingly used as innovative security primitives to provide the hardware authentication and identification as well as the secret key generation based on unique and random variations in identically fabricated devices. Security and low power have appeared to become two crucial necessities to modern designs. As an emerging nanoelectronic technology, a quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) can achieve ultra-low power consumption as well as an extremely small area for implementing digital designs. However, there are various classes of permanent defects that can happen during the manufacture of QCA devices. The recent extensive research has been focused on how to eliminate errors in QCA structures resulting from fabrication variances. By a completely different vision, to turn this disadvantage into an advantage, this paper presents a novel QCA-based PUF (QCAPUF) architecture to exploit the unique physical characteristics of fabricated QCA cells in order to produce different hardware fingerprint instances. This architecture is composed of proposed logic and interconnect blocks that have critical vulnerabilities and perform unexpected logical operations. The behaviour of QCAPUF is thoroughly analysed through physical relations and simulations. Results confirm that the proposed QCAPUF has state of the art PUF characteristics in the QCA technology. This paper will serve as a basis for further research into QCA-based hardware security primitives and applications.

  19. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2006-01-01

    Access Control Systems and Methodology. Telecommunications and Network Security. Security Management Practices. Application Program Security. Cryptography. Computer, System, and Security Architecture. Operations Security. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery Planning. Law, Investigation and Ethics. Physical Security.

  20. Security engineering: Phisical security measures for high-risk personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena S. Cice

    2013-06-01

    terrorist or criminal targets based on their grade, assignment, symbolic value, criticality, and threat and vulnerability assessment. Levels of protection The recommendations contained in this criterion are intended to minimize the possibility of HRP casualties in buildings or portions of buildings in which they work and live. These recommendations provide appropriate and implementable measures to establish a level of protection against terrorist attacks where no known threat of terrorist activity currently exists. While complete protection against all potential threats is cost prohibitive, the intent of these recommendations can be achieved through prudent master planning, real estate acquisition, and design and construction practices. Tag number The tag number at the beginning of each physical security measure (recommendation is unique and is intended to be a communication aid when linking the requirement (recommendation to the supporting text or commentary. The three-character tag number uses the following legend. Tag Number First Character -The first character is an abbreviation for the defense zone layer that is most applicable for the countermeasure. “S” is used to represent site or external zone issues. “P” is used to represent the perimeter zone. “G” is used to represent issues relative to the property grounds. “E” is used to represent issues associated with the building exterior of the HRP office or residence. “I” is used to represent issues associated with the building interior. “H” is used to represent issues associated with the safe room or safe haven. Tag Number Second Character - The second character is a sequential number for countermeasures in a given zone - a requirement or a recommendation. This number ensures a unique tag number. Tag Number Third Character- The third character indicates whether the countermeasure is applicable to offices, residences, or both (common. “O” indicates a requirement or recommendation unique to

  1. Secure Fusion Estimation for Bandwidth Constrained Cyber-Physical Systems Under Replay Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Ho, Daniel W C; Hu, Guoqiang; Yu, Li; Bo Chen; Ho, Daniel W C; Guoqiang Hu; Li Yu; Chen, Bo; Ho, Daniel W C; Hu, Guoqiang; Yu, Li

    2018-06-01

    State estimation plays an essential role in the monitoring and supervision of cyber-physical systems (CPSs), and its importance has made the security and estimation performance a major concern. In this case, multisensor information fusion estimation (MIFE) provides an attractive alternative to study secure estimation problems because MIFE can potentially improve estimation accuracy and enhance reliability and robustness against attacks. From the perspective of the defender, the secure distributed Kalman fusion estimation problem is investigated in this paper for a class of CPSs under replay attacks, where each local estimate obtained by the sink node is transmitted to a remote fusion center through bandwidth constrained communication channels. A new mathematical model with compensation strategy is proposed to characterize the replay attacks and bandwidth constrains, and then a recursive distributed Kalman fusion estimator (DKFE) is designed in the linear minimum variance sense. According to different communication frameworks, two classes of data compression and compensation algorithms are developed such that the DKFEs can achieve the desired performance. Several attack-dependent and bandwidth-dependent conditions are derived such that the DKFEs are secure under replay attacks. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  2. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2018-02-13

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special (Delaunay) triangulations, which complicated the mesh generation process especially for curved surfaces. This paper presents numerical evidence demonstrating that this restriction is unnecessary. Convergence experiments are carried out for various physical problems using both Delaunay and non-Delaunay triangulations. Signed diagonal definition for the key DEC operator (Hodge star) is adopted. The errors converge as expected for all considered meshes and experiments. This relieves the DEC paradigm from unnecessary triangulation limitation.

  3. Canine Supply for Physical Security: An Analysis of the Royal Australian Air Force Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    PHYSICAL SECURITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM by Mark W. Powell March 2016 Thesis...AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN AIR FORCE MILITARY WORKING DOG PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark W. Powell 7. PERFORMING...increased demand on its physical security elements. Its military working dog (MWD) workforce is required to meet an inventory of 204 by end of year 2023 as

  4. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T. [University of Idaho

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  5. Machine vision applications for physical security, quality assurance and personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, S.; Shrikhande, S.V.; Suresh Babu, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Machine vision is the technology used to provide imaging-based solutions to variety of applications, relevant to nuclear facilities and other industries. It uses computerized image analysis for automatic inspection, process control, object sorting, parts assembly, human identity authentication, and so on. In this article we discuss the in-house developed machine vision systems at EISD, BARC for three specific areas: Biometric recognition for physical security, visual inspection for QA of fuel pellets, and fast neutron personnel dosimetry. The advantages in using these systems include objective decision making, reduced man-rem, operational consistency, and capability of statistical quantitative analysis. (author)

  6. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...

  7. On the exterior structure of graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    After a detailed ab initio description of the exterior structure of graphs as handled by Connes and Kreimer in their work on renormalization (illustrated by the example of the φ 3 model in six dimensions) we spell out in detail their study of the Lie algebra of infinitesimal characters and of the group of characters of the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs

  8. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured

  9. Physical health of patients with severe mental illness: an intervention on medium secure forensic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Kamini; Thakkar, Pratish B; Mitcheson, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe mental illness (SMI) treated with antipsychotic medication are at increased risk of metabolic side-effects like weight gain, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. This study aims to examine the feasibility of maintaining a physical health monitoring sheet in patients' records and its impact on physical health of patients with SMI, over a period of one year. A physical health monitoring sheet was introduced in all the patients' records on a 15-bedded male medium secure forensic psychiatric rehabilitation unit, as a prompt to regularly monitor physical health parameters. An audit cycle was completed over a one year period. The data between baseline and re-audit were compared. At baseline, 80 per cent of the patients were identified as smokers, 80 per cent had increased body mass index (BMI) and 87 per cent had raised cardiovascular risk over the next ten years. Appropriate interventions were offered to address the risks. At re-audit, the physical health monitoring sheets were up to date in 100 per cent of patients' records. The serum lipids and cardiovascular risk over the next ten years reduced over time. No significant change was noted on the parameters including BMI, central obesity, high blood pressure and smoking status. This was a pilot study and was limited by the small sample size, male gender only and the specific nature of the ward. There is a need for improved access to physical health care in long-stay psychiatric settings. A more robust lifestyle modification programme is required to positively influence the physical health parameters in this cohort of patients. Introduction of a physical health monitoring sheet in patients' records led to regular screening of cardiovascular risks and subsequent increased prescribing of hypolipidaemic agents in individuals with severe mental illness.

  10. Physical-layer security analysis of PSK quantum-noise randomized cipher in optically amplified links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Huatao

    2017-08-01

    The quantitative security of quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) in optically amplified links is analyzed from the perspective of physical-layer advantage. Establishing the wire-tap channel models for both key and data, we derive the general expressions of secrecy capacities for the key against ciphertext-only attack and known-plaintext attack, and that for the data, which serve as the basic performance metrics. Further, the maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. Based on the same framework, the secrecy capacities of various cases can be assessed and compared. The results indicate perfect secrecy is potentially achievable for data transmission, and an elementary principle of setting proper number of photons and bases is given to ensure the maximal data secrecy capacity. But the key security is asymptotically perfect, which tends to be the main constraint of systemic maximal secrecy rate. Moreover, by adopting cascaded optical amplification, QNRC can realize long-haul transmission with secure rate up to Gb/s, which is orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems.

  11. Physically Transient Memory on a Rapidly Dissoluble Paper for Security Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hagyoul; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, Dongil; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Kim, Daewon; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Ahn, Daechul; Park, Sang-Jae; Park, Jun-Young; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-12-01

    We report the transient memory device by means of a water soluble SSG (solid sodium with glycerine) paper. This material has a hydroscopic property hence it can be soluble in water. In terms of physical security of memory devices, prompt abrogation of a memory device which stored a large number of data is crucial when it is stolen because all of things have identified information in the memory device. By utilizing the SSG paper as a substrate, we fabricated a disposable resistive random access memory (RRAM) which has good data retention of longer than 106 seconds and cycling endurance of 300 cycles. This memory device is dissolved within 10 seconds thus it can never be recovered or replicated. By employing direct printing but not lithography technology to aim low cost and disposable applications, the memory capacity tends to be limited less than kilo-bits. However, unlike high memory capacity demand for consumer electronics, the proposed device is targeting for security applications. With this regards, the sub-kilobit memory capacity should find the applications such as one-time usable personal identification, authentication code storage, cryptography key, and smart delivery tag. This aspect is attractive for security and protection system against unauthorized accessibility.

  12. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  13. Using virtual reality in the training of security staff and evaluation of physical protection barriers in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Mol, Pedro C.; Sales, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical security of facilities containing radioactive objects, an already important matter, now has a new aggravating factor: the existence of groups intending to obtain radioactive materials for the purpose of intentionally induce radioactive contamination incidents, as for example the explosion of dirty bombs in populated regions, damaging both people and environment. In this context, the physical security of such facilities must be reinforced so to reduce the possibilities of such incidents. This paper presents a adapted game engine used as a virtual reality system, enabling the modeling and simulation of scenarios of nuclear facilities containing radioactive objects. In these scenarios, the physical protection barriers, as fences and walls, are simulated along with vigilance screens. Using a computer network, several users can participate simultaneously in the simulation, being represented by avatars. Users can play the roles of both invaders and security staff. The invaders have as objective to surpass the facility's physical protection barriers to steal radioactive objects and flee. The security staff have as objective to prevent and stop the theft of radioactive objects from the facility. The system can be used to analysis simulated scenarios and train vigilance/security staff. A test scenario was already developed and used, and the preliminary tests had satisfactory results, as they enabled the evaluation of the physical protection barriers of the virtual facility, and the training of those who participated in the simulations in the functions of a security staff. (author)

  14. Using virtual reality in the training of security staff and evaluation of physical protection barriers in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Mol, Pedro C.; Sales, Douglas S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: silas@ien.gov.br, e-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, e-mail: pedro98@gmail.com, e-mail: dsales@ien.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The physical security of facilities containing radioactive objects, an already important matter, now has a new aggravating factor: the existence of groups intending to obtain radioactive materials for the purpose of intentionally induce radioactive contamination incidents, as for example the explosion of dirty bombs in populated regions, damaging both people and environment. In this context, the physical security of such facilities must be reinforced so to reduce the possibilities of such incidents. This paper presents a adapted game engine used as a virtual reality system, enabling the modeling and simulation of scenarios of nuclear facilities containing radioactive objects. In these scenarios, the physical protection barriers, as fences and walls, are simulated along with vigilance screens. Using a computer network, several users can participate simultaneously in the simulation, being represented by avatars. Users can play the roles of both invaders and security staff. The invaders have as objective to surpass the facility's physical protection barriers to steal radioactive objects and flee. The security staff have as objective to prevent and stop the theft of radioactive objects from the facility. The system can be used to analysis simulated scenarios and train vigilance/security staff. A test scenario was already developed and used, and the preliminary tests had satisfactory results, as they enabled the evaluation of the physical protection barriers of the virtual facility, and the training of those who participated in the simulations in the functions of a security staff. (author)

  15. An Innovative RFID-Based Solution to Secure Parking Spots for Physically Challenged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Miniaoui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using RFID Technology is increasingly integrated in our daily life. We are presenting in this paper the secured parking spots for physically challenged -SPSPC- system implementing the RFID technology for managing parking slots of physically challenged. We demonstrated using scenarios (car with tag, car with expired date tag, car without tag that the -SPSPC- system is able to recognize not only cars equipped with tag -then send accordingly welcoming SMS -but also cars without tags by checking with a step tag fixed in the wall. Operational mode of the -SPSPC- system is illustrated as well as main components, methods, snippets of code and interfaces are presented and commented. In addition, we demonstrated how the -SPSPC- system is providing the tracking of people committing repetitively these violations -by reporting them to the authorities- and generating statistics on parking occupancy rates helping in providing sufficient slots.

  16. Wireless Physical Layer Security: On the Performance Limit of Secret-Key Agreement

    KAUST Repository

    Zorgui, Marwen

    2015-05-01

    Physical layer security (PLS) is a new paradigm aiming at securing communications between legitimate parties at the physical layer. Conventionally, achieving confidentiality in communication networks relies on cryptographic techniques such as public-key cryptography, secret-key distribution and symmetric encryption. Such techniques are deemed secure based on the assumption of limited computational abilities of a wiretapper. Given the relentless progress in computational capacities and the dynamic topology and proliferation of modern wireless networks, the relevance of the previous techniques in securing communications is more and more questionable and less and less reliable. In contrast to this paradigm, PLS does not assume a specific computational power at any eavesdropper, its premise to guarantee provable security via employing channel coding techniques at the physical layer exploiting the inherent randomness in most communication systems. In this dissertation, we investigate a particular aspect of PLS, which is secret-key agreement, also known as secret-sharing. In this setup, two legitimate parties try to distill a secret-key via the observation of correlated signals through a noisy wireless channel, in the presence of an eavesdropper who must be kept ignorant of the secret-key. Additionally, a noiseless public channel is made available to the legitimate parties to exchange public messages that are also accessible to the eavesdropper. Recall that key agreement is an important aspect toward realizing secure communications in the sense that the key can be used in a one-time pad scheme to send the confidential message. In the first part, our focus is on secret-sharing over Rayleigh fading quasi-static channels. We study the fundamental relationship relating the probability of error and a given target secret-key rate in the high power regime. This is characterized through the diversity multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) concept, that we define for our model and then

  17. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program: implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  18. Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs

  19. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  20. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  1. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, William [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  2. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  3. Improving the physical layer security of wireless communication networks using spread spectrum coding and artificial noise approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adedeji, K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available at the application layer to protect the messages against eavesdropping. However, the evolution of strong deciphering mechanisms has made conventional cryptography-based security techniques ineffective against attacks from an intruder. Figure 1: Layer protocol... communication networks with passive and active eavesdropper,” IEEE Globecom; Wireless Communication System, pp. 4868-4873, 2012. [9] Y. Zou, X. Wang and W. Shen, “Optimal relay selection for physical layer security in cooperative wireless networks,” IEEE...

  4. Secure estimation, control and optimization of uncertain cyber-physical systems with applications to power networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ahmad Fayez

    Transportation networks, wearable devices, energy systems, and the book you are reading now are all ubiquitous cyber-physical systems (CPS). These inherently uncertain systems combine physical phenomena with communication, data processing, control and optimization. Many CPSs are controlled and monitored by real-time control systems that use communication networks to transmit and receive data from systems modeled by physical processes. Existing studies have addressed a breadth of challenges related to the design of CPSs. However, there is a lack of studies on uncertain CPSs subject to dynamic unknown inputs and cyber-attacks---an artifact of the insertion of communication networks and the growing complexity of CPSs. The objective of this dissertation is to create secure, computational foundations for uncertain CPSs by establishing a framework to control, estimate and optimize the operation of these systems. With major emphasis on power networks, the dissertation deals with the design of secure computational methods for uncertain CPSs, focusing on three crucial issues---(1) cyber-security and risk-mitigation, (2) network-induced time-delays and perturbations and (3) the encompassed extreme time-scales. The dissertation consists of four parts. In the first part, we investigate dynamic state estimation (DSE) methods and rigorously examine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed routines under dynamic attack-vectors and unknown inputs. In the second part, and utilizing high-frequency measurements in smart grids and the developed DSE methods in the first part, we present a risk mitigation strategy that minimizes the encountered threat levels, while ensuring the continual observability of the system through available, safe measurements. The developed methods in the first two parts rely on the assumption that the uncertain CPS is not experiencing time-delays, an assumption that might fail under certain conditions. To overcome this challenge, networked unknown input

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  6. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  7. Virtual dosimetry applied to the physical security of a nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Machado, Daniel M.; Chelles, Daniel R.; Goncalves, Deise G.S.

    2013-01-01

    An important activity to be held in radiation protection is the location of radioactive sources. The present work was devoted to the development of a virtual dosimetry tool for locating and detecting such sources. To this end, was created a three-dimensional virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN, endowed with virtual characters (avatars), capable of move and interact with the environment, radiation detectors (fixed and mobile) and radioactive sources. Aiming to assist in planning physical security of nuclear installations, the tool developed allows the detection simulation of individuals carrying radioactive sources through detectors installed at strategic points of the site. In addition, it is possible to detect and locate sources by handling portable detectors, operated by characters within the virtual environment. The results obtained show the behavior of the radiation detectors on continuous profile of radioactive sources, allowing calculate the dose rate at any position of the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of security officers, as well as in evaluating the radiological safety of the nuclear site. (author)

  8. Outline of a future security system to provide physical protection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear energy, within three or four decades, may become a main pillar of the world's energy supply. The author discusses the problems entailed by the necessity to protect nuclear facilities against assaults, and whether this can be ensured without interference with civic rights. The method applied by the author to show the significance of the problems is to explain the current situation, and to compare it with a plausible outline of the developments to be expected over the next 50 years. He shows the hazards to be taken into account due to criminal actions by persons from outside, or by persons working in nuclear facilities. A main problem is the fact that the security system to be set up has to encompass not only the nuclear installation itself, but also the surrounding area, and the measures to be taken will have an impact on the society, which necessarily will curtail personal freedom. The author presumes that the necessity to guarantee physical protection of nuclear facilities will lead to a modification of the meaning of basic rights, and states his anxiety that security for nuclear installations might affect our concept of freedom. (HSCH) [de

  9. Code-Hopping Based Transmission Scheme for Wireless Physical-Layer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuguo Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the broadcast and time-varying natures of wireless channels, traditional communication systems that provide data encryption at the application layer suffer many challenges such as error diffusion. In this paper, we propose a code-hopping based secrecy transmission scheme that uses dynamic nonsystematic low-density parity-check (LDPC codes and automatic repeat-request (ARQ mechanism to jointly encode and encrypt source messages at the physical layer. In this scheme, secret keys at the transmitter and the legitimate receiver are generated dynamically upon the source messages that have been transmitted successfully. During the transmission, each source message is jointly encoded and encrypted by a parity-check matrix, which is dynamically selected from a set of LDPC matrices based on the shared dynamic secret key. As for the eavesdropper (Eve, the uncorrectable decoding errors prevent her from generating the same secret key as the legitimate parties. Thus she cannot select the correct LDPC matrix to recover the source message. We demonstrate that our scheme can be compatible with traditional cryptosystems and enhance the security without sacrificing the error-correction performance. Numerical results show that the bit error rate (BER of Eve approaches 0.5 as the number of transmitted source messages increases and the security gap of the system is small.

  10. Virtual dosimetry applied to the physical security of a nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Machado, Daniel M.; Chelles, Daniel R.; Goncalves, Deise G.S., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com, E-mail: daniel.chelles@gmail.com, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An important activity to be held in radiation protection is the location of radioactive sources. The present work was devoted to the development of a virtual dosimetry tool for locating and detecting such sources. To this end, was created a three-dimensional virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN, endowed with virtual characters (avatars), capable of move and interact with the environment, radiation detectors (fixed and mobile) and radioactive sources. Aiming to assist in planning physical security of nuclear installations, the tool developed allows the detection simulation of individuals carrying radioactive sources through detectors installed at strategic points of the site. In addition, it is possible to detect and locate sources by handling portable detectors, operated by characters within the virtual environment. The results obtained show the behavior of the radiation detectors on continuous profile of radioactive sources, allowing calculate the dose rate at any position of the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of security officers, as well as in evaluating the radiological safety of the nuclear site. (author)

  11. Designing ECG-based physical unclonable function for security of wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihui Yin; Chisung Bae; Sang Joon Kim; Jae-Sun Seo

    2017-07-01

    As a plethora of wearable devices are being introduced, significant concerns exist on the privacy and security of personal data stored on these devices. Expanding on recent works of using electrocardiogram (ECG) as a modality for biometric authentication, in this work, we investigate the possibility of using personal ECG signals as the individually unique source for physical unclonable function (PUF), which eventually can be used as the key for encryption and decryption engines. We present new signal processing and machine learning algorithms that learn and extract maximally different ECG features for different individuals and minimally different ECG features for the same individual over time. Experimental results with a large 741-subject in-house ECG database show that the distributions of the intra-subject (same person) Hamming distance of extracted ECG features and the inter-subject Hamming distance have minimal overlap. 256-b random numbers generated from the ECG features of 648 (out of 741) subjects pass the NIST randomness tests.

  12. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink

  13. Mobile Detection Assessment and Response Systems (MDARS): A Force Protection, Physical Security Operational Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shoop, Brian; Johnston, Michael; Goehring, Richard; Moneyhun, Jon; Skibba, Brian

    2006-01-01

    ... & barrier assessment payloads. Its functions include surveillance, security, early warning, incident first response and product and barrier status primarily focused on a depot/munitions security mission at structured/semi-structured facilities...

  14. Development of a computer-adaptive physical function instrument for Social Security Administration disability determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Pengsheng; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Bogusz, Kara; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Meterko, Mark; Haley, Stephen M; Chan, Leighton

    2013-09-01

    To develop and test an instrument to assess physical function for Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, the SSA-Physical Function (SSA-PF) instrument. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to (1) create a calibrated item bank for each of the factors identified in prior factor analyses, (2) assess the fit of the items within each scale, (3) develop separate computer-adaptive testing (CAT) instruments for each scale, and (4) conduct initial psychometric testing. Cross-sectional data collection; IRT analyses; CAT simulation. Telephone and Internet survey. Two samples: SSA claimants (n=1017) and adults from the U.S. general population (n=999). None. Model fit statistics, correlation, and reliability coefficients. IRT analyses resulted in 5 unidimensional SSA-PF scales: Changing & Maintaining Body Position, Whole Body Mobility, Upper Body Function, Upper Extremity Fine Motor, and Wheelchair Mobility for a total of 102 items. High CAT accuracy was demonstrated by strong correlations between simulated CAT scores and those from the full item banks. On comparing the simulated CATs with the full item banks, very little loss of reliability or precision was noted, except at the lower and upper ranges of each scale. No difference in response patterns by age or sex was noted. The distributions of claimant scores were shifted to the lower end of each scale compared with those of a sample of U.S. adults. The SSA-PF instrument contributes important new methodology for measuring the physical function of adults applying to the SSA disability programs. Initial evaluation revealed that the SSA-PF instrument achieved considerable breadth of coverage in each content domain and demonstrated noteworthy psychometric properties. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of 90nm 6T-SRAM as physical unclonable function for secure key generation in wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Konijnenburg, M.; Ashouei, M.; Huisken, J.; de Groot, H.; van der Leest, V.; Schrijen, G.-J.; van Hulst, M.; Tuyls, P.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the unattended nature of WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) deployment, each sensor can be subject to physical capture, cloning and unauthorized device alteration. In this paper, we use the embedded SRAM, often available on a wireless sensor node, for secure data (cryptographic keys, IDs)

  16. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  17. Adaptive boundary conditions for exterior flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Boenisch, V; Wittwer, S

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of solving numerically the stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an exterior domain in two dimensions. This corresponds to studying the stationary fluid flow past a body. The necessity to truncate for numerical purposes the infinite exterior domain to a finite domain leads to the problem of finding appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the truncated domain. We solve this problem by providing a vector field describing the leading asymptotic behavior of the solution. This vector field is given in the form of an explicit expression depending on a real parameter. We show that this parameter can be determined from the total drag exerted on the body. Using this fact we set up a self-consistent numerical scheme that determines the parameter, and hence the boundary conditions and the drag, as part of the solution process. We compare the values of the drag obtained with our adaptive scheme with the results from using traditional constant boundary conditions. Computati...

  18. Exterior field evaluation of new generation video motion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advancements in video motion detection (VMD) system design and technology have resulted in several new commercial VMD systems. Considerable interest in the new VMD systems has been generated because the systems are advertised to work effectively in exterior applications. Previous VMD systems, when used in an exterior environment, tended to have very high nuisance alarm rates due to weather conditions, wildlife activity and lighting variations. The new VMD systems advertise more advanced processing of the incoming video signal which is aimed at rejecting exterior environmental nuisance alarm sources while maintaining a high detection capability. This paper discusses the results of field testing, in an exterior environment, of two new VMD systems

  19. The Remote Security Station (RSS) final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletta, J.B.; Amai, W.A.; Klarer, P.; Frank, D.; Carlson, J.; Byrne, R.

    1992-10-01

    The Remote Security Station (RSS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Defense Nuclear Agency to investigate issues pertaining to robotics and sensor fusion in physical security systems. This final report documents the status of the RSS program at its completion in April 1992. The RSS system consists of the Man Portable Security Station (MaPSS) and the Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS), which are integrated by the Operator's Control Unit (OCU) into a flexible exterior perimeter security system. The RSS system uses optical, infrared, microwave, and acoustic intrusion detection sensors in conjunction with sensor fusion techniques to increase the probability of detection and to decrease the nuisance alarm rate of the system. Major improvements to the system developed during the final year are an autonomous patrol capability, which allows TMSS to execute security patrols with limited operator interaction, and a neural network approach to sensor fusion, which significantly improves the system's ability to filter out nuisance alarms due to adverse weather conditions

  20. Physics of societal issues calculations on national security, environment, and energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the reader with essential tools needed to analyze complex societal issues and demonstrates the transition from physics to modern-day laws and treaties. This second edition features new equation-oriented material and extensive data sets drawing upon current information from experts in their fields. Problems to challenge the reader and extend discussion are presented on three timely issues:   •        National Security: Weapons, Offense, Defense, Verification, Nuclear Proliferation, Terrorism •        Environment: Air/Water, Nuclear, Climate Change, EM Fields/Epidemiology •        Energy: Current Energy Situation, Buildings, Solar Buildings, Renewable  Energy, Enhanced End-Use Efficiency, Transportation, Economics   Praise for the first edition: "This insight is needed in Congress and the Executive Branch. Hafemeister, a former Congressional fellow with wide Washington experience, has written a book for physicists, chemists and engineers who want to learn science...

  1. Cyber-Physical System Security With Deceptive Virtual Hosts for Industrial Control Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    A challenge facing industrial control network administrators is protecting the typically large number of connected assets for which they are responsible. These cyber devices may be tightly coupled with the physical processes they control and human induced failures risk dire real-world consequences. Dynamic virtual honeypots are effective tools for observing and attracting network intruder activity. This paper presents a design and implementation for self-configuring honeypots that passively examine control system network traffic and actively adapt to the observed environment. In contrast to prior work in the field, six tools were analyzed for suitability of network entity information gathering. Ettercap, an established network security tool not commonly used in this capacity, outperformed the other tools and was chosen for implementation. Utilizing Ettercap XML output, a novel four-step algorithm was developed for autonomous creation and update of a Honeyd configuration. This algorithm was tested on an existing small campus grid and sensor network by execution of a collaborative usage scenario. Automatically created virtual hosts were deployed in concert with an anomaly behavior (AB) system in an attack scenario. Virtual hosts were automatically configured with unique emulated network stack behaviors for 92% of the targeted devices. The AB system alerted on 100% of the monitored emulated devices

  2. Conceptual design of technical security systems for Russian nuclear facilities physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmailov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual design of technical security systems (TSS) used in the early stages of physical protection systems (PPS) design for Russia nuclear facilities is discussed. The importance of work carried out in the early stages was noted since the main design solutions are being made within this period (i.e. selection of a structure of TSS and its components). The methods of analysis and synthesis of TSS developed by ''Eleron'' (MINATOM of Russia) which take into account the specific conditions of Russian nuclear facilities and a scope of equipment available are described in the review. TSS effectiveness assessment is based on a probability theory and a simulation. The design procedure provides for a purposeful choice of TSS competitive options including a ''cost-benefit'' criterion and taking into account a prechosen list of design basis threats to be used for a particular facility. The attention is paid to a practical aspect of the methods application as well as to the bilateral Russian-American scientific and technical co-operation in the PPS design field

  3. Physical security and cyber security issues and human error prevention for 3D printed objects: detecting the use of an incorrect printing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of characteristics of 3D printed objects have been linked to impaired structural integrity and use-efficacy. The printing material can also have a significant impact on the quality, utility and safety characteristics of a 3D printed object. Material issues can be created by vendor issues, physical security issues and human error. This paper presents and evaluates a system that can be used to detect incorrect material use in a 3D printer, using visible light imaging. Specifically, it assesses the ability to ascertain the difference between materials of different color and different types of material with similar coloration.

  4. Influence of employment and job security on physical and mental health in adults living with HIV: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Sergio; Raboud, Janet; Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Lavis, John; Cairney, John; Mustard, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    In the general population, job insecurity may be as harmful to health as unemployment. Some evidence suggests that employment is associated with better health outcomes among people with HIV, but it is not known whether job security offers additional quality-of-life benefits beyond the benefits of employment alone. We used baseline data for 1660 men and 270 women who participated in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing observational cohort study that collects clinical and socio-behavioural data from people with HIV in the province of Ontario, Canada. We performed multivariable regression analyses to determine the contribution of employment and job security to health-related quality of life after controlling for potential confounders. Employed men with secure jobs reported significantly higher mental health-related quality of life than those who were non-employed (β = 5.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.07 to 6.48), but insecure employment was not associated with higher mental health scores relative to non-employment (β = 0.18, 95% CI -1.53 to 1.90). Thus, job security was associated with a 5.09-point increase on a 100-point mental health quality-of-life score (95% CI 3.32 to 6.86). Among women, being employed was significantly associated with both physical and mental health quality of life, but job security was not associated with additional health benefits. Participation in employment was associated with better quality of life for both men and women with HIV. Among men, job security was associated with better mental health, which suggests that employment may offer a mental health benefit only if the job is perceived to be secure. Employment policies that promote job security may offer not only income stability but also mental health benefits, although this additional benefit was observed only for men.

  5. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  6. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J

    2012-01-01

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  7. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  8. Gravitational time dilation and length contraction in fields exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we use our new metric tensor exterior to a massiv3e oblate spheroid to study the gravitational phenomena of time dilation and length contraction. It turns out most profoundly that, the above phenomena hold good in the gravitational field exterior to an oblate spheroid. We then use the oblate spheroidal Earth to ...

  9. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  10. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  11. Verbal abuse and physical assault in the emergency department: Rates of violence, perceptions of safety, and attitudes towards security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia

    2017-08-01

    Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Conceptual Foundation for Measures of Physical Function and Behavioral Health Function for Social Security Work Disability Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E.; Haley, Stephen M.; Jette, Alan M.; Eisen, Susan V.; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M.; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E.; Rasch, Elizabeth K.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the two largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person’s underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this paper is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, two content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies five major domains (1) Behavior Control, (2) Basic Interactions, (3) Temperament and Personality, (4) Adaptability, and (5) Workplace Behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes three domains (1) Changing and Maintaining Body Position, (2) Whole Body Mobility, and (3) Carrying, Moving and Handling Objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development, measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. PMID:23548543

  13. Geology of the Source Physics Experiment Site, Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, M., Prothro, L. B., Obi, C.

    2012-03-15

    A test bed for a series of chemical explosives tests known as Source Physics Experiments (SPE) was constructed in granitic rock of the Climax stock, in northern Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site in 2010-2011. These tests are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration's National Center for Nuclear Security. The test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves, and will provide data that will improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. Abundant geologic data are available for the area, primarily as a result of studies performed in conjunction with the three underground nuclear tests conducted in the Climax granite in the 1960s and a few later studies of various types. The SPE test bed was constructed at an elevation of approximately 1,524 meters (m), and consists of a 91.4-centimeter (cm) diameter source hole at its center, surrounded by two rings of three 20.3-cm diameter instrument holes. The inner ring of holes is positioned 10 m away from the source hole, and the outer ring of holes is positioned 20 m from the source hole. An initial 160-m deep core hole was drilled at the location of the source hole that provided information on the geology of the site and rock samples for later laboratory testing. A suite of geophysical logs was run in the core hole and all six instruments holes to obtain matrix and fracture properties. Detailed information on the character and density of fractures encountered was obtained from the borehole image logs run in the holes. A total of 2,488 fractures were identified in the seven boreholes, and these were ranked into six categories (0 through 5) on the basis of their degree of openness and continuity. The analysis presented here considered only the higher-ranked fractures (ranks 2 through 5), of which there were 1,215 (approximately 49 percent of all fractures identified

  14. An intrinsic and exterior form of the Bianchi identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thoan; Prince, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    We give an elegant formulation of the structure equations (of Cartan) and the Bianchi identities in terms of exterior calculus without reference to a particular basis and without the exterior covariant derivative. This approach allows both structure equations and the Bianchi identities to be expressed in terms of forms of arbitrary degree. We demonstrate the relationship with both the conventional vector version of the Bianchi identities and to the exterior covariant derivative approach. Contact manifolds, codimension one foliations and the Cartan form of classical mechanics are studied as examples of its flexibility and utility.

  15. Comercio exterior del sector porcino mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica del comercio exterior porcino mexicano, y el efecto de las importaciones de productos porcinos en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción en México. Para la dinámica se analizaron las tasas de crecimiento (decremento y las variaciones tanto en volumen y valor del subsector, de las fracciones arancelarias agrupadas en dos grandes rubros: a animales vivos y b carnes y despojos comestibles, que tienen un impacto directo en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción nacional. El desplazamiento y sustitución se calcularon con la suma de los valores de las importaciones, su relación con los pesos en canal de los animales durante los años analizados, y su equivalente en porcentaje a número de animales. El estudio comprende de 1990 a 2008. La balanza comercial al inicio del estudio fue de -180 mil toneladas equivalente a 1.4 millones de cerdos desplazados y al 13 % de la producción nacional. Para el 2008, la balanza comercial fue -581 mil toneladas, los cerdos desplazados se incrementaron a 5.9 millones equivalente al 39 % de la producción nacional.

  16. Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.

  17. Network Physics - the only company to provide physics-based network management - secures additional funding and new executives

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Network Physics, the only provider of physics-based network management products, today announced an additional venture round of $6 million in funding, as well as the addition of David Jones as president and CEO and Tom Dunn as vice president of sales and business development" (1 page).

  18. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  19. The Weathering Study of PC/ASA Alloy For Automotive Exterior Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Öztürk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycarbonates (PC are used in automotive industry due to high physical and mechanical properties like high impact resistance and ductility. Polycarbonates are blended with ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and ASA (Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate terpolymers for interior and exterior applications of automotive components to achieve good physical and mechanical properties. Other reason for choosing such alloys for interior applications is the IZOD impact resistance requirement higher than 40kJ/m2. Recently, grades of PC/ASA with UV stabilized are developed for non-painted exterior applications. The aim of our study is to investigate whether new developed PC/ASA could be chosen for exterior applications of automotive industry. In this study, the samples are prepared from injection molding and the weathering performance of PC/ASA was tested by a weather-o-meter for 1500h at a total of 1890 kJ/m2 at 340nm with a cut-off filter at λ<290nm. The results are evaluated by FT-IR, DSC, TGA and SEM. It has been observed that UV degradation of PC/ASA leads to several major changes in its IR spectrum like broad bands occurred in the hydroxyl region around 3300 cm-1, and carbonyl stretching region increased around 1728 cm-1. The main degradations were based on photo-oxidation and photo-Fries rearrangement of PC. In our study, the photo-oxidation was followed by the color shift to yellowing of the polymer.

  20. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed

    2016-07-07

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  1. Physical-Layer Security of a Buffer-Aided Full-Duplex Relaying System

    KAUST Repository

    El Shafie, Ahmed; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Al-Dhahir, Naofal

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel hybrid half-/full-duplex relaying scheme to enhance the relay channel security. A source node (Alice) communicates with her destination node (Bob) in the presence of a buffer-aided full-duplex relay node (Rooney) and a potential eavesdropper (Eve). Rooney adopts two different relaying, namely randomize-and-forward and decode-andforward relaying strategies, to improve the security of the legitimate system. In the first relaying strategy, Rooney uses a codebook different from that used at Alice. In the second relaying strategy, Rooney and Alice use the same codebooks. In addition, Rooney switches between half-duplex and full-duplex modes to further enhance the security of the legitimate system. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed scheme achieves a significant average secrecy end-to-end throughput improvement relative to the conventional bufferless full-duplex relaying scheme.

  2. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special

  3. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy

  4. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  5. Compliance with federal and state regulations regarding the emergency response plan and physical security plan at the Oregon State TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.; Anderson, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    Recent legislative actions within the State of Oregon have had a significant impact upon the OSU TRIGA Emergency Response Plan, and to a lesser extent upon the Physical Security Plan. These state imposed changes will be reviewed in light of existing federal requirements. With the upcoming acquisition of FLIP fuel in August 1976, NRC required several major changes to the existing Physical Security Plan. Within the limitations of public disclosure, these changes will be contrasted to the present plan. (author)

  6. A threat-vulnerability based risk analysis model for cyber physical system security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ledwaba, Lehlogonolo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available model. An analysis of the Natanz system shows that, with an actual case security-risk score at Mitigation level 5, the infested facilities barely avoided a situation worse than the one which occurred. The paper concludes with a discussion on the need...

  7. Escape and evade control policies for ensuring the physical security of nonholonomic, ground-based, unattended mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2011-06-01

    In order to realize the wide-scale deployment of high-endurance, unattended mobile sensing technologies, it is vital to ensure the self-preservation of the sensing assets. Deployed mobile sensor nodes face a variety of physical security threats including theft, vandalism and physical damage. Unattended mobile sensor nodes must be able to respond to these threats with control policies that facilitate escape and evasion to a low-risk state. In this work the Precision Immobilization Technique (PIT) problem has been considered. The PIT maneuver is a technique that a pursuing, car-like vehicle can use to force a fleeing vehicle to abruptly turn ninety degrees to the direction of travel. The abrupt change in direction generally causes the fleeing driver to lose control and stop. The PIT maneuver was originally developed by law enforcement to end vehicular pursuits in a manner that minimizes damage to the persons and property involved. It is easy to imagine that unattended autonomous convoys could be targets of this type of action by adversarial agents. This effort focused on developing control policies unattended mobile sensor nodes could employ to escape, evade and recover from PIT-maneuver-like attacks. The development of these control policies involved both simulation as well as small-scale experimental testing. The goal of this work is to be a step toward ensuring the physical security of unattended sensor node assets.

  8. Conceptual foundation for measures of physical function and behavioral health function for Social Security work disability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfeo, Elizabeth E; Haley, Stephen M; Jette, Alan M; Eisen, Susan V; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Meterko, Mark; McDonough, Christine M; Chan, Leighton; Brandt, Diane E; Rasch, Elizabeth K

    2013-09-01

    Physical and mental impairments represent the 2 largest health condition categories for which workers receive Social Security disability benefits. Comprehensive assessment of physical and mental impairments should include aspects beyond medical conditions such as a person's underlying capabilities as well as activity demands relevant to the context of work. The objective of this article is to describe the initial conceptual stages of developing new measurement instruments of behavioral health and physical functioning relevant for Social Security work disability evaluation purposes. To outline a clear conceptualization of the constructs to be measured, 2 content models were developed using structured and informal qualitative approaches. We performed a structured literature review focusing on work disability and incorporating aspects of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a unifying taxonomy for framework development. Expert interviews provided advice and consultation to enhance face validity of the resulting content models. The content model for work-related behavioral health function identifies 5 major domains: (1) behavior control, (2) basic interactions, (3) temperament and personality, (4) adaptability, and (5) workplace behaviors. The content model describing physical functioning includes 3 domains: (1) changing and maintaining body position, (2) whole-body mobility, and (3) carrying, moving, and handling objects. These content models informed subsequent measurement properties including item development and measurement scale construction, and provided conceptual coherence guiding future empirical inquiry. The proposed measurement approaches show promise to comprehensively and systematically assess physical and behavioral health functioning relevant to work. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The implementation of nuclear security program and the improvement of physical protection in Indonesia: progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul

    2009-01-01

    facilities. The nuclear material and its installation is potential target in the facilities so that they needed physical protection measures in prevention and protection of nuclear material and radioactive source against theft and sabotage. The implementation of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources in Indonesia complied with the international instruments such as the Convention of the Physical Protection on Nuclear Material and Facilities, amended on July 2005, and INFCIRC/225/Rev. 4, (corrected), the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, June 1999. The application of nuclear energy for power program generation involve in the management of nuclear materials and other radioactive substance. According to international regulation and convention, an effective physical protection system is needed to protect nuclear materials and its facilities against theft and sabotage for both non-proliferation and radiation safety purpose. Further to implementation of the IAEA nuclear security program in the region, Indonesia received two nuclear security services, IPPAS and INSServ mission. Based on the expert mission recommendation, therefore Indonesia improved their physical protection system on nuclear material and facilities against theft and sabotage. One thing that should be considered by the Government of Indonesia is human resource development programmes. So far, some effort has developed to enhance the knowledge of the employee who deals with nuclear material and radioactive substances. It still needed to increase the awareness in particular to personal and other related agencies as well. The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration discussed security assistance with Indonesia's National Nuclear Energy Agency, BATAN. These upgrades not only reduced the threat of theft at the three research reactors, but also provided local physical protection expertise to use during the concept, design, and operation of

  10. Secure space-to-space interferometric communications and its nexus to the physics of quantum entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The history of the probability amplitude equation | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) applicable to quanta pairs, propagating in different directions with entangled polarizations, is reviewed and traced back to the 1947-1949 period. The interferometric Dirac foundations common to | ψ > = ( | x , y > - | y , x > ) and the generalized N-slit interferometric equation, for indistinguishable quanta, are also described. The results from a series of experiments on N-slit laser interferometers, with intra interferometric propagation paths up to 527 m, are reviewed. Particular attention is given to explain the generation of interferometric characters, for secure space-to-space communications, which immediately collapse on attempts of interception. The design of a low divergence N-slit laser interferometer for low Earth orbit-low Earth orbit (LEO-LEO), and LEO-geostationary Earth orbit (LEO-GEO), secure interferometric communications is described and a weight assessment is provided.

  11. Behavioral and physical biometric characteristics modeling used for ITS security improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav BAČA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric technologies rely on specific biometric characteristics that are used for recognition. The particular characteristic for a given situation can be described through a serious of descriptive parameters including ease of collecting, permanence, measurably, acceptability, deceptiveness, universality, uniqueness, sample cost, system cost, database size, as well as environmental factors. By using our ontology-based framework for adequacy of biometric systems, we introduce a model for using biometric technologies in ITS. Such technologies increase security, safety and protection of ITS.

  12. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative Relaying Over Generalized-K Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Liang; Chen, Jianchao; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we analyze the secrecy performance for a cooperative diversity system with amplify-and-forward (AF) over generalized-K fading channels. More specifically, some lower bounds on the secrecy performance, such as secure outage probability (SOP), average secrecy capacity (ASC), and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC), are derived in closed-form. Finally, we provide simulation results to verify the accuracy of our analytical results.

  13. Physical Layer Security for Cooperative Relaying Over Generalized-K Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ling

    2018-02-02

    In this letter, we analyze the secrecy performance for a cooperative diversity system with amplify-and-forward (AF) over generalized-K fading channels. More specifically, some lower bounds on the secrecy performance, such as secure outage probability (SOP), average secrecy capacity (ASC), and strictly positive secrecy capacity (SPSC), are derived in closed-form. Finally, we provide simulation results to verify the accuracy of our analytical results.

  14. Virtual reality in the creation of a tool to support planning of physical security at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.; Goncalves, Deise Galvao de S.; Marins, Eugenio; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years was observed the importance of improving the physical security of nuclear facilities, mainly due to the increasing advancement of brazilian nuclear program. The present work aims to develop a tool that allows the visualization and planning of action strategies in a virtual environment, in order to improve this security. To this end, was created a virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), which is located on Ilha do Fundao - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. This environment is a three-dimensional model, with representations close to reality, where virtual characters (avatars) can move and interact in real time. In this virtual world, it was developed a dynamic weather system, where is possible to change between day and night, and climate changes such as: rain, storms, snow, among other features. Furthermore, the tool has a surveillance system using virtual cameras, allowing the monitoring of the environment. This way, making possible to simulate strategies approach, allowing an evaluation of the procedures performed, as well as assisting in the training of security installations subject to radiation. (author)

  15. Virtual reality in the creation of a tool to support planning of physical security at nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio Carlos de A.; Goncalves, Deise Galvao de S.; Marins, Eugenio; Freitas, Victor Goncalves G., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com, E-mail: eugenio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: vgoncalves@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio De Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In recent years was observed the importance of improving the physical security of nuclear facilities, mainly due to the increasing advancement of brazilian nuclear program. The present work aims to develop a tool that allows the visualization and planning of action strategies in a virtual environment, in order to improve this security. To this end, was created a virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), which is located on Ilha do Fundao - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. This environment is a three-dimensional model, with representations close to reality, where virtual characters (avatars) can move and interact in real time. In this virtual world, it was developed a dynamic weather system, where is possible to change between day and night, and climate changes such as: rain, storms, snow, among other features. Furthermore, the tool has a surveillance system using virtual cameras, allowing the monitoring of the environment. This way, making possible to simulate strategies approach, allowing an evaluation of the procedures performed, as well as assisting in the training of security installations subject to radiation. (author)

  16. Salazarismo y política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  17. Physical and Digital Security Mechanisms: Properties, Combinations and Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2015-01-01

    The usage of information technology implies the replacement of physical systems with digital systems: we use information technology because some properties of software, such as high speed, low cost and high accuracy, are more desirable than the corresponding properties of physical systems.

  18. Signal processing approaches to secure physical layer communications in multi-antenna wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Y-W Peter; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces various signal processing approaches to enhance physical layer secrecy in multi-antenna wireless systems. Wireless physical layer secrecy has attracted much attention in recent years due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and its inherent vulnerability to eavesdropping. While most articles on physical layer secrecy focus on the information-theoretic aspect, we focus specifically on the signal processing aspects, including beamforming and precoding techniques for data transmission and discriminatory training schemes for channel estimation. The discussions will c

  19. Cyber and Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment for IoT-Based Smart Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Bako Ali; Ali Ismail Awad

    2018-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm focusing on the connection of devices, objects, or “things” to each other, to the Internet, and to users. IoT technology is anticipated to become an essential requirement in the development of smart homes, as it offers convenience and efficiency to home residents so that they can achieve better quality of life. Application of the IoT model to smart homes, by connecting objects to the Internet, poses new security and privacy challenges in te...

  20. Contribution to the radiological Security in hospital facilities: The graduate in Physics Prescribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, O.; Manso, M.V.; Gelen, A.; Alvarez, I.; Alfonso, R.; Borron, M.; Morales, J.A.; Jova, L.; Fraxedas, R.

    1998-01-01

    The graduate in Physics Prescribes, it allows the training, recalificacion and academic superacion he gives the technical staff that he works in the medical services he gives the different institutions he gives the National Health System

  1. EPIC: A Testbed for Scientifically Rigorous Cyber-Physical Security Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    SIATERLIS CHRISTOS; GENGE BELA; HOHENADEL MARC

    2013-01-01

    Recent malware, like Stuxnet and Flame, constitute a major threat to Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCIs), e.g., power plants. They revealed several vulnerabilities in today's NCIs, but most importantly they highlighted the lack of an efficient scientific approach to conduct experiments that measure the impact of cyber threats on both the physical and the cyber parts of NCIs. In this paper we present EPIC, a novel cyber-physical testbed and a modern scientific instrument that can pr...

  2. QPFT operator algebras and commutative exterior differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur'ev, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    The reduction of the structure theory of the operator algebras of quantum projective (sl(2, C)-invariant) field theory (QPFT operator algebras) to a commutative exterior differential calculus by means of the operation of renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields is described. In the first section, the author introduces the concept of the operator algebra of quantum field theory and describes the operation of the renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields. The second section is devoted to a brief exposition of the fundamentals of the structure theory of QPT operator algebras. The third section is devoted to commutative exterior differential calculus. In the fourth section, the author establishes the connection between the renormalized pointwise product of operator fields in QPFT operator algebras and the commutative exterior differential calculus. 5 refs

  3. The generalization of the exterior square of a Bieberbach group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rohaidah; Hassim, Hazzirah Izzati Mat; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd

    2014-06-01

    The exterior square of a group is one of the homological functors which were originated in the homotopy theory. Meanwhile, a Bieberbach group is a torsion free crystallographic group. A Bieberbach group with cyclic point group of order two, C2, of dimension n can be defined as the direct product of that group of the smallest dimension with a free abelian group. Using the group presentation and commutator generating sequence, the exterior square of a Bieberbach group with point group C2 of dimension n is computed.

  4. Deformed exterior algebra, quons and their coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2002-08-01

    We review the notion of the deformation of the exterior wedge product. This allows us to construct the deformation of the algebra of exterior forms over a vector space and also over an arbitrary manifold. We relate this approach to the generalized statistics and we study quons, as a particular case of these generalized statistics. We also give their statistical properties. A large part of the work is devoted to the problem of constructing coherent states for the deformed oscillators. We give a review of all the approaches existing in the literature concerning this point and enforce it with many examples. (author)

  5. Numerical investigation on exterior conformal mappings with application to airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rashidi Md Razali; Hu Laey Nee

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is described in computing a conformal map from an exterior region onto the exterior of the unit disk. The numerical method is based on a boundary integral equation which is similar to the Kerzman-Stein integral equation for interior mapping. Some examples show that numerical results of high accuracy can be obtained provided that the boundaries are smooth. This numerical method has been applied to the mapping airfoils. However, due to the fact that the parametric representation of an air foil is not known, a cubic spline interpolation method has been used. Some numerical examples with satisfying results have been obtained for the symmetrical and cambered airfoils. (Author)

  6. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  7. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  8. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-01-01

    The world's first master's degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5-1/2 year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2-1/2 years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program's specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training

  9. Power allocation and cooperative jamming for enhancing physical layer security in opportunistic relay networks in the presence of interference

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.

    2017-04-18

    In this paper, the impact of cochannel interference on the secrecy performance of dual-hop decode-and-forward relaying is investigated. In particular, the outage and intercept probabilities are obtained for the opportunistic relay selection (ORS) model in the presence of nonidentical interfering signals under a single/multiple passive eavesdropper(s) attack. Moreover, the proposed work enhances physical layer security performance of ORS model using cooperative jamming (CJ) techniques. Therefore, new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept and outage probabilities of the CJ-ORS model in the presence of interference over Rayleigh fading channels. Moreover, the analyses are generalized to the case of multiple eavesdroppers where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. To reveal more insights on the proposed work secrecy performance, asymptotic closed-form expressions for the intercept and outage probabilities are obtained. Using these asymptotic expressions, a power allocation optimization problem is formulated and solved for enhancing the system security. The derived analytical formulas herein are supported by numerical and simulation results to clarify the main contributions of the paper. The results show that, although the cochannel interference increases the system outage probability, it might improve the system secrecy performance. Moreover, the proposed CJ-ORS model is shown to enhance the system secrecy performance compared to ORS model.

  10. A chaotic modified-DFT encryption scheme for physical layer security and PAPR reduction in OFDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaosong; Bi, Meihua; Zhou, Xuefang; Yang, Guowei; Li, Qiliang; Zhou, Zhao; Yang, Xuelin

    2018-05-01

    This letter proposes a modified discrete Fourier transform (DFT) encryption scheme with multi-dimensional chaos for the physical layer security and peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system. This multiple-fold encryption algorithm is mainly composed by using the column vectors permutation and the random phase encryption in the standard DFT matrix, which can create ∼10551 key space. The transmission of ∼10 Gb/s encrypted OFDM signal is verified over 20-km standard single mode fiber (SMF). Moreover, experimental results show that, the proposed scheme can achieve ∼2.6-dB PAPR reduction and ∼1-dB improvement of receiver sensitivity if compared with the common OFDM-PON.

  11. An Integrated Cyber Security Risk Management Approach for a Cyber-Physical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Ibrahim Kure

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A cyber-physical system (CPS is a combination of physical system components with cyber capabilities that have a very tight interconnectivity. CPS is a widely used technology in many applications, including electric power systems, communications, and transportation, and healthcare systems. These are critical national infrastructures. Cybersecurity attack is one of the major threats for a CPS because of many reasons, including complexity and interdependencies among various system components, integration of communication, computing, and control technology. Cybersecurity attacks may lead to various risks affecting the critical infrastructure business continuity, including degradation of production and performance, unavailability of critical services, and violation of the regulation. Managing cybersecurity risks is very important to protect CPS. However, risk management is challenging due to the inherent complex and evolving nature of the CPS system and recent attack trends. This paper presents an integrated cybersecurity risk management framework to assess and manage the risks in a proactive manner. Our work follows the existing risk management practice and standard and considers risks from the stakeholder model, cyber, and physical system components along with their dependencies. The approach enables identification of critical CPS assets and assesses the impact of vulnerabilities that affect the assets. It also presents a cybersecurity attack scenario that incorporates a cascading effect of threats and vulnerabilities to the assets. The attack model helps to determine the appropriate risk levels and their corresponding mitigation process. We present a power grid system to illustrate the applicability of our work. The result suggests that risk in a CPS of a critical infrastructure depends mainly on cyber-physical attack scenarios and the context of the organization. The involved risks in the studied context are both from the technical and

  12. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  13. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  14. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  15. A Probabilistic Model for Exteriors of Residential Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available

  16. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  17. Minimizing and predicting delamination of southern plywood in exterior exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    Southern pine plywood is substantially all being manufactured with phenolic glue for exterior use. Because panels must not delaminate in service, a reliable predictor of glueline durability is required. Drawing on the experience of the Douglas-fir plywood industry, southern manufacutrers have adopted as a predictor the percentage of wood failure(% WF) observed in...

  18. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... assumptions for calculating the Energy Cost Budget and default assumptions for the Design Energy Consumption... without operable windows shall be assumed to be 0.038 cfm/ft2 of gross exterior wall. Hotels/motels and...

  19. Port exteriorization appendectomy in children: An alternative to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Laparoscopic appendectomy is usually performed using an intracorporeal approach. The conventional procedure uses three ports. The port exteriorization appendectomy uses two trocars to perform the entire procedure and can be considered an efficient alternative to the conventional approach, especially in ...

  20. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. [Reserved] 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5 Labeling...

  1. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  2. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  3. A Comparison between Different Meta-Heuristic Techniques in Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Okati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Node cooperation can protect wireless networks from eavesdropping by using the physical characteristics of wireless channels rather than cryptographic methods. Allocating the proper amount of power to cooperative nodes is a challenging task. In this paper, we use three cooperative nodes, one as relay to increase throughput at the destination and two friendly jammers to degrade eavesdropper’s link. For this scenario, the secrecy rate function is a non-linear non-convex problem. So, in this case, exact optimization methods can only achieve suboptimal solution. In this paper, we applied different meta-heuristic optimization techniques, like Genetic Algorithm (GA, Partial Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bee Algorithm (BA, Tabu Search (TS, Simulated Annealing (SA and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO. They are compared with each other to obtain solution for power allocation in a wiretap wireless network. Although all these techniques find suboptimal solutions, but they appear superlative to exact optimization methods. Finally, we define a Figure of Merit (FOM as a rule of thumb to determine the best meta-heuristic algorithm. This FOM considers quality of solution, number of required iterations to converge, and CPU time.

  4. Phonetic physical feature formula for identification of radiation auxiliary workers and security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.N.; Srivastava, M.K.; Kher, R.K.

    1997-08-01

    This report gives a review of human physical features with the aim of evolving a simple and practical formula which can be used to identify radiation auxiliary workers even if they do not reveal their radiation work history either due to ignorance or intentionally. To have the formula short, the phonetic number system of radix 128 has been employed. The formula finally arrived at consists of three phonetic digits representing 17 features and age in blocks of 8 years. There are four main advantages of this formula. The first is binary division which has more surety and better accuracy. The second is expert redundancy, that is expert examination is not required. Third is very large number of categories (128K=131072). And the fourth is nearly equal probabilities of all categories which make the number of people in each category very few and that simplifies the search. Hence by the scan of a few records, it is easily possible to ascertain whether a person is a new entrant or an old timer. Its application ensures better monitoring of the radiation exposure of auxiliary workers. This formula can also be used by police department and investigating agencies to classify the records of suspected persons for the ease of their identification when they give misleading information

  5. Analyzing Cyber Security Threats on Cyber-Physical Systems Using Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhner, Aleksandr; Pomerantz, Marc; Tan, Kymie; Campuzano, Brian; Dinkel, Kevin; Pecharich, Jeremy; Nguyen, Viet; Steele, Robert; Johnson, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The spectre of cyber attacks on aerospace systems can no longer be ignored given that many of the components and vulnerabilities that have been successfully exploited by the adversary on other infrastructures are the same as those deployed and used within the aerospace environment. An important consideration with respect to the mission/safety critical infrastructure supporting space operations is that an appropriate defensive response to an attack invariably involves the need for high precision and accuracy, because an incorrect response can trigger unacceptable losses involving lives and/or significant financial damage. A highly precise defensive response, considering the typical complexity of aerospace environments, requires a detailed and well-founded understanding of the underlying system where the goal of the defensive response is to preserve critical mission objectives in the presence of adversarial activity. In this paper, a structured approach for modeling aerospace systems is described. The approach includes physical elements, network topology, software applications, system functions, and usage scenarios. We leverage Model-Based Systems Engineering methodology by utilizing the Object Management Group's Systems Modeling Language to represent the system being analyzed and also utilize model transformations to change relevant aspects of the model into specialized analyses. A novel visualization approach is utilized to visualize the entire model as a three-dimensional graph, allowing easier interaction with subject matter experts. The model provides a unifying structure for analyzing the impact of a particular attack or a particular type of attack. Two different example analysis types are demonstrated in this paper: a graph-based propagation analysis based on edge labels, and a graph-based propagation analysis based on node labels.

  6. A Probabilistic Model for Exteriors of Residential Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2016-07-29

    We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available data such as aerial images and street-view images. First, we propose a parametric model to describe the exterior of a building (with a varying number of parameters) and propose a set of attributes as a building representation with fixed dimensionality. Second, we propose a hierarchical graphical model with hidden variables to encode the relationships between building attributes and learn both the structure and parameters of the model from the database. Third, we propose optimization algorithms to generate three-dimensional models based on building attributes sampled from the graphical model. Finally, we demonstrate our framework by synthesizing new building models and completing partially observed building models from photographs.

  7. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, WIlliam E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  8. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  11. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  12. Strategic planning and security analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePasquale, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear security master planning is a deliberative process, founded on the premise that the broad scope of security must be analyzed before any meaningful determinations may be reached on an individual security aspect. This paper examines the analytical process required in developing a Security Master Plan. It defines a four stage process concluding with the selection of security measures encompassing physical security, policy and procedure considerations and guard force deployment. The final product orchestrates each security measure in a complementary and supportive configuration

  13. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  14. Transforming Security Screening With Biometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hearnsberger, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    ... and identity theft to dramatically improve physical security. Today, biometric technology could be implemented to transform physical security by enhancing screening procedures currently in use at U.S...

  15. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance (Revision 1, Feb. 1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This regulatory guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standard format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical security plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CFR Part 73

  16. Multilayered security and privacy protection in Car-to-X networks solutions from application down to physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Stübing, Hagen

    2013-01-01

    Car-to-X (C2X) communication in terms of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication aims at increasing road safety and traffic efficiency by exchanging foresighted traffic information. Thereby, security and privacy are regarded as an absolute prerequisite for successfully establishing the C2X technology on the market. Towards the paramount objective of covering the entire ITS reference model with security and privacy measures, Hagen Stübing develops dedicated solutions for each layer, respectively. On application layer a security architecture in terms of a Public Key Infras

  17. The effect of lighting exterior and interior design

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Light, whether natural or artificial is a very important element in interior and exterior design. It actually helps us to see color because color is visible to our eye because the substances of which was obtained reflect wavelengths of light. Light as an element of design influences other elements. It can make the space large or small, showy and bright or dark and unpleasant. Places that are well-lit with clean, clear light make the space seem larger, while the fading light and shadows ...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Antennae by Discrete Exterior Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Ye Zheng; Ma Yujie

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of antennae is a topic in computational electromagnetism, which is concerned with the numerical study of Maxwell equations. By discrete exterior calculus and the lattice gauge theory with coefficient R, we obtain the Bianchi identity on prism lattice. By defining an inner product of discrete differential forms, we derive the source equation and continuity equation. Those equations compose the discrete Maxwell equations in vacuum case on discrete manifold, which are implemented on Java development platform to simulate the Gaussian pulse radiation on antennaes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  20. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  1. Big data-based data mining modeling for nuclear security analysis in the modified physical protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the social networking-related strategies have been developed to prepare against the terror. The conventional PPS is composed of detection, delay, and response. In the systems, each stage has particular characteristics where the detection state is to find out the intrusion and unauthorized behavior by some devices, the delay stage is to slow the malicious acts by some barriers, and finally the response stage is to interrupt the actions by several kinds of methods like the arms response. It is said there are some data mining activities by the department of homeland security in the United States. The Automated Targeting System (ATS) compares several factors like traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against intelligence and other enforcement data, which is managed by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and includes modules for inbound (ATS-N) and outbound (ATS-AT) cargo, land border crossings (ATS-L), and passengers (ATS-P). The Data Analysis and Research for Trade Transparency System (DARTTS) analyzes possible data like the trade and financial stuff, which is administered by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).The modeling has accomplished successfully the random number generation-based quantifications for nuclear security incorporated with several complex algorithms, which is one of popular strategies in the technological-social science areas. In the calculations, the data are processed in every 7.5 minutes in which this means the calculation is done as 8 times in one hour. So, the graph has 100 hours with 800 times data processing. This means that 35,673.516 graphs are available by the big data processing. That is, 1 tera byte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes = 800 2,500,000,000 bytes So, it is needed to process 2,500,000,000 bytes more for 1 tera byte. In the similar way, 2,500,000,000 bytes are done for 8 times in 1 hour. Then, 312,500,000 bytes are done for 24 hours in 1 day. Then, 13,020,833.33 bytes are done for 365 days in 1 year

  2. Secure Data Transfer Guidance for Industrial Control and SCADA Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahan, Robert E.; Fluckiger, Jerry D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Tews, Cody W.; Burnette, John R.; Goranson, Craig A.; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-09-01

    This document was developed to provide guidance for the implementation of secure data transfer in a complex computational infrastructure representative of the electric power and oil and natural gas enterprises and the control systems they implement. For the past 20 years the cyber security community has focused on preventative measures intended to keep systems secure by providing a hard outer shell that is difficult to penetrate. Over time, the hard exterior, soft interior focus changed to focus on defense-in-depth adding multiple layers of protection, introducing intrusion detection systems, more effective incident response and cleanup, and many other security measures. Despite much larger expenditures and more layers of defense, successful attacks have only increased in number and severity. Consequently, it is time to re-focus the conventional approach to cyber security. While it is still important to implement measures to keep intruders out, a new protection paradigm is warranted that is aimed at discovering attempted or real compromises as early as possible. Put simply, organizations should take as fact that they have been, are now, or will be compromised. These compromises may be intended to steal information for financial gain as in the theft of intellectual property or credentials that lead to the theft of financial resources, or to lie silent until instructed to cause physical or electronic damage and/or denial of services. This change in outlook has been recently confirmed by the National Security Agency [19]. The discovery of attempted and actual compromises requires an increased focus on monitoring events by manual and/or automated log monitoring, detecting unauthorized changes to a system's hardware and/or software, detecting intrusions, and/or discovering the exfiltration of sensitive information and/or attempts to send inappropriate commands to ICS/SCADA (Industrial Control System/Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) systems.

  3. Security research roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouhiainen, V. (ed.)

    2007-02-15

    VTT has a broad range of security research ongoing in many areas of technology. The main areas have been concentrating on public safety and security, but VTT is also participating in several research projects related to defence technology. To identify and define expertise and research goals in more detail, the Security research roadmap was developed. The roadmap identified three particularly significant areas related to security. The assurance of a critical infrastructure emphasises the protection of energy networks, information networks, water supply, traffic and transport, and obviously also the citizens. For assuring the activities of entrepreneurship, significant areas include the security of production and services, the security of sites and assets, and information security for embedded systems. The most important security products and technologies needed are, for example, management of total security, detection, identification, localisation and communication, protection of information networks and systems, as well as physical protection. In the EU's Security programme, which aims at ensuring the security of society and its vital functions, it is stated that. Technology alone can not assure security, but security can not be assured without the support of technology. VTT is conducting security research in all its areas of expertise and clusters. The area has a significant research potential. The development of products and systems designed for the improvement of security has just started. There is still room for innovation. This report presents knowledge and development needs in more detail, as well as future development potential seen in the area of security. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear Safeguards and Security Education at Russian Universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is assisting key Russian universities in developing safeguards and security degree programs to prepare the next generation of specialists who will be responsible for protecting nuclear material from illicit use. These programs include course and laboratory work in nuclear material measurements, vulnerability analysis, exterior and interior sensors, and legal aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) has graduated nine classes of masters students, most of who are working in government agencies, research organizations, or pursuing their PhD. With DOE support, MEPhI has also established a 5 1/2-year engineering degree program in safeguards and security. This is a hands-on degree that more closely meets the needs of nuclear facilities. The first class graduated in February 2007, marking a major milestone in Russian nonproliferation education. A second engineering degree program has been established at Tomsk Polytechnic University and is designed to reach those students east of the Ural Mountains, where many nuclear facilities are located. The first class will graduate in February 2009. This paper describes current development of these education programs, new initiatives, and sustainability efforts to ensure their continued viability after DOE support ends. The paper also describes general nonproliferation education activities supported by DOE that complement the more technical safeguards and security education programs.

  5. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  6. Security system signal supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritton, M.R.; Matter, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs

  7. Database Security: A Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lesov, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The importance of security in database research has greatly increased over the years as most of critical functionality of the business and military enterprises became digitized. Database is an integral part of any information system and they often hold sensitive data. The security of the data depends on physical security, OS security and DBMS security. Database security can be compromised by obtaining sensitive data, changing data or degrading availability of the database. Over the last 30 ye...

  8. 21 CFR 1301.72 - Physical security controls for non-practitioners; narcotic treatment programs and compounders for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of No. 10 gauge steel fabric on a metal door frame in a metal door flange, and in all other respects... secured areas: (1) Where small quantities permit, a safe or steel cabinet; (i) Which safe or steel cabinet... radiological techniques; (ii) Which safe or steel cabinet, if it weighs less than 750 pounds, is bolted or...

  9. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  10. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  11. Covariant differential calculus on the quantum exterior vector space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, P.; Soni, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    We formulate a differential calculus on the quantum exterior vector space spanned by the generators of a non-anticommutative algebra satisfying r ij = θ i θ j +B kl ij θ k θ l =0 i, j=1, 2, ..., n. and (θ i ) 2 =(θ j ) 2 =...=(θ n ) 2 =0, where B kl ij is the most general matrix defined in terms of complex deformation parameters. Following considerations analogous to those of Wess and Zumino, we are able to exhibit covariance of our calculus under ( 2 n )+1 parameter deformation of GL(n) and explicitly check that the non-anticommutative differential calculus satisfies the general constraints given by them, such as the 'linear' conditions dr ij ≅0 and the 'quadratic' condition r ij x n ≅0 where x n =dθ n are the differentials of the variables. (orig.)

  12. The use of exterior forms in Einstein's gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirring, W.; Wallner, R.

    1978-01-01

    Cartan's calculus is used to reformulate the general variational principle and conservation laws in terms of exterior forms. In applying this method to Einstein's gravitation theory, we do not only benefit from the great economy of Cartan's formalism but also gain a deeper understanding of fundamental results already known. So the existence of superpotential-forms may be deduced from d o d identical to 0 and as a consequence the vanishing of total energy and momentum in a closed universe is affirmed in a more general way. Simple expressions for the sundry superpotential are obtained quite naturally. As a byproduct, Einstein's equations are rewritten in a form where the coderivative of a 2-form (the superpotential-form) is a current, and therefore resembles the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations. In passing from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian 4-form, the ADM formalism is immediately entered without lengthy calculations [pt

  13. Cluster Observations of Particle Injections in the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process takes place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is taking place near the exterior cusp.

  14. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  15. Accuracy analysis of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax in POS-supported aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenli; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2009-10-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax, especially using the orientation parameters of aerial images obtained by a POS (Positioning and Orientation System) after calibration. Firstly, based on the theory of analytical relative orientation of consecutive photo connection, the exterior orientation elements can be easily translated to relative orientation elements. Then, the formula of vertical parallax can be deduced. The results of vertical parallax in left image space coordinate system are compared with the results calculated in the image coordinate system which are parallel to those of the object coordinate system. The validity and feasibility of the mathematical model are tested using two sets of actual data at different images scales. Finally, the differences between the effects of exterior orientation parameters on vertical parallax are compared using exterior orientation parameters obtained by traditional bundle block adjustment and by a POS after calibrated. And how the single element of exterior orientation effected on vertical parallax and how they worked together are analyzed. The empirical results indicate that the effects of different elements of exterior orientation on vertical parallax are different, all exterior orientation parameters can be affected by each other, so the overall effect of vertical parallax accuracy can be restricted by all exterior orientation parameters.

  16. Non-invasive nuclear device for communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, L.W.; Meyer, G.A.; Hittman, F.; Lyon, W.C.; Hayes, W.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a non-invasive technique for measuring the pressure in body cavities of animals or humans is recognized as highly desirable for continuous or intermittent monitoring of body conditions. The non-invasive nuclear device of the present invention is fully implantable and is fully capable of communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior to allow readout non-invasively. In its preferred form, the invention includes a housing for subcutaneous implantation with the radioactive source. An urging means such as a bellows is provided in the housing interior. The fluid pressure from a fluid pressure sensing device within the body is transmitted to the housing interior by means of a pressure-limiting fluid through a conduit. This causes the radioactive source to move against the force out of the initial or repose shielded relationship causing a proportional increase in pressure in the body portion being monitored. The radioactive output from the radioactive source corresponds to the magnitude of the pressure within the body. The housing may be securely mounted on a supporting portion of the body and the mounting serves as a radiation shield for the body. (JTA)

  17. Bezpieczne formy aktywności fizycznej dla kobiet w ciąży = Secure forms of physical activity for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Urtnowska, Katarzyna; Bułatowicz, Irena; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Zukow, Walery

    2016-01-01

    Urtnowska Katarzyna, Bułatowicz Irena, Ludwikowski Grzegorz, Zukow Walery. Bezpieczne formy aktywności fizycznej dla kobiet w ciąży = Secure forms of physical activity for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(5):291-297. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.51894 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3526 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23...

  18. SPECIAL AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS VITAL PART OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN ROMANIA. SECURING THEIR PHYSICAL AND INFORMATIONAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several arguments on the need to study the critical infrastructure in Romania including various systems (networks and special military communications. It emphasizes the role and place of such systems and networks to provide national defense and security and the risks and vulnerabilities faced by these infrastructures, and some necessary measures to be taken for the physical and informational protection in the case of hostile military actions, natural disasters or other negative phenomena. Finally some conclusions and proposals are formulated.

  19. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  20. Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  1. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  2. Security Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?......What is a security dilemma? What are the consequences of security dilemmas in international politics?...

  3. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  4. Security of pipeline facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Egmond, C.; Duquette, L. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This working group provided an update on provincial, federal and industry directions regarding the security of pipeline facilities. The decision to include security issues in the NEB Act was discussed as well as the Pipeline Security Management Assessment Project, which was created to establish a better understanding of existing security management programs as well as to assist the NEB in the development and implementation of security management regulations and initiatives. Amendments to the NEB were also discussed. Areas of pipeline security management assessment include physical safety management; cyber and information security management; and personnel security. Security management regulations were discussed, as well as implementation policies. Details of the Enbridge Liquids Pipelines Security Plan were examined. It was noted that the plan incorporates flexibility for operations and is integrated with Emergency Response and Crisis Management. Asset characterization and vulnerability assessments were discussed, as well as security and terrorist threats. It was noted that corporate security threat assessment and auditing are based on threat information from the United States intelligence community. It was concluded that the oil and gas industry is a leader in security in North America. The Trans Alaska Pipeline Incident was discussed as a reminder of how costly accidents can be. Issues of concern for the future included geographic and climate issues. It was concluded that limited resources are an ongoing concern, and that the regulatory environment is becoming increasingly prescriptive. Other concerns included the threat of not taking international terrorism seriously, and open media reporting of vulnerability of critical assets, including maps. tabs., figs.

  5. Combined peak-to-average power ratio reduction and physical layer security enhancement in optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing visible-light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongpeng; Chen, Shoufa

    2016-07-01

    A physical encryption scheme for discrete Hartley transform (DHT) precoded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) visible-light communication (VLC) systems using frequency domain chaos scrambling is proposed. In the scheme, the chaos scrambling, which is generated by a modified logistic mapping, is utilized to enhance the physical layer of security, and the DHT precoding is employed to reduce of OFDM signal for OFDM-based VLC. The influence of chaos scrambling on peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and bit error rate (BER) of systems is studied. The experimental simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed encryption method for DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC systems. Furthermore, the influence of the proposed encryption to the PAPR and BER of systems is evaluated. The experimental results show that the proposed security scheme can protect the DHT-precoded, OFDM-based VLC from eavesdroppers, while keeping the good BER performance of DHT-precoded systems. The BER performance of the encrypted and DHT-precoded system is almost the same as that of the conventional DHT-precoded system without encryption.

  6. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5): Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication, Revision 5 of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225), is intended to provide guidance to States and their competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a physical protection regime for nuclear material and nuclear facilities, through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement legislative and regulatory programmes. The recommendations presented in this publication reflect a broad consensus among IAEA Member States on the requirements which should be met for the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities.

  7. Enhancing Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Level-0 Physical Process Security Using Field Device Distinct Native Attribute Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Juan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liefer, Nathan C. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Busho, Colin R. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States); Temple, Michael A. [Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Here, the need for improved Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) security is unquestioned and there has been minimal emphasis on Level-0 (PHY Process) improvements. Wired Signal Distinct Native Attribute (WS-DNA) Fingerprinting is investigated here as a non-intrusive PHY-based security augmentation to support an envisioned layered security strategy. Results are based on experimental response collections from Highway Addressable Remote Transducer (HART) Differential Pressure Transmitter (DPT) devices from three manufacturers (Yokogawa, Honeywell, Endress+Hauer) installed in an automated process control system. Device discrimination is assessed using Time Domain (TD) and Slope-Based FSK (SB-FSK) fingerprints input to Multiple Discriminant Analysis, Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) and Random Forest (RndF) classifiers. For 12 different classes (two devices per manufacturer at two distinct set points), both classifiers performed reliably and achieved an arbitrary performance benchmark of average cross-class percent correct of %C > 90%. The least challenging cross-manufacturer results included near-perfect %C ≈ 100%, while the more challenging like-model (serial number) discrimination results included 90%< %C < 100%, with TD Fingerprinting marginally outperforming SB-FSK Fingerprinting; SB-FSK benefits from having less stringent response alignment and registration requirements. The RndF classifier was most beneficial and enabled reliable selection of dimensionally reduced fingerprint subsets that minimize data storage and computational requirements. The RndF selected feature sets contained 15% of the full-dimensional feature sets and only suffered a worst case %CΔ = 3% to 4% performance degradation.

  8. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  9. Improving the physical health of people with severe mental illness in a low secure forensic unit: An uncontrolled evaluation study of staff training and physical health care plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mark; Llewellyn-Jones, Sian; Yarnold, Steve; Simpson, Alan

    2016-12-01

    The life expectancy of people with severe mental illnesses is substantially reduced, and monitoring and screening for physical health problems is a key part of addressing this health inequality. Inpatient admission presents a window of opportunity for this health-care activity. The present study was conducted in a forensic mental health unit in England. A personal physical health plan incorporating clearly-presented and easily-understood values and targets for health status in different domains was developed. Alongside this, a brief physical education session was delivered to health-care staff (n = 63). Printed learning materials and pedometers and paper tape measures were also provided. The impact was evaluated by a single-group pretest post-test design; follow-up measures were 4 months' post-intervention. The feasibility and acceptability of personal health plans and associated resources were examined by free-text questionnaire responses. Fifty-seven staff provided measures of attitudes and knowledge before training and implementation of the physical health plans. Matched-pairs analysis indicated a modest but statistically-significant improvement in staff knowledge scores and attitudes to involvement in physical health care. Qualitative feedback indicated limited uptake of the care plans and perceived need for additional support for better adoption of this initiative. Inpatient admission is a key setting for assessing physical health and promoting improved management of health problems. Staff training and purpose-designed personalized care plans hold potential to improve practice and outcomes in this area, but further support for such innovations appears necessary for their uptake in inpatient mental health settings. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Security studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venot, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Security studies constitute one of the major tools for evaluating the provisions implemented at facilities to protect and control Nuclear Material against unauthorized removal. Operators use security studies to demonstrate that they are complying with objectives set by the Competent Authority to counter internal or external acts aimed at unauthorized removal of NM. The paper presents the context of security studies carried out in France. The philosophy of these studies is based on a postulated unauthorized removal of NM and the study of the behavior of the systems implemented to control and protect NM in a facility. The potential unauthorized removal of NM usually may take place in two stages. The first stage involves the sequence leading to handling of the NM. It occurs inside the physical barriers of a facility and may include action involving the documents corresponding to Material Control and Accounting systems. At this stage it is possible to limit the risk of unauthorized removal of NM by means of detection capabilities of the MC and A systems. The second stage is more specific to theft and involves removing the NM out of the physical barriers of a facility in which they are being held, notably by affecting the Physical Protection System. Operators have to study, from a quantity and time lapse point of view, the ability of the installed systems to detect unauthorized removal, as well as the possibility of tampering with the systems to mask unlawful operations. Operators have also to analyze the sequences during which NM are accessed, removed from their containment and further removed from the facility in which they are stored. At each stage in the process, the probability of detection and the time taken to carry out the above actions have to be estimated. Of course, these two types of studies complement each other. Security studies have begun, in France, for more than fifteen years. Up to now more than fifty security studies are available in the

  11. Diseño de un armario eléctrico para alumbrado exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeil, Bastien

    2009-01-01

    El Proyecto tiene como objetivo el diseño de un armario eléctrico de alumbrado exterior que proporcione un valor añadido a los existentes actualmente. Este producto, diseñado para proteger los sistemas de alimentación y control de las instalaciones eléctricas, guardará esta función principal, tendrá un diseño exterior nuevo, y nuevas funcionalidades. Ahora, estas instalaciones permiten de alimentar la calle, los alumbradores exteriores en electricidad y gestionar las diferentes líneas desd...

  12. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  13. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  14. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  15. Numerical electromagnetic frequency domain analysis with discrete exterior calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu C.; Chew, Weng Cho

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis in frequency domain for various electromagnetic problems based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC) with an arbitrary 2-D triangular or 3-D tetrahedral mesh. We formulate the governing equations in terms of DEC for 3-D and 2-D inhomogeneous structures, and also show that the charge continuity relation is naturally satisfied. Then we introduce a general construction for signed dual volume to incorporate material information and take into account the case when circumcenters fall outside triangles or tetrahedrons, which may lead to negative dual volume without Delaunay triangulation. Then we examine the boundary terms induced by the dual mesh and provide a systematical treatment of various boundary conditions, including perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), perfect electric conductor (PEC), Dirichlet, periodic, and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) within this method. An excellent agreement is achieved through the numerical calculation of several problems, including homogeneous waveguides, microstructured fibers, photonic crystals, scattering by a 2-D PEC, and resonant cavities.

  16. Vilnius Gediminas Technical Universty and Mykolas Riomeris University Faculty of Public Security Female Student Physical Activity Evaluation 2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Tamošauskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of scientific researches show that female student physical and functional condition getting worst, which optimal function have big influence for human psychological and social health. Female student physical maturity makes up significant psychophysical foundation for the future professional activities. It is extremely important to pay more attention for women physical activity solution. 186 VGTU and 131 MRU FPS female students were analyzed during our research in 2010–2012. Evaluation of physical development (height, weight, vital lung capacity, body composition (body mass index, thickness of fat skinfold, waist and hip volume ration, percentage of fat mass indicators and other important components of fitness (balance, static stamina of arms and shoulders, core flexibility, and knee tendon stiffness, static power of palm, speed of arm movement, agility, power and stamina of core muscles supplementing up to date information about Lithuanian female student physical capacity. Analytical research results shows that 89% of researched female students had normal weight, 8% indicated as overweight, 3% were underweight. Collected data revealed that researched same age peers of higher education schools waist and hip volume ratio and body mass index were normal.

  17. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  18. Contemporary security management

    CERN Document Server

    Fay, John

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Security Management, 3rd Edition teaches security professionals how to operate an efficient security department and how to integrate smoothly with other groups inside and outside their own organizations. Fay demonstrates the specifics of security management: * how to organize, plan, develop and manage a security operation. * how to identify vulnerabilities. * how to determine the protective resources required to offset threats. * how to implement all necessary physical and IT security measures. Security professionals share the responsibility for mitigating damage, serving as a resource to an Emergency Tactical Center, assisting the return of business continuity, and liaising with local response agencies such as police and fire departments, emergency medical responders, and emergency warning centers. At the organizational level, the book addresses budgeting, employee performance, counseling, hiring and termination, employee theft and other misconduct, and offers sound advice on building constructi...

  19. Security research roadmap; Security-tutkimuksen roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumanen, M.; Rouhiainen, V. (eds.)

    2006-02-15

    security products and technologies needed are, for example, management of total security, detection, identification, localisation and communication, protection of information networks and systems, and physical protection. This report presents in more detail the knowledge and development needs as well as future development potentials seen in the security area. (orig.)

  20. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms

  1. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  2. Overview of security culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulanya, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear Security culture concept has been aggressively promoted over the past several years as a tool to improve the physical protection of the nuclear and radioactive materials due to growing threats of catastrophic terrorism and other new security challenges. It is obvious that, the scope of nuclear security and the associated cultures need to be extended beyond the traditional task of protecting weapons-usable materials. The role of IAEA is to strengthen the nuclear security framework globally and in leading the coordination of international activities in this field. Therefore all governments should work closely with the IAEA to take stronger measures to ensure the physical protection, the safety and security of the nuclear and radioactive materials. In the effort to reflect this new realities and concerns, the IAEA in 2008 came up with the document, the Nuclear Security Culture, Nuclear Security Series No. 7, Implementing Guide to the member states which urged every member state to take appropriate measures to promote security culture with respect to nuclear and radioactive materials. The document depicted this cultural approach as the way to protect individual, society and the environment. Among other things, the document defined nuclear security culture as characteristics and attitudes in organizations and of individuals which establishes that, nuclear security issues receives attention warranted by their significance. (au)

  3. DTIC Review: Biometric Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...: Biometrics, the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits, is a critical tool used in law enforcement, computer security and homeland defense...

  4. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a

  5. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a charged spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, A.; Manko, V.S.; Denisova, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing the exterior gravitational field of a charged rotating axisymmetric mass possessing an arbitrary set of multipole moments is presented explicitly

  6. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manko, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the vacuum Einstein equations representing the exterior gravitational field of a stationary axisymmetric mass with an arbitrary mass-multipole structure is presented

  7. Process Security in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluso, Cristina; Uygun, Korkut; Huang, Yinlun; Lou, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The threats of terrorism have greatly alerted the chemical process industries to assure plant security at all levels: infrastructure-improvement-focused physical security, information-protection-focused cyber security, and design-and-operation-improvement-focused process security. While developing effective plant security methods and technologies…

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  9. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  10. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs

  11. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  12. Cluster Observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R. L.; Taylor, M. G.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    The cusps are the places where the Earth's magnetic field lines, connected to the inner side of the magnetopause, converge. It is therefore the place where signatures of processes occurring near the subsolar point, in the tail lobes, as well as near the dawn and dusk flanks are observed. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the side (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. We will investigate the origin of the injections forming the dispersions and if these can be explained by the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's magnetic field.

  13. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Obi, Curtis [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  14. Securing a cyber physical system in nuclear power plants using least square approximation and computational geometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawand, Hemangi Laxman; Bhattacharjee, A. K.; Roy, Kallol

    2017-01-01

    In industrial plants such as nuclear power plants, system operations are performed by embedded controllers orchestrated by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software. A targeted attack (also termed a control aware attack) on the controller/SCADA software can lead a control system to operate in an unsafe mode or sometimes to complete shutdown of the plant. Such malware attacks can result in tremendous cost to the organization for recovery, cleanup, and maintenance activity. SCADA systems in operational mode generate huge log files. These files are useful in analysis of the plant behavior and diagnostics during an ongoing attack. However, they are bulky and difficult for manual inspection. Data mining techniques such as least squares approximation and computational methods can be used in the analysis of logs and to take proactive actions when required. This paper explores methodologies and algorithms so as to develop an effective monitoring scheme against control aware cyber attacks. It also explains soft computation techniques such as the computational geometric method and least squares approximation that can be effective in monitor design. This paper provides insights into diagnostic monitoring of its effectiveness by attack simulations on a four-tank model and using computation techniques to diagnose it. Cyber security of instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear power plants is of paramount importance and hence could be a possible target of such applications

  15. Securing a cyber physical system in nuclear power plants using least square approximation and computational geometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawand, Hemangi Laxman [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Computer Section, BARC, Mumbai (India); Bhattacharjee, A. K. [Reactor Control Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Roy, Kallol [BHAVINI, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-04-15

    In industrial plants such as nuclear power plants, system operations are performed by embedded controllers orchestrated by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software. A targeted attack (also termed a control aware attack) on the controller/SCADA software can lead a control system to operate in an unsafe mode or sometimes to complete shutdown of the plant. Such malware attacks can result in tremendous cost to the organization for recovery, cleanup, and maintenance activity. SCADA systems in operational mode generate huge log files. These files are useful in analysis of the plant behavior and diagnostics during an ongoing attack. However, they are bulky and difficult for manual inspection. Data mining techniques such as least squares approximation and computational methods can be used in the analysis of logs and to take proactive actions when required. This paper explores methodologies and algorithms so as to develop an effective monitoring scheme against control aware cyber attacks. It also explains soft computation techniques such as the computational geometric method and least squares approximation that can be effective in monitor design. This paper provides insights into diagnostic monitoring of its effectiveness by attack simulations on a four-tank model and using computation techniques to diagnose it. Cyber security of instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear power plants is of paramount importance and hence could be a possible target of such applications.

  16. Securing a Cyber Physical System in Nuclear Power Plants Using Least Square Approximation and Computational Geometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemangi Laxman Gawand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In industrial plants such as nuclear power plants, system operations are performed by embedded controllers orchestrated by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA software. A targeted attack (also termed a control aware attack on the controller/SCADA software can lead a control system to operate in an unsafe mode or sometimes to complete shutdown of the plant. Such malware attacks can result in tremendous cost to the organization for recovery, cleanup, and maintenance activity. SCADA systems in operational mode generate huge log files. These files are useful in analysis of the plant behavior and diagnostics during an ongoing attack. However, they are bulky and difficult for manual inspection. Data mining techniques such as least squares approximation and computational methods can be used in the analysis of logs and to take proactive actions when required. This paper explores methodologies and algorithms so as to develop an effective monitoring scheme against control aware cyber attacks. It also explains soft computation techniques such as the computational geometric method and least squares approximation that can be effective in monitor design. This paper provides insights into diagnostic monitoring of its effectiveness by attack simulations on a four-tank model and using computation techniques to diagnose it. Cyber security of instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear power plants is of paramount importance and hence could be a possible target of such applications.

  17. Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Ali; Svedung, Harald; Cehlin, Mathias; Rönnelid, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increase building energy efficiency by optimizing surface optical properties. ► Study different scenarios with both interior and exterior reflective coatings. ► Combined thermal effect of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. -- Abstract: The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  18. Thermographic method for evaluation of thermal influence of exterior surface colour of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Li, Deying; Jin, Rendong; Liu, Li; Bai, Jiabin; Feng, Jianming

    2008-12-01

    Architecture colour is an important part in urban designing. It directly affects the expressing and the thermal effect of exterior surface of buildings. It has proved that four factors affect the sign visibility, graphics, colour, lighting condition and age of the observers, and colour is the main aspect. The best method is to prevent the exterior space heating up in the first place, by reflecting heat away room the exterior surface.The colour of paint to coat building's exterior wall can have a huge impact on energy efficiency. While the suitable colour is essential to increasing the energy efficiency of paint colour during the warm summer months, those products also help paint colour efficiency and reduce heat loss from buildings during winter months making the interior more comfortable all year long. The article is based on analyzing the importance of architecture color design and existing urban colour design. The effect of external surface colour on the thermal behaviour of a building has been studied experimentally by Infrared Thermographic method in University of Science and technology Beijing insummer.The experimental results showed that different colour has quietly different thermal effect on the exterior surface of buildings. The thermal effect of carmine and fawn has nearly the same values. The main factor which is color express, give some suggest ting about urban color design. The investigation reveals that the use of suitable surface colour can dramatically reduce maximum the temperatures of the exterior wall. Keywords: architectural colour, thermal, thermographic

  19. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Obi, Curtis [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF PROCEDURES FOR CARRYING OUT EMERGENCY PHYSICAL INVENTORY TAKING AFTER DETECTING ANOMALY EVENTS CONCERNING NM SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VALENTE, J.; FISHBONE, L.

    2003-01-01

    In the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF-IPPE, Obninsk), which is under Minatom jurisdiction, the procedures for carrying out emergency physical inventory taking (EPIT) were developed and tested in cooperation with the Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). Here the emergency physical inventory taking means the PIT, which is carried out in case of symptoms indicating a possibility of NM loss (theft). Such PIT often requires a verification of attributes and quantitative characteristics for all the NM items located in a specific Material Balance Area (MBA). In order to carry out the exercise, an MBA was selected where many thousands of NM items containing highly enriched uranium are used. Three clients of the computerized material accounting system (CMAS) are installed in this MBA. Labels with unique (within IPPE site) identification numbers in the form of digit combinations and an appropriate bar code have been applied on the NM items, containers and authorized locations. All the data to be checked during the EPIT are stored in the CMAS database. Five variants of anomalies initiating EPIT and requiring different types of activities on EPIT organization are considered. Automatic working places (AWP) were created on the basis of the client computers in order to carry out a large number of measurements within a reasonable time. In addition to a CMAS client computer, the main components of an AWP include a bar-code reader, an electronic scale and an enrichment meter with NaI--detector--the lMCA Inspector (manufactured by the Canberra Company). All these devices work together with a client computer in the on-line mode. Special computer code (Emergency Inventory Software-EIS) was developed. All the algorithms of interaction between the operator and the system, as well as algorithms of data exchange during the measurements and data comparison, are implemented in this software. Registration of detected

  4. Security force effectiveness and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    No one would propose ineffective security forces. Applied technology always has, as its purpose, to increase effectiveness. Evidence exists, however, that poorly conceived or executed technological solutions can actually do more harm than good. The author argues for improved human factor considerations in physical security applied technology -- especially in the area of security console operations

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  6. Transportation security : post-September 11th initiatives and long-term challenges : statement of Gerald L. Dillingham, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    This testimony responds to the request of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States for information on GAO's work in transportation security. It addresses (1) transportation security before September 2001; (2) what the feder...

  7. Financial security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.; Burgess, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction J. Peter Burgess Part 1: New Security Concepts 2. Civilizational Security Brett Bowden 3. Risk Oliver Kessler 4. Small Arms Keith Krause 5. Critical Human Security Taylor Owen 6. Critical Geopolitics Simon Dalby Part 2: New Security Subjects 7. Biopolitics Michael Dillon 8. Gendered

  8. Cyber security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Cyber Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to cyber security metrics and measure  and related technologies that meet security needs. Specific applications to web services, the banking and the finance sector, and industrial process control systems are discussed.

  9. Security negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Miroslav M.; Ivaniš, Željko

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary security challenges, risks and threats represent a resultant of the achieved level of interaction between various entities within the paradigm of global security relations. Asymmetry and nonlinearity are main features of contemporary challenges in the field of global security. Negotiation in the area of security, namely the security negotiation, thus goes beyond just the domain of negotiation in conflicts and takes into consideration particularly asymmetric forms of possible sour...

  10. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear... PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28 Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. Licensees are excepted from the security...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  15. Security Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    systematic study of security expertise and opens up a productive dialogue between science and technology studies and security studies to investigate the character and consequences of this expertise. In security theory, the study of expertise is crucial to understanding whose knowledge informs security making......This volume brings together scholars from different fields to explore the power, consequences and everyday practices of security expertise. Expertise mediates between different forms of knowledge: scientific and technological, legal, economic and political knowledge. This book offers the first...... and to reflect on the impact and responsibility of security analysis. In science and technology studies, the study of security politics adds a challenging new case to the agenda of research on expertise and policy. The contributors investigate cases such as academic security studies, security think tanks...

  16. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  17. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  18. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  19. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  20. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Podorson, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  1. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  2. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  3. The secure heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pind, C.

    1987-01-01

    The SECURE heating reactor was designed by ASEA-ATOM as a realistic alternative for district heating in urban areas and for supplying heat to process industries. SECURE has unique safety characteristics, that are based on fundamental laws of physics. The safety does not depend on active components or operator intervention for shutdown and cooling of the reactor. The inherent safety characteristics of the plant cannot be affected by operator errors. Due to its very low environment impact, it can be sited close to heat consumers. The SECURE heating reactor has been shown to be competitive in comparison with other alternatives for heating Helsinki and Seoul. The SECURE heating reactor forms a basis for the power-producing SECURE-P reactor known as PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety), which is based on the same inherent safety principles. The thermohydraulic function and transient response have been demonstrated in a large electrically heated loop at the ASEA-ATOM laboratories

  4. International Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  8. Elementos para una política exterior ambiental (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Íñigo

    2002-01-01

    La necesidad de una política exterior ecuatoriana en lo ambiental surge de la naturaleza global del medio ambiente, de la responsabilidad del Ecuador como país privilegiado por su megadiversidad, de la vinculación inevitable entre la pobreza que le aqueja y la degradación del ambiente y de los compromisos internacionales por él adquiridos. Una política exterior ambiental debe resultar de un proceso de diseño en que participen todos los actores de la temática ambiental, aunque su ejecución deb...

  9. Exterior domain problems and decomposition of tensor fields in weighted Sobolev spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Günter

    1996-01-01

    The Hodge decompOsition is a useful tool for tensor analysis on compact manifolds with boundary. This paper aims at generalising the decomposition to exterior domains G ⊂ IR n. Let L 2a Ω k(G) be the space weighted square integrable differential forms with weight function (1 + |χ|²)a, let d a be the weighted perturbation of the exterior derivative and δ a its adjoint. Then L 2a Ω k(G) splits into the orthogonal sum of the subspaces of the d a-exact forms with vanishi...

  10. Being the corresponding accents of red in one interior and one exterior as

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina; Namicev, Petar; Ignatov, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    What is the emphasis in the interior and what is exterior accent? Thair next goal is to attract attention and to clarify the answer to his location i.e. to highlight the special effect of the composition, which we have set. The color is the emphasis that has been selected for analysis. From the color palette, accent color is red, a primary color and while contrast to green or color that represented 60% of the exterior and is dominant. Ability of the human eye to focus and take depending on th...

  11. La dolarización y su incidencia en el Comercio Exterior Ecuatoriano.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanicuchi, Jorge Arturo

    2004-01-01

    En razón de que la economía ecuatoriana depende en gran medida del desempeño de su comercio exterior, así como del funcionamiento del esquema de la dolarización, surge, entonces, la necesidad de comprender una serie de inquietudes en torno a este delicado tema, especialmente en lo concerniente al ¿cómo está respondiendo la dolarización a las necesidades del comercio exterior del país, al sector de los exportadores e importadores y a la economía nacional misma?; ¿cómo está...

  12. Acción exterior de la Unión Europea: UE-Rusia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Garzón, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido desarrollar las competencias de la UE en materia de acción exterior, así como su alcance sobre un tercer Estado, la Federación Rusa. Se parte de la identificación de la UE como sujeto con personalidad jurídica y un régimen jurídico propio. Se va a especificar las instituciones y organismos competentes que desarrollan las políticas exteriores. Después se analiza la estructura de la Federación Rusa junto con sus relaciones con la UE. ...

  13. A dual exterior point simplex type algorithm for the minimum cost network flow problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geranis George

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dual simplex type algorithm for the Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP is presented. The proposed algorithm belongs to a special 'exterior- point simplex type' category. Similarly to the classical network dual simplex algorithm (NDSA, this algorithm starts with a dual feasible tree-solution and reduces the primal infeasibility, iteration by iteration. However, contrary to the NDSA, the new algorithm does not always maintain a dual feasible solution. Instead, the new algorithm might reach a basic point (tree-solution outside the dual feasible area (exterior point - dual infeasible tree.

  14. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  15. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR... INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must be... information. The facility may obtain defensive security, threat awareness, and other education and training...

  16. Curvature in mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    This original Dover textbook is based on an advanced undergraduate course taught by the author for more than 50 years. It introduces semi-Riemannian geometry and its principal physical application, Einstein's theory of general relativity, using the Cartan exterior calculus as a principal tool. Prerequisites include linear algebra and advanced calculus. 2012 edition.

  17. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  18. Security Locks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  5. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago—a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  6. Bezpieczne formy aktywności fizycznej dla kobiet w ciąży = Secure forms of physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urtnowska

    2016-05-01

    4Wydział Kultury Fizycznej, Zdrowia i Turystyki, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy           mgr Katarzyna Urtnowska1, dr n. med. Irena Bułatowicz2, dr hab. n. med. Grzegorz Ludwikowski3, dr hab. Walery Zukow4 1Uczestnik studiów dokotranckich z zakresu Nauk o Zdrowiu; Zakład Medycyny Rozdrodu i Andrologii, Collegium Medicum im. L. Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu 2Katedra Fizjoterapii - Zakład Fizjoterapii Klinicznej, Collegium Medicum im. L. Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu 3Zakład Medycyny Rozdrodu i Andrologii, Collegium Medicum im. L. Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu 4Wydział Kultury Fizycznej, Zdrowia i Turystyki, Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy           Słowa kluczowe: ciąża, aktywność fizyczna, sport. Keywords: pregnancy, physical activity, sport.           Streszczenie Kobieta spodziewać się dziecka w dzisiejszych czasach ma wiele możliwości podjęcia bezpiecznej formy aktywności fizycznej. Z odrobiną racjonalnego podejścia może kontynuować uprawianie ulubionego sportu, lub uczestniczyć w zajęciach przygotowanych specjalnie dla ciężarnych. Aktywność fizyczna uprawiana regularnie w trakcie ciąży jest kluczowym czynnikiem wpływającym na zdrowie i samopoczucie matki. Ćwiczenia wpływają korzystnie na stan zdrowia poprzez zmniejszenie dolegliwości bólowych kręgosłupa, ogólną poprawę lub brak pogorszenia sprawności fizycznej, zapobieganie nadmiernemu przyrostowi masy ciała i poprawę samopoczucia ciężarnej. Dodatkowym, a zarazem najważniejszym efektem jest zwiększenie wydolności fizycznej niezbędnej do porodu siłami natury i skrócenie czasu jego przebiegu oraz czasu regeneracji organizmu w połogu, a co za tym idzie, szybszy powrót do formy sprzed ciąży.     Abstract A women expect a child a child today has a lot of possibilities for secure forms of physical activity. With

  7. Effects of Exterior Insulation on Moisture Performance of Wood-Frame Walls in the Pacific Northwest: Measurements and Hygrothermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Borjen Yeh; Benjamin J. Herzog

    2016-01-01

    Continuous exterior insulation on above-grade walls is becoming more common in many parts of North America. It is generally accepted that exterior insulation provides advantages for energy performance, by reducing thermal bridging, and for moisture performance, by warming the wood structural members, thereby reducing the potential for wintertime moisture accumulation....

  8. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  9. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yumeng; Zeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  10. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  11. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  12. Bondability of ipê (Tabebuia spp.) wood using ambient-curing exterior wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2016-01-01

    Ipê is an extremely difficult species to bond because of its high density, interlocking grain, and high volumetric swelling–shrinkage under prolonged wet conditions. Despite its difficulties, the wood is known to be extremely durable in exterior conditions because of its resistance to microbial and insect degradation. Therefore, investigating its bondability with...

  13. Solutions for Creating the Main Elements which Condition the Energy Consumption. Exterior Windows - Roof

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2013-01-01

    The envelope of the building often has a complex geometry in which a multitude of different sub-assemblies can be identified. The envelope elements specific to roof areas can generally be of three types: walk and non-walk terrace roof as well as roof truss. The exterior joinery analysed is PVC type with four glass sheets.

  14. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  15. Deformation of the exterior algebra and the GLq (r, included in) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Zakkari, M.

    1993-06-01

    The deformation of the associative algebra of exterior forms is performed. This operation leads to a Y.B. equation. Its relation with the braid group B n-1 is analyzed. The correspondence of this deformation with the GL q (r, included in) algebra is developed. (author). 9 refs

  16. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  17. Initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunmei.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of the global solutions to the initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain. When the space dimension n >= 3, the unique global solution of the above problem is obtained for small initial data, even if the nonlinear term is fully nonlinear and contains the unknown function itself. (author). 10 refs

  18. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yumeng [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zeng, Li, E-mail: drlizeng@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-11

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  19. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  20. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  1. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  6. Design and evaluation of physical protection systems of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Jin Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Kwack, Eun Ho; Choi, Yung Myung

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear material and safety equipment of nuclear facilities are required to be protected against any kind of theft or sabotage. Physical protection is one of the measures to prevent such illegally potential threats for public security. It should cover all the cases of use, storage, and transportation of nuclear material. A physical protection system of a facility consists of exterior intrusion sensors, interior intrusion sensors, an alarm assessment and communication system, entry control systems, access delay equipment, etc. The design of an effective physical protection system requires a comprehensive approach in which the designers define the objective of the system, establish an initial design, and evaluate the proposed design. The evaluation results are used to determine whether or not the initial design should be modified and improved. Some modelling techniques are commonly used to analyse and evaluate the performance of a physical protection system. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) has developed a prototype of software as a part of a full computer model for effectiveness evaluation for physical protection systems. The input data elements for the prototype, contain the type of adversary, tactics, protection equipment, and the attributes of each protection component. This report contains the functional and structural requirements defined in the development of the evaluation computer model.

  7. Game based cyber security training: are serious games suitable for cyber security training?

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Maurice; Al-Sherbaz, Ali; Victoria, Bloom

    2016-01-01

    Security research and training is attracting a lot of investment and interest from governments and the private sector. Most efforts have focused on physical security, while cyber security or digital security has been given less importance. With recent high-profile attacks it has become clear that training in cyber security is needed. Serious Games have the capability to be effective tools for public engagement and behavioural change and role play games, are already used by security profession...

  8. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  9. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Sami K; Al-Sayer, Hilal M; Juma, Talib H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel. METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients, of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (self-inflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia). Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound. One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure. RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ± 2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophago-jejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed. CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available. PMID:17589900

  10. Exteriorization or in-situ repair, comparison of options for uterine repair at cesarean delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, B.; Shehzad, F.; Safdar, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of study is to compare peri-operative complications between exteriorization and intraabdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Pakistan Ordinance Factory Hospital, Wah Cantt, from 1st April 2010 to 30th September 2010. Material and Methods: Patients planned for 1st cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated by lottery method to exteriorized (A) or in situ uterine repair (B) group. Patients with history of uterine surgeries and cesarean section were excluded from study. Variables analyzed were operation time, peri-operative hemoglobin (Hb) fall, nausea and vomiting during the cesarean delivery. Results: The study analyzed 170 patients and divided them in 2 groups, having no significant difference with respect to maternal demographics, procedure statistics and indication of cesarean section. Significant difference was observed in operation time being 32.78 min in exteriorized group and 36.38 min in situ uterine repair group (p-value 0.0001). Hb percent fall was 0.85 g/dl and 0.92 g/dl respectively in both groups (p-value 0.62) Nausea and vomiting was 23.5 percent in group A and 11.8 percent in group B (p-value 0.02, 0.04 respectively) Conclusion: Peri-operative complications like operative time and Hb fall are less in uterine repair after temporary exteriorization as compared to intra-abdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Nausea and vomiting were increased in exteriorized group but proper regional anesthetic technique and achieving adequate analgesia can reduce patient discomfort. (author)

  11. Convergence of Corporate and Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Syed; Rahman, M.; Donahue, Shannon E.

    2010-01-01

    As physical and information security boundaries have become increasingly blurry many organizations are experiencing challenges with how to effectively and efficiently manage security within the corporate. There is no current standard or best practice offered by the security community regarding convergence; however many organizations such as the Alliance for Enterprise Security Risk Management (AESRM) offer some excellent suggestions for integrating a converged security program. This paper rep...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  13. Securing Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Sudheesh

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial filled with practical examples which will focus mainly on the key security tools and implementation techniques of Hadoop security.This book is great for Hadoop practitioners (solution architects, Hadoop administrators, developers, and Hadoop project managers) who are looking to get a good grounding in what Kerberos is all about and who wish to learn how to implement end-to-end Hadoop security within an enterprise setup. It's assumed that you will have some basic understanding of Hadoop as well as be familiar with some basic security concepts.

  14. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  15. Information Security and the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddrell, Gregory R.

    1996-01-01

    As business relies less on "fortress" style central computers and more on distributed systems, the risk of disruption increases because of inadequate physical security, support services, and site monitoring. This article discusses information security and why protection is required on the Internet, presents a best practice firewall, and…

  16. Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

    2011-10-18

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational

  17. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  18. Security management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technical progress is moving more and more quickly and the systems thus produced are so complex and have become so unclear to the individual that he can no longer estimate the consequences: Faith in progress has given way to deep mistrust. Companies have adjusted to this change in consciousness. An interesting tendency can be identified: technical security is already available - now the organization of security has become an important objective for companies. The key message of the book is: If outworn technical systems are no longer adequate, the organization must be thoroughly overhauled. Five chapters deal with the following themes: organization as an aspect of society; risk control; aspects of security; is there security in ADP; the broader concept of security. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Estrutura de informação sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Lino, Sônia Regina Lamego

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico O trabalho tem como objetivo geral estudar a estrutura de informação sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina e o uso dessa estrutura de informação pelos usuários das médias empresas do setor moveleiro catarinense que exportam para o MERCOSUL. Os objetivos específicos são: 1) identificar as instituições públicas e privadas que mantêm estrutura de informações sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina; 2...

  20. Fabrication of DNA nanotubes with an array of exterior magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Adele; Zarrabi, Ali; Gill, Pooria

    2017-10-01

    Described here a methodology for arraying of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the surface of DNA nanotubes (DNTs). Positioning of magnetic nanoparticles at exterior surface of DNTs were shaped after self-assembling of oligonucleotide staples within an M13mp18 DNA scaffold via an origami process. The staples were partially labeled with biotin to be arrayed at the surface of DNTs. Gel retardation assay of the DNTs carrying magnetic nanoparticles indicated a reversely behavioral electrophoretic movement in comparison to the nanotubes have been demonstrated previously. Also, high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed positioning magnetic nanoparticles at the exterior surface of DNTs, correctly. Ultrastructural characteristics of these DNA nanotubes using atomic force microscopy demonstrated topographic heights on their surfaces formed through positioning of magnetic nanoparticles outside the tubules. This nanoarchitecture would be potential for multiple arraying of nanoparticles that those be useful as functionalized chimeric nanocarriers for developing novel nanodrugs and nanobiosensors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Importance of location and exterior of city hotels as elements of guest satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavčević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business practices and attitudes of tourists show that hospitality represents the primary factor in the development of urban tourism. It is considered that, besides the exclusive appearance, there is no business success for hotel properties without a proper location. It is known that a typical tourist would like to be close enough to tourist attractions, to be able to reach them on foot. This paper deals with the importance of location and exterior of urban hotels on guests decision on the selection and overall satisfaction with hotel products. The survey was conducted in the hotels two largest urban centers in Serbia (Belgrade and Novi Sad. The aim of the research is an insight into the real impact of location and exterior when assessing the guest satisfaction. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical data processing.

  2. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  3. La evolución de la política exterior China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad, que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: el comunismo, el nacionalismo y el pragmatismo. A modo de conclusión se subraya que, a pesar de sus vaivenes, la política exterior de Pekín ha mantenido tres objetivos fundamentales en las últimas siete décadas: modernización, reconocimiento internacional como gran potencia y reunificación nacional.

  4. Comercio Exterior Argentino (1935-1946: Comportamiento de las Importaciones en un Contexto de Turbulencia Internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Gomez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La estructura de la economía argentina, hasta la crisis de los años treinta, se había conformado de acuerdo a su inserción en el mercado internacional como exportador de bienes primarios alimentarios e importador de bienes energéticos y manufacturados. A partir de las modificaciones que se producen a nivel del comercio, especialmente la dificultad de las importaciones de bienes, se desarrolla la industrialización, orientada hacia la sustitución de importaciones. Nos interesa analizar la contribución del comercio exterior a esta transformación de estructura que se va produciendo. Se utilizan como fuentes: series de comercio exterior correspondientes a esos años (1935-1947, revistas especializadas y periódicos.

  5. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY (CYBER SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siddique Ansari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Business Organizations and Government unequivocally relies on upon data to deal with their business operations. The most unfavorable impact on association is disappointment of friendship, goodness, trustworthiness, legitimacy and probability of data and administrations. There is an approach to ensure data and to deal with the IT framework's Security inside association. Each time the new innovation is made, it presents some new difficulties for the insurance of information and data. To secure the information and data in association is imperative on the grounds that association nowadays inside and remotely joined with systems of IT frameworks. IT structures are inclined to dissatisfaction and security infringement because of slips and vulnerabilities. These slips and vulnerabilities can be brought on by different variables, for example, quickly creating headway, human slip, poor key particulars, poor movement schedules or censuring the threat. Likewise, framework changes, new deserts and new strikes are a huge piece of the time displayed, which helpers augmented vulnerabilities, disappointments and security infringement all through the IT structure life cycle. The business went to the confirmation that it is essentially difficult to ensure a slip free, risk free and secure IT structure in perspective of the disfigurement of the disavowing security parts, human pass or oversight, and part or supplies frustration. Totally secure IT frameworks don't exist; just those in which the holders may have changing degrees of certainty that security needs of a framework are fulfilled do. The key viewpoints identified with security of data outlining are examined in this paper. From the start, the paper recommends pertinent legitimate structure and their duties including open association obligation, and afterward it returns to present and future time, system limits, structure security in business division. At long last, two key inadequacy markers

  6. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D.

    2008-01-01

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years

  7. Child-directed marketing inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Powell, Lisa M; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Children who eat fast food have poor diet and health outcomes. Fast food is heavily marketed to youth, and exposure to such marketing is associated with higher fast food consumption. To examine the extent of child-directed marketing (CDM) inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants. Data were collected from 6,716 fast food restaurants located in a nationally representative sample of public middle- and high-school enrollment areas in 2010, 2011, and 2012. CDM was defined as the presence of one or more of seven components inside or on the exterior of the restaurant. Analyses were conducted in 2014. More than 20% of fast food restaurants used CDM inside or on their exterior. In multivariate analyses, fast food restaurants that were part of a chain, offered kids' meals, were located in middle- (compared to high)-income neighborhoods, and in rural (compared to urban) areas had significantly higher odds of using any CDM; chain restaurants and those located in majority black neighborhoods (compared to white) had significantly higher odds of having an indoor display of kids' meal toys. Compared to 2010, there was a significant decline in use of CDM in 2011, but the prevalence increased close to the 2010 level in 2012. CDM inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants is prevalent in chain restaurants; majority black communities, rural areas, and middle-income communities are disproportionately exposed. The fast food industry should limit children's exposure to marketing that promotes unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D. [POSCO Technical Reseaarch Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years.

  9. Black Holes in the Framework of the Metric Tensor Exterior to the Sun and Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E.N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the Sun and oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system to reduce to black holes is investigated. The metric tensor exterior to oblate spheroidal masses indicates that for the Sun to reduce to a black hole, its mass must condense by a factor of 2 : 32250 10 5 . Using Schwarzschild’s metric, this factor is obtained as 2 : 3649 10 5 . Similar results are obtained for oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system.

  10. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  11. Energy decay for solutions to semilinear systems of elastic waves in exterior domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio V. Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamical system of elasticity in the exterior of a bounded open domain in 3-D with smooth boundary. We prove that under the effect of "weak" dissipation, the total energy decays at a uniform rate as $t o +infty$, provided the initial data is "small" at infinity. No assumptions on the geometry of the obstacle are required. The results are then applied to a semilinear problem proving global existence and decay for small initial data.

  12. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiang; Wang Deng-Shan; Yin Yan-Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. (paper)

  13. Los grabados exteriores de Santo Adriano (Tuñón. Santo Adriano. Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Fortea Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los grabados exteriores de la cueva de Santo Adriano, que se comparan con grabados del mismo tipo existentes en la Región Cantábrica, a lo largo de una franja territorial de 220 km, entre las cuencas de los ríos Nalón al oeste y el Asón al este.

  14. Optimisation of the Lowest Robin Eigenvalue in the Exterior of a Compact Set

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 319-337 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Robin Laplacian * negative boundary parameter * exterior of a convex set * spectral isoperimetric inequality * spectral isochoric inequality * parallel coordinates Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2016

  15. Influence of Connection Placement to the Behavior of Precast Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Elly Tjahjono; Heru Purnomo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of connection placement to the behaviour of exterior beamcolumn joint of precast concrete structure under semi cyclic loading. Four half-scale beam-column specimens were investigated. Three beam-columns were jointed through connection that are placed in beam-column joint region and the forth is connected at the plastic hinge potensial region of the beam. Crack patterns, strength, stiffness and ductility of the test specimens have been...

  16. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  17. Slowly rotating charged fluid balls and their matching to an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Perjes, Zoltan; Bradley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The slow-rotation approximation of Hartle is developed to a setting where a charged rotating fluid is present. The linearized Einstein-Maxwell equations are solved on the background of the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in the exterior electrovacuum region. The theory is put to action for the charged generalization of the Wahlquist solution found by Garcia. The Garcia solution is transformed to coordinates suitable for the matching and expanded in powers of the angular velocity. The two domains are then matched along the zero pressure surface using the Darmois-Israel procedure. We prove a theorem to the effect that the exterior region is asymptotically flat if and only if the parameter C 2 , characterizing the magnitude of an external magnetic field, vanishes. We obtain the form of the constant C 2 for the Garcia solution. We conjecture that the Garcia metric cannot be matched to an asymptotically flat exterior electrovacuum region even to first order in the angular velocity. This conjecture is supported by a high precision numerical analysis

  18. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  19. Simulations of incompressible Navier Stokes equations on curved surfaces using discrete exterior calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Mohamed, Mamdouh; Hirani, Anil

    2015-11-01

    We present examples of numerical solutions of incompressible flow on 2D curved domains. The Navier-Stokes equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. A conservative discretization of Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). The discretization is then carried out by substituting the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. By construction, the method is conservative in that both the discrete divergence and circulation are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step. Numerical examples include Taylor vortices on a sphere, Stuart vortices on a sphere, and flow past a cylinder on domains with varying curvature. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1401-01.

  20. Security Bingo

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Want to check your security awareness and win one of three marvellous books on computer security? Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us by 31 October 2011 at either Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710.   Winners[1] must show that they fulfil at least five good practices in a continuous vertical, horizontal or diagonal row. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. I personally…   …am concerned about computer security. …run my computer with an anti-virus software and up-to-date signature files. …lock my computer screen whenever I leave my office. …have chosen a reasonably complex password. …have restricted access to all my files and data. …am aware of the security risks and threats to CERN’s computing facilities. &hell...

  1. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  2. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  3. Secure PVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  4. Junos Security

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Rob; Giecco, Patricio; Eberhard, Timothy; Quinn, James

    2010-01-01

    Junos® Security is the complete and authorized introduction to the new Juniper Networks SRX hardware series. This book not only provides a practical, hands-on field guide to deploying, configuring, and operating SRX, it also serves as a reference to help you prepare for any of the Junos Security Certification examinations offered by Juniper Networks. Network administrators and security professionals will learn how to use SRX Junos services gateways to address an array of enterprise data network requirements -- including IP routing, intrusion detection, attack mitigation, unified threat manag

  5. Selection of exterior wall using advantageousness comparison; Ulkoseinaen valinta elinkaariedullisuuden perusteella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, A.; Vesa, M.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the advantageousness of six chosen exterior wall solutions and at the same time to produce the procedure the measurement of the advantageousness. The examined wall types were: (1) brick wall, (2) brick-wool-concrete wall, (2b) brick-wool-concrete wall (not plastered), (3) brick-wool-wood wall, (4) precast concrete wall, and (5) plaster-wool-concrete wall. The analysis was made to a residential construction project which is built in a frame municipality of the metropolitan area. Here the life cycle costs, environmental burdens, and other factors (the aesthetic character, image, a comfort and easy maintenance) have an affect to the advantageousness of exterior wall. The averages of appreciation of the seven members of the supervising body of this study were used as the weights of the aforementioned value factors in the comparison. The result of the analysis was that the unplastered brick-wool-concrete wall had the equal life cycle costs as the precast concrete wall (an annual cost FIM 70 per apartment floor area). They were superior in relation to other examined wall types. In turn the brick wall had the highest life cycle costs (an annual cost nearly FIM 200 per apartment floor area) from the examined wall solutions on the advantageousness measuring straightforwardly likewise. It was chosen for an examination time period for 50 years. Likewise the brick wall was the distinctly weakest solution eco-economically, irrespective of, how costs and environmental factors are weighted. The brick wall was both the most expensive and unecological from the examined exterior wall types. It had a weak ecological qualities because considerably more building material than to other examined wall types. Also it's thermal insulation capacity was the weakest. But if in the decision-making also the aesthetic character, image, the effect on the comfort, and easy maintenance of the exterior wall indeed are included in addition to the eco

  6. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  7. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed disinclination to accept that the collective security concept and international treaties and accords signed by Denmark should necessitate credible...... and other international treaties provided arguments for adjusting the foreign and security policy ambitions, and since the general flux in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed......Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe...

  8. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  9. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  10. Data Security

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Training specialists in the field of data security and security administrators for the information systems represents a significant priority demanded by both governmental environments and the central and local administrations, as well as by the private sector - companies, banks. They are responsible for implementing information services and systems, but they are also their beneficiaries, with applicability in fields such as: e government, e-administration, e-banking, e-commerce, e-payment, wh...

  11. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite whenever...

  12. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  13. OBTAINING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION ELEMENTS OF MULTI-INTERSECTION IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm

  14. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that despite their crucial importance to national security, safeguards at the Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons facilities may be falling short. DOE security inspections have identified many weaknesses, including poor performance by members of DOE's security force, poor accountability for quantities of nuclear materials, and the inability of personnel to locate documents containing classified information. About 13 percent of the 2,100 identified weakness resulted in DOE inspectors giving out unsatisfactory security ratings; another 38 percent led to marginal ratings. In addition, DOE's centralized safeguards and security information tracking system lacks current data on whether DOE field offices have corrected the identified weaknesses. Without reliable information, DOE has no way of knowing whether timely action was taken to correct problems, nor can it determine whether weaknesses are systematic. DOE has tried to minimize the impact of these security weaknesses at its facilities by establishing multiple layers of protection measures and instituting interim and compensatory measures for identified weaknesses. DOE is planning enhancements to the centralized tracking system that should improve its reliability and increase its effectiveness

  15. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  16. Security an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Purpura, Philip P

    2011-01-01

    Section I The History and Profession of SecurityDefinition, Role, and History of Security Security Defined The Contexts of Security The Roles of Security The History of Security Security in an Environment of Threats, Terrorism, and All-Hazards Threats and Hazards Terrorism National Strategies The Profession and Business of Security The Business of Security Professionalism and Security Associations Ethics Regulation of the Security Industry Security Training Higher Education Careers Section II Protecting People and AssetsSecurity Methodology Methodology Defined Security Business Proposals Secur

  17. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  18. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear physics: Facilitating the peaceful and practical uses of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    When properly applied, nuclear science - the study of atomic nuclei and other subatomic particles - can contribute in many ways to the health, development and security of communities around the world. In this context, the IAEA plays an important role in helping interested Member States develop the capabilities and infrastructure necessary to manage their own programmes devoted to nuclear and radiological applications. The IAEA's nuclear science programme helps Member States to establish sound frameworks for the efficient, safe and secure use of new nuclear technologies, including accelerator facilities, research reactors and future nuclear fusion facilities. By applying nuclear technologies in a wide variety of areas such as energy production, health care, food and agriculture, industry and the environment, Member States can benefit immensely from the ensuing socioeconomic developments, as well as providing better living conditions for their citizens.

  19. Security measures required for HIPAA privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatayakul, M

    2000-01-01

    HIPAA security requirements include administrative, physical, and technical services and mechanisms to safeguard confidentiality, availability, and integrity of health information. Security measures, however, must be implemented in the context of an organization's privacy policies. Because HIPAA's proposed privacy rules are flexible and scalable to account for the nature of each organization's business, size, and resources, each organization will be determining its own privacy policies within the context of the HIPAA requirements and its security capabilities. Security measures cannot be implemented in a vacuum.

  20. Security bingo for administrators

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever thought about the security of your service(s) or system(s)? Show us and win one of three marvellous books on computer security! Just print out this page, mark which of the 25 good practices below you already follow, and send the sheet back to us at Computer.Security@cern.ch or P.O. Box G19710, by November 14th 2011.   Winners[1] must show us that they follow at least five good practices in a continuous horizontal row, vertical column or diagonal. For details on CERN Computer Security, please consult http://cern.ch/security. My service or system…   …is following a software development life-cycle. …is patched in an automatic and timely fashion. …runs a tightened local ingress/egress firewall. …uses CERN Single-Sign-On (SSO). …has physical access protections in place. …runs all processes / services / applications with least privileges. …has ...

  1. DIRAC Security

    CERN Document Server

    Casajús Ramo, A

    2006-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  2. Report on Security 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The 1982 trade fair Security 82 presented a variety of equipment and systems for protection and security in general. Apart from physical protection devices to prevent theft, a great number of fire protection devices, transmitting apparatus, locator systems, metal detectors, protective devices against signal interception, and complete alarm systems were exhibited and explained. By means of specifications and brief descriptions, sometimes with figures, predominantly passive and active infrared sensors, light and microwave sensors, ultrasound and microwave Doppler effect devices for indoor and outdoor physical protection, as well as other alarm systems and fire alarm systems or entry control systems are presented in this report. Design and functioning mode of the equipment presented are illustrated by explaining the fields of employment. (orig.) [de

  3. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Hazardous drug residue on exterior vial surfaces: evaluation of a commercial manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Luci A; Sessink, Paul J M; Gesy, Kathy; Charbonneau, Flay

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous drug residue on the exterior surface of drug vials poses a potential risk for exposure of health care workers involved in handling these products. The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness of this serious issue and to evaluate a commercial manufacturing process for removing and containing hazardous drug (HD) residue on exterior vial surfaces. Additionally, findings from this study are interpreted, incorporated into the current body of evidence, and discussed by experts in this field. This study includes separate evaluations for the presence or absence of surface drug contamination on the vials of 3 HD products: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and methotrexate. The drug products were packaged in vials using a patented prewashing/decontamination method, application of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) base, and use of clear glass vials. An additional step of encasing the vial in a shrink-wrapped sheath was used for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Of all 5-fluorouracil (110 vials), methotrexate (60 vials), and cisplatin (60 vials) tested, only 2 had detectable amounts of surface residue. One 5-fluorouracil vial was found to have approximately 4 mg of 5-fluorouracil on the surface of the vial. The second contaminated vial was cisplatin, which was discovered to have 131 ng of platinum, equal to 200 ng of cisplatin or 0.2 μL of cisplatin solution, on the vial sheath. Using validated extraction and analytic methods, all but 2 of the 230 tested vials were found to be free of surface drug contamination. Pharmacy leaders need to take an active role in promoting the need for clean HD vials. Manufacturers should be required to provide their clients with data derived from externally validated analytic studies, reporting the level of HD contamination on the exterior of their vial products.

  6. Moisture performance properties of exterior sheathing products made of spruce plywood or OSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Ahonen, J. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-02-01

    Plywood and OSB (Oriented Strand Board) are building boards that are made of timber and glue and that have good structural strength. OSB is a relatively new product that is produced from various timber materials and even some wastewood can be used as raw material for this product. Due to the easy access of raw material and economical reasons, the use of OSB has been highly increasing. The moisture safety of the building envelope depends on the properties of the building products. The moisture performance properties of the sheathing boards have not got enough attention, too often these wood based materials are equated without considering the real properties and their effect on the overall moisture performance. This research was carried out to experimentally determine the material properties and performance characteristics that have an effect on the moisture performance of building structures where OSB or spruce plywood are applied as exterior sheathing boards. A relatively representative amount of samples were used to study the moisture properties of European OSB and plywood products and a comparison to one Canadian OSB and one plywood product was done. All the products used in this research were meant to be used also as exterior sheathing boards. The results shows clearly the differences between OSB and plywood products. The products are not interchangeable. The main differences can be found from the vapour permeability levels that have an effect on the drying efficiency of building structures. The products have different performance criteria, and the climate conditions and moisture loads have to be studied to evaluate their suitability and moisture safety aspects in different applications. Water repellent features and drying efficiency are somewhat opposite properties of the products and the dimensional changes under varying moisture contents can set some boundary conditions when the optimum solution for the exterior sheathing is considered. (orig.)

  7. Privatising Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mindova-Docheva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the different approaches towards employing the international legal framework in the regulation and oversight of private military and security companies’ operation in armed conflicts and in peace time security systems. It proposes a partnership-based approach for public and private actors aiming at creating and sharing common values under the principles of solidarity, protection of human rights and rule of law. A focus of further research should be the process of shaping those common values.

  8. Variations of Hodge Structure Considered as an Exterior Differential System: Old and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the subject of variations of Hodge structure (VHS considered as exterior differential systems (EDS. We review developments over the last twenty-six years, with an emphasis on some key examples. In the penultimate section we present some new results on the characteristic cohomology of a homogeneous Pfaffian system. In the last section we discuss how the integrability conditions of an EDS affect the expected dimension of an integral submanifold. The paper ends with some speculation on EDS and Hodge conjecture for Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  9. Comércio exterior : mercado para as empresas pernambucanas de base tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sandro Severino de

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho estuda as empresas de base tecnológica do Estado de Pernambuco, que são notórias por valerem-se das práticas de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento para gerarem inovações tecnológicas. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil dessas organizações, de seus empreendedores e de suas potencialidades para o comércio exterior. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva onde fez-se uso de dois instrumentos de coleta de dados: pesquisa bibliográfica e pesquisa de campo. ...

  10. Experimental and FE Analysis of Exterior Plastic Components of Cars under Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is composed by an experimental part and numerical part, aimed at contributing to a better knowledge of the behavior of plastic parts under different loading conditions. The study is intended to validate a FE model for simulating exterior plastic components of car especially the A-decor and plastic clips in the context of thermal and static load analysis. From the comparison of numerical and experimental results in the terms of thermal and static deformation of the A-decor, it is c...

  11. Multi-point observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp with Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Grison, Benjamin; Berchem, Jean; Trattner, Kralheinz; Pitout, Frederic; Richard, Robert; Taylor, Matt; Soucek, Jan; Laakso, Harri; Masson, Arnaud; Dunlop, Malcolm; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Daly, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The exterior cusp is the most external region of the polar magnetosphere in direct contact with the plasma and the magnetic field from the solar wind. Unlike the rest of the magnetopause surface, the exterior cusp is a singular region with small and turbulent magnetic field and where large entry of plasma from solar origin takes place. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions in the dispersions, we obtain an altitude of the sources of these ions between 14 and 20 RE. Using Tsyganenko model, these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. In addition, before entering the cusp, the magnetopause crossing was characterized by a large shear in By and bipolar plasma flows, suggesting that reconnection was taking place near the exterior cusp. We will discuss the extent of the reconnection line along the flank of the magnetopause based on these observations.

  12. Development of an anti-flood board to protect the interiors and exteriors of the infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel; Sevcik, Ladislav; Martinec, Tomas; Kulhavy, Petr

    2018-06-01

    This article deals with the development of an anti-flood board to protect the interior and exterior of various infrastructures, such a houses, cottages or industrial buildings. It was designed prototypes and assembled numerical simulations. In Central Europe and in particular in the Czech Republic, floods are an integral part of the natural water cycle and cause great loss of life and great property damage. The development of new types of mobile anti-flood boards is very important as the design solution is developed for flood protection with regard to minimizing weight, cost of production, easy manipulation, simplicity and speed of installation.

  13. Electron-helium scattering in the S-wave model using exterior complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation and ionization of helium is studied in the S-wave model. The problem is treated in full dimensionality using a time-dependent formulation of the exterior complex scaling method that does not involve the solution of large linear systems of equations. We discuss the steps that must be taken to compute stable ionization amplitudes. We present total excitation, total ionization and single differential cross sections from the ground and n=2 excited states and compare our results with those obtained by others using a frozen-core model

  14. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Deng-Shan; Yin, Yan-Bin

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375030, 11472315, and Department of Science and Technology of Henan Province under Grant No. 162300410223 and Beijing Finance Funds of Natural Science Program for Excellent Talents under Grant No. 2014000026833ZK19

  15. Identification of complex model thermal boundary conditions based on exterior temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianming; Ouyang Guangyao; Zhang Ping; Rong Bojun

    2012-01-01

    Combining the advantages of the finite element software in temperature field analyzing with the multivariate function optimization arithmetic, a feasibility method based on the exterior temperature was proposed to get the thermal boundary conditions, which was required in temperature field analyzing. The thermal boundary conditions can be obtained only by some temperature measurement values. Taking the identification of the convection heat transfer coefficient of a high power density diesel engine cylinder head as an example, the calculation result shows that when the temperature measurement error was less than 0.5℃, the maximum relative error was less than 2%. It is shown that the new method was feasible (authors)

  16. Time-dependent approach to collisional ionization using exterior complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C. William; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2002-01-01

    We present a time-dependent formulation of the exterior complex scaling method that has previously been used to treat electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom accurately at low energies. The time-dependent approach solves a driven Schroedinger equation, and scales more favorably with the number of electrons than the original formulation. The method is demonstrated in calculations for breakup processes in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions for systems involving short-range potentials and in 2D for electron-impact ionization in the Temkin-Poet model for electron-hydrogen atom collisions

  17. Synthetic pubovaginal sling (TVT: failure in conservative treatment following vaginal exteriorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Thorell

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Female, 57 year-old patient, reported having undergone surgery for correction of urinary incontinence due to sphincteric insufficiency with the implantation of a synthetic pubovaginal sling 14 months earlier. Though she did not present urine loss any longer, approximately 60 days following the surgical procedure she started to report dysuria, pollakiuria and dyspareunia. Attempts of a conservative solution were ineffective. The appearance of a vaginal infra-urethral granuloma and the exteriorization of the synthetic material led to its removal.

  18. El comercio exterior durante la década revolucionaria: un acercamiento preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2001-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es realizar un primer acercamiento sistemático al análisis del comercio exterior de México durante la década de 1910. Tal objetivo se ha visto obstaculizado en el pasado por la escasez de fuentes cuantitativas de procedencia mexicana para los años de la revolución. Para suplir esta carencia, este artículo recurre a las estadísticas comerciales publicadas por los principales socios de México durante estos años (Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Francia). A pa...

  19. Institucionalidad y política exterior del Ecuador a inicios de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Endara, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    La investigación que planteamos pretende visualizar, en un período histórico corto, los mecanismos utilizados por el Estado para lograr el reconocimiento político de la comunidad internacional, ya sea a través de la suscripción de Tratados Comerciales, al establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas o la apertura de oficinas consulares, entre otros. Simultáneamente, la investigación se propone utilizar el manejo de la Política Exterior como uno de los vehículos para entender la o...

  20. Influence of Connection Placement to the Behavior of Precast Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Tjahjono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of connection placement to the behaviour of exterior beamcolumn joint of precast concrete structure under semi cyclic loading. Four half-scale beam-column specimens were investigated. Three beam-columns were jointed through connection that are placed in beam-column joint region and the forth is connected at the plastic hinge potensial region of the beam. Crack patterns, strength, stiffness and ductility of the test specimens have been evaluated. The test result indicated that all beam-column specimens show good ductility behavior.

  1. Cyberspace security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ferragut, Erik M

    2014-06-24

    A system evaluates reliability, performance and/or safety by automatically assessing the targeted system's requirements. A cost metric quantifies the impact of failures as a function of failure cost per unit of time. The metrics or measurements may render real-time (or near real-time) outcomes by initiating active response against one or more high ranked threats. The system may support or may be executed in many domains including physical domains, cyber security domains, cyber-physical domains, infrastructure domains, etc. or any other domains that are subject to a threat or a loss.

  2. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  3. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no

  4. Computer Network Security- The Challenges of Securing a Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Vincent, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended to give the reader an overall perspective on what it takes to design, implement, enforce and secure a computer network in the federal and corporate world to insure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. While we will be giving you an overview of network design and security, this article will concentrate on the technology and human factors of securing a network and the challenges faced by those doing so. It will cover the large number of policies and the limits of technology and physical efforts to enforce such policies.

  5. Human security from paradigm shift to operationalisation: job description for a human security worker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how human security has functioned as both a paradigm-shifting and a bridging concept, with its most significant implications being, first, the shift from a focus on state security to one on human rights, and, second, the indivisibility of physical and material security. The

  6. Automotive Exterior Noise Optimization Using Grey Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Liu, Bo

    This paper investigates optimization design of the thickness of the sound package performed on a passenger automobile. The major characteristics indexes for performance selected to evaluate the processes are the SPL of the exterior noise and the weight of the sound package, and the corresponding parameters of the sound package are the thickness of the glass wool with aluminum foil for the first layer, the thickness of the glass fiber for the second layer, and the thickness of the PE foam for the third layer. In this paper, the process is fundamentally with multiple performances, thus, the grey relational analysis that utilizes grey relational grade as performance index is especially employed to determine the optimal combination of the thickness of the different layers for the designed sound package. Additionally, in order to evaluate the weighting values corresponding to various performance characteristics, the principal component analysis is used to show their relative importance properly and objectively. The results of the confirmation experiments uncover that grey relational analysis coupled with principal analysis methods can successfully be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness for each layer of the sound package material. Therefore, the presented method can be an effective tool to improve the vehicle exterior noise and lower the weight of the sound package. In addition, it will also be helpful for other applications in the automotive industry, such as the First Automobile Works in China, Changan Automobile in China, etc.

  7. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  8. Integrated Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Exterior Wall Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Broun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the breakdown of primary energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of two common types of exterior walls in the U.K.: insulated concrete form (ICF and cavity walls. A comprehensive assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental performance of each exterior wall system over 50 years of service life in Edinburgh and Bristol. The results indicate that for both wall systems, use phase is the major contributor to the overall environmental impacts, mainly due to associated electricity consumption. For the ICF wall system in Edinburgh, 91% of GHG emissions were attributed to the use phase, with 7.8% in the pre-use and 1.2% in end-of-life phases. For the same system in Bristol, emissions were 89%, 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar trend was observed for cavity wall systems in both locations. It was concluded that in each scenario, the ICF wall system performed better when compared to the cavity wall system. The results of the sensitivity analysis clearly show that the uncertainties relevant to the change of the thickness of the wall are quite tolerable: variable up to 5%, as far as energy and greenhouse emissions are concerned.

  9. Unidad de destino en lo universal Falange y la propaganda exterior (1936-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César MORENO CANTANO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El control de la prensa y la propaganda se convirtió desde los inicios del régimen franquista en una preocupación constante por parte de las autoridades. El presente artículo analiza el papel desempeñado por la Delegación Nacional del Servicio Exterior de Falange, órgano encargado de difundir y promocionar en el campo internacional el ideario de la Nueva España. Para la realización de esta tarea se valió de una serie de delegaciones de Prensa y Propaganda que se localizaron principalmente en América y Europa.ABSTRACT: The control on the press and the propaganda became since the beginning of the Franco regime a constant preocupation for the authorities. The present article makes an analysis of the role of National Delegation of the Falange Exterior Services made, organization who had competences on the difusion and distribution of the idea of «The New Spain». To make this promotion, this organization had the cooperation of the press delegations specially in America and Europe.

  10. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  11. Estimation of exterior vertical daylight for the humid tropic of Kota Kinabalu city in East Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamila, Harimi; Ming, Chu Chi; Kumaresan, Sivakumar [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    In tropical regions natural daylight has been a fundamental factor in building design. It is the most efficient way of lighting a building in the daytime and has a great potential for energy conservation in buildings. In Malaysia there are a limited available data of measured illuminance which is the case of several regions in the tropics. Using established models it is possible to predict the luminous efficacy and then estimate the monthly mean hourly exterior illuminance. In this study two different models were chosen. The Perez and Du Mortier-Perraudeau-Page-Littlefair models were selected for the prediction of hourly exterior horizontal illuminance for the city of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia. Comparison between the two models were made. The vertical hourly illuminance was predicted also using Perez approach. The potentiality of daylight in four orientations was discussed. This study highlights the importance of Sunpath diagram on daylight illuminance during the conceptual design stage. The results in this study is hoped to contribute further insight into the potentiality of daylighting of tropical sky. (author)

  12. Iteratively-coupled propagating exterior complex scaling method for electron-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Philip L; Stelbovics, Andris T; Bray, Igor

    2004-01-01

    A newly-derived iterative coupling procedure for the propagating exterior complex scaling (PECS) method is used to efficiently calculate the electron-impact wavefunctions for atomic hydrogen. An overview of this method is given along with methods for extracting scattering cross sections. Differential scattering cross sections at 30 eV are presented for the electron-impact excitation to the n = 1, 2, 3 and 4 final states, for both PECS and convergent close coupling (CCC), which are in excellent agreement with each other and with experiment. PECS results are presented at 27.2 eV and 30 eV for symmetric and asymmetric energy-sharing triple differential cross sections, which are in excellent agreement with CCC and exterior complex scaling calculations, and with experimental data. At these intermediate energies, the efficiency of the PECS method with iterative coupling has allowed highly accurate partial-wave solutions of the full Schroedinger equation, for L ≤ 50 and a large number of coupled angular momentum states, to be obtained with minimal computing resources. (letter to the editor)

  13. BWR fuel assembly having fuel rod spacers axially positioned by exterior springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having spaced fuel rods, an outer hollow tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid there-along, and at least one spacer being disposed along the channel and about the fuel rods so as to maintain them in side-by-side spaced relationship, an arrangement for disposing the spacer in a desired axial position along the fuel rods is described comprising: yieldably resilient springs disposed between an interior side of the outer channel and an exterior side of the spacer. The springs have an inherent spring bias directed away from the exterior sides of the spacers and toward the interior side of the channel such that by contact with the channel and spacer the springs assume states in which they are deflected away from the channel interior side so as to exert sufficient compressive contacting force thereon to maintain the spacer substantially stationary in the desired axial position along the fuel rods

  14. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantida¬des del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las reco¬mendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales.

  15. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantidades del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las recomendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales

  16. Developing Scalable Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Konstantinovich Ablekov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing physical security systems has wide range of lacks, including: high cost, a large number of vulnerabilities, problems of modification and support system. This paper covers an actual problem of developing systems without this list of drawbacks. The paper presents the architecture of the information security system, which operates through the network protocol TCP/IP, including the ability to connect different types of devices and integration with existing security systems. The main advantage is a significant increase in system reliability, scalability, both vertically and horizontally, with minimal cost of both financial and time resources.

  17. A Development Framework for Software Security in Nuclear Safety Systems: Integrating Secure Development and System Security Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaekwan; Suh, Yongsuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    The protection of nuclear safety software is essential in that a failure can result in significant economic loss and physical damage to the public. However, software security has often been ignored in nuclear safety software development. To enforce security considerations, nuclear regulator commission recently issued and revised the security regulations for nuclear computer-based systems. It is a great challenge for nuclear developers to comply with the security requirements. However, there is still no clear software development process regarding security activities. This paper proposes an integrated development process suitable for the secure development requirements and system security requirements described by various regulatory bodies. It provides a three-stage framework with eight security activities as the software development process. Detailed descriptions are useful for software developers and licensees to understand the regulatory requirements and to establish a detailed activity plan for software design and engineering.

  18. Computer Security: the security marathon

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    If you believe that “security” is a sprint, that a quick hack is invulnerable, that quick bug fixing is sufficient, that plugging security measures on top of existing structures is good, that once you are secure your life will be easy... then let me convince you otherwise.   An excellent example of this is when the summer students join us at CERN. As the summer period is short, software projects must be accomplished quickly, like a sprint. Rush, rush! But often, this sprint ends with aching muscles. Regularly, these summer students approach us to have their project or web server made visible to the Internet. Regularly, quick security reviews of those web servers diagnose severe underperformance with regards to security: the web applications are flawed or use insecure protocols; the employed software tools, databases or web frameworks are sub-optimal and not adequately chosen for that project; the operating system is non-standard and has never been brought up-to-date; and ...

  19. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  20. Security Investigation Database (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Security Investigation & Personnel Security Clearance - COTS personnel security application in a USAID virtualized environement that can support USAID's business...

  1. Metaphors for cyber security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  2. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  3. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that despite an Executive Order limiting the authority to make original classification decisions to government officials, DOE has delegated this authority to a number of contractor employees. Although the number of original classification decisions made by these contractors is small, this neither negates nor diminishes the significance of the improper delegation of authority. If misclassification were to occur, particularly at the Top Secret level, U.S. national security interests could potentially be seriously affected and threatened. DOE's argument that the delegation of such authority is a long-standing policy and done on a selective basis does not legitimize the practice and does not relieve DOE of its responsibility to meet the requirements of the Executive Order. DOE needs to independently assess all original classification determinations made by contractors; otherwise, it cannot be sure that U.S. national security interests have been or are being adequately protected

  5. 17 CFR 270.17f-1 - Custody of securities with members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... upon physical inspection thereof and upon examination of the books of the custodian. The physical... a member of a national securities exchange of any obligation under existing law or under the rules...

  6. Portunes: representing attack scenarios spanning through the physical, digital and social domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The security goals of an organization are realized through security policies, which concern physical security, digital security and security awareness. An insider is aware of these security policies, and might be able to thwart the security goals by combining physical, digital and social means. A

  7. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  8. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  9. Rights management technologies: A good choice for securing electronic healthrecords?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Kursawe, K.; Pohlmann, N.; Reimer, H.; Schneider, W.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in healthcare IT bring new concerns with respect to privacy and security. Security critical patient data no longer resides on mainframes physically isolated within an organization, where physical security measures can be taken to defend the data and the system. Modern solutions are heading

  10. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  11. Two worlds, one smart card : An integrated solution for physical access and logical security using PKI on a single smart card

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Kleinhuis, G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a use case of the introduction of a large scale Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) environment in an incumbent telecommunications company in The Netherlands. The main characteristics of the case are the integration of an existing physical access facility with a PKI environment for logical

  12. Análisis del yeso empleado en revestimientos exteriores mediante técnicas geológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Arauz, David

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el yeso fabricado en hornos tradicionales y empleado históricamente para la ejecución de revestimientos exteriores. Para ello se realiza un estudio documental y un trabajo experimental mediante técnicas geológicas. En el estudio documental se ha pasado revisión a la historia del yeso como material de construcción con especial atención a su empleo en revestimientos exteriores, desde la antigüedad hasta mitad del siglo XX, momento en el que la industrializaci...

  13. Preparation of Thermoplastic Poly (vinyl Alcohol), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Vinyl Acetate Versatic Ester Blends for Exterior Masonry Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Nahas, H.H.; Gad, Y.H.; Magida, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Blend systems including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and vinyl acetate versatic copolymer latex (VAcVe) were prepared and used as exterior coatings. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated using a testo meter, shore hardness tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water resistance of the samples was measured. Effect of ionizing irradiation on gel content, tensile strength and surface hardness were also followed. The blend offers binder base for exterior masonry coating systems having superior water resistant and mechanical properties

  14. [Ca2+]i in exterior of cells effected on apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ziyi; Meng Qingyong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate of the different [Ca 2+ ]i in exterior of cells promotion function on apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by irradiation. Methods: To put ration dose 32 P and different [Ca 2+ ]i into culture of HL-60 and measure the apoptosis rate with FCM after 24 and 48 hours. Result: Apoptosis rate increased with the increase of [Ca 2+ ]i which shows an obvious function to promote apoptosis, r 24 =0.9001 (P=0.0145); r48=0.9343 (P=0.0063). Conclusion: [Ca 2+ ]i in exterior of cells has a obvious function in promoteing apoptosis induced by irradiation. (authors)

  15. La incidencia del totalitarismo en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño García, Andres Felipe

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio de caso consiste en identificar la incidencia del totalitarismo en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista, tomando los casos del Tercer Reich y la República Democrática Popular de Corea; se trata de inferir si la incidencia de un régimen totalitario en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista es directa, en tanto que responde al interés nacional del Estado con el fin de implementar reformas y actos que conlleven al aislamiento de la nación d...

  16. Análisis del yeso empleado en revestimientos exteriores mediante técnicas geológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Arauz, David

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el yeso fabricado en hornos tradicionales y empleado históricamente para la ejecución de revestimientos exteriores. Para ello se realiza un estudio documental y un trabajo experimental mediante técnicas geológicas. En el estudio documental se ha pasado revisión a la historia del yeso como material de construcción con especial atención a su empleo en revestimientos exteriores, desde la antigüedad hasta mitad del siglo XX, momento en el que la industrializaci...

  17. La política exterior de Estados Unidos: una visión desde la periferia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade A., Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo trata explica la forma como la política exterior de Estados Unidos persigue dos objetivos interrelacionados: primero, en el corto y mediano plazo consolidar y aumentar su predominio militar a nivel global y, segundo, en el largo plazo institucionalizar ese dominio en un orden político sumamente difícil –o costoso- de transformar. Así, la política exterior estadounidense hacia América Latina y, sobre todo, en relación con la Región Andina y más específicamente con el Ecuador debe...

  18. THz and Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sizov, Fedir; Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited papers from highly experienced researchers in THz technology and security applications. THz detection of explosives represents one of the most appealing technologies to have recently emerged in dealing with terrorist attacks encountered by civil security and military forces throughout the world. Discussed are the most advanced technologies and developments, the various points of operational strength and weaknesses as well as are suggestions and predictions the best technological solutions to  overcome current operational limits.  The current status of various levels of cooling in THz detectors, sources and associated electronics are also addressed. The goal was to provide a clear view on the current technologies available and the required advances needed in order to achieve more efficient systems. This goal was outlined in part by establishing the baseline of current uncertainty estimations in physics-based modelling and the identification of key areas which require additi...

  19. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  20. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.