WorldWideScience

Sample records for extensive surface flow

  1. Extension of physical component BFC method for the analysis of free-surface flows coupled with moving boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D.; Takizawa, A.; Kondo, S.

    A newly developed ``physical component boundary fitted coordinate (PCBFC) method'' is extended for the analysis of free-surface flows coupled with moving boundaries. Extra techniques are employed to deal with the coupling movement of the free surface and moving boundaries. After the validation of the extension by several benchmark problems, the method is successfully applied for the first time to the simulation of overflow-induced vibration of the weir coupled with sloshing of the free-surface liquid.

  2. Reversed extension flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected to the...

  3. Minimal flows and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, J

    1988-01-01

    This monograph presents developments in the abstract theory of topological dynamics, concentrating on the internal structure of minimal flows (actions of groups on compact Hausdorff spaces for which every orbit is dense) and their homomorphisms (continuous equivariant maps). Various classes of minimal flows (equicontinuous, distal, point distal) are intensively studied, and a general structure theorem is obtained. Another theme is the ``universal'' approach - entire classes of minimal flows are studied, rather than flows in isolation. This leads to the consideration of disjointness of flows, w

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal radiation effects on the boundary-layer flow due to a moving extensible surface with the velocity slip model: A comparative study of four nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Emad H.; Sayed, Hamed M.

    2017-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated effects of the velocity slip for the flow and heat transfer of four nanofluids over a non-linear stretching sheet taking into account the thermal radiation and magnetic field in presence of the effective electrical conductivity. The governing partial differential equations were transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equation using similarity transformations before being solved numerically by the Chebyshev pseudospectral differentiation matrix (ChPDM). It was found that the investigated parameters affect remarkably on the nanofluid stream function for the whole investigated nanoparticles. In addition, velocity and skin friction profiles of the four investigated nanofluids decreases and increases, respectively, with the increase of the magnetic parameter, first-order and second-order velocity slips. Further, the flow velocity, surface shear stress and temperature are strongly influenced on applying the velocity slip model, where lower values of the second-order imply higher surface heat flux and thereby making the fluid warmer.

  5. Measurement of Reversed Extension Flow using the Filament Stretch Rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Nielsen, Jens Kromann;

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of material functions with reversed extension flow is demonstrated using the Filament Stretching Rheometer (FSR). This includes startup of uniaxial elongational flow (potentially until steady state) followed by biaxial squeezing, and large amplitude oscillatory elongation (LAOE). ...

  6. Free surface flow focusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, I.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the area through which a fluid is allowed to flow often leads to an increase of flow velocity. A familiar example of this is a garden hose, where one can change the rather weak stream that usually flows out into a strong jet by narrowing the orifice at the end of the hose. In this example,

  7. Free surface flow focusing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, I.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing the area through which a fluid is allowed to flow often leads to an increase of flow velocity. A familiar example of this is a garden hose, where one can change the rather weak stream that usually flows out into a strong jet by narrowing the orifice at the end of the hose. In this example,

  8. Thermocapillary Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    A liquid in Cassie-Baxter state above a structured superhydrophobic surface is ideally suited for surface driven transport due to its large free surface fraction in close contact to a solid. We investigate thermal Marangoni flow over a superhydrophobic array of fins oriented parallel or perpendicular to an applied temperature gradient. In the Stokes limit we derive an analytical expression for the bulk flow velocity above the surface and compare it with numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Even for moderate temperature gradients comparatively large flow velocities are induced, suggesting to utilize this principle for microfluidic pumping.

  9. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  10. Surface obstacles in pulsatile flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-11-01

    Flows past obstacles mounted on flat surfaces have been widely studied due to their ubiquity in nature and engineering. For nearly all of these studies, the freestream flow over the obstacle was steady, i.e. constant velocity unidirectional flow. Unsteady, pulsatile flows occur frequently in biology, geophysics, biomedical engineering, etc. Our study is aimed at extending the comprehensive knowledge base that exists for steady flows to considerably more complex pulsatile flows. Beyond the important practical applications, characterizing the vortex and wake dynamics of flows around surface obstacles embedded in pulsatile flows can provide insights into the underlying physics in all wake and junction flows. In this study, we experimentally investigated the wake of four canonical surface obstacles: hemisphere, cube, and circular cylinders with aspect ratio of 1:1 and 2:1. Phase-averaged PIV and hot-wire anemometry are used to characterize the dynamics of coherent structures in the wake and at the windward junction of the obstacles. Complex physics occur during the deceleration phase of the pulsatile inflow. We propose a framework for understanding these physics based on self-induced vortex propagation, similar to the phenomena exhibited by vortex rings. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Centeor Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  11. Surface flow measurements from drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  12. L2 Extensive Reading and Flow: Clarifying the Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Among foreign language educators interest in extensive reading is growing along with questions about learner motivation to read. Maintaining learner motivation over long periods of time is influenced by many variables suggesting that multiple means of stimulating motivation is needed. The psychological theory of flow has been suggested to…

  13. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An extension of computations for bond dissociation on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetzold, R. C.; Shustorovich, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the computational method for bond dissociation [R.C. Baetzold, J. Chem. Phys. 82 (1985) 5724] is presented. Total bond order is conserved to unity for the system {diatomic molecules plus surface} through chemisorption and eventual dissociation to atomic fragments. A complete potential energy curve for this profile shows an activation barrier ( ΔE) in accord with earlier analytic formulas [E.M. Shustorovich, Surface Sci. 150 (1985) L115].

  15. Derived Metric Tensors for Flow Surface Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, H; Joy, K I

    2012-12-01

    Integral flow surfaces constitute a widely used flow visualization tool due to their capability to convey important flow information such as fluid transport, mixing, and domain segmentation. Current flow surface rendering techniques limit their expressiveness, however, by focusing virtually exclusively on displacement visualization, visually neglecting the more complex notion of deformation such as shearing and stretching that is central to the field of continuum mechanics. To incorporate this information into the flow surface visualization and analysis process, we derive a metric tensor field that encodes local surface deformations as induced by the velocity gradient of the underlying flow field. We demonstrate how properties of the resulting metric tensor field are capable of enhancing present surface visualization and generation methods and develop novel surface querying, sampling, and visualization techniques. The provided results show how this step towards unifying classic flow visualization and more advanced concepts from continuum mechanics enables more detailed and improved flow analysis.

  16. Survey on Discrete Surface Ricci Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhang; Wei Zeng; Ren Guo; Feng Luo; Xianfeng David Gu

    2015-01-01

    Ricci flow deforms the Riemannian metric proportionally to the curvature, such that the curvature evolves according to a nonlinear heat diffusion process, and becomes constant eventually. Ricci flow is a powerful computational tool to design Riemannian metrics by prescribed curvatures. Surface Ricci flow has been generalized to the discrete setting. This work surveys the theory of discrete surface Ricci flow, its computational algorithms, and the applications for surface registration and shape analysis.

  17. Non-contact flow gauging for the extension and development of rating curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Matthew; Large, Andy; Russell, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Accurate measurement of river discharge is fundamental to understanding hydrological processes, associated hazards and ecological responses within fluvial systems. Established protocols for determining river discharge are partial, predominantly invasive and logistically difficult during high flows. There is demand for new methods for accurate quantification of flow velocity under high-flow/flood conditions to in turn enable better post-event reconstruction of peak discharge. As a consequence considerable effort has been devoted to the development of innovative technologies for the representation of flow in open channels. Remotely operated fixed and mobile systems capable of providing quantitative estimates of instantaneous and time-averaged flow characteristics using non-contact methods has been a major development. Amongst the new approaches for stand-alone continuous monitoring of surface flows is Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV). Here we adapt the LSPIV concept, to provide continuous discharge measurements in non-uniform channels with complex flow conditions. High Definition videos (1080p; 30fps) of the water surface are acquired at 5 minute intervals. The image is rectified to correct for perspective distortion using a new, open source tool which minimises errors resulting from oblique image capture. Naturally occurring artefacts on the water surface (e.g. bubbles, debris, etc.) are tracked with the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm. The data generated is in the form of a complex surface water velocity field which can be interrogated to extract a range of hydrological information such as the streamwise velocity at a cross-section of interest, or even allow the interrogation of hydrodynamic flow structures. Here we demonstrate that this approach is capable of generating river discharge data comparable to concurrent measurements made using existing, accepted technologies (e.g. ADCP). The outcome is better constraint and extension of rating curves

  18. Surfing wavy surfaces: Bacteria-surface interactions in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miño, Gastón L.; Kantsler, Vasily; Stocker, Roman

    2014-11-01

    Complex processes occur when microbes interact with surfaces, from mixture enhancement and motion rectification to biofilm formation. Microbe-surface interactions frequently occur in flowing fluids, and flow has recently been shown to have itself unexpected consequences on the dynamics of motile microbes. Here we report on microfluidic experiments in which the interactions of Escherichia coli bacteria with wavy surfaces was quantified in the presence of fluid flow, a model system for naturally occurring topography of many real surfaces. We quantify surface interactions in terms of incident and scattering angles over a range of flow conditions, and compare results to the observations for a microchannel with straight walls.

  19. On the extension of the sensitive area of an extensive air shower surface array

    CERN Document Server

    Kh, H Hedayati

    2016-01-01

    A large distance between true and reconstructed core locations of an extensive air shower (EAS) may results in great systematic mis-estimation of EAS parameters. The reconstruction of those EASs whose core locations are outside the boundary of a surface array (outside EAS (OEAS)) results in a large distance of the reconstructed core location from the true one, especially when the true core is far outside the array. Although it may not be mentioned, the identification of OEASs is a necessary and important step in the reconstruction procedure of an EAS. In this paper, an existing technique is optimized for the identification of OEASs. The simultaneous use of this technique and a recently developed approach for reconstructing the core location of an EAS can significantly increase the sensitive area of a surface array.

  20. Extensive young dacite lava flows between boninite and BABB in a backarc setting: NE Lau Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Several hundred square kilometers of young dacite lava flows mapped by their high acoustic backscatter erupted in several batches in proximity to boninite and back-arc basin basalt (BABB) in the NE Lau Basin, the world's fastest opening back-arc region and a site proposed as a modern analogue in some ophiolite models. Where sampled, these lavas are aphyric, glassy dacites and are not associated with andesite extrusives (commonly observed elsewhere). Several flow fields occur on the flank of the large silicic Niuatahi seamount. Two of the largest lava fields and several smaller ones (~220 km2) erupted as far as 60 km north of Niuatahi. Their occurrence is likely controlled by crustal fractures from the long-term extension in this rear-arc region. Determining thickness of these flows is problematic, but relief of 30-100 m on flow fronts and in collapsed areas yields volume estimates as high as ~7-18 km3 for the northern group. The mean silica content of the largest and best sampled dacite flow field (LL-B) is 65.6 ±0.2%, a remarkably consistent composition for such an extensive flow (~140 km2). Camera tows show lower viscosity flow forms, including many anastomatosing pillow tubes and ropey surfaces, as well as endogenous domes, ridges and lobes (some with "crease-like" extrusion ridges, and inflated lobes with extrusion structures). An enigmatic 2 x 1.5 km, 30-m deep collapse depression could mark an eruption center for the LL-B flow field. Low viscosity flow morphologies on portions of LL-B and a nearby smaller flow field implies high effusion rates during some phases of the eruption(s), which in turn implies some combination of higher than normal liquidus temperature and high water content. Submarine dacite flows have been described in ancient sequences from the Archaean through the Miocene but this is the first modern occurrence of large volume submarine dacite flows. The volume of these young dacite flows implies the presence of large differentiated melt

  1. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Experimental Aerodynamics Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Delhi (India)

    2011-03-15

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models. (orig.)

  2. Observation of bacterial type I pili extension and contraction under fluid flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilia E Rangel

    Full Text Available Type I pili are proteinaceous tethers that mediate bacterial adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli to surfaces and are thought to help bacteria resist drag forces imparted by fluid flow via uncoiling of their quaternary structure. Uncoiling and recoiling have been observed in force spectroscopy experiments, but it is not clear if and how this process occurs under fluid flow. Here we developed an assay to study the mechanical properties of pili in a parallel plate flow chamber. We show that pili extend when attached E. coli bacteria are exposed to increasing shear stresses, that pili can help bacteria move against moderate fluid flows, and characterize two dynamic regimes of this displacement. The first regime is consistent with entropic contraction as modeled by a freely jointed chain, and the second with coiling of the quaternary structure of pili. These results confirm that coiling and uncoiling happen under flow but the observed dynamics are different from those reported previously. Using these results and those from previous studies, we review the mechanical properties of pili in the context of other elastic proteins such as the byssal threads of mussels. It has been proposed that the high extensibility of pili may help recruit more pili into tension and lower the force acting on each one by damping changes in force due to fluid flow. Our analysis of the mechanical properties suggests additional functions of pili; in particular, their extensibility may reduce tension by aligning pili with the direction of flow, and the uncoiled state of pili may complement uncoiling in regulating the force of the terminal adhesin.

  3. Surface oscillations in channeled snow flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rastello, Marie

    2007-01-01

    An experimental device has been built to measure velocity profiles and friction laws in channeled snow flows. The measurements show that the velocity depends linearly on the vertical position in the flow and that the friction coefficient is a first-order polynomial in velocity (u) and thickness (h) of the flow. In all flows, oscillations on the surface of the flow were observed throughout the channel and measured at the location of the probes. The experimental results are confronted with a shallow water approach. Using a Saint-Venant modeling, we show that the flow is effectively uniform in the streamwise direction at the measurement location. We show that the surface oscillations produced by the Archimedes's screw at the top of the channel persist throughout the whole length of the channel and are the source of the measured oscillations. This last result provides good validation of the description of such channeled snow flows by a Saint-Venant modeling.

  4. Fluid control in microfluidic devices using a fluid conveyance extension and an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Po Ki

    2013-05-07

    This article presents a simple method for controlling fluid in microfluidic devices without the need for valves or pumps. A fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled to the enclosed outlet chamber of a microfluidic device. After a fluid is introduced into the microfluidic device and saturates the fluid conveyance extension, a fluid flow in the microfluidic device is generated by contacting an absorbent microfluidic flow modulator with the fluid conveyance extension to absorb the fluid from the fluid conveyance extension through capillary action. Since the fluid in the microfluidic device is fluidly coupled with the fluid conveyance extension and the fluid conveyance extension is fluidly coupled with the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator, which is the rate at which the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator absorbs fluid, matches the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device. Thus, the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is set by the absorption rate of the absorbent microfluidic flow modulator. Sheath flow and fluid switching applications are demonstrated using this simple fluid control method without the need for valves or pumps. Also, the ability to control the fluid flow rate in the microfluidic device is demonstrated using absorbent microfluidic flow modulators with various absorbent characteristics and dimensions.

  5. Extension to nonlinear stability theory of the circular Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Pun Wong; Wang, Shixiao; Rusak, Zvi

    2016-11-01

    A nonlinear stability analysis of the viscous circular Couette flow to axisymmetric perturbations under axial periodic boundary conditions is developed. The analysis is based on investigating the properties of a reduced Arnol'd energy-Casimir function Ard of Wang (2009). We show that all the inviscid flow effects as well as all the viscous-dependent terms related to the flow boundaries vanish. The evolution of ΔArd depends solely on the viscous effects of the perturbation's dynamics inside the flow domain. The requirement for the temporal decay of ΔArd leads to novel sufficient conditions for the nonlinear stability of the circular Couette flow in response to axisymmetric perturbations. Comparisons with historical studies show that our results shed light on the experimental measurements of Wendt (1933) and significantly extend the classical nonlinear stability results of Serrin (1959) and Joseph & Hung (1971). When the flow is nonlinearly stable and evolves axisymmetrically for all time, then it always decays asymptotically in time to the circular Couette flow determined uniquely by the setup of the rotating cylinders. This study provides new physical insights into a classical flow problem that was studied for decades.

  6. Statistics of polymer extensions in turbulent channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bagheri, Faranggis; Perlekar, Prasad; Brandt, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations~(DNSs) of turbulent channel flow with passive Lagrangian polymers. To understand the polymer behavior we investigate the behavior of infinitesimal line elements and calculate, for the first time, the PDF of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and from them the corresponding Cramer's function for the channel flow. We study the statistics of polymer elongation for both the Oldroyd-B model (for Weissenberg number Wi 1 (FENE model) the polymer are significantly more stretched near the wall than at the centre of the flow. Furthermore near the wall the polymers show a strong tendency to orient along the stream-wise direction of the flow but near the centerline the statistics of orientation of the polymers is consistent with analogous results obtained recently in homogeneous and isotropic flows [2].

  7. Coherent flow structures at earth's surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Venditti, J.G; Best, J.L; Church, M; Hardy, R.J

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews the recent progress in the study of the turbulent flows that sculpt the Earth's surface, focusing in particular on the organized structures that have been identified in recent years...

  8. Turbulence Modeling of Flows with Extensive Crossflow Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyris G. Panaras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the difficulty in simulating accurately strong 3-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SBLIs and high-alpha flows with classical turbulence models are investigated. These flows are characterized by the appearance of strong crossflow separation. In view of recent additional evidence, a previously published flow analysis, which attributes the poor performance of classical turbulence models to the observed laminarization of the separation domain, is reexamined. According to this analysis, the longitudinal vortices into which the separated boundary layer rolls up in this type of separated flow, transfer external inviscid air into the part of the separation adjacent to the wall, decreasing its turbulence. It is demonstrated that linear models based on the Boussinesq equation provide solutions of moderate accuracy, while non-linear ones and others that consider the particular structure of the flow are more efficient. Published and new Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS simulations are reviewed, as well as results from a recent Large Eddy Simulation (LES study, which indicate that in calculations characterized by sufficient accuracy the turbulent kinetic energy of the reverse flow inside the separation vortices is very low, i.e., the flow is almost laminar there.

  9. Surface Flow from Visual Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Benjamin,; Letouzey, Antoine; Boyer, Edmond; Franco, Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we study the estimation of dense, instantaneous 3D motion fields over a non-rigidly moving surface observed by multi-camera systems. The motivation arises from multi-camera applications that require motion information, for arbitrary subjects, in order to perform tasks such as surface tracking or segmentation. To this aim, we present a novel framework that allows to efficiently compute dense 3D displacement fields using low level visual cues and geometric con...

  10. OpenFlow Extensions for Programmable Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-19

    protocol to be used for detecting and correcting errors. 3.2 Switch In an SDN, switches function as fast-forwarding devices with no internal ...release; distribution is unlimited. 8 6. References 1. Dasari VR, Humble TS. OpenFlow arbitrated programmable network channels for managing quantum...Dasari VR, Humble TS. OpenFlow arbitrated programmable network channels for managing quantum metadata. Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulations

  11. DistFlow Extensions for AC Transmission Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Coffrin, Carleton; Hijazi, Hassan L.; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Convex relaxations of the power flow equations and, in particular, the Semi-Definite Programming (SDP), Second-Order Cone (SOC), and Convex DistFlow (CDF) relaxations, have attracted significant interest in recent years. Thus far, studies of the CDF model and its connection to the other relaxations have been limited to power distribution systems, which omit several parameters necessary for modeling transmission systems. To increase the applicability of the CDF relaxation, this paper develops ...

  12. Lifespan theorem for constrained surface diffusion flows

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, James; Williams, Graham; 10.1007/s00209-010-0720-7

    2012-01-01

    We consider closed immersed hypersurfaces in $\\R^{3}$ and $\\R^4$ evolving by a class of constrained surface diffusion flows. Our result, similar to earlier results for the Willmore flow, gives both a positive lower bound on the time for which a smooth solution exists, and a small upper bound on a power of the total curvature during this time. By phrasing the theorem in terms of the concentration of curvature in the initial surface, our result holds for very general initial data and has applications to further development in asymptotic analysis for these flows.

  13. CISM Course on Free Surface Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Hans-Josef

    1998-01-01

    The book covers selected problems in free surface flows. The topics range from linear and nonlinear gravity and capillary waves, thin film dynamics, equilibrium shape, stability, and dynamics of capillary surfaces to thermal Marangoni effects in several geometries. The fluid dynamical problems are supplemented by a review Eulerian based computational methods.

  14. Free surface flows: coalescence, spreading and dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico

    2015-01-01

    Capillary and wetting phenomena are an essential part of nature. Its presence is noticed in many circumstances where solid and liquid surfaces come into contact. In this thesis different types of capillary free surface flows are studied. The topics discussed are mainly the coalescence of viscous ses

  15. Liquid infused surfaces in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Matthew; Stone, Howard; Smits, Alexander; Jacobi, Ian; Samaha, Mohamed; Wexler, Jason; Shang, Jessica; Rosenberg, Brian; Hellström, Leo; Fan, Yuyang; Wang, Karen; Lee, Kevin; Hultmark, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    A turbulent channel flow facility is used to measure the drag reduction capabilities and dynamic behavior of liquid-infused micro-patterned surfaces. Liquid infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust alternative to traditional air-cushion-based superhydrophobic surfaces. The mobile liquid lubricant creates a surface slip with the outer turbulent shear flow as well as an energetic sink to dampen turbulent fluctuations. Micro-manufactured surfaces can be mounted flush in the channel and exposed to turbulent flows. Two configurations are possible, both capable of producing laminar and turbulent flows. The first configuration allows detailed investigation of the infused liquid layer and the other allows well resolved pressure gradient measurements. Both of the configurations have high aspect ratios 15-45:1. Drag reduction for a variety of liquid-infused surface architectures is quantified by measuring pressure drop in the channel. Flow in the oil film is simultaneously visualized using fluorescent dye. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim).

  16. Extension of dynamics of granular flow methodology to cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, A.; Ocone, R.

    2003-04-01

    In a previous paper (J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 76 (1998) 5), the analogy between the methodology typical of the dynamics of polymeric liquids and those used in granular flow theory was investigated. It was shown that such a methodology could be successfully extended to granular flow, and then it was speculated on the possibility of extending it to diverse areas. In this paper two important conclusions are reached. Firstly we show that the methodology behind the statistical theories (which starting from the microstructural element eventually leads to the formulation of constitutive equations (AICHE Symposium Series, Vol. 93, 1997, p. 103)) can be extended to an apparently completely different field, namely cell biology. We then show that classical thermodynamics, as applied to epigenetic systems, presents limitations which can be overcome following an axiomatic thermodynamic route (J. Rheol. 37 (1993) 727).

  17. Surface Structure Enhanced Microchannel Flow Boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangying; Antao, Dion Savio; Chu, Kuang-Han; Chen, Siyu; Hendricks, Terry J.; Zhang, Tiejun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of surface microstructures in two-phase microchannels on suppressing flow instabilities and enhancing heat transfer. We designed and fabricated microchannels with well-defined silicon micropillar arrays on the bottom heated microchannel wall to promote capillary flow for thin film evaporation while facilitating nucleation only from the sidewalls. Our experimental results show significantly reduced temperature and pressure drop fluctuation especially at high heat fluxe...

  18. Superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan; Alame, Karim; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2016-11-01

    The drag reduction effect of superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flow is studied using direct numerical simulation. The volume of fluid (VOF) methodology is used to resolve the dynamics of the interface. Laminar flow simulations show good agreement with experiment, and illustrate the relative importance of geometry and interface boundary condition. An analytical solution for the multi-phase problem is obtained that shows good agreement with simulation. Turbulent simulations over a longitudinally grooved surface show drag reduction even in the fully wetted regime. The statistics show that geometry alone can cause an apparent slip to the external flow. Instantaneous plots indicate that the grooves prevent the penetration of near wall vorticity, yielding overall drag reduction. Results for spectra, wall pressure fluctuations and correlations will be presented. Unsteady effects on the air-vapor interface will be discussed. Results for random roughness surfaces will be presented. Supported by Office of Naval Research.

  19. Application of extension theory in risk zoning of debris flow in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Liping; WANG Yeyao; SUN Jiali; GONG Bin

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of debris flow is affected by many factors. Risk zoning of debris flow plays a vital role in the early-warning and prediction of abrupt geological hazards, and exploration of new method is needed in the early-warning and prediction of geological hazards. The extension theory is a new method to solve contradiction matters. Based on extension theory, AHP and GIS, the risk zoning model of debris flow was established in this paper. The result of this research provides a new way in the risk zoning, early-warning and prediction of debris flow

  20. Liquid Infused Surfaces in Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Matthew; Liu, Ying; Stone, Howard; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    Liquid infused surfaces have been proposed as a robust method for turbulent drag reduction. These surfaces consist of functionalized roughness elements wetted with a liquid lubricant that is immiscible with external fluids. The presence of the lubricant creates mobile, fluid-fluid interfaces, each of which can support a localized slip. Collectively, these interfaces yield a finite slip velocity at the effective surface, which has been demonstrated to reduce skin friction drag in turbulent flows. Retention of the lubricant layer is critical to maintaining the drag reduction effect. A turbulent channel-flow facility is used to characterize the drag reduction and robustness of various liquid infused surfaces. Micro-manufactured surfaces are mounted flush in the channel and exposed to turbulent flows. The retention of fluorescent lubricants and pressure drop are monitored to characterize the effects of surface geometry and lubricant properties. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim) and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  1. Gravity-capillary free-surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Free surface problems occur in many aspects of science and of everyday life such as the waves on a beach, bubbles rising in a glass of champagne, melting ice, pouring flows from a container and sails billowing in the wind. Consequently, the effect of surface tension on gravity-capillary flows continues to be a fertile field of research in applied mathematics and engineering. Concentrating on applications arising from fluid dynamics, Vanden-Broeck draws upon his years of experience in the field to address the many challenges involved in attempting to describe such flows mathematically. Whilst careful numerical techniques are implemented to solve the basic equations, an emphasis is placed upon the reader developing a deep understanding of the structure of the resulting solutions. The author also reviews relevant concepts in fluid mechanics to help readers from other scientific fields who are interested in free boundary problems.

  2. Extensive gene flow over Europe and possible speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VINCENOT, Dr. LUCIE [Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive Montpellier, France; NARA, Dr. KAZUHIDE [Department of Natural Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan; STHULTZ, CHRISTOPHER [Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive Montpellier, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; DUBOIS, MARIE-PIERRE [Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive Montpellier, France; TEDERSOO, LEHO [University of Tartu, Estonia; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France; SELOSSE, Dr. MARC-ANDRE [Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive Montpellier, France

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical patterns and large-scale genetic structure have been little studied in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, despite the ecological and economic importance of EM symbioses. We coupled population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to understand spatial structure in fungal populations on a continental scale. Using nine microsatellite markers, we characterized gene flow among 16 populations of the widespread EM basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina over Europe (i.e. over 2900 km). We also widened our scope to two additional populations from Japan (104 km away) and compared them with European populations through microsatellite markers and multilocus phylogenies, using three nuclear genes (NAR, G6PD and ribosomal DNA) and two mitochondrial ribosomal genes. European L. amethystina populations displayed limited differentiation (average FST = 0.041) and very weak isolation by distance (IBD). This panmictic European pattern may result from effective aerial dispersal of spores, high genetic diversity in populations and mutualistic interactions with multiple hosts that all facilitate migration. The multilocus phylogeny based on nuclear genes confirmed that Japanese and European specimens were closely related but clustered on a geographical basis. By using microsatellite markers, we found that Japanese populations were strongly differentiated from the European populations (FST = 0.416), more than expected by extrapolating the European pattern of IBD. Population structure analyses clearly separated the populations into two clusters, i.e. European and Japanese clusters. We discuss the possibility of IBD in a continuous population (considering some evidence for a ring species over the Northern Hemisphere) vs. an allopatric speciation over Eurasia, making L. amethystina a promising model of intercontinental species for future studies.

  3. Polygon formation and surface flow on a rotating fluid surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Raymond; Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Homan, T. A. M.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of polygons forming on the free surface of a water flow confined to a stationary cylinder and driven by a rotating bottom plate as described by Jansson et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 96, 2006, 174502). In particular, we study the case of a triangular structure, either completel...

  4. Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shrinivas G.

    1991-03-01

    The use of a surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) device to measure the rate of gas flow is described. A SAW oscillator heated to a suitable temperature above ambient is placed in the path of a flowing gas. Convective cooling caused by the gas flow results in a change in the oscillator frequency. A 73-MHz oscillator fabricated on 128 deg rotated Y-cut lithium niobate substrate and heated to 55 C above ambient shows a frequency variation greater than 142 kHz for flow-rate variation from 0 to 1000 cu cm/min. The output of the sensor can be calibrated to provide a measurement of volume flow rate, pressure differential across channel ports, or mass flow rate. High sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and direct digital output are among the attractive features of this sensor. Theoretical expressions for the sensitivity and response time of the sensor are derived. It is shown that by using ultrasonic Lamb waves propagating in thin membranes, a flow sensor with faster response than a SAW sensor can be realized.

  5. Groupoid extensions of mapping class representations for bordered surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    . Among others, we extend both aforementioned representations to the groupoid level in this sense, where the symplectic representation is lifted both rationally and integrally. The techniques of proof include several algorithms involving fatgraphs and chord diagrams. The former extension is given...

  6. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  7. Highly stable superhydrophobic surfaces under flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Yim, Changyong; Jeon, Sangmin

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized hydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide nanostructures with pore diameters of 35, 50, 65, and 80 nm directly on quartz crystal microresonators, and the stability of the resulting superhydrophobicity was investigated under flow conditions by measuring changes in the resonance frequency and dissipation factor. When the quartz substrates were immersed in water, their hydrophobic surfaces did not wet due to the presence of an air interlayer. The air interlayer was gradually replaced by water over time, which caused decreases in the resonance frequency (i.e., increases in mass) and increases in the dissipation factor (i.e., increases in viscous damping). Although the water contact angles of the nanostructures increased with increasing pore size, the stability of their superhydrophobicity increased with decreasing pore size under both static conditions (without flow) and dynamic conditions (with flow); this increase can be attributed to an increase in the solid surface area that interacts with the air layer above the nanopores as the pore size decreases. Further, the effects of increasing the flow rate on the stability of the superhydrophobicity were quantitatively determined.

  8. Fluorescent beeswax for surface flow velocity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, S.; Tauro, F.; Petroselli, A.; Mocio, G.; Capocci, I.; Rapiti, E.; Rapiti, R.; Cipollari, G.; Porfiri, M.

    2012-12-01

    Watershed surface processes control downstream runoff phenomena, waste and pollutant diffusion, erosion mechanics, and sediment transport. A quantitative understanding of the flow physics is currently limited by the lack of effective tracing techniques suitable for basin-scale observations. More specifically, field experiments require environmentally resilient, non-invasive, and low cost measurement systems that can potentially operate in remotely-controlled or unmanned conditions. Traditional tracing methodologies are largely not capable to cope with extreme in-situ conditions, including practical logistic challenges as well as inherent flow complexity. Specifically, most of available technologies need physical sampling to estimate the tracer concentration and do not allow for continuous-time measurements. In addition, commonly used tracers, such as isotopes, dyes, and chemicals, are not directly applicable to monitor surface hillslope processes and large-scale microchannel networks due to elaborate detection processes and dispersion issues. In this context, the feasibility of using buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in natural water flows is investigated. Specifically, a novel fabrication methodology is designed to manufacture particles from natural beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. The fabrication procedure allows for adjusting the size of the particles from tens of microns up to a few millimeters and their density from positively to negatively-buoyant with respect to water. An array of experimental techniques is employed to conduct a thorough characterization of the fluorescence and morphology of the tracers. In addition, ad-hoc experiments are designed to assess the fluorescence response due to Ultra Violet (UV) exposure and thermal processes. Proof-of-concept laboratory analysis are conducted to illustrate the integration of the novel particle tracers in existing tracing methods for surface flow

  9. Free surface flows under compensated gravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Dreyer, Miachel E

    2007-01-01

    This book considers the behavior of fluids in a low-gravity environment with special emphasis on application in PMD (propellant management device) systems . In the compensated gravity environment of a spacecraft, the hydrostatic pressure decreases to very low values depending on the residual acceleration, and surface tension forces become dominant. Consequently, surface tension can be used to transport and position liquids if the residual acceleration and the resulting hydrostatic pressure are small compared to the capillary pressure. One prominent application is the use of PMDs in surface-tension satellite tanks. PMDs must ensure that the tank outlet is covered with liquid whenever outflow is demanded. Furthermore, PMDs are used to ensure expulsion and refilling of tanks for liquids and gases for life support, reactants, and experiment supplies. Since most of the PMD designs are not testable on ground and thus rely on analytical or numerical concepts, this book treats three different flow problems with analy...

  10. Surface Effects on Nanoscale Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskok, Ali; Barisik, Murat

    2010-11-01

    3D MD simulations of linear Couette flow of argon gas confined within nano-scale channels are performed in the slip, transition and free molecular flow regimes. The velocity and density profiles show deviations from the kinetic theory based predictions in the near wall region that typically extends three molecular diameters (s) from each surface. Utilizing the Irwin-Kirkwood theorem, stress tensor components for argon gas confined in nano-channels are investigated. Outside the 3s region, three normal stress components are identical, and equal to pressure predicted using the ideal gas law, while the shear stress is a constant. Within the 3s region, the normal stresses become anisotropic and the shear stress shows deviations from its bulk value due to the surface virial effects. Utilizing the kinetic theory and MD predicted shear stress values, the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for argon gas interacting with FCC structured walls (100) plane facing the fluid is calculated to be 0.75; this value is independent of the Knudsen number. Results show emergence of the 3s region as an additional characteristic length scale in nano-confined gas flows.

  11. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  12. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels. Howeve

  13. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Agueera, A. Lopez; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmid, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Ob

  14. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Goncalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Agueera, A. Lopez; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna Garcia, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmid, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Ob

  15. Contraction and extension of Vorticella and its mechanical characterization under flow loading

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Moeto; ASAI, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s−1. The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk ...

  16. Contraction and extension of Vorticella and its mechanical characterization under flow loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Moeto; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-26

    We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s(-1). The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk motion of V. convallaria. With greater drag forces, the contraction distance linearly decreased; the contracted length was close to around 90% of the stretched length. We estimated the drag force on Vorticella in the channel by calculating the force on a sphere in a linear shear flow.

  17. Adhesion to model surfaces in a flow through system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeger, C.F.; Linhart, R.V.; Adair, J.H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A hydrodynamic method for measuring the adhesion of particles to a surface has been designed. By using hydrodynamic flow to remove particles from a model surface, the adhesive strength of particles to the surface can be measured using a flow-through cell. The hydrodynamic force required to displace a particle is calculated using the cell dimensions and the flow rate in Poiseuille`s equation.

  18. Viscous flows stretching and shrinking of surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mehmood, Ahmer

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides a detailed discussion of the boundary layer flow due to a moving plate. The topical focus lies on the 2- and 3-dimensional case, considering axially symmetric and unsteady flows. The author derives a criterion for the self-similar and non-similar flow, and the turbulent flow due to a stretching or shrinking sheet is also discussed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of boundary layer flow, but the book will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  20. Creep measurements confirm steady flow after stress maximum in extension of branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Alvarez, Nicolas; Román Marín, José Manuel; Huang, Qian;

    2013-01-01

    We provide conclusive evidence of nonmonotonic mechanical behavior in the extension of long-chain branched polymer melts. While nonmonotonic behavior is known to occur for solids, for the case of polymeric melts, this phenomenon is in direct contrast with current theoretical models. We rule out...... the possibility of the overshoot being an experimental artifact by confirming the existence of steady flow after a maximum in the ratio of stress to strain rate versus strain under both constant stress and constant strain-rate kinematics. This observation indicates the omission of important physics from current...

  1. A Multi-thread Data Flow Solution Applying to Java Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li

    The multi-core processors environment is increasingly popular, the parallel studies of application program for this architecture has become the focus. In object-oriented program design language, often use the thread to implement an application program parallelism, however, synchronization and communication between threads are often very complicated to implement and can not take full advantage of multi-core advantage. Proposed a multi-thread basing on data flow and Java extensions to achieve solutions, presents a new multi-thread programming method. The results show that this method is not only easy to implement and can better take advantage of multi-core advantage.

  2. Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M.J.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bub

  3. Dynamics and Instabilities of Free Surface and Vortex Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis consists of two main parts. The first part describes the dynamics of an ideal fluid on a stationary free surface of a given shape. It turns out that one can formulate a set of self-contained equations of momentum conservation for the tangential flow, with no reference to the flow...... of the fluid bulk. With these equations, one can in principle predict the surface flow on a given free surface, once its shape has been measured. The equations are expressed for a general surface using Riemannian geometry and their solutions are discussed, including some difficulties that may arise...

  4. Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in Pelton turbine buckets

    OpenAIRE

    Perrig, Alexandre; Avellan, François; Farhat, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The design of Pelton turbines has always been more difficult than that of reaction turbines, and their performances lower. Indeed, the Pelton turbines combine 4 types of flows: (i) confined, steady-state flow in the piping systems and injector, (ii) free water jets, (iii) 3D unsteady free surface flows in the buckets, and (iv) dispersed 2-phase flows in the casing. The flow in Pelton turbines has not been analyzed so far with such detail as the flow in the reaction turbines, thus the understa...

  5. Hydrodynamics of the free surface flow in Pelton turbine buckets

    OpenAIRE

    Perrig, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    The design of Pelton turbines has always been more difficult than that of reaction turbines, and their performances lower. Indeed, the Pelton turbines combine 4 types of flows: (i) confined, steady-state flow in the piping systems and injector, (ii) free water jets, (iii) 3D unsteady free surface flows in the buckets, and (iv) dispersed 2-phase flows in the casing. The flow in Pelton turbines has not been analyzed so far with such detail as the flow in the reaction turbines, thus the understa...

  6. Ricci flow on Kaehler-Einstein surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiuxiong; Tian, Gang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a set of new functionals of Ricci curvature on any Kaehler manifolds which are invariant under holomorphic transfermations in Kaehler Einstein manifolds and essentially decreasing under the Kaehler Ricci flow. Moreover, if the initial metric has non-negative bisectional curvature, using Tian's inequality, we can prove that each of the functionals has uniform lower bound along the flow which gives a set of integral estimates on curvature. Using this set of integral ...

  7. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2007-10-02

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  8. Discrepancy between femoral and capillary blood flow kinetics during knee extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, S J; Ade, C J; Broxterman, R M; Barstow, T J

    2015-12-01

    Capillary blood flow (QCAP) kinetics have previously been shown to be significantly slower than femoral artery (QFA) kinetics following the onset of dynamic knee extension exercise. If the increase in QCAP does not follow a similar time course to QFA, then a substantial proportion of the available blood flow is not distributed to the working muscle. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that blood flow also increases to the nonworking lower leg muscles. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine if a reduction in lower limb blood flow, via arterial occlusion below the knee, alters the kinetics of QFA and QCAP during knee extension exercise, and thus provide insight into the potential mechanisms controlling the rapid increase in QFA. Subjects performed a ramp max test to determine the work rate at which gas exchange threshold (GET) occurred. At least four constant work rate trials with and without below-knee occlusion were conducted at work rates eliciting ∼ 80% GET. Pulmonary gas exchange, near-infrared spectroscopy and QFA measurements were taken continuously during each exercise bout. Muscle oxygen uptake (VO2m) and deoxy[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were used to estimate QCAP. There was no significant difference between the uncuffed and cuffed conditions in any response (P>0.05). The mean response times (MRT) of QFA were 18.7 ± 14.2s (uncuffed) and 24.6 ± 14.9s (cuffed). QCAP MRTs were 51.8 ± 23.4s (uncuffed) and 56.7 ± 23.2s (cuffed), which were not significantly different from the time constants (τ) of VO2m (39.7 ± 23.2s (uncuffed) and 46.3 ± 24.1s (cuffed). However, the MRT of QFA was significantly faster (P<0.05) than the MRT of QCAP and τVO2m. τVO2m and MRT QCAP were significantly correlated and estimated QCAP kinetics tracked VO2m following exercise onset. Cuffing below the knee did not significantly change the kinetics of QFA, QCAP or VO2m, although an effect size of 1.02 suggested that a significant effect on QFA may have been hidden

  9. Polymer extension under flow: Some statistical properties of the work distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2016-11-01

    In an extension of earlier studies from this group on the application of the Jarzynski equality to the determination of the elastic properties of a finitely extensible Rouse model of polymers under flow [A. Ghosal and B. J. Cherayil, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 214902 (2016)], we derive several new theoretical results in this paper on the nature of the distribution function P (w ) that governs the long-time limit t >>1 of the fluctuations in the work w performed by the polymer during flow-induced stretching. In particular, we show that an expression for the average of the nth power of the work, ⟨wn(t ) ⟩ , can be obtained in closed form in this limit, making it possible to exactly calculate three important statistical measures of P (w ) : the mean μ, the skewness γ1, and the kurtosis γ2 (apart from the variance σ2). We find, for instance, that to leading order in t, the mean grows linearly with t at a constant value of the dimensionless flow rate Wi and that the slope of the μ -t curve increases with increasing Wi. These observations are in complete qualitative agreement with data from Brownian dynamics simulations of flow-driven double-stranded DNA by Latinwo and Schroeder [Macromolecules 46, 8345 (2013)]. We also find that the skewness γ1 exhibits an interesting inversion of sign as a function of Wi, starting off at positive values at low Wi and changing to negative values at larger Wi. The inversion takes place in the vicinity of what we interpret as a coil-stretch transition. Again, the finding exactly reproduces behavior seen in other numerical and experimental work by the above group Latinwo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 174903 (2014)]. Additionally, at essentially the same value of Wi at which this sign inversion takes place, we observe that the kurtosis reaches a minimum, close to 1, providing further evidence of the existence of a coil-stretch transition at this location. Our calculations reproduce another numerical finding: a power law dependence on Wi of

  10. Advanced surface technology a holistic view on the extensive and intertwined world of applied surface engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Moller, Per

    2013-01-01

    These two volumes serve as an inclusive and practical reference in manufacturing as well as a comprehensive text for university-level course work. Before delving into the variety of conventional and emerging surface finishing processes available to the 21st century practitioner, the authors cover the principles behind the processes, including wear and other mechanical properties, corrosion and electrochemistry. Throughout, the material also covers testing, property measurement and a generic introduction to basically all surface relevant characterization techniques, keyed to the specific process and application under discussion.

  11. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PeĶala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, A.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2009-09-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density (ρ∝P/T), affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ˜10% seasonal modulation and ˜2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of P and ρ. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Molière radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. Atmospheric effects on extensive air showers observed with the Surface Detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters, such as pressure (P), temperature (T) and density, affect the development of extensive air showers initiated by energetic cosmic rays. We have studied the impact of atmospheric variations on extensive air showers by means of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The rate of events shows a ~10% seasonal modulation and ~2% diurnal one. We find that the observed behaviour is explained by a model including the effects associated with the variations of pressure and density. The former affects the longitudinal development of air showers while the latter influences the Moliere radius and hence the lateral distribution of the shower particles. The model is validated with full simulations of extensive air showers using atmospheric profiles measured at the site of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  13. Capillary flow of solder on chemically roughened PWB surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Stevenson, J.O.; Yost, F.G.

    1996-02-01

    The Center for Solder Science and Technology at Sandia National Laboratories has developed a solderability test for evaluating fundamental solder flow over PWB (printed wiring boards) surface finishes. The work supports a cooperative research and development agreement between Sandia, the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), and several industrial partners. An important facet of the effort involved the ``engineering`` of copper surfaces through mechanical and chemical roughening. The roughened topography enhances solder flow, especially over very fine features. In this paper, we describe how etching with different chemical solutions can affect solder flow on a specially designed ball grid array test vehicle (BGATV). The effects of circuit geometry, solution concentration, and etching time are discussed. Surface roughness and solder flow data are presented to support the roughening premise. Noticeable improvements in solder wettability were observed on uniformly etched surfaces having relatively steep peak-to-valley slopes.

  14. Lagrangian Transport Through Surfaces in Volume-Preserving Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Karrasch, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Advective transport of scalar quantities through surfaces is of fundamental importance in many scientific applications. From the Eulerian perspective of the surface it can be quantified by the well-known integral of the flux density. The recent development of highly accurate semi-Lagrangian methods for solving scalar conservation laws and of Lagrangian approaches to coherent structures in turbulent (geophysical) fluid flows necessitate a new approach to transport from the (Lagrangian) material perspective. We present a Lagrangian framework for calculating transport of conserved quantities through a given surface in $n$-dimensional, fully aperiodic, volume-preserving flows. Our approach does not involve any dynamical assumptions on the surface or its boundary.

  15. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    WACKERS, Jeroen; Koren, Barry; Raven, H.C.; Van Der Ploeg,, Atze; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; VISONNEAU, Michel; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the water surface differ widely. Many of these highly different methods are being used with success. We review three of these methods, by describing in detail their implementation in one particular co...

  16. Free-Surface Viscous Flow Solution Methods for Ship Hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.; Koren, B.; Raven, H.C.; Ploeg, A. van der; Starke, A.R.; Deng, G.B.; Queutey, P.; Visonneau, M.; Hino, T.; Ohashi, K.

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of viscous free-surface water flow is a subject that has reached a certain maturity and is nowadays used in industrial applications, like the simulation of the flow around ships. While almost all methods used are based on the Navier-Stokes equations, the discretisation methods for the

  17. Rewetting and Flow Film Boiling Along Hot Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王补宣Thermal Engineering Department; Tsinghua University; Beijing 100084; PRC; 彭晓峰

    1994-01-01

    The recent investigations on the rewettmg and film boiling of liquid flowing along a hot/heated surface are briefly reviewed and discussed.Some advanced theoretical analyses are conducted and new conclusions achieved.These investigations describe the fundamental characteristics of liquid flow boiling and further the complicated rewetting phenomena,and have resulted in considerable insight intothe mechanism.

  18. Verification of Geosat sea surface topography in the Gulf Stream extension with surface drifting buoys and hydrographic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, J.; KäSe, R. H.; Stammer, D.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Krauss, W.

    1990-03-01

    Altimeter data from Geosat have been analyzed in the Gulf Stream extension area. Horizontal maps of the sea surface height anomaly relative to an annual mean for various 17-day intervals were constructed using an objective mapping procedure. The mean sea level was approximated by the dynamic topography from climatological hydrographic data. Geostrophic surface velocities derived from the composite maps (mean plus anomaly) are significantly correlated with surface drifter velocities observed during an oceanographie experiment in the spring of 1987. The drifter velocities contain much energy on scales less than 100 km which are not resolved in the altimetric maps. It is shown that the composite sea surface height also agrees well with ground verification from hydrographic data along sections in a triangle between the Azores, Newfoundland, and Bermuda, except in regions of high mean gradients.

  19. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Brown, Tom; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is first demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be robust and convergent. It is then applied to the European power system in order to find its cost-optimal development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions until 2050.

  20. Integrated Surface/subsurface flow modeling in PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Understanding soil water, groundwater, and shallow surface water dynamics as an integrated hydrological system is critical for understanding the Earth’s critical zone, the thin outer layer at our planet’s surface where vegetation, soil, rock, and gases interact to regulate the environment. Computational tools that take this view of soil moisture and shallow surface flows as a single integrated system are typically referred to as integrated surface/subsurface hydrology models. We extend the open-source, highly parallel, subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator PFLOTRAN to accommodate surface flows. In contrast to most previous implementations, we do not represent a distinct surface system. Instead, the vertical gradient in hydraulic head at the land surface is neglected, which allows the surface flow system to be eliminated and incorporated directly into the subsurface system. This tight coupling approach leads to a robust capability and also greatly simplifies implementation in existing subsurface simulators such as PFLOTRAN. Successful comparisons to independent numerical solutions build confidence in the approximation and implementation. Example simulations of the Walker Branch and East Fork Poplar Creek watersheds near Oak Ridge, Tennessee demonstrate the robustness of the approach in geometrically complex applications. The lack of a robust integrated surface/subsurface hydrology capability had been a barrier to PFLOTRAN’s use in critical zone studies. This work addresses that capability gap, thus enabling PFLOTRAN as a community platform for building integrated models of the critical zone.

  1. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  2. The Influence of Slope Breaks on Lava Flow Surface Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wright, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the underlying slope of a lava flow impart a significant fraction of rotational energy beyond the slope break. The eddies, circulation and vortices caused by this rotational energy can disrupt the flow surface, having a significant impact on heat loss and thus the distance the flow can travel. A basic mechanics model is used to compute the rotational energy caused by a slope change. The gain in rotational energy is deposited into an eddy of radius R whose energy is dissipated as it travels downstream. A model of eddy friction with the ambient lava is used to compute the time-rate of energy dissipation. The key parameter of the dissipation rate is shown to be rho R(sup 2/)mu, where ? is the lava density and mu is the viscosity, which can vary by orders of magnitude for different flows. The potential spatial disruption of the lava flow surface is investigated by introducing steady-state models for the main flow beyond the steepening slope break. One model applies to slow-moving flows with both gravity and pressure as the driving forces. The other model applies to fast-moving, low-viscosity, turbulent flows. These models provide the flow velocity that establishes the downstream transport distance of disrupting eddies before they dissipate. The potential influence of slope breaks is discussed in connection with field studies of lava flows from the 1801 Hualalai and 1823 Keaiwa Kilauea, Hawaii, and 2004 Etna eruptions.

  3. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  4. Wetting and free surface flow modeling for potting and encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Carlton, F.; Brooks, Michael J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Graham, Alan Lyman (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Noble, David F. (David Frederick) (.; )); Notz, Patrick K.; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mahoney, Leo James (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Baer, Thomas A.; Berchtold, Kathryn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Givler, Richard C.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Cote, Raymond O.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Grillet, Anne Mary; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-06-01

    As part of an effort to reduce costs and improve quality control in encapsulation and potting processes the Technology Initiative Project ''Defect Free Manufacturing and Assembly'' has completed a computational modeling study of flows representative of those seen in these processes. Flow solutions are obtained using a coupled, finite-element-based, numerical method based on the GOMA/ARIA suite of Sandia flow solvers. The evolution of the free surface is solved with an advanced level set algorithm. This approach incorporates novel methods for representing surface tension and wetting forces that affect the evolution of the free surface. In addition, two commercially available codes, ProCAST and MOLDFLOW, are also used on geometries representing encapsulation processes at the Kansas City Plant. Visual observations of the flow in several geometries are recorded in the laboratory and compared to the models. Wetting properties for the materials in these experiments are measured using a unique flowthrough goniometer.

  5. Effects of Surface Emitting and Cumulative Collisions on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Li; WU Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jing-Bo; TANG Gui-Xin; HUO Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The integral and differential elliptic flow of partons is calculated using the multiphase transport model for Au+Au collisions at centre-of-mass energy √SNN=200 GeV.It is shown that elliptic flow of partons freezing out at early time,which is affected mainly by surface emittance,decreases with time and elliptic flow of partons freezing out at late time,which is dominated by cumulative collisions,increases with time.The elliptic flow of partons freezing out early has a large contribution to the flatting of curve of final differential elliptic flow at large transverse momentum.It is argued that the effect of surface emittance is not neglectable.

  6. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-01-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  7. Surface Forces on a Deforming Ellipsoid in Shear Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kightley, E P; Evans, J A; Bortz, D M

    2016-01-01

    We present a model for computing the surface force density on a fluid ellipsoid in simple shear flow, which we derive by coupling existing models for the shape of a fluid droplet and the surface force density on a solid ellipsoid. The primary contribution of this coupling is to develop a method to compute the force acting against a plane intersecting the ellipsoid, which we call the fragmentation force. The model can be used to simulate the motion, shape, surface force density, and breakage of fluid droplets and colloidal aggregates in shear flow.

  8. Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.

  9. Buoy Relay Method for Instantaneous Fluid Flow with Free Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Several methods have been used to approximate free surface boundaries in finite-difference numerical simulations. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents a new technique for the numerical solution of transient incompressible free surface fluid flows. This powerful method, which is based on the concepts of "Buoy positioning" and "Buoy relaying", successfully represents the free surface using a Lagrangian method on a Eulerian grid by directly solving the free surface evolution equation. The Eulerian finite-difference forms of the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the Successive over Relaxation (SOR) method with a set of buoys to keep track of the free surface. The capabilities of the analysis procedure are demonstrated through viscous free surface fluid flow examples. The method is simpler and more efficient than other methods especially in treating complicated free boundary configurations.

  10. Local mesh refinement for incompressible fluid flow with free surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasaka, H.; Kajiwara, H.; Ogura, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new local mesh refinement (LMR) technique has been developed and applied to incompressible fluid flows with free surface boundaries. The LMR method embeds patches of fine grid in arbitrary regions of interest. Hence, more accurate solutions can be obtained with a lower number of computational cells. This method is very suitable for the simulation of free surface movements because free surface flow problems generally require a finer computational grid to obtain adequate results. By using this technique, one can place finer grids only near the surfaces, and therefore greatly reduce the total number of cells and computational costs. This paper introduces LMR3D, a three-dimensional incompressible flow analysis code. Numerical examples calculated with the code demonstrate well the advantages of the LMR method.

  11. The effect of surface wettability on inertial pouring flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwhuis, Wilco

    2015-01-01

    A liquid poured from a curved solid surface can separate as a steady jet or sheet, or trickle down along the solid surface. It was shown by Duez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 084503 (2010)] that surface wettability controls the separation of an inertial flow from a solid surface to an unexpected degree, which was further motivated by an inertial-capillary adhesion model. In this paper we extend the analysis by a control volume calculation that takes into account the velocity profile within the flowing layer, supported by Boundary Integral potential flow simulations, and the detailed capillary forces induced by the local curvatures of the sheet. Our analysis captures the appearance of a critical Weber number below which no steady separated solutions can be sustained. We investigate the dependence of the critical Weber number on the wettability and sharpness of the edge of the curved solid, and recover the key experimental trends.

  12. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer.......We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions of the free surface, using the method of averaging across the flow. Two specific problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal...

  13. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...... the expected departure of the SV predictions from flow to the observed SV, while at high degrees the SV model uncertainty is dominant. We construct fine-scale core surface flows to model the SV. Flow non-uniqueness is a serious problem because the flows are sufficiently small scale to allow flow around non......-series of magnetic data and better parametrization of the external magnetic field....

  14. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional steady granular flows in rotating drum: On surface flow rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, M.; Bonamy, D.; Dubois, F.; Alart, P.

    2005-10-01

    The rheology of two-dimensional steady surface flow of cohesionless cylinders in a rotating drum is investigated through nonsmooth contact dynamics simulations. Profiles of volume fraction, translational and angular velocity, rms velocity, strain rate, and stress tensor are measured at the midpoint along the length of the surface-flowing layer, where the flow is generally considered as steady and homogeneous. Analysis of these data and their interrelations suggest the local inertial number—defined as the ratio between local inertial forces and local confinement forces—to be the relevant dimensionless parameter to describe the transition from the quasistatic part of the packing to the flowing part at the surface of the heap. Variations of the components of the stress tensor as well as the ones of rms velocity as a function of the inertial number are analyzed within both the quasistatic and the flowing phases. Their implications are discussed.

  15. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  16. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  17. Droplet detachment by air flow for microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengfei; Lv, Cunjing; Yao, Zhaohui

    2013-04-30

    Quantitative correlation between critical air velocity and roughness of microstructured surface has still not been established systematically until the present; the dynamics of water droplet detachment by air flow from micropillar-like superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated by combining experiments and simulation comparisons. Experimental evidence demonstrates that the onset of water droplet detachment from horizontal micropillar-like superhydrophobic surfaces under air flow always starts with detachment of the rear contact lines of the droplets from the pillar tops, which exhibits a similar dynamic mechanism for water droplet motion under a gravity field. On the basis of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, an explicit analytical model is proposed for investigating the detaching mechanism, in which the critical air velocity can be fully determined by several intrinsic parameters: water-solid interface area fraction, droplet volume, and Young's contact angle. This model gives predictions of the critical detachment velocity of air flow that agree well with the experimental measurements.

  18. Persistent Near-Surface Flow Structures from Local Helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Howe, R; Baker, D; Harra, L; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Bogart, R S

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface flows measured by the ring-diagram technique of local helioseismology show structures that persist over multiple rotations. We examine these phenomena using data from the {\\em Global Oscillation Network Group} (GONG) and the {\\em Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager} (HMI) and show that a correlation analysis of the structures can be used to estimate the rotation rate as a function of latitude, giving a result consistent with the near-surface rate from global helioseismology and slightly slower than that obtained from a similar analysis of the surface magnetic field strength. At latitudes of 60$^{\\circ}$ and above the HMI flow data reveal a strong signature of a two-sided zonal flow structure. This signature may be related to recent reports of "giant cells" in solar convection.

  19. Flow visualization of a vortex ring interaction with porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynuk, John T.; Van Luipen, Jason; Bohl, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    The interaction of vortex rings of constant Reynolds number with porous surfaces composed of wire meshes of constant open area, i.e., surface porosity, but variable wire diameter is studied using flow visualization. The results indicate that several regimes of flow behavior exist in the parameter space investigated. The vortex ring passes through and immediately reforms downstream of the surface for porous surfaces with small wire mesh diameters. The transmitted vortex ring has the same diameter, but lower convection speed and circulation than the pre-interaction vortex ring. For these cases, secondary vortex rings are formed on the upstream side of the porous surface that convect upstream away from the screen. As the wire diameter of the porous surface is increased, smaller sub-scale vortical structures are formed on the transmitted vortex ring as it passes through the surface. The spatial scale of these structures is dependent on the diameter of the mesh wire. The vortex ring is disrupted but is able to reform downstream when these structures are small compared to the scale of the vortex ring. When these structures are large enough the transmitted vortex ring is disrupted and does not reform. The results indicate that the dynamics governing the vortex ring/mesh surface interaction are dependent not only on the strength of the vortex ring and the porosity of the surface, as previously thought, but also on the length scales (i.e., the diameter and spacing of the wire mesh) of the porous surface.

  20. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  1. Boundary conditions for soft glassy flows: slippage and surface fluidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansard, Vincent; Bocquet, Lydéric; Colin, Annie

    2014-09-28

    We explore the question of surface boundary conditions for the flow of a dense emulsion. We make use of microlithographic tools to create surfaces with well controlled roughness patterns and measure using dynamic confocal microscopy both the slip velocity and the shear rate close to the wall, which we relate to the notion of surface fluidization. Both slippage and wall fluidization depend non-monotonously on the roughness. We interpret this behavior within a simple model in terms of the building of a stratified layer and the activation of plastic events by the surface roughness.

  2. Extensive reduction of surface UV radiation since 1750 in world's populated regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kvalevåg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human activity influences a wide range of components that affect the surface UV radiation levels, among them ozone at high latitudes. We calculate the effect of human-induced changes in the surface erythemally weighted ultra-violet radiation (UV-E since 1750. We compare results from a radiative transfer model to surface UV-E radiation for year 2000 derived by satellite observations (from Total Ozone Mapping Spectroradiometer and to ground based measurements at 14 sites. The model correlates well with the observations; the correlation coefficients are 0.97 and 0.98 for satellite and ground based measurements, respectively. In addition to the effect of changes in ozone, we also investigate the effect of changes in SO2, NO2, the direct and indirect effects of aerosols, albedo changes and aviation-induced contrails and cirrus. The results show an increase of surface UV-E in polar regions, most strongly in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, our study also shows an extensive surface UV-E reduction over most land areas; a reduction up to 20% since 1750 is found in some industrialized regions. This reduction in UV-E over the industrial period is particularly large in highly populated regions.

  3. Lifespan theorem for simples constrained surface diffusion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Glen

    2012-01-01

    We consider closed immersed hypersurfaces in $\\R^3$ and $\\R^4$ evolving by a special class of constrained surface diffusion flows. This class of constrained flows includes the classical surface diffusion flow. In this paper we present a Lifespan Theorem for these flows, which gives a positive lower bound on the time for which a smooth solution exists, and a small upper bound on the total curvature during this time. The hypothesis of the theorem is that the surface is not already singular in terms of concentration of curvature. This turns out to be a deep property of the initial manifold, as the lower bound on maximal time obtained depends precisely upon the concentration of curvature of the initial manifold in $L^2$ for $M^2$ immersed in $R^3$ and additionally on the concentration in $L^3$ for $M^3$ immersed in $R^4$. This is stronger than a previous result on a different class of constrained surface diffusion flows, as here we obtain an improved lower bound on maximal time, a better estimate during this peri...

  4. A unified slip boundary condition for flow over a surface

    CERN Document Server

    Thalakkottor, Joseph John

    2015-01-01

    Interface between two phases of matter are ubiquitous in nature and technology. Determining the correct velocity condition at an interface is essential for understanding and designing of flows over a surface. We demonstrate that both the widely used no-slip and the Navier and Maxwell slip boundary conditions do not capture the complete physics associated with complex problems, such as spreading of liquids or corner flows. Hence, we present a unified boundary condition that is applicable to a wide-range of flow problems.

  5. Surface Runoff in Watershed Modeling—Turbulent or Laminar Flows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Grismer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of overland sheet flow depths, velocities and celerities across the hillslope in watershed modeling is important towards estimation of surface storage, travel times to streams and soil detachment rates. It requires careful characterization of the flow processes. Similarly, determination of the temporal variation of hillslope-riparian-stream hydrologic connectivity requires estimation of the shallow subsurface soil hydraulic conductivity and soil-water retention (i.e., drainable porosities parameters. Field rainfall and runoff simulation studies provide considerable information and insight into these processes; in particular, that sheet flows are likely laminar and that shallow hydraulic conductivities and storage can be determined from the plot studies. Here, using a 1 m by 2 m long runoff simulation flume, we found that for overland flow rates per unit width of roughly 30–60 mm2/s and bedslopes of 10%–66% with varying sand roughness depths that all flow depths were predicted by laminar flow equations alone and that equivalent Manning’s n values were depth dependent and quite small relative to those used in watershed modeling studies. Even for overland flow rates greater than those typically measured or modeled and using Manning’s n values of 0.30–0.35, often assumed in physical watershed model applications for relatively smooth surface conditions, the laminar flow velocities were 4–5 times greater, while the laminar flow depths were 4–5 times smaller. This observation suggests that travel times, surface storage volumes and surface shear stresses associated with erosion across the landscape would be poorly predicted using turbulent flow assumptions. Filling the flume with fine sand and conducting runoff studies, we were unable to produce sheet flow, but found that subsurface flows were onflow rate, soil depth and slope dependent and drainable porosities were only soil depth and slope dependent. Moreover, both the sand

  6. Biomolecular Nano-Flow-Sensor to Measure Near-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noji Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated that the measurement of the near-surface flow at the interface between a liquid and solid using a 10 nm-sized biomolecular motor of F1-ATPase as a nano-flow-sensor. For this purpose, we developed a microfluidic test-bed chip to precisely control the liquid flow acting on the F1-ATPase. In order to visualize the rotation of F1-ATPase, several hundreds nanometer-sized particle was immobilized at the rotational axis of F1-ATPase to enhance the rotation to be detected by optical microscopy. The rotational motion of F1-ATPase, which was immobilized on an inner surface of the test-bed chip, was measured to obtain the correlation between the near-surface flow and the rotation speed of F1-ATPase. As a result, we obtained the relationship that the rotation speed of F1-ATPase was linearly decelerated with increasing flow velocity. The mechanism of the correlation between the rotation speed and the near-surface flow remains unclear, however the concept to use biomolecule as a nano-flow-sensor was proofed successfully. (See supplementary material 1 Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9479-3 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Click here for file

  7. Flow structure from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface in shallow water flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahraman Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex formation from a horizontal cylinder coincident with a free surface of a shallow water flow having a depth of 25.4 [mm] was experimentally investigated using the PIV technique. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the cylinder were examined for three different cylinder diameter values under the fully developed turbulent boundary layer condition. Reynolds numbers were in the range of 1124£ Re£ 3374 and Froude numbers were in the range of 0.41 £ Fr £ 0.71 based on the cylinder diameter. It was found that a jet-like flow giving rise to increasing the flow entrainment between the core and wake regions depending on the cylinder diameter was formed between the lower surface of the cylinder and bottom surface of the channel. Vorticity intensity, Reynolds stress correlations and the primary recirculating bubble lengths were grown to higher values with increasing the cylinder diameter. On the other hand, in the case of the lowest level of the jet-like flow emanating from the beneath of the smallest cylinder, the variation of flow characteristics were attenuated significantly in a shorter distance. The variation of the reattachment location of the separated flow to the free-surface is a strong function of the cylinder diameter and the Froude number.

  8. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, F.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  9. Fluorescent eco-particles for surface flow physics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tauro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we describe a novel methodology for fabricating inexpensive environmentally-friendly fluorescent microparticles for quantitative surface flow visualization. Particles are synthesized from natural white beeswax and a highly diluted solution of a nontoxic fluorescent red dye. Bead fluorescence exhibits a long lifetime in adverse conditions, such as exposure to weathering agents, and is enhanced by Ultra Violet radiation. The fluorescent eco-particles are integrated in a particle image velocimetry study of circular hydraulic jump to demonstrate their feasibility in tracing complex surface flows.

  10. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper; Hesthaven, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by embedding and represented by a levelset. We discuss the discretization of the flow equations and the level set equation...... as well a various ways of advancing the equations in time using velocity projection techniques. The efficacy of the method for the representation of the levelset and its reinitialization is discussed and several numerical tests confirm the robustness and versatility of the proposed scheme....

  11. Vortices generation in the reactive flow on the evaporative surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cha Ryeom; Lee, Chang Jin [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Vortices generation and flow dynamics are investigated by a numerical calculation with LES methodology on the evaporative surface including chemical reactions. For simplicity, fuel is radially injected from the surface in order to decouple pyrolysis of solid fuel from the governing equation and consideration of heat transfer balance. Nevertheless its simple treatment of chemical reactions and fuel pyrolysis, numerical results captured very fundamental understandings in terms of averaged temperature, velocity profile, and mixture fraction distribution. Results showed that a well-defined turbulent velocity profile at the inlet becomes twisted and highly wrinkled in the downstream reaching the maximum velocity at far above the surface, where the flame is located. And the thickness of boundary layer increases in the downstream due to the enhanced interaction of axial flow and mass injection from the surface. Also, chemical reaction appears highly active and partially concentrated along the plane where flow condition is in stoichiometric. In particular, flame front locates at the surface where mixture fraction Z equals to 0.07. Flame front severely wrinkles in the downstream by the interaction with turbulences in the flow. Partial reactions on the flame front contribute to produce hot spots periodically in the downstream attaining the max temperature at the center of each spot. This may take the role of additional unsteady heat generations and pressure perturbations in the downstream. Future study will focus on the evolution of hot spots and pressure perturbations in the post chamber of lab scale hybrid rocket motors.

  12. Energy flow and energy dissipation in a free surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldburg, Walter; Cressman, John

    2005-11-01

    Turbulent flows on a free surface are strongly compressible [1] and do not conserve energy in the absence of viscosity as bulk fluids do. Despite violation of assumptions essential to Kolmogorov's theory of 1941 (K41) [2, 3], surface flows show strong agreement with Kolmogorov scaling, though intermittency is larger there. Steady state turbulence is generated in a tank of water, and the spatially averaged energy flux is measured from the four-fifth's law at each instant of time. Likewise, the energy dissipation rate as measured from velocity gradients is also a random variable in this experiment. The energy flux - dissipation rate cross-correlation is measured to be correlated in incompressible bulk flows, but strongly anti-correlated on the surface. We argue that the reason for this discrepancy between surface and bulk flows is due to compressible effects present on the surface. [1] J. R. Cressman, J. Davoudi, W. I. Goldburg, and J. Schumacher, New Journal of Physics, 6, 53, 2004. [2] U. Frisch. Turbulence: The legacy of A. N. Kolmogorov, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995. [3] A. N. Kolmogorov, Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR, 32, 16, 1941.

  13. Reaction kinetics of fluorite in flow systems and surface chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣华; 胡书敏

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic experiments of fluorite in water-HCl solution in an open-flow system at the temperatures ≤100℃ reveal that the variation of flow rate (U) can change the reaction rate orders from 0 to 2 or higher. In the far from equilibrium systems, the dissolution rates of fluorite in aqueous solutions have a zero order.The reaction rates are controlled by pH values of input solutions. In fact, the reaction rates are related to the concentrations of the active sites occupied by H+ on fluorite surface [SOH]. X-ray photospectroscopy observations on fluorite surface before and after reaction indicate that surface chemical processes control the reaction rates: Cl- cations attach on and enter into surface of fluorite besides H+ when fluorites react with HCl solutions, which affect the reaction rates.

  14. Extensive pollen flow but few pollen donors and high reproductive variance in an extremely fragmented landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael G Albaladejo

    Full Text Available Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (N(ep and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73-93%, fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (δ = 229-412 m. However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (N(ep = 4.3-10.2 and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14% and strong spatial genetic structure (S(p = 0.012, probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment.

  15. Upscaling the overland flow resistance coefficient for vegetated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Katopodes, N.

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of hydraulic resistance for overland flows plays a crucial role in modeling rainfall-runoff, flood routing, and soil erosion processes. The resistance affects not only the accurate calculations of flow variables, but also the predictions of their derivative outcomes. In particular, resistance is highly spatially variable and controlled by local flow conditions and bed characteristics in hillslopes vegetated with patches of shrubs or woody plants. Numerous studies sought general ways of relating hydraulic resistance to roughness coefficients. A typical approach in determining the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor (f) is to relate it to the Reynolds number (Re). The case is applicable when flow completely submerges roughness elements. On the other hand, when the surface covered with stones, organic litter, or vegetation is not fully submerged by the flow, the f-Re relationship does not hold. Flow dimensionless variables other than Re may become predominant in determining the resistance. There is little information on how to determine the roughness coefficient of vegetated hillslopes of arbitrary scale as a function of flow variables and bed characteristics. Although many field or laboratory studies have attempted to address the problem, most of them were carried out in channels and over a limited range of possible flow conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the upscaling properties of the resistance coefficient by resolving the details of the flow process at an extremely fine-scale. The domain was conceptualized as a sloped plane with a number of "obstacles" of centimeter scale (i.e., representing vegetation stems) that have infinitely long height. A number of simulations were designed with a numerical model resolving the two-dimensional form of Saint-Venant equations representing the propagation of dynamic wave. The simulations explored how the resistance coefficient varied with different vegetation covers, domain slopes, flow rates and

  16. Numerical investigation on Coanda flow over a logarithmic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, CaiYin; Sahari, Khairul Salleh Mohamed; Tan, ChingSeong [Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan (Malaysia)

    2015-07-15

    The Coanda effect has been introduced into lift generation designs. In this paper, a logarithmic spiral surface is introduced as a curvature shape to evaluate the development of jet flow along the Coanda curvature. Moreover, 2D computational fluid dynamics numerical simulation is adopted to measure velocity profile, jet width growth, maximum velocity decay, and surface static pressure along the curvature surface. A parametric study on the effect of varying exit jet heights on the Coanda effect is also presented. Results show that jet width grows proportionally along the curved surface, and the proportional decay of maximum velocity and surface pressure is lower than the atmospheric pressure. A wider exit jet height produces lower static pressure on the unmanned aerial vehicle surface and a slower maximum velocity decay. Overall parametric analysis of varying exit jet heights shows that the effective range of d/R is 0.1 to 0.14.

  17. Oscillating sources in a shear flow with a free surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress on the free surface flow in the presence of submerged oscillating line sources (2D) or point sources (3D) when a simple shear flow is present varying linearly with depth. Such sources are in routine use as Green functions in the realm of potential theory for calculating wave-body interactions, but no such theory exists in for rotational flow. We solve the linearized problem in 2D and 3D from first principles, based on the Euler equations, when the sources are at rest relative to the undisturbed surface. Both in 2D and 3D a new type of solution appears compared to irrotational case, a critical layer-like flow whose surface manifestation ("wave") drifts downstream from the source at the velocity of the flow at the source depth. We analyse the additional vorticity in light of the vorticity equation and provide a simple physical argument why a critical layer is a necessary consequence of Kelvin's circulation theorem. In 3D a related critical layer phenomenon occurs at every depth, whereby a ...

  18. Mechanics of fluid flow over compliant wrinkled polymeric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth; Boyce, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Skin friction coefficients (based on frontal area) of sharks and dolphins are lower than birds, fish and swimming beetles. By either exploiting flow-induced changes in their flexible skin or microscale textures, dolphins and sharks can change the structure of the fluid flow around them and thus reduce viscous drag forces on their bodies. Inspired by this ability, investigators have tried using compliant walls and riblet-like textures as drag reduction methods in aircraft and marine industries and have been able to achieve reductions up to 19%. Here we investigate flow-structure interaction and wrinkling of soft polymer surfaces that can emulate shark riblets and dolphin's flexible skin. Wrinkling arises spontaneously as the result of mismatched deformation of a thin stiff coating bound to a thick soft elastic substrate. Wrinkles can be fabricated by controlling the ratio of the stiffness of the coating and substrate, the applied displacement and the thickness of the coating. In this work we will examine the evolution in the kinematic structures associated with steady viscous flow over the polymer wrinkled surfaces and in particular compare the skin friction with corresponding results for flow over non-textured and rigid surfaces.

  19. Surface waves propagation on a turbulent flow forced electromagnetically

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We study the propagation of monochromatic surface waves on a turbulent flow. The flow is generated in a layer of liquid metal by an electromagnetic forcing. This forcing creates a quasi two-dimensional (2D) turbulence with strong vertical vorticity. The turbulent flow contains much more energy than the surface waves. In order to focus on the surface wave, the deformations induced by the turbulent flow are removed. This is done by performing a coherent phase averaging. For wavelengths smaller than the forcing lengthscale, we observe a significant increase of the wavelength of the propagating wave that has not been reported before. We suggest that it can be explained by the random deflection of the wave induced by the velocity gradient of the turbulent flow. Under this assumption, the wavelength shift is an estimate of the fluctuations of deflection angle. The local measurements of the wave frequency far from the wavemaker do not reveal such systematic behavior, although a small shift is measured. Finally we qu...

  20. On the flow magnitude and field-flow alignment at Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Amit, H.

    We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models. An expr......We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models....... An expression linking the core surface flow magnitude tospherical harmonic spectra of the MF and SV is derived from the magneticinduction equation. This involves the angle gamma between the flowand the horizontal gradient of the radial field. We study gamma in asuite of numerical dynamo models and discuss...... that the amount of field-flow alignment depends primarily on amagnetic modified Rayleigh number Raeta = alpha g0 Delta T D / eta Omega , which measures the vigorof convective driving relative to the strength of magnetic dissipation.Synthetic tests of the flow magnitude estimation scheme are encouraging...

  1. On the flow magnitude and field-flow alignment at Earth's core surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Amit, H.

    We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models. An expr......We present a method to estimate the typical magnitude of flow close toEarth's core surface based on observational knowledge of the maingeomagnetic field (MF) and its secular variation (SV), together withprior information concerning field-flow alignment gleaned from numericaldynamo models....... An expression linking the core surface flow magnitude tospherical harmonic spectra of the MF and SV is derived from the magneticinduction equation. This involves the angle gamma between the flowand the horizontal gradient of the radial field. We study gamma in asuite of numerical dynamo models and discuss...... that the amount of field-flow alignment depends primarily on amagnetic modified Rayleigh number Raeta = alpha g0 Delta T D / eta Omega , which measures the vigorof convective driving relative to the strength of magnetic dissipation.Synthetic tests of the flow magnitude estimation scheme are encouraging...

  2. Controlling Surface Roughness to Enhance Mass Flow Rates in Nanochannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimon, Malgorzata; Emerson, David; Reese, Jason

    2012-11-01

    A very active field of research in fluid mechanics and material science is predicting the behavior of Newtonian fluids flowing over porous media with different wettabilities. Opposite effects have been observed: some state that wall roughness always suppresses fluid-slip, whereas others show that for some cases roughness may reduce the surface friction. In this work, MD simulations were carried out to further investigate physical mechanisms for liquid slip, and factors affecting it. A rough wall was formed by either periodically spaced rectangular protrusions or was represented by a cosine wave. The MD simulations were conducted to study Poiseuille and Couette flow of liquid argon in a nanochannel with hydrophilic kryptonian walls. The effect of wall roughness and interface wettability on the streaming velocity, and the slip-length at the walls, is observed to be significant. Our results show a dependency of mass flow rate on the type of flow and topography of the channel walls. For a fixed magnitude of the driving force, an increase in the mass flow rate, compared to the smooth surface, was observed for the wavy roughness, whereas the opposite effect was observed for Couette flow where a higher slip was obtained for rectangular gaps. The study is funded in the UK by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  3. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, S; Bohr, T; Watanabe, Shinya; Putkaradze, Vachtang; Bohr, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions in the free surface using the method of averaging across the flow. Two concrete problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile like in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump where previous studies encountered a singularity. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed, and stationary jumps, obtained, e.g., behind a sluice gate. We ...

  4. Moving least squares simulation of free surface flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, C. L.; Walther, Jens Honore; Henriksen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    derivatives and a Runge–Kutta method for the time derivatives. The computational frame is Lagrangian, which means that the computational nodes are convected with the flow. The method proposed here is benchmarked using the standard lid driven cavity problem, a rotating free surface problem, and the simulation...

  5. Heat Flow for the Minimal Surface with Plateau Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kung Ching CHANG; Jia Quan LIU

    2003-01-01

    The heat flow for the minimal surface under Plateau boundary condition is defined to be aparabolic variational inequality, and then the existence, uniqueness, regularity, continuous dependenceon the initial data and the asymptotics are studied. It is applied as a deformation of the level sets inthe critical point theory.

  6. Plasma flow interaction with ITER divertor related surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dojčinović, Ivan P.

    2010-11-01

    It has been found that the plasma flow generated by quasistationary plasma accelerators can be used for simulation of high energy plasma interaction with different materials of interest for fusion experiments. It is especially important for the studies of the processes such as ELMs (edge localized modes), plasma disruptions and VDEs (vertical displacement events), during which a significant part of the confined hot plasma is lost from the core to the SOL (scrape off layer) enveloping the core region. Experiments using plasma guns have been used to assess erosion from disruptions and ELMs. Namely, in this experiment modification of different targets, like tungsten, molybdenum, CFC and silicon single crystal surface by the action of hydrogen and nitrogen quasistationary compression plasma flow (CPF) generated by magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) has been studied. MPC plasma flow with standard parameters (1 MJ/m2 in 0.1 ms) can be used for simulation of transient peak thermal loads during Type I ELMs and disruptions. Analysis of the targets erosion, brittle destruction, melting processes, and dust formation has been performed. These surface phenomena are results of specific conditions during CPF interaction with target surface. The investigations are related to the fundamental aspects of high energy plasma flow interaction with different material of interest for fusion. One of the purposes is a study of competition between melting and cleavage of treated solid surface. The other is investigation of plasma interaction with first wall and divertor component materials related to the ITER experiment.

  7. Numerical simulations of viscoelastic flows with free surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    We present a new methodology to simulate viscoelastic flows with free-surfaces. These simulations are motivated by the modelling of polymers manufacturing techniques, such as extrusion and injection moulding. One of the consequences of viscoelasticity is that polymeric materials have a “memory...

  8. A surface-renewal model of cross-flow microfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model using classical cake-filtration theory and the surface-renewal concept is formulated for describing cross-flow microfiltration under dynamic and steady-state conditions. The model can predict the permeate flux and cake buildup in the filter. The three basic parameters of the model are the membrane resistance, specific cake resistance and rate of surface renewal. The model is able to correlate experimental permeate flow rate data in the microfiltration of fermentation broths in laboratory- and pilot-scale units with an average root-mean-square (RMS error of 4.6%. The experimental data are also compared against the critical-flux model of cross-flow microfiltration, which has average RMS errors of 6.3, 5.5 and 6.1% for the cases of cake filtration, intermediate blocking and complete blocking mechanisms, respectively.

  9. Drops subjected to surface acoustic waves: flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Philippe; Baudoin, Michael; Bou Matar, Olivier; Dynamique Des Systèmes Hors Equilibre Team; Aiman-Films Team

    2012-11-01

    Ultrasonic acoustic waves of frequency beyond the MHz are known to induce streaming flow in fluids that can be suitable to perform elementary operations in microfluidics systems. One of the currently appealing geometry is that of a sessile drop subjected to surface acoustic waves (SAW). Such Rayleigh waves produce non-trival actuation in the drop leading to internal flow, drop displacement, free-surface oscillations and atomization. We recently carried out experiments and numerical simulations that allowed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms that couple acoustic propagation and fluid actuation. We varied the frequency and amplitude of actuation, as well as the properties of the fluid, and we measured the effects of these parameters on the dynamics of the flow. We compared these results to finite-elements numerical simulations.

  10. Computed Flow and Fluorescence Over the Ocular Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Longfei; Henshaw, W D; King-Smith, P E

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness. Evaporation causes increased osmolarity and potential irritation over the ocular surface; it also alters fluorescein concentration and thus fluorescence. Using thinning rates from in vivo measurements together with thin film equations for flow and transport of multiple solutes, we compute dynamic results for tear film quantities of interest. We compare our computed intensity distributions with in vivo observations. A number of experimental features are recovered by the model.

  11. A Boundary Condition for Simulation of Flow Over Porous Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Neal T.; Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Tinetti, Ana F.

    2001-01-01

    A new boundary condition is presented.for simulating the flow over passively porous surfaces. The model builds on the prior work of R.H. Bush to eliminate the need for constructing grid within an underlying plenum, thereby simplifying the numerical modeling of passively porous flow control systems and reducing computation cost. Code experts.for two structured-grid.flow solvers, TLNS3D and CFL3D. and one unstructured solver, USM3Dns, collaborated with an experimental porosity expert to develop the model and implement it into their respective codes. Results presented,for the three codes on a slender forebody with circumferential porosity and a wing with leading-edge porosity demonstrate a good agreement with experimental data and a remarkable ability to predict the aggregate aerodynamic effects of surface porosity with a simple boundary condition.

  12. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.

  13. Stability of shear shallow water flows with free surface

    CERN Document Server

    Chesnokov, Alexander; Gavrilyuk, Sergey; Pavlov, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Stability of inviscid shear shallow water flows with free surface is studied in the framework of the Benney equations. This is done by investigating the generalized hyperbolicity of the integrodifferential Benney system of equations. It is shown that all shear flows having monotonic convex velocity profiles are stable. The hydrodynamic approximations of the model corresponding to the classes of flows with piecewise linear continuous and discontinuous velocity profiles are derived and studied. It is shown that these approximations possess Hamiltonian structure and a complete system of Riemann invariants, which are found in an explicit form. Sufficient conditions for hyperbolicity of the governing equations for such multilayer flows are formulated. The generalization of the above results to the case of stratified fluid is less obvious, however, it is established that vorticity has a stabilizing effect.

  14. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Susong, David D.; Rumsey, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River has been identified as the most overallocated river in the world. Considering predicted future imbalances between water supply and demand and the growing recognition that base flow (a proxy for groundwater discharge to streams) is critical for sustaining flow in streams and rivers, there is a need to develop methods to better quantify present-day base flow across large regions. We adapted and applied the spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base flow that is lost during in-stream transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). On average, 56% of the streamflow in the UCRB originated as base flow, and precipitation was identified as the dominant driver of spatial variability in base flow at the scale of the UCRB, with the majority of base flow discharge to streams occurring in upper elevation watersheds. The model estimates an average of 1.8 × 1010 m3/yr of base flow in the UCRB; greater than 80% of which is lost during in-stream transport to the Lower Colorado River Basin via processes including evapotranspiration and water diversion for irrigation. Our results indicate that surface waters in the Colorado River Basin are dependent on base flow, and that management approaches that consider groundwater and surface water as a joint resource will be needed to effectively manage current and future water resources in the Basin.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Electroosmotic Flow near Earthworm Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Q. Zu; Y.Y. Yan

    2006-01-01

    The electroosmotic flow near an earthworm surface is simulated numerically to further understand the anti soil adhesion mechanism of earthworm. A lattice Poisson method is employed to solve electric potential and charge distributions in the electric double layer along the earthworm surface. The external electric field is obtained by solving a Laplace equation. The electroosmotic flow controlled by the Navier-Stokes equations with external body force is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method. A benchmark test shows that accurate electric potential distributions can be obtained by the LPM. The simulation shows that the moving vortices,which probably contribute to anti soil adhesion,are fonned near earthworm body surface by the nonuniform and variational electrical force.

  16. Impact response of a Timoshenko-type viscoelastic beam considering the extension of its middle surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossikhin, Yury A; Shitikova, Marina V; Meza, Maria Guadalupe Estrada

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the problem of low-velocity impact of an elastic sphere against a viscoelastic Timoshenko-type beam is studied considering the extension of its middle surface. The viscoelastic features of the beam out of the contact domain are governed by the standard linear solid model with derivatives of integer order, while within the contact domain the fractional derivative standard linear solid model is utilized, in so doing rheological constants of the material in both models are the same. However the presence of the additional parameter, i.e. fractional parameter which could vary from zero to unit, allows one to vary beam's viscosity, since the structure of the beam's material within this zone may be damaged, resulting in the decrease of the beam material viscosity in the contact zone. Consideration for transient waves (surfaces of strong discontinuity) propagating in the target out of the contact zone via the theory of discontinuities and determination of the desired values behind the surfaces of discontinuities upto the contact domain with the help of ray series, as well as the utilization of the Hertz theory in the contact zone allow one to obtain a set of two integro-differential equations, which govern the desired values, namely: the local bearing of the target and impactor's materials and the displacement of the beam within the contact domain.

  17. Investigation of aluminum surface cleaning using cavitating fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralys, Aurimas; Striška, Vytautas; Mokšin, Vadim [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Faculty of Mechanics, Department of Machine Engineering, J. Basanavičiaus str.28, 03224, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates efficiency of specially designed atomizer used to spray water and cavitate microbubbles in water flow. Surface cleaning system was used to clean machined (grinded) aluminum surface from abrasive particles. It is established that cleaning efficiency depends on diameter of the diffuser, water pressure and distance between nozzle and metal surface. It is obtained that the best cleaning efficiency (100%) is achieved at pressure 36 bar, when diameter of diffuser is 0.4 mm and distance between nozzle and surface is 1 mm. It is also established that satisfactory cleaning efficiency (80%) is achieved not only when atomizer is placed closer to metal surface, but also at larger (120 mm) distances.

  18. Rossby and Drift Wave Turbulence and Zonal Flows: the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Connaughton, Colm; Quinn, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    A detailed study of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima model and its extensions is presented. These simple nonlinear partial differential equations suggested for both Rossby waves in the atmosphere and also drift waves in a magnetically-confined plasma exhibit some remarkable and nontrivial properties, which in their qualitative form survive in more realistic and complicated models, and as such form a conceptual basis for understanding the turbulence and zonal flow dynamics in real plasma and geophysical systems. Two idealised scenarios of generation of zonal flows by small-scale turbulence are explored: a modulational instability and turbulent cascades. A detailed study of the generation of zonal flows by the modulational instability reveals that the dynamics of this zonal flow generation mechanism differ widely depending on the initial degree of nonlinearity. A numerical proof is provided for the extra invariant in Rossby and drift wave turbulence -zonostrophy and the invariant cascades are shown to be characterised...

  19. Characterizing developing adverse pressure gradient flows subject to surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Brian; Chao, Donald; Turan, Özden; Castillo, Luciano

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of surface roughness and adverse pressure gradient (APG) on the development of a turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and X-wire probes in all regions of a developing APG flow in an open return wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e., T ∞, U ref, and C p) were maintained for smooth, k + = 0, and rough, k + = 41-60, surfaces with Reynolds number based on momentum thickness, 3,000 carefully designed such that the x-dependence in the flow field was known. Despite this fact, only a very small region of the boundary layer showed a balance of the various terms in the integrated boundary layer equation. The skin friction computed from this technique showed up to a 58% increase due to the surface roughness. Various equilibrium parameters were studied and the effect of roughness was investigated. The generated flow was not in equilibrium according to the Clauser (J Aero Sci 21:91-108, 1954) definition due to its developing nature. After a development region, the flow reached the equilibrium condition as defined by Castillo and George (2001), where Λ = const, is the pressure gradient parameter. Moreover, it was found that this equilibrium condition can be used to classify developing APG flows. Furthermore, the Zagarola and Smits (J Fluid Mech 373:33-79, 1998a) scaling of the mean velocity deficit, U ∞δ*/δ, can also be used as a criteria to classify developing APG flows which supports the equilibrium condition of Castillo and George (2001). With this information a ‘full APG region’ was defined.

  20. Spatial development of the wind-driven water surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Rémi; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2015-04-01

    The water velocity field induced by wind and waves beneath an air-water interface is investigated experimentally versus fetch in the large Marseille-Luminy wind wave tank. Measurements of the vertical velocity profiles inside the subsurface shear layer were performed by a three-component Nortek acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The surface drift current was also derived from visualizations of small floating drifters recorded by a video camera looking vertically from above the water surface. Surface wave height and slopes were determined simultaneously by means of capacitance gauges and a single-point laser slope system located in the immediate vicinity of the profiler. Observations were made at steady low to moderate wind speeds and various fetches ranging between 1 and 15 meters. This study first corroborates that the thin subsurface water boundary layer forced by wind at the leading edge of the water sheet is laminar. The surface drift current velocity indeed increases gradually with fetch, following a 1/3 power law characteristic of an accelerated flat-plate laminar boundary layer. The laminar-turbulent transition manifests itself by a sudden decrease in the water surface flow velocity and a rapid deepening of the boundary layer due to the development of large-scale longitudinal vortices. Further downstream, when characteristic capillary-gravity wind waves develop at the surface, the water flow velocity increases again rapidly within a sublayer of typically 4 mm depth. This phenomenon is explained by the occurrence of an intense momentum flux from waves to the mean flow due to the dissipation of parasitic capillaries generated ahead of the dominant wave crests. This phenomenon also sustains significant small-scale turbulent motions within the whole boundary layer. However, when gravity-capillary waves of length longer than 10 cm then grow at the water surface, the mean flow velocity field decreases drastically over the whole boundary layer thickness. At the same

  1. Drag reduction in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniello, Robert J.; Waterhouse, Nicholas E.; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that periodic, micropatterned superhydrophobic surfaces, previously noted for their ability to provide laminar flow drag reduction, are capable of reducing drag in the turbulent flow regime. Superhydrophobic surfaces contain micro- or nanoscale hydrophobic features which can support a shear-free air-water interface between peaks in the surface topology. Particle image velocimetry and pressure drop measurements were used to observe significant slip velocities, shear stress, and pressure drop reductions corresponding to drag reductions approaching 50%. At a given Reynolds number, drag reduction is found to increase with increasing feature size and spacing, as in laminar flows. No observable drag reduction was noted in the laminar regime, consistent with previous experimental results for the channel geometry considered. The onset of drag reduction occurs at a critical Reynolds number where the viscous sublayer thickness approaches the scale of the superhydrophobic microfeatures and performance is seen to increase with further reduction in viscous sublayer height. These results indicate superhydrophobic surfaces may provide a significant drag reducing mechanism for marine vessels.

  2. Extensibility of the fission surface power (FSP) system from the moon to Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-28

    Fission reactors have great near-term potential to power human and robotic missions/outposts on the surface of the Moon and Mars (and potentially other planets, moons, and asteroids). The ability to provide a power-rich environment that is independent of solar intensity, nights, dust storms, etc., is of significant (perhaps enabling) importance to the further expansion of humans into our solar system. NASA's Reference Fission Surface Power (FSP) System is a 40 kWe system that has been primarily designed for lunar applications. This paper examines the extensibility of the FSP design and technology for potential missions on Mars. Possible impacts include the effects of changes in heat sink, gravity, day-night cycles, mission transit time, communication delay, and the chemistry of the regolith and atmosphere. One of the biggest impacts might be differences in the potential utilization of in-situ materials for shielding. Another major factor is that different missions will likely require different performance requirements, e.g. power, lifetime and mass. This paper concludes that the environmental differences between potential mission locations will not require significant changes in design and technologies, unless performance requirements for a specific mission are substantially different than those adopted for the FSP The primary basis for this conclusion is that the FSP has been designed with robust materials and design margins.

  3. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing dynamic knee extensions at low load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernbom, Mathias; Järrebring, Rickard; Andreasson, Mikael A; Augustsson, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activity and endurance during fatiguing low-intensity dynamic knee extension exercise with and without blood flow restriction. Eleven healthy subjects with strength training experience performed 3 sets of unilateral knee extensions with no relaxation between repetitions to concentric torque failure at 30% of the 1 repetition maximum. One leg was randomized to exercise with cuff occlusion and the other leg to exercise without occlusion. The muscle activity in the quadriceps was recorded with electromyography (EMG). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and acute pain were collected immediately, and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was rated before and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The results demonstrated high EMG levels in both experimental conditions, but there were no significant differences regarding maximal muscle activity, except for a higher EMG in the eccentric phase in set 3 for the nonoccluded condition (p = 0.005). Significantly more repetitions were performed with the nonoccluded leg in every set (p knee extension decreases the endurance but does not increase the maximum muscle activity compared with training without restriction when both regimes are performed to failure. The high levels of muscle activity suggest that performing low-load dynamic knee extensions in a no-relaxation manner may be a useful method in knee rehabilitation settings when large forces are contraindicated. However, similarly to fatiguing blood flow restricted exercise, this method is associated with ischemic muscle pain, and thus its applications may be limited to highly motivated individuals.

  4. Estimating Stream Surface Flow Velocities from Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Brauchli, T.; Chen, Z.; Huwald, H.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring surface flow velocities in streams can provide important information on discharge. This information is independent of water level, the most commonly used proxy for discharge and therefore has significant potential to reduce uncertainties. Advances in cheap and commonly used imaging devices (e.g. smartphone cameras) and image processing techniques offer new opportunities to get velocity information. Short video clips of streams can be used in combination with optical flow algorithms to get proxies for stream surface velocities. Here some initial results are presented and the main challenges are discussed, especially in view of using these techniques in a citizen science context (specifically the "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water), where we try to minimize the need for site preparation and additional equipment needed to take measurements.

  5. Measuring surface flow velocity with smartphones: potential for citizen observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven V.; Chen, Zichong; Brauchli, Tristan; Huwald, Hendrik

    2014-05-01

    Stream flow velocity is an important variable for discharge estimation and research on sediment dynamics. Given the influence of the latter on rating curves (stage-discharge relations), and the relative scarcity of direct streamflow measurements, surface velocity measurements can offer important information for, e.g., flood warning, hydropower, and hydrological science and engineering in general. With the growing amount of sensing and computing power in the hands of more outdoorsy individuals, and the advances in image processing techniques, there is now a tremendous potential to obtain hydrologically relevant data from motivated citizens. This is the main focus of the interdisciplinary "WeSenseIt" project, a citizen observatory of water. In this subproject, we investigate the feasibility of stream flow surface velocity measurements from movie clips taken by (smartphone-) cameras. First results from movie-clip derived velocity information will be shown and compared to reference measurements.

  6. Injection Induced Mixing in Flows Separating From Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J. (Technical Monitor); Wundrow, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model for predicting the effect of unsteady local surface injection on the flow separating from a streamlined body at angle of attack is proposed. The model uses the premise that separation control results from enhanced mixing along the shear layer that develops between the main stream and the fluid in the underlying recirculation zone. High-Reynolds-number asymptotic methods are used to connect the unsteady surface injection to an instability wave propagating on the separating shear layer and then to the large-scale coherent structures that produce the increased mixing. The results is a tool that can guide the choice of fluid-actuator parameters to maximize flow-control effectiveness and may also facilitate computer-based numerical experiments.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Vortex Behavior in Free-Surface Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, J.; Rhoads, J.; Spence, E.; Ji, H.

    2011-10-01

    Flowing liquid plasma-facing systems have been proposed for fusion devices due to their structural consistency and capability to withstand enormous heat fluxes. In support of these designs, the effects of magnetic field on the thermal mixing of conductive fluids need to be studied and understood. The Princeton Liquid Metal Experiment (LMX) consists of a free-surface, externally driven channel flow subjected to a strong vertical magnetic field. LMX uses an infrared camera and non-intrusive heat signatures to visually study the vortex street of a vertical cylinder while an array of potential probes has been installed to map the velocity profile for varying magnetic field strengths. Our studies show a decrease in surface activity with increasing field strength as well as distinct changes in vortex behavior. Velocity distributions across the channel are compared with infrared observations and the relationship between Strouhal number and magnetic field strength is examined.

  8. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur YEMENİCİ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  9. Inelastic non-Newtonian flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M. J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated inelastic non-Newtonian fluid flow over heterogeneously slippery surfaces. First, we simulated the flow of aqueous xanthan gum solutions over a bubble mattress, which is a superhydrophobic surface consisting of transversely positioned no-slip walls and no-shear gas bubbles. The results reveal that for shear-thinning fluids wall slip can be increased significantly, provided that the system is operated in the shear-thinning regime. For a 0.2 wt% xanthan gum solution with a power-law index of n =0.4 , the numerical results indicate that wall slip can be enhanced 3.2 times when compared to a Newtonian liquid. This enhancement factor was also predicted from a theoretical analysis, which gave an expression for the maximum slip length that can be attained over flat, heterogeneously slippery surfaces. Although this equation was derived for a no-slip/no-shear unit length that is much larger than the typical size of the system, we found that it can also be used to predict the enhancement in the regime where the slip length is proportional to the size of the no-shear region or the bubble width. The results could be coupled to the hydrodynamic development or entrance length of the system, as maximum wall slip is only reached when the fluid flow can fully adapt to the no-slip and no-shear conditions at the wall.

  10. Extensions to the Visual Odometry Pipeline for the Exploration of Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furgale, Paul Timothy

    Mars represents one of the most important targets for space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years, particularly because of evidence of liquid water in the planet's past. Current environmental conditions dictate that any existing water reserves will be in the form of ice; finding and sampling these ice deposits would further the study of the planet's climate history, further the search for evidence of life, and facilitate in-situ resource utilization during future manned exploration missions. This thesis presents a suite of algorithms to help enable a robotic ice-prospecting mission to Mars. Starting from visual odometry---the estimation of a rover's motion using a stereo camera as the primary sensor---we develop the following extensions: (i) a coupled surface/subsurface modelling system that provides novel data products to scientists working remotely, (ii) an autonomous retrotraverse system that allows a rover to return to previously visited places along a route for sampling, or to return a sample to an ascent vehicle, and (iii) the extension of the appearance-based visual odometry pipeline to an actively illuminated light detection and ranging sensor that provides data similar to a stereo camera but is not reliant on consistent ambient lighting, thereby enabling appearance-based vision techniques to be used in environments that are not conducive to passive cameras, such as underground mines or permanently shadowed craters on the moon. All algorithms are evaluated on real data collected using our field robot at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, or at a planetary analogue site on Devon Island, in the Canadian High Arctic.

  11. Deformation mechanism of leukocyte adhering to vascular surface under steady shear flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Xiaoheng; WANG; Xiong; YIN; Hongmei; CHEN; Huaiqing

    2004-01-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to vascular surface is an important biomedical problem and has drawn extensive attention. In this study, we propose a compound drop model to simulate a leukocyte with a nucleus adhering to the surface of blood vessel under steady shear flow. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is conducted to determine the local distribution of pressure on the surface of the adherent model cell. By introducing the parameter of deformation index (DI), we investigate the deformation of the leukocyte and its nucleus under controlled conditions. Our numerical results show that: (i) the leukocyte is capable of deformation under external exposed flow field. The deformation index increases with initial contact angle and Reynolds number of external exposed flow. (ii) The nucleus deforms with the cell, and the deformation index of the leukocyte is greater than that of the nucleus. The leukocyte is more deformable while the nucleus is more capable of resisting external shear flow. (iii) The leukocyte and the nucleus are not able to deform infinitely with the increase of Reynolds number because the deformation index reaches a maximum. (iv) Pressure distribution confirms that there exists a region downstream of the cell, which produces high pressure to retard continuous deformation and provide a positive lift force on the cell. Meanwhile, we have measured the deformation of human leukocytes exposed to shear flow by using a flow chamber system. We found that the numerical results are well consistent with those of experiment. We conclude that the nucleus with high viscosity plays a particular role in leukocyte deformation.

  12. Incompressible material point method for free surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiong; Sze, Kam Yim; Lian, Yanping; Liu, Yan

    2017-02-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the weakly compressible material point method (WCMPM) for modeling the free surface flow problems, an incompressible material point method (iMPM) is proposed based on operator splitting technique which splits the solution of momentum equation into two steps. An intermediate velocity field is first obtained by solving the momentum equations ignoring the pressure gradient term, and then the intermediate velocity field is corrected by the pressure term to obtain a divergence-free velocity field. A level set function which represents the signed distance to free surface is used to track the free surface and apply the pressure boundary conditions. Moreover, an hourglass damping is introduced to suppress the spurious velocity modes which are caused by the discretization of the cell center velocity divergence from the grid vertexes velocities when solving pressure Poisson equations. Numerical examples including dam break, oscillation of a cubic liquid drop and a droplet impact into deep pool show that the proposed incompressible material point method is much more accurate and efficient than the weakly compressible material point method in solving free surface flow problems.

  13. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  14. Stress relaxation and reversed flow of low-density polyethylene melts following uniaxial extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    The extensional dynamics of two low-density polyethylene melts Lupolen 3020D and Lupolen 1840D, both showing a stress overshoot in start-up of uniaxial extension [Rasmussen, H. K., J. K. Nielsen, A. Bach, and O.Hassager, 'Viscosity overshoot in the start-up of uniaxial elongation of low density p...

  15. Extension of Finite Volume Compressible Flow Solvers to Multi-dimensional, Variable Density Zero Mach Number Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T.; Botta, N.; Geratz, K. J.; Klein, R.

    1999-11-01

    When attempting to compute unsteady, variable density flows at very small or zero Mach number using a standard finite volume compressible flow solver one faces at least the following difficulties: (i) Spatial pressure variations vanish as the Mach number M→0, but they do affect the velocity field at leading order; (ii) the resulting spatial homogeneity of the leading order pressure implies an elliptic divergence constraint for the energy flux; (iii) violations of this constraint crucially affect the transport of mass, preventing a code to properly advect even a constant density distribution. We overcome these difficulties through a new algorithm for constructing numerical fluxes in the context of multi-dimensional finite volume methods in conservation form. The construction of numerical fluxes involves: (1) An explicit upwind step yielding predictions for the nonlinear convective flux components. (2) A first correction step that introduces pressure gradients which guarantee compliance of the convective fluxes with a divergence constraint. This step requires the solution of a first Poisson-type equation. (3) A second projection step which provides the yet unknown (non-convective) pressure contribution to the total flux of momentum. This second projection requires the solution of another Poisson-type equation and yields the cell centered velocity field at the new time. This velocity field exactly satisfies a divergence constraint consistent with the asymptotic limit. Step (1) can be done by any standard finite volume compressible flow solver. The input to steps (2) and (3) involves solely the fluxes from step (1) and is independent of how these were obtained. Thus, our approach allows any such solver to be extended to compute variable density incompressible flows.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Stagnation Point Flow with a Convective Surface Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Khamisah; Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzes the steady laminar two-dimensional stagnation point flow and heat transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid impinging normal to a horizontal plate, with the bottom surface of the plate heated by convection from a hot fluid. A uniform magnetic field is applied in a direction normal to the flat plate, with a free stream velocity varying linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations, before being solved numerically. The analysis includes the effects of the magnetic parameter, the Prandtl number, and the convective parameter on the heat transfer rate at the surface. Results showed that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing values of these quantities.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow with a convective surface boundary condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafar, Khamisah [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment; Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda [Universiti Kebangsaan, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). School of Mathematical Sciences

    2011-08-15

    This study analyzes the steady laminar two-dimensional stagnation point flow and heat transfer of an incompressible viscous fluid impinging normal to a horizontal plate, with the bottom surface of the plate heated by convection from a hot fluid. A uniform magnetic field is applied in a direction normal to the flat plate, with a free stream velocity varying linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations, before being solved numerically. The analysis includes the effects of the magnetic parameter, the Prandtl number, and the convective parameter on the heat transfer rate at the surface. Results showed that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing values of these quantities. (orig.)

  18. Flow boiling of water on nanocoated surfaces in a microchannel

    CERN Document Server

    Phan, Hai Trieu; Marty, Philippe; Colasson, Stéphane; Gavillet, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effects of surface wettability on flow boiling of water at atmospheric pressure. The test channel is a single rectangular channel 0.5 mm high, 5 mm wide and 180 mm long. The mass flux was set at 100 kg/m2 s and the base heat flux varied from 30 to 80 kW/m2. Water enters the test channel under subcooled conditions. The samples are silicone oxide (SiOx), titanium (Ti), diamond-like carbon (DLC) and carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOC) surfaces with static contact angles of 26{\\deg}, 49{\\deg}, 63{\\deg} and 103{\\deg}, respectively. The results show significant impacts of surface wettability on heat transfer coefficient.

  19. Extension of the low diffusion particle method for near-continuum two-phase flow simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wei; He Xiaoying; Cai Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    The low diffusion (LD) particle method,proposed by Burt and Boyd,is modified for the near-continuum two-phase flow simulations.The LD method has the advantages of easily coupling with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for multi-scale flow simulations and dramatically reducing the numerical diffusion error and statistical scatter of the equilibrium particle methods.Liquid-or solid-phase particles are introduced in the LD method.Their velocity and temperature updating are respectively,calculated from the motion equation and the temperature equation according to the local gas properties.Coupling effects from condensed phase to gas phase are modeled as momentum and energy sources,which are respectively,equal to the negative values of the total momentum and energy increase in liquid or solid phase.The modified method is compared with theoretical results for unsteady flows,and good agreements are obtained to indicate the reliability of the one-way gas-to-particle coupling models.Hybrid LD-DSMC algorithm is implemented and performed for nozzle discharging gas-liquid flow to show the prospect of the LDDSMC scheme for multi-scale two-phase flow simulations.

  20. Numerical Investigation Of Surface Roughness Effects On The Flow Field In A Swirl Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAKİN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate axial and tangential velocity profiles, turbulent dissipation rate, turbulent kinetic energy and pressure losses under the influence of surface roughness for the swirling flow in a cyclone separator. The governing equations for this flow were solved by using Fluent CFD code. First, numerical analyses were run to verify numerical solution and domain with experimental results. Velocity profiles, turbulent parameters and pressure drops were calculated by increasing inlet velocity from 10 to 20 m/s and roughness height from 0 to 4 mm. Analyses of results showed that pressure losses are decreased and velocity field is considerably affected by increasing roughness height.

  1. Polymer extension under flow: A path integral evaluation of the free energy change using the Jarzynski relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2016-06-01

    The Jarzynski relation (and its variants) has provided a route to the experimental evaluation of equilibrium free energy changes based on measurements conducted under arbitrary non-equilibrium conditions. Schroeder and co-workers [Soft Matter 10, 2178 (2014) and J. Chem. Phys. 141, 174903 (2014)] have recently exploited this fact to determine the elastic properties of model DNA from simulations and experiments of chain extension under elongational flow, bypassing the need to make these measurements mechanically using sophisticated optical trapping techniques. In this paper, motivated by these observations, we investigate chain elasticity analytically, using the Jarzynski relation and a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-type Rouse model within a path integral formalism to calculate (essentially exactly) both the flow-induced free energy change between chain conformations of definite average end-to-end distance, as well as the force-extension curve that follows from it. This curve, based on a new analytic expression, matches the trends in the corresponding curve obtained from a model of chain stretching developed by Marko and Siggia [Macromolecules 28, 8759 (1995)], which itself is in very satisfactory agreement with the numerical and experimental data from the work of Schroeder et al.

  2. Steep waves in free-surface flow past narrow topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Stephen L.; Binder, Benjamin J.; Mattner, Trent W.; Denier, James P.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we compute steep forced solitary wave solutions for the problem of free-surface flow over a localised topographic disturbance in an otherwise flat horizontal channel bottom. A single forced solitary wave and a double-crested forced solitary wave solution are shown to exist, both of which approach the Stokes limiting configuration of an included angle of 12 0° and a stagnation point at the wave crests. The solution space for the topographically forced problem is compared to that found in Wade et al. ["On the free-surface flow of very steep forced solitary waves," J. Fluid Mech. 739, 1-21 (2014)], who considered forcing due to a localised distribution of pressure applied to the free surface. The main feature that differentiates the two types of forcing is an additional solution that exists in the pressure-forced problem, a steep wave with a cusp at a single wave crest. Our numerical results suggest that this cusped-wave solution does not exist in the topographically forced problem.

  3. Influence of weather on traffic flow: An extensive stochastic multi-effect capacity and demand analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Snelder, M.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic is affected by a wide range of variables. An influential and commonly occurring variable on traffic flow is the weather. Weather conditions affect both traffic demand as well as road capacity and in doing so also affect the traffic fluency, or rather the ability of traffic to maintain a cert

  4. TRANSPORT OF BICOMPONENT CONTAMINANT IN FREE-SURFACE WETLAND FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bin; ZENG Li; WU Yi-hong; JI Ping; ZHAO Yi-jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a pulsed bicomponent contaminant emission into a free-surface wetland flow.The basic equations are for the bicomponent contaminant transport in the wetland flow under the combined action of advection,mass dispersion,and ecological reaction at the phase averaged scale.The effect of the ecological reaction is separated from the hydrodynamic effect via a set of widely used transforms.The analytical solution for the evolution of the depth-averaged concentration is rigorously derived,with a limiting case covering the known solution for the single component contaminant transport.It is found that the depth-averaged species concentration of the bicomponent contaminant can approach an equilibrium state determined by the distribution coefficient.

  5. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, M.; Covington, M. D.; Gabrovšek, F.

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe) flow to a free surface (open channel) flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM), which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep penetration of high

  6. Evolution of karst conduit networks in transition from pressurised flow to free surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel modelling approach to study the evolution of conduit networks in soluble rocks. Unlike the models presented so far, the model allows a transition from pressurised (pipe flow to a free surface (open channel flow in evolving discrete conduit networks. It calculates flow, solute transport and dissolutional enlargement within each time step and steps through time until a stable flow pattern establishes. The flow in each time step is calculated by calling the EPA Storm Water Management Model (EPA SWMM, which efficiently solves the 1-D Saint Venant equations in a network of conduits. We present several cases with low dip and sub-vertical networks to demonstrate mechanisms of flow pathway selection. In low dip models the inputs were randomly distributed to several junctions. The evolution of pathways progresses upstream: initially pathways linking outlets to the closest inputs evolve fastest because the gradient along these pathways is largest. When a pathway efficiently drains the available recharge, the head drop along the pathway attracts flow from the neighbouring upstream junctions and new connecting pathways evolve. The mechanism progresses from the output boundary inwards until all inputs are connected to the stable flow system. In the pressurised phase, each junction is drained by at least one conduit, but only one conduit remains active in the vadose phase. The selection depends on the initial geometry of a junction, initial distribution of diameters, the evolution in a pressurised regime, and on the dip of the conduits, which plays an important role in vadose entrenchment. In high dip networks, the vadose zone propagates downwards and inwards from the rim of the massif. When a network with randomly distributed initial diameters is supplied with concentrated recharge from the adjacent area, the sink point regresses up upstream along junctions connected to the prominent pathways. Large conductive structures provide deep

  7. Extension of Golay's plate height equation from laminar to turbulent flow I - Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice

    2017-04-07

    The reduced plate height (RPH) equation of Golay derived in 1958 for open tubular columns (OTC) is extended from laminar to turbulent-like flow. The mass balance equation is solved under near-equilibrium conditions in the mobile phase for changing shapes of the velocity profile across the OTC diameter. The final expression of the general RPH equation is: [Formula: see text] where ν is the reduced linear velocity, k is the retention factor, Dm is the bulk diffusion coefficient in the mobile phase, Da¯ is the average axial dispersion coefficient, Dr¯ is the average radial dispersion coefficient, Ds is the diffusion coefficient of the analyte in the stationary film of thickness df, D is the OTC inner diameter, and n≥2 is a positive number controlling the shape of the flow profile (polynomial of degree n). The correctness of the derived RPH equation is verified for Poiseuille (n=2), turburlent-like (n=10), and uniformly flat (n→∞) flow profiles. The derived RPH equation is applied to predict the gain in speed-resolution of a 180μm i.d.×20m OTC (df=2μm) from laminar to turbulent flow in supercritical fluid chromatography. Using pure carbon dioxide as the mobile phase at 297K, k=1, and increasing the Reynolds number from 2000 (laminar) to 4000 (turbulent), the OTC efficiency is expected to increase from 125 to 670 (×5.4) while the hold-up time decreases from 19 to 9s (×0.5). Despite the stronger resistance to mass transfer in the stationary phase, the projected improvement of the column performance in turbulent flow is explained by the quasi-elimination of the resistance to mass transfer in the mobile phase while axial dispersion remains negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows by Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, James W.; Golovin, Kevin; Barros, Julio; Schultz, Michael P.; Tuteja, Anish; Perlin, Marc; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of near zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer (TBL) flow over several superhydrophobic surfaces (SHSs) are presented and compared to those for a hydraulically smooth baseline. The surfaces were developed at the University of Michigan as part of an ongoing research thrust to investigate the feasibility of SHSs for skin-friction drag reduction in turbulent flow. The SHSs were previously evaluated in fully-developed turbulent channel flow and have been shown to provide meaningful drag reduction. The TBL experiments were conducted at the USNA in a water tunnel with a test section 2.0 m (L) x 0.2 m (W) x 0.2 m (H). The free-stream speed was set to 1.26 m/s which corresponded to a friction Reynolds number of 1,500. The TBL was tripped at the test section inlet with a 0.8 mm diameter wire. The upper and side walls provided optical access, while the lower wall was either the smooth baseline or a spray coated SHS. The velocity measurements were obtained with a TSI FSA3500 two-component Laser-Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and custom-designed beam displacer operated in coincidence mode. The LDV probe volume diameter was 45 μm (approx. one wall-unit). The measurements were recorded 1.5 m downstream of the trip. When the measured quantities were normalized using the inner variables, the results indicated a significant reduction in the near wall viscous and total stresses with little effect on the flow outside the inner layer.

  9. FLOW NOISE MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE SHIP WITH TOWED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a new acoustic test technique using towed model was introduced to study flow noise caused by a surface ship. The project of model test was be properly designed for acoustic signal collecting and with the help of appropriate data processing method different kinds of acoustic sources could be successfully identified. A lot of work about fuid noise could be carried on with the towed model, and the noise corresponding to low frequency which is especially interested for its long distance radiating with small attenuation could also be studied in this way.

  10. Topological Fluid Mechanics with Applications to Free Surfaces and Axisymmetric Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    1996-01-01

    Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow.......Topological fluid mechanics is the study of qualitative features of fluid patterns. We discuss applications to the flow beneath a stagnant surface film, and to patterns in axisymmetric flow....

  11. Extension of the pressure correction method to zero-Mach number compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper,the classical pressure correction method was extended into low Mach number compressible flow regime by integrating equation of state into SIMPLE algorithm.The self-developed code based on this algorithm was applied to predicting the lid-driven cavity flow and shock tube prob-lems,and the results showed good agreement with benchmark solutions and the Mach number can reach the magnitude of as low as 10-5.The attenuation of sound waves in viscous medium was then simulated.The results agree well with the analytical solutions given by theoretical acoustics.This demonstrated that the present method could also be implemented in acoustics field simulation,which is crucial for thermoacoustic simulation.

  12. Extension of the pressure correction method to zero-Mach number compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YaLing; HUANG Jing; TAO YuBing; TAO WenQuan

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, the classical pressure correction method was extended into low Mach number compressible flow regime by integrating equation of state into SIMPLE algorithm. The self-developed code based on this algorithm was applied to predicting the lid-driven cavity flow and shock tube prob-lems, and the results showed good agreement with benchmark solutions and the Mach number can reach the magnitude of as low as 10-5. The attenuation of sound waves in viscous medium was then simulated. The results agree well with the analytical solutions given by theoretical acoustics. This demonstrated that the present method could also be implemented in acoustics field simulation, which is crucial for thermoacoustic simulation.

  13. Reservoir simulation with MUFITS code: Extension for double porosity reservoirs and flows in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modelling of multiphase flows in porous medium is necessary in many applications concerning subsurface utilization. An incomplete list of those applications includes oil and gas fields exploration, underground carbon dioxide storage and geothermal energy production. The numerical simulations are conducted using complicated computer programs called reservoir simulators. A robust simulator should include a wide range of modelling options covering various exploration techniques, rock and fluid properties, and geological settings. In this work we present a recent development of new options in MUFITS code [1]. The first option concerns modelling of multiphase flows in double-porosity double-permeability reservoirs. We describe internal representation of reservoir models in MUFITS, which are constructed as a 3D graph of grid blocks, pipe segments, interfaces, etc. In case of double porosity reservoir, two linked nodes of the graph correspond to a grid cell. We simulate the 6th SPE comparative problem [2] and a five-spot geothermal production problem to validate the option. The second option concerns modelling of flows in porous medium coupled with flows in horizontal wells that are represented in the 3D graph as a sequence of pipe segments linked with pipe junctions. The well completions link the pipe segments with reservoir. The hydraulics in the wellbore, i.e. the frictional pressure drop, is calculated in accordance with Haaland's formula. We validate the option against the 7th SPE comparative problem [3]. We acknowledge financial support by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No RFBR-15-31-20585). References [1] Afanasyev, A. MUFITS Reservoir Simulation Software (www.mufits.imec.msu.ru). [2] Firoozabadi A. et al. Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Petrol. Tech. 1990. V.42. N.6. P.710-715. [3] Nghiem L., et al. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation

  14. Escherichia coli control in a surface flow treatment wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, M E; Warner, B G; Slawson, R M

    2006-06-01

    A field experiment showed that numbers of Escherichia coli declined significantly when floating Lemna spp. plants were removed to create open water areas in a typical newly constructed surface flow treatment wetland in southern Ontario. It is suggested that E. coli declined immediately after Lemna removal because the Lemna was shading the water column from penetration by natural UV radiation, it was providing favourable attachment sites for the E. coli, and it was not allowing effective free exchange of oxygen from surface winds to the water column to maintain high enough dissolved oxygen supplies for predator zooplankton populations. Operators of wetland systems must have the specialized skills required to recognize the cause and the appropriate maintenance requirements to maintain efficient operation of such unconventional systems should E. coli numbers increase during the course of operation.

  15. Flow Regimes of Mesoscale Circulations Forced by Inhomogeneous Surface Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Alamgir

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme process that increases uncertainty in future climate projections. Flow regimes of mesoscale circulations associated with surface heating due to urbanization have been investigated using a wavelet based computational fluid dynamics~(CFD) model. The results of our numerical model have been validated against that of a laboratory model, as well as reference numerical simulations. Characteristics of urban induced circulations have been studied for surface heat flux perturbation ($H_0$) between $28.93$Wm$^{-2}$ and $925.92$Wm$^{-2}$, and the results have been analyzed against available boundary layer measurements under similar physical conditions. Our primary study shows that urban/rural heat flux anomalies introduce strong oscillations in the convective boundary layer (CBL), and transfers a fraction of the turbulent kinetic energy vertically through internal waves. Such results complement previous investigators' hypothesis that temporal oscillations in urban-induced mesoscale cir...

  16. Fast emplacement of extensive pahoehoe flow-fields: the case of the 1736 flows from Montaña de las Nueces, Lanzarote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, M. C.; Kilburn, C. R. J.; Rodriguez Badiola, E.; Aparicio, A.

    2004-04-01

    The 1730-36 Timanfaya eruption on Lanzarote, in the Canary Islands, is the second largest historical effusion on record. During its final stages, in 1736, the eruption produced the Montaña de las Nueces flow-field, consisting of sheets of pahoehoe lava that, within 4 weeks, had covered 32 km 2 and reached a maximum length of almost 21 km. The tholeiitic lavas have pahoehoe surface features, but internal structures that are normally associated with massive aa flows, suggesting that their fronts advanced as single units rather than as a collection of budding pahoehoe tongues. Volume conservation and a simple model of crustal failure suggest that the main flows advanced at about 0.02 ms -1 over the prevailing slopes of ˜1°. The rates of advance are (1) consistent with emplacement near the transition from pahoehoe to aa, and (2) about an order of magnitude greater than would have been expected by analogy with Hawaiian pahoehoe flow-fields of similar dimensions. Surface texture and morphology, therefore, is an insufficient guide for constraining the rate and style of pahoehoe emplacement, and a flow's internal structure must be established before its characteristics are used to infer eruption conditions and potential hazard.

  17. Thermo-mechanical two-phase flow models of magma ascent in the continental crust with and without extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Maruqart, Gabriele; Weinberg, Roberto; Cruden, Sandy

    2017-04-01

    Melting within the lower continental crust with and without extension and subsequent ascent of silicic melts is modelled by a thermo-mechanical two-phase flow approach. The approach is based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for melt and solid, respectively, and includes a simplified binary melting model, as well as compaction / decompaction of the solid matrix. The rheology is based on dislocation creep of quartzite or granite, and includes plasticity. 2D models are carried out for cases without and with differential melt-matrix flow. As control parameter the heat flow is varied between 75 and 90 mW m-2 at the base of a thickened continental crust. In the case of no differential flow (batch melting) the model predicts episodic melting, rise and freezing of partially molten magmatic bodies. The recurrence time inversely scales with the bottom heat flux. In the case of allowing for melt migration, no such episodicity is observed anymore. Melt accumulates within melt rich layers and bodies, which subsequently rise through the crust by a combination of diapirism and decompaction related sinking of solid material through the melt rich layer. Final emplacement depths are between 30 and 15 km, shapes of the resulting plutons are visualized by the evolved enrichment and depletion fields. They show a strong dependence on the applied bottom heat fluxes.

  18. Internal flow measurements of drop impacting a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santosh; Karn, Ashish; Arndt, Roger E. A.; Hong, Jiarong

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the fundamental physical process involved in drop impacts is important for a variety of engineering and scientific applications. Despite exhaustive research efforts on the dynamics of drop morphology upon impact, very few studies investigate the fluid dynamics induced within a drop upon impact. This study employs planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) with fluorescent particles to quantify the internal flow field of a drop impact on a solid surface. The image distortion caused by the curved liquid-air interface at the drop boundary is corrected using a ray-tracing algorithm. PIV analysis using the corrected images has yielded interesting insights into the flow initiated within a drop upon impact. Depending on the pre-impact conditions, characterized by impact number, different vortex modes are observed in the recoil phase of the drop impact. Further, the strength of these vortices and the kinetic energy of the internal flow field have been quantified. Our studies show a consistent negative power law correlation between vortex strength, internal kinetic energy and the impact number.

  19. Effect of Energetic Plasma Flux on Flowing Liquid Lithium Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Jung, Soonwook; Christenson, Michael; Fiflis, Peter; Xu, Wenyu; Szott, Mathew; Ruzic, David

    2014-10-01

    An operational liquid lithium system with steady state flow driven by thermo-electric magneto-hydrodynamic force and capable of constantly refreshing the plasma exposed surface have been demonstrated at U of I. To evaluate the system performance in reactor relevant conditions, specifically to understand the effect of disruptive plasma events on the performance of the liquid metal PFCs, the setup was integrated to a pulsed plasma generator. A coaxial plasma generator drives the plasma towards a theta pinch which preferentially heats the ions, simulating ELM like flux, and the plasma is further guided towards the target chamber which houses the flowing lithium system. The effect of the incident flux is examined using diagnostic tools including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, rogowski coils, Ion energy analyzers, and fast frame spectral image acquisition with specific optical filters. The plasma have been well characterized and a density of ~1021 m-3, with electron temperature ~10 - 20 eV is measured, and final plasma velocities of 34 - 74 kms-1 have been observed. Calorimetric measurements using planar molybdenum targets indicate a maximum plasma energy (with 6 kV plasma gun and 20 kV theta pinch) of 0.08 MJm-2 with plasma divergence effects resulting in marginal reduction of 40 +/- 23 J in plasma energy. Further results from the other diagnostic tools, using the flowing lithium targets and the planar targets coated with lithium will be presented. DOE DE-SC0008587.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of shark skin texture surfaces for microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Guo, Yang-Yu; Tan, He-Ping; Li, Yao; Xie, Gong-Nan

    2016-09-01

    The studies of shark skin textured surfaces in flow drag reduction provide inspiration to researchers overcoming technical challenges from actual production application. In this paper, three kinds of infinite parallel plate flow models with microstructure inspired by shark skin were established, namely blade model, wedge model and the smooth model, according to cross-sectional shape of microstructure. Simulation was carried out by using FLUENT, which simplified the computation process associated with direct numeric simulations. To get the best performance from simulation results, shear-stress transport k-omega turbulence model was chosen during the simulation. Since drag reduction mechanism is generally discussed from kinetics point of view, which cannot interpret the cause of these losses directly, a drag reduction rate was established based on the second law of thermodynamics. Considering abrasion and fabrication precision in practical applications, three kinds of abraded geometry models were constructed and tested, and the ideal microstructure was found to achieve best performance suited to manufacturing production on the basis of drag reduction rate. It was also believed that bionic shark skin surfaces with mechanical abrasion may draw more attention from industrial designers and gain wide applications with drag-reducing characteristics.

  1. Perched groundwater-surface interactions and their consequences in stream flow generation in a semi-arid headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenat, Jerome; Bouteffeha, Maroua; Raclot, Damien; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2013-04-01

    In semi-arid headwater catchment, it is usually admitted that stream flow comes predominantly from Hortonian overland flow (infiltration excess overland flow). Consequently, subsurface flow processes, and especially perched or shallow groundwater flow, have not been studied extensively. Here we made the assumption that perched groundwater flow could play a significant role in stream flow generation in semi-arid catchment. To test this assumption, we analyzed stream flow time series of a headwater catchment in the Tunisian Cap Bon region and quantified the flow fraction coming from groundwater discharge and that from overland flow. Furthermore, the dynamics of the perched groundwater was analyzed, by focusing on the different perched groundwater-surface interaction processes : diffuse and local infiltration, diffuse exfiltration, and direct groundwater discharge to the stream channel. This work is based on the 2.6 km² Kamech catchment (Tunisia), which belongs to the long term Mediterranean hydrological observatory OMERE (Voltz and Albergel, 2002). Results show that even though Hortonian overland flow was the main hydrological process governing the stream flow generation, groundwater discharge contribution to the stream channel annually accounted for from 10% to 20 % depending on the year. Furthermore, at some periods, rising of groundwater table to the soil surface in bottom land areas provided evidences of the occurrence of saturation excess overland flow processes during some storm events. Reference Voltz , M. and Albergel , J., 2002. OMERE : Observatoire Méditerranéen de l'Environnement Rural et de l'Eau - Impact des actions anthropiques sur les transferts de masse dans les hydrosystèmes méditerranéens ruraux. Proposition d'Observatoire de Recherche en Environnement, Ministère de la Recherche.

  2. Sensitivity Kernels for Flows in Time-Distance Helioseismology: Extension to Spherical Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Böning, Vincent G A; Zima, Wolfgang; Birch, Aaron C; Gizon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We extend an existing Born approximation method for calculating the linear sensitivity of helioseismic travel times to flows from Cartesian to spherical geometry. This development is necessary for using the Born approximation for inferring large-scale flows in the deep solar interior. In a first sanity check, we compare two $f-$mode kernels from our spherical method and from an existing Cartesian method. The horizontal and total integrals agree to within 0.3 %. As a second consistency test, we consider a uniformly rotating Sun and a travel distance of 42 degrees. The analytical travel-time difference agrees with the forward-modelled travel-time difference to within 2 %. In addition, we evaluate the impact of different choices of filter functions on the kernels for a meridional travel distance of 42 degrees. For all filters, the sensitivity is found to be distributed over a large fraction of the convection zone. We show that the kernels depend on the filter function employed in the data analysis process. If mo...

  3. Family structure and fertility in Taiwan: an extension and modification of Caldwell's wealth flows theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuing, P C

    1988-06-01

    Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's)

  4. Flow patterns of lobate debris aprons and lineated valley fill north of Ismeniae Fossae, Mars: Evidence for extensive mid-latitude glaciation in the Late Amazonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M. H.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.

    2010-05-01

    A variety of Late Amazonian landforms on Mars have been attributed to the dynamics of ice-related processes. Evidence for large-scale, mid-latitude glacial episodes existing within the last 100 million to 1 billion years on Mars has been presented from analyses of lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) in the northern and southern mid-latitudes. We test the glacial hypothesis for LDA and LVF along the dichotomy boundary in the northern mid-latitudes by examining the morphological characteristics of LDA and LVF surrounding two large plateaus, proximal massifs, and the dichotomy boundary escarpment north of Ismeniae Fossae (centered at 45.3°N and 39.2°E). Lineations and flow directions within LDA and LVF were mapped using images from the Context (CTX) camera, the Thermal Emission Imaging Spectrometer (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). Flow directions were then compared to topographic contours derived from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) to determine the down-gradient components of LDA and LVF flow. Observations indicate that flow patterns emerge from numerous alcoves within the plateau walls, are integrated over distances of up to tens of kilometers, and have down-gradient flow directions. Smaller lobes confined within alcoves and superposed on the main LDA and LVF represent a later, less extensive glacial phase. Crater size-frequency distributions of LDA and LVF suggest a minimum (youngest) age of 100 Ma. The presence of ring-mold crater morphologies is suggestive that LDA and LVF are formed of near-surface ice-rich bodies. From these observations, we interpret LDA and LVF within our study region to result from formerly active debris-covered glacial flow, consistent with similar observations in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. Glacial flow was likely initiated from the accumulation and compaction of snow and ice on plateaus and in alcoves within the plateau walls as volatiles were mobilized to the mid

  5. Evaluation of the Extension of the Cerebral Blood Flow and its Main Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF) - cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), cerebral metabolism, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and cardiac output, the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in being independent of autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and it allows to explore the full range of the CBF. We have developed a simple physical model, and have derived a simple four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy way, directly from the experimental data. With this model five experimental data sets of human, rats, baboons and dogs were well fitted. The same type of parametrization was also used successfully for fitting experimental data of PaO2 of dogs. We have also looked on the dependence of the parameters on other factors and were able to evaluate their dependence on the mean arterial blood pressure.

  6. Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.

    2009-04-01

    This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.

  7. THE SURFACE AREA PRESERVING MEAN CURVATURE FLOW IN QUASI-FUCHSIAN MANIFOLDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Daping; Li Guanghan; Wu Chuanxi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the surface area preserving mean curvature flow in quasi-Fuchsian 3-manifolds.We show that the flow exists for all times and converges exponentially to a smooth surface of constant mean curvature with the same surface area as the initial surface.

  8. Self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction amid extensive gene flow in a coral-reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Mark R; Johnson, Darren W; Stallings, Christopher D; Hixon, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    Identifying patterns of larval dispersal within marine metapopulations is vital for effective fisheries management, appropriate marine reserve design, and conservation efforts. We employed genetic markers (microsatellites) to determine dispersal patterns in bicolour damselfish (Pomacentridae: Stegastes partitus). Tissue samples of 751 fish were collected in 2004 and 2005 from 11 sites encompassing the Exuma Sound, Bahamas. Bayesian parentage analysis identified two parent-offspring pairs, which is remarkable given the large population sizes and 28 day pelagic larval duration of bicolour damselfish. The two parent-offspring pairs directly documented self-recruitment at the two northern-most sites, one of which is a long-established marine reserve. Principal coordinates analyses of pair-wise relatedness values further indicated that self-recruitment was common in all sampled populations. Nevertheless, measures of genetic differentiation (F(ST)) and results from assignment methods suggested high levels of gene flow among populations. Comparisons of heterozygosity and relatedness among samples of adults and recruits indicated spatially and temporally independent sweepstakes events, whereby only a subset of adults successfully contribute to subsequent generations. These results indicate that self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction are the predominant, ecologically-relevant processes that shape patterns of larval dispersal in this system.

  9. Seeing the Whole Elephant: Imaging Flow Cytometry Reveals Extensive Morphological Diversity within Blastocystis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yason, John Anthony; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common protist isolated in humans and many animals. The parasite is a species complex composed of 19 subtypes, 9 of which have been found in humans. There are biological and molecular differences between Blastocystis subtypes although microscopy alone is unable to distinguish between these subtypes. Blastocystis isolates also display various morphological forms. Several of these forms, however, have not been properly evaluated on whether or not these play significant functions in the organism's biology. In this study, we used imaging flow cytometry to analyze morphological features of Blastocystis isolates representing 3 subtypes (ST1, ST4 and ST7). We also employed fluorescence dyes to discover new cellular features. The profiles from each of the subtypes exhibit considerable differences with the others in terms of shape, size and granularity. We confirmed that the classical vacuolar form comprises the majority in all three subtypes. We have also evaluated other morphotypes on whether these represent distinct life stages in the parasite. Irregularly-shaped cells were identified but all of them were found to be dying cells in one isolate. Granular forms were present as a continuum in both viable and non-viable populations, with non-viable forms displaying higher granularity. By analyzing the images, rare morphotypes such as multinucleated cells could be easily observed and quantified. These cells had low granularity and lower DNA content. Small structures containing nucleic acid were also identified. We discuss the possible biological implications of these unusual forms.

  10. Seasonality of submesoscale flows in the ocean surface boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Christian E.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Thompson, Andrew F.; Brannigan, Liam; Lazar, Ayah; Marshall, David P.; George Nurser, A. J.; Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen J.; Belcher, Stephen E.

    2016-03-01

    A signature of submesoscale flows in the upper ocean is skewness in the distribution of relative vorticity. Expected to result for high Rossby number flows, such skewness has implications for mixing, dissipation, and stratification within the upper ocean. An array of moorings deployed in the Northeast Atlantic for 1 year as part of the experiment of the Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Submesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) reveals that relative vorticity is positively skewed during winter even though the scale of the Rossby number is less than 0.5. Furthermore, this skewness is reduced to zero during spring and autumn. There is also evidence of modest seasonal variations in the gradient Rossby number. The proposed mechanism by which relative vorticity is skewed is that the ratio of lateral to vertical buoyancy gradients, as summarized by the inverse gradient Richardson number, restricts its range during winter but less so at other times of the year. These results support recent observations and model simulations suggesting that the upper ocean is host to a seasonal cycle in submesoscale turbulence.

  11. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 2: Statistical comparison using response surface methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper-motor exp......Response surface methodology is used to investigate an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The flow pulsations are introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and compared with the baseline continuous flow provided by a stepper...... pulsations is statistically significant in terms of the time-averaged flow boiling heat transfer coefficient. The cycle time range from 1 s to 9 s for the pulsations. The results show that the effect of fluid flow pulsations is statistically significant, disregarding the lowest heat flux measurements...

  12. Free Surface Thin Film Flow of a Sisko’s Fluid over a Surface Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a thin film down an inclined surface over topography is considered for the case of liquids with Sisko’s model viscosity. For the first time lubrication theory is used to reduce the governing equations to a non-linear evolution equation for a current of a Sisko’s model non-Newtonian fluid on an inclined plane under the action of gravity and the viscous stresses. This model is solved numerically using an efficient Full Approximation Storage (FAS multigrid algorithm. Free surface results are plotted and carefully examined near the topography for different values of power-law index np, viscosity parameter m, the aspect ratio A and for different inclination angle of the plane with the horizontal. Number of complications and additional physical effects are discussed that enrich real situations. It is observed that the flows into narrow trenches develop a capillary ridge just in front of the upstream edge of a trench followed by a small trough. For relatively small width trenches, the free surface is almost everywhere flat as the dimensional width of the trench is much smaller than the capillary length scale. In this region, surface tension dominates the solution and acts so as to stretch a membrane across the trench leading to smaller height deviations. The ridge originates from the topographic forcing which works to force fluid upstream immediately prior to the trench before helping to accelerate it over. The upstream forcing slows down the fluid locally and increases the layer thickness.

  13. Evidence of extensive diversity in bacterial adherence mechanisms that exploit unanticipated stainless steel surface structural complexity for biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elisabeth M; Li, Dongyang; Shahrooei, Mohammad; Yu, Bin; Muruve, Daniel; Irvin, Randall T

    2013-04-01

    Three protease-resistant bioorganic 304 stainless steel surfaces were created through the reaction of synthetic peptides consisting of the D-enantiomeric isomer (D-K122-4), the retro-inverso D-enantiomeric isomer (RI-K122-4), and a combination of the two peptides (D+RI) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilA receptor binding domain with steel surfaces. The peptides used to produce the new materials differ only in handedness of their three-dimensional structure, but they reacted with the steel to yield materials that differed in their surface electron work function (EWF) while displaying an identical chemical composition and equivalent surface adhesive force properties. These surfaces allowed for an assessment of the relative role of surface EWF in initial biofilm formation. We examined the ability of various bacteria (selected strains of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) to initiate biofilm formation. The D-K1224 generated surface displayed the lowest EWF (classically associated with greater molecular interactions and more extensive biofilm formation) but was observed to be least effectively colonized by bacteria (>50% decrease in bacterial adherence of all strains). The highest surface EWF with the lowest surface free energy (RI-K122-4 generated) was more extensively colonized by bacteria, with the binding of some strains being equivalent to unmodified steel. The D+RI generated surface was least effective in minimizing biofilm formation, where some strains displayed enhanced bacterial colonization. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that the D and RI peptides displayed similar but clearly different binding patterns, suggesting that the peptides recognized different sites on the steel, and that differential binding of the peptides to the steel surfaces influences the binding of different bacterial strains and species. We have demonstrated that stainless steel surfaces can be easily modified by peptides to generate surfaces with

  14. Prediction of Flow and Solute Transport in Fractured Media: Comparison of Metrics to Describe Effects of Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slottke, D.; Ketcham, R. A.; Sharp, J. M.

    2008-05-01

    Fractures dominate fluid flow and transport of solutes when they are open and connected. The prediction of flow through fractured media has implications for development of water resources, petroleum reservoir exploitation, contamination and remediation assessment, and site evaluation for waste repositories. Assessing the impact of surface roughness on fluid flow and solute transport through fractured media from samples on the order of 100 cm2 assumes the existence of a relationship between fracture morphology and discharge that is scale invariant or at least smoothly transformable. Although some studies assume that the length scale at which surface roughness significantly contributes to the discharge through a fracture falls within the size of a typical hand sample, there is a dearth of empirical data supporting an extension of the relationships found at small scales to larger samples. Furthermore, an appropriate metric to describe a fracture volume accurately must be chosen. We compile data from physical flow tests and numerical modeling of two discrete natural fractures of different scales in rhyolitc tuff. The University of Texas HRXCT facility provided computed tomography representations of the fractures that allow analysis of surface roughness and aperture statistics at 0.25mm grid resolution, which form the basis for transmissivity field inputs to numerical models. We show that although a small (10cm2) representative surface can describe roughness, aperture fields are not so well behaved. We compare physical flow test results, modeled flow, and analytical solutions of the cubic law using various methods of assigning a meaningful aperture to illustrate the challenges of accurate modeling of fracture flow without a priori flow information. While a geometric mean aperture of the entire aperture field closely approximates the hydraulic aperture, an arbitrary profile mean aperture has little utility for predictive purposes.

  15. An Extension to a Filter Implementation of Local Quadratic Surface for Image Noise Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1999-01-01

    Based on regression analysis this paper gives a description for simple image filter design. Specifically 3x3 filter implementations of a quadratic surface, residuals from this surface, gradients and the Laplacian are given. For the residual a 5x5 filter is given also. It is shown that the 3x3...

  16. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling and high shares of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)

  17. A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION INTO ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW IN MICROCHANNELS WITH COMPLEX WAVY SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Terng Yau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flow characteristics of electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with complex wavy surfaces. A general method of coordinate transformation is used to solve the governing equations describing the electroosmotic flow in the microchannel. Numerical simulations are performed to analyze the effects of wave amplitude on the electrical field, flow streamlines, and flow fields in the microchannel. The simulation results show that, compared to a traditional pressure-driven flow, flow recirculation is not developed in the electroosmotic flow in a microchannel with complex wavy surfaces. The simulations also show that the electrical field and velocity profiles change along the channel in the region of wavy surfaces. Non-flat velocity profiles are observed in different cross-sections of the channel in the region of wavy surfaces.

  18. An atomistic-continuum hybrid simulation of fluid flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiang; He, Guo-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments have found that slip length could be as large as on the order of 1 μm for fluid flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. Superhydrophobic surfaces can be achieved by patterning roughness on hydrophobic surfaces. In the present paper, an atomistic-continuum hybrid approach is developed to simulate the Couette flows over superhydrophobic surfaces, in which a molecular dynamics simulation is used in a small region near the superhydrophobic surface where the continuum assumption i...

  19. Quantum Nuclear Extension of Electron Nuclear Dynamics on Folded Effective-Potential Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.;

    2014-01-01

    A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet...

  20. Experimental calibration and validation of sewer/surface flow exchange equations in steady and unsteady flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Martins, Ricardo; Kesserwani, Georges; Leandro, Jorge; Djordjević, Slobodan; Shucksmith, James

    2017-09-01

    The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.

  1. On the power spectrum of solar surface flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, M; Rincon, F; Malherbe, J -M; Meunier, N; Berger, T; Frank, Z

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to give new observational constraints on solar surface flows by determining the horizontal scale dependence of the velocity and intensity fields, as represented by their power spectra, and to offer some theoretical guidelines to interpret these spectra. We use long time series of images taken by SOT/Hinode and reconstruct both horizontal (by granule tracking) and vertical (by Doppler effect) velocity fields in a field of view 75x75Mm^2. At small sub-granulation scales, the kinetic energy spectral density associated with vertical motions exhibits a k^{-13/3}-like spectrum, while the intensity fluctuation spectrum follows a k^{-17/3}-like spectrum. We discuss the physical origin of these scalings and argue that they provide a direct observational signature of buoyancy-driven turbulent dynamics in a strongly thermally diffusive regime. In the mesogranulation range and up to a scale of 25Mm, we find that the vertical velocity field amplitude decreases like L^{-3/2} with the horizontal scal...

  2. Effects of confinement & surface roughness in electrorheological flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Ahmed; Telleria, Maria J.; Wang, Julie; Strauss, Marc; Murphy, Mike; McKinley, Gareth; Hosoi, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are dielectric suspensions that exhibit a fast, reversible change in rheological properties with the application of an external electric field. Upon the application of the electric field, the material develops a field-dependent yield stress that is typically modeled using a Bingham plastic model. ER fluids are promising for designing small, cheap and rapidly actuated hydraulic devices such as rapidly-switchable valves, where fluid flowing in a microchannel can be arrested by applying an external electric field. In the lubrication limit, for a Bingham plastic fluid, the maximum pressure the channel can hold, before yielding, is a function of the field-dependent yield stress, the length of the channel and the electrode gap. In practice, the finite width of the channel and the surface roughness of the electrodes could affect the maximum yield pressure but a quantitative understanding of these effects is currently lacking. In this study, we experimentally investigate the effects of the channel aspect ratio (width/height) and the effects of electrode roughness on the performance of ER valves. Based on this quantitative analysis, we formulate new performance metrics for ER valves as well as design rules for ER valves that will help guide and optimize future designs.

  3. Determination of averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces according to results obtained by numerical simulation of flow in turbomachinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the increasing need for energy saving worldwide, the designing process of turbomachinery, as an essential part of thermal and hydroenergy systems, goes in the direction of enlarging efficiency. Therefore, the optimization of turbomachinery designing strongly affects the energy efficiency of the entire system. In the designing process of turbomachinery blade profiling, the model of axisymmetric fluid flows is commonly used in technical practice, even though this model suits only the profile cascades with infinite number of infinitely thin blades. The actual flow in turbomachinery profile cascades is not axisymmetric, and it can be fictively derived into the axisymmetric flow by averaging flow parameters in the blade passages according to the circular coordinate. Using numerical simulations of flow in turbomachinery runners, its operating parameters can be preliminarily determined. Furthermore, using the numerically obtained flow parameters in the blade passages, averaged axisymmetric flow surfaces in blade profile cascades can also be determined. The method of determination of averaged flow parameters and averaged meridian streamlines is presented in this paper, using the integral continuity equation for averaged flow parameters. With thus obtained results, every designer can be able to compare the obtained averaged flow surfaces with axisymmetric flow surfaces, as well as the specific work of elementary stages, which are used in the procedure of blade designing. Numerical simulations of flow in an exemplary axial flow pump, used as a part of the thermal power plant cooling system, were performed using Ansys CFX. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 kW to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  4. connecting the dots between Greenland ice sheet surface melting and ice flow dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, J. E.; Colgan, W. T.; Fettweis, X.; Phillips, T. P.; Stober, M.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation is of a 'unified theory' in glaciology that first identifies surface albedo as a key factor explaining total ice sheet mass balance and then surveys a mechanistic self-reinforcing interaction between melt water and ice flow dynamics. The theory is applied in a near-real time total Greenland mass balance retrieval based on surface albedo, a powerful integrator of the competing effects of accumulation and ablation. New snowfall reduces sunlight absorption and increases meltwater retention. Melting amplifies absorbed sunlight through thermal metamorphism and bare ice expansion in space and time. By ';following the melt'; we reveal mechanisms linking existing science into a unified theory. Increasing meltwater softens the ice sheet in three ways: 1.) sensible heating given the water temperature exceeds that of the ice sheet interior; 2.) Some infiltrating water refreezes, transferring latent heat to the ice; 3.) Friction from water turbulence heats the ice. It has been shown that for a point on the ice sheet, basal lubrication increases ice flow speed to a time when an efficient sub-glacial drainage network develops that reduces this effect. Yet, with an increasing melt duration the point where the ice sheet glides on a wet bed increases inland to a larger area. This effect draws down the ice surface elevation, contributing to the ';elevation feedback'. In a perpetual warming scenario, the elevation feedback ultimately leads to ice sheet loss reversible only through much slower ice sheet growth in an ice age environment. As the inland ice sheet accelerates, the horizontal extension pulls cracks and crevasses open, trapping more sunlight, amplifying the effect of melt accelerated ice. As the bare ice area increases, the direct sun-exposed crevassed and infiltration area increases further allowing the ice warming process to occur more broadly. Considering hydrofracture [a.k.a. hydrofracking]; surface meltwater fills cracks, attacking the ice integrity

  5. Development, testing and application of DrainFlow: A fully distributed integrated surface-subsurface flow model for drainage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Ali; Bardsley, William Earl

    2016-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrogeological investigation of drained land is a complex and integrated procedure. The scale of drainage studies may vary from a high-resolution small scale project through to comprehensive catchment or regional scale investigations. This wide range of scales and integrated system behaviour poses a significant challenge for the development of suitable drainage models. Toward meeting these requirements, a fully distributed coupled surface-subsurface flow model titled DrainFlow has been developed and is described. DrainFlow includes both the diffusive wave equation for surface flow components (overland flow, open drain, tile drain) and Richard's equation for saturated/unsaturated zones. To overcome the non-linearity problem created from switching between wet and dry boundaries, a smooth transitioning technique is introduced to buffer the model at tile drains and at interfaces between surface and subsurface flow boundaries. This gives a continuous transition between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. DrainFlow is tested against five well-known integrated surface-subsurface flow benchmarks. DrainFlow as applied to some synthetic drainage study examples is quite flexible for changing all or part of the model dimensions as required by problem complexity, problem scale, and data availability. This flexibility enables DrainFlow to be modified to allow for changes in both scale and boundary conditions, as often encountered in real-world drainage studies. Compared to existing drainage models, DrainFlow has the advantage of estimating actual infiltration directly from the partial differential form of Richard's equation rather than through analytical or empirical infiltration approaches like the Green and Ampt equation.

  6. Heat transfer effect of an extended surface in downward-facing subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Abdul R., E-mail: khan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet, E-mail: erkan@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan); Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Compare downward-facing flow boiling results from bare and extended surfaces. • Upstream and downstream temperatures were measured on the extended surface. • Downstream temperatures exceed upstream temperatures for all flow rates. • Bubble accumulation occurs downstream on extended surface. • Extended surface heat transfer lower than bare surface as flow rate reduced. - Abstract: New BWR containment designs are considering cavity flooding as an accident management strategy. Unlike the PWR, the BWR has many Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) penetrations in the lower head. During a severe accident scenario with core melt in the lower plenum along with cavity flooding, the penetrations may affect the heat transfer on the ex-vessel surface and disrupt fluid flow during the boiling process. A small-scale experiment was performed to investigate the issues existing in downward-facing boiling phenomenon with an extended surface. The results were compared with a bare (flat) surface. The mass flux of 244 kg/m{sup 2} s, 215 kg/m{sup 2} s, and 177 kg/m{sup 2} s were applied in this study. CHF conditions were observed only for the 177 kg/m{sup 2} s case. The boiling curves for both types of surfaces and all flow rates were obtained. The boiling curves for the highest flow rate showed lower surface temperatures for the extended surface experiments when compared to the bare surface. The downstream location on the extended surface yielded the highest surface temperatures as the flow rate was reduced. The bubble accumulation and low velocity in the wake produced by flow around the extended surface was believed to have caused the elevated temperatures in the downstream location. Although an extended surface may enhance the overall heat transfer, a reduction in the local heat transfer was observed in the current experiments.

  7. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmadi, Andri T; Kitajima, Masaaki; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the occurrence and attenuation of several human enteric viruses (i.e., norovirus, adenovirus, Aichi virus 1, polyomaviruses, and enterovirus) as well as a plant virus, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), at two surface flow wetlands in Arizona. The retention time in one of the wetlands was seven days, whereas in the other wetland it could not be defined. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet from the wetlands over nine months, and concentration of viral genomes was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Of the human enteric viruses tested, adenovirus and Aichi virus 1 were found in the greatest prevalence in treated wastewater (i.e., inlet of the wetlands). Reduction efficiencies of enteric viruses by the wetlands ranged from 1 to 3 log10. Polyomaviruses were generally removed to below detection limit, indicating at least 2 to 4 log10 removal. PMMoV was detected in a greater concentration in the inlet of both wetlands for all the viruses tested (10(4) to 10(7) genome copies/L), but exhibited little or no removal (1 log10 or less). To determine the factors associated with virus genome attenuation (as determined by qPCR), the persistence of PMMoV and poliovirus type 1 (an enterovirus) was studied in autoclaved and natural wetland water, and deionized water incubated under three different temperatures for 21 days. A combination of elevated water temperature and biological activities reduced poliovirus by 1 to 4 log10, while PMMoV was not significantly reduced during this time period. Overall, PMMoV showed much greater persistence than human viruses in the wetland treatment.

  8. Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), A Tool For Numerically Simulating Linked Groundwater, Surface Water And Land-Surface Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrul, E. C.; Brush, C. F.; Kadir, T. N.

    2006-12-01

    The Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM) is a comprehensive input-driven application for simulating groundwater flow, surface water flow and land-surface hydrologic processes, and interactions between these processes, developed by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR). IWFM couples a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process and 1-D land surface, lake, stream flow and vertical unsaturated-zone flow processes which are solved simultaneously at each time step. The groundwater flow system is simulated as a multilayer aquifer system with a mixture of confined and unconfined aquifers separated by semiconfining layers. The groundwater flow process can simulate changing aquifer conditions (confined to unconfined and vice versa), subsidence, tile drains, injection wells and pumping wells. The land surface process calculates elemental water budgets for agricultural, urban, riparian and native vegetation classes. Crop water demands are dynamically calculated using distributed soil properties, land use and crop data, and precipitation and evapotranspiration rates. The crop mix can also be automatically modified as a function of pumping lift using logit functions. Surface water diversions and groundwater pumping can each be specified, or can be automatically adjusted at run time to balance water supply with water demand. The land-surface process also routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. Surface water networks are specified as a series of stream nodes (coincident with groundwater nodes) with specified bed elevation, conductance and stage-flow relationships. Stream nodes are linked to form stream reaches. Stream inflows at the model boundary, surface water diversion locations, and one or more surface water deliveries per location are specified. IWFM routes stream flows through the network, calculating groundwater-surface water interactions, accumulating inflows from runoff, and allocating available stream flows to meet specified or

  9. Role of radiogenic heat generation in surface heat flow formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khutorskoi, M. D.; Polyak, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    Heat generation due to decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes is considered in the Earth's crust of the Archean-Proterozoic and Paleozoic provinces of Eurasia and North America. The heat flow that forms in the mantle is calculated as the difference between the heat flow observed at the boundary of the solid Earth and radiogenic heat flow produced in the crust. The heat regime in regions with anomalously high radiogenic heat generation is discussed. The relationship between various heat flow components in the Precambrian and Phanerozoic provinces has been comparatively analyzed, and the role of erosion of the surfaceheat- generating layer has been estimated.

  10. MHD Stability Analysis and Flow Controls of Liquid Metal Free Surface Film Flows as Fusion Reactor PFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiujie; Pan, Chuanjie; Xu, Zengyu

    2016-12-01

    Numerical and experimental investigation results on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) film flows along flat and curved bottom surfaces are summarized in this study. A simplified modeling has been developed to study the liquid metal MHD film state, which has been validated by the existing experimental results. Numerical results on how the inlet velocity (V), the chute width (W) and the inlet film thickness (d0) affect the MHD film flow state are obtained. MHD stability analysis results are also provided in this study. The results show that strong magnetic fields make the stable V decrease several times compared to the case with no magnetic field, especially small radial magnetic fields (Bn) will have a significant impact on the MHD film flow state. Based on the above numerical and MHD stability analysis results flow control methods are proposed for flat and curved MHD film flows. For curved film flow we firstly proposed a new multi-layers MHD film flow system with a solid metal mesh to get the stable MHD film flows along the curved bottom surface. Experiments on flat and curved MHD film flows are also carried out and some firstly observed results are achieved. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2014GB125003 and 2013GB114002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11105044)

  11. Retention mechanisms and the flow wetted surface - implications for safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the state-of-the-art concerning the flow wetted surface, its importance for radionuclide transport in the geosphere and review various suggestions on how to increase the present knowledge. Definitions are made of the various concepts used for the flow wetted surface as well as the various model parameters used. In the report methods proposed to assess the flow wetted surface are reviewed and discussed, tracer tests, tunnel and borehole investigations, geochemical studies, heat transport studies and theoretical modelling. Furthermore, a review is made of how the flow wetted surface has been treated in various safety analyses. Finally, an overall discussion with recommendations is presented, where it is concluded that at present no individual method for estimating the flow wetted surface can be selected that satisfies all requirements concerning giving relevant values, covering relevant distances and being practical to apply. Instead a combination of methods must be used. In the long-term research as well as in the safety assessment modelling focus should be put on assessing the ratio between flow wetted surface and water flux. The long-term research should address both the detailed flow within the fractures and the effective flow wetted surface along the flow paths. 55 refs.

  12. Free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A numerical framework capable of predicting the free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is described. The framework is a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow, the mass tracking algorithm for free surface representation, the immersed...

  13. The interaction of human endothelial cells with chemical gradient surfaces during exposure to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruardy, TG; Moorlag, HE; Schakenraad, JM; Van der Meer, J; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Olij, WJV; Anderson, HR

    1998-01-01

    In this study, the position bound shape, spreading, detachment and migration of adhering HUVEC endothelial cells on dichlorodimethylsilane (DDS) chemical gradient surfaces was investigated during exposure to flow in a parallel plate flow chamber in the presence of` serum proteins. Gradient surfaces

  14. Experimental studies of the streaming flow due to the adsorption of particles at a liquid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra; Musunuri, Naga; Fischer, Ian

    2016-11-01

    The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique is used to study the streaming flow that is induced when particles are adsorbed at a liquid surface. The flow develops within a fraction of second after the adsorption of the particle and persists for several seconds. The fluid directly below the particle rises upward, and near the surface, it moves away from the particle. The flow causes powders sprinkled on a liquid surface to disperse on the surface. The flow strength, and the volume over which it extends, decreases with decreasing particle size. The streaming flow induced by the adsorption of two or more particles is a combination of the flows which they induce individually. The work was supported by National Science Foundation.

  15. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF FREE-SURFACE FLOWS WITH BOTTOM AND SURFACE-LAYER PRESSURE TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kun; JIN Sheng; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    A new non-hydrostatic numerical model with the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on structured grids was constructed and discussed. The algorithm is based upon a staggered finite difference Crank-Nicholson scheme on a Cartesian grid. The eddy viscosity coefficient was calculated by the efficient k-ε turbulence model. A new surface-layer non-hydrostatic treatment and a local cell bottom treatment were introduced so that the three-dimensional model is fully non-hydrostatic and is free of any hydrostatic assumption. The developed model is second-order accuracy in both time and space when semi-implicit coefficient is set to 0.5. The validity of the present solution algorithm was demonstrated from its application to the three-dimension channel flow and the wave propagation over a submerged bar problems.

  16. Measurement of the interaction between the flow and the free surface of a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Koji [Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan); Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The interaction between the flow and free surface was evaluated measuring the velocity distribution and surface movement simultaneously. The test section was a rectangular tank having a free surface. A rectangular nozzle was set near the free surface, causing the wavy free surface condition. The flow under the free surface was visualized by a laser light sheet and small tracer particles. With image processing techniques, the movement of the free surface and the movement of the particles were simultaneously measured from the recorded images, resulting in the velocity distributions and surface locations. Then, the interactions between the flow and free surface were evaluated using the form of turbulent energy and surface-related turbulent values. By increasing the turbulent energy near the free surface, the fluctuations of the free surface height and the inclination of the free surface were increased. The higher fluctuation of horizontal velocity was related to the higher surface position and negative inclination. The image processing technique is found to be very useful to evaluate the interaction between free surface and flow.

  17. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  18. Characterization of an IceTop tank for the IceCube surface extension IceVeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Julian; Auffenberg, Jan; Hansmann, Bengt; Rongen, Martin; Stahlberg, Martin; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    IceTop is an air-shower detector located at the South Pole on the surface above the IceCube detector. It consists of 81 detector stations with two Cherenkov tanks each. The tanks are filled with clear ice and instrumented with two photomultipliers. IceTop detects cosmic-ray induced air-showers above an energy threshold of ∝300 TeV. Muons and neutrinos from these air-showers are the main background for astrophysical neutrino searches with IceCube. The usage of IceTop to veto air-showers largely reduces this background in the field of view. To enlarge the field of view an extension of the surface detector, IceVeto, is planned. Therefore, we investigate the properties of an original IceTop tank as a laboratory reference for the development of new detection module designs. First results of these measurements are presented.

  19. Succeed escape: Flow shear promotes tumbling of Escherichia colinear a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Understanding how bacteria move close to a surface under various stimuli is crucial for a broad range of microbial processes including biofilm formation, bacterial transport and migration. While prior studies focus on interactions between single stimulus and bacterial suspension, we emphasize on compounding effects of flow shear and solid surfaces on bacterial motility, especially reorientation and tumble. We have applied microfluidics and digital holographic microscopy to capture a large number (>105) of 3D Escherichia coli trajectories near a surface under various flow shear. We find that near-surface flow shear promotes cell reorientation and mitigates the tumble suppression and re-orientation confinement found in a quiescent flow, and consequently enhances surface normal bacterial dispersion. Conditional sampling suggests that two complimentary hydrodynamic mechanisms, Jeffrey Orbit and shear-induced flagella unbundling, are responsible for the enhancement in bacterial tumble motility. These findings imply that flow shear may mitigate cell trapping and prevent biofilm initiation.

  20. Development of CDMS-II Surface Event Rejection Techniques and Their Extensions to Lower Energy Thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Thomas James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The CDMS-II phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, a dark matter direct-detection experiment, was operated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 to 2008. The full payload consisted of 30 ZIP detectors, totaling approximately 1.1 kg of Si and 4.8 kg of Ge, operated at temperatures of 50 mK. The ZIP detectors read out both ionization and phonon pulses from scatters within the crystals; channel segmentation and analysis of pulse timing parameters allowed e ective ducialization of the crystal volumes and background rejection su cient to set world-leading limits at the times of their publications. A full re-analysis of the CDMS-II data was motivated by an improvement in the event reconstruction algorithms which improved the resolution of ionization energy and timing information. The Ge data were re-analyzed using three distinct background-rejection techniques; the Si data from runs 125 - 128 were analyzed for the rst time using the most successful of the techniques from the Ge re-analysis. The results of these analyses prompted a novel \\mid-threshold" analysis, wherein energy thresholds were lowered but background rejection using phonon timing information was still maintained. This technique proved to have signi cant discrimination power, maintaining adequate signal acceptance and minimizing background leakage. The primary background for CDMS-II analyses comes from surface events, whose poor ionization collection make them di cult to distinguish from true nuclear recoil events. The novel detector technology of SuperCDMS, the successor to CDMS-II, uses interleaved electrodes to achieve full ionization collection for events occurring at the top and bottom detector surfaces. This, along with dual-sided ionization and phonon instrumentation, allows for excellent ducialization and relegates the surface-event rejection techniques of CDMS-II to a secondary level of background discrimination. Current and future SuperCDMS results hold great promise for mid- to low

  1. Effects of preferential flow on soil-water and surface runoff in a forested watershed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua CHENG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Youyan ZHANG; Yuhu SHI; Yun CHENG

    2009-01-01

    Preferential flow is a runoff mechanism intermediate between matrix flow and surface flow, transmitting water at high velocity through the subsurface zone. To assess the effect of preferential flow on soil-water flow and surface runoff in a forested watershed, precipitation and volumes of preferential flow, matrix flow and surface runoff were measured over a period of four years in a forested watershed in the Three Gorges area of southern China. Results show that preferential-flow hydrographs have gentler rises and steeper recessions than those for matrix flow and surface runoff. Preferential flow as a percentage of soil-water flow ranged from 2.40% to 8.72% and the maximum preferential-flow velocity exceeded as much as 5600 times that of matrix flow. This shows that preferential flow plays an important role in the movement of soil water. Preferential flow has a significant effect on peak surface runoff by increasing the surface runoff rate and accelerating the appearance of peak surface runoff. Preferential flow can also prolong the duration of surface runoff. Surface runoff was observed to be positively correlated with preferential flow. The greater the sum of rainfall amount and antecedent precipitation is, the greater the effect of preferential flow on surface runoff is.

  2. Extension of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method to mixed-component correlations of surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Matthew M.; Mikesell, T. Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper; Nakahara, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    Using ambient seismic noise for imaging subsurface structure dates back to the development of the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method in the 1950s. We present a theoretical analysis of the SPAC method for multicomponent recordings of surface waves to determine the complete 3 × 3 matrix of correlations between all pairs of three-component motions, called the correlation matrix. In the case of isotropic incidence, when either Rayleigh or Love waves arrive from all directions with equal power, the only non-zero off-diagonal terms in the matrix are the vertical–radial (ZR) and radial–vertical (RZ) correlations in the presence of Rayleigh waves. Such combinations were not considered in the development of the SPAC method. The method originally addressed the vertical–vertical (ZZ), RR and TT correlations, hence the name spatial autocorrelation. The theoretical expressions we derive for the ZR and RZ correlations offer additional ways to measure Rayleigh wave dispersion within the SPAC framework. Expanding on the results for isotropic incidence, we derive the complete correlation matrix in the case of generally anisotropic incidence. We show that the ZR and RZ correlations have advantageous properties in the presence of an out-of-plane directional wavefield compared to ZZ and RR correlations. We apply the results for mixed-component correlations to a data set from Akutan Volcano, Alaska and find consistent estimates of Rayleigh wave phase velocity from ZR compared to ZZ correlations. This work together with the recently discovered connections between the SPAC method and time-domain correlations of ambient noise provide further insights into the retrieval of surface wave Green’s functions from seismic noise.

  3. Effects of mass flow rate and droplet velocity on surface heat flux during cryogen spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetian, Emil [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Aguilar, Guillermo [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kimel, Sol [Beckman Laser Institute, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lavernia, Enrique J [Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nelson, J Stuart [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2003-01-07

    Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to protect the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery. To date, the relative influence of the fundamental spray parameters on surface cooling remains incompletely understood. This study explores the effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity on the surface heat flux during CSC. It is shown that the effect of mass flow rate on the surface heat flux is much more important compared to that of droplet velocity. However, for fully atomized sprays with small flow rates, droplet velocity can make a substantial difference in the surface heat flux. (note)

  4. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenbichler, Gerold R.; Unterlerchner, Lena; Habenicht, Richard; Bonato, Paolo; Kollmitzer, Josef; Mair, Patrick; Riegler, Sara; Kienbacher, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG) data. Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's), an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG) and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG) estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise. Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise. Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior. PMID:28559851

  5. Estimating Neural Control from Concentric vs. Eccentric Surface Electromyographic Representations during Fatiguing, Cyclic Submaximal Back Extension Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold R. Ebenbichler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the differences in neural control of back muscles activated during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of a cyclic, submaximal, fatiguing trunk extension exercise via the analysis of amplitude and time-frequency parameters derived from surface electromyographic (SEMG data.Methods: Using back dynamometers, 87 healthy volunteers performed three maximum voluntary isometric trunk extensions (MVC's, an isometric trunk extension at 80% MVC, and 25 cyclic, dynamic trunk extensions at 50% MVC. Dynamic testing was performed with the trunk angular displacement ranging from 0° to 40° and the trunk angular velocity set at 20°/s. SEMG data was recorded bilaterally from the iliocostalis lumborum at L1, the longissimus dorsi at L2, and the multifidus muscles at L5. The initial value and slope of the root mean square (RMS-SEMG and the instantaneous median frequency (IMDF-SEMG estimates derived from the SEMG recorded during each exercise cycle were used to investigate the differences in MU control marking the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the exercise.Results: During the concentric portions of the exercise, the initial RMS-SEMG values were almost twice those observed during the eccentric portions of the exercise. The RMS-SEMG values generally increased during the concentric portions of the exercise while they mostly remained unchanged during the eccentric portions of the exercise with significant differences between contraction types. Neither the initial IMDF-SEMG values nor the time-course of the IMDF-SEMG values significantly differed between the eccentric and the concentric portions of the exercise.Conclusions: The comparison of the investigated SEMG parameters revealed distinct neural control strategies during the eccentric vs. the concentric portions of the cyclic exercise. We explain these differences by relying upon the principles of orderly recruitment and common drive governing motor unit behavior.

  6. The curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus enhances surface colonization in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Stone, Howard A.; Gitai, Zemer

    2014-05-01

    Each bacterial species has a characteristic shape, but the benefits of specific morphologies remain largely unknown. To understand potential functions for cell shape, we focused on the curved bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Paradoxically, C. crescentus curvature is robustly maintained in the wild but straight mutants have no known disadvantage in standard laboratory conditions. Here we demonstrate that cell curvature enhances C. crescentus surface colonization in flow. Imaging the formation of microcolonies at high spatial and temporal resolution indicates that flow causes curved cells to orient such that they arc over the surface, thereby decreasing the distance between the surface and polar adhesive pili, and orienting pili to face the surface. C. crescentus thus repurposes pilus retraction, typically used for surface motility, for surface attachment. The benefit provided by curvature is eliminated at high flow intensity, raising the possibility that diversity in curvature adapts related species for life in different flow environments.

  7. Flow, slippage and a hydrodynamic boundary condition of polymers at surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M; Pastorino, C; Servantie, J [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Georg-August-Universitaet, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: mmueller@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de

    2008-12-10

    Tailoring surface interactions or grafting of polymers onto surfaces is a versatile tool for controlling wettability, lubrication, adhesion and interactions between surfaces. Using molecular dynamics of a coarse-grained, bead-spring model and dynamic single-chain-in-mean-field simulations, we investigate how structural changes near the surface affect the flow of a polymer melt over the surface and how these changes can be parameterized by a hydrodynamic boundary condition. We study the temperature dependence of the near-surface flow of a polymer melt at a corrugated, attractive surface. At weakly attractive surfaces, lubrication layers form, the slip length is large and increases upon cooling. Close to the glass transition temperature, very large slip lengths are observed. At a more attractive surface, a 'sticky surface layer' is build up, giving rise to a small slip length. Upon cooling, the slip length decreases at high temperatures, passes through a minimum and increases upon approaching the glass transition temperature. At strongly attractive surfaces, the Navier slip condition fails to describe Couette and Poiseuille flows simultaneously. A similar failure of the Navier slip condition is observed for the flow of a polymer melt over a brush comprised of identical molecules. The wetting and flow properties of this surface are rather complex. Most notably, the cyclic motion of the grafted molecules gives rise to a reversal of the flow direction at the grafting surface. The failure of the Navier slip condition in both cases can be rationalized within a schematic, two-layer model, which demonstrates that the Navier slip condition fails to simultaneously describe Poiseuille and Couette flow if the fluid at the surface exhibits a higher viscosity than the bulk.

  8. Laser Raman Spectroscopy with Different Excitation Sources and Extension to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wahadoszamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive Raman spectrometer was used with three different excitation sources (Argon-ion, He-Ne, and Diode lasers operating at 514.5 nm, 633 nm, and 782 nm, resp.. The system was employed to a variety of Raman active compounds. Many of the compounds exhibit very strong fluorescence while being excited with a laser emitting at UV-VIS region, hereby imposing severe limitation to the detection efficiency of the particular Raman system. The Raman system with variable excitation laser sources provided us with a desired flexibility toward the suppression of unwanted fluorescence signal. With this Raman system, we could detect and specify the different vibrational modes of various hazardous organic compounds and some typical dyes (both fluorescent and nonfluorescent. We then compared those results with the ones reported in literature and found the deviation within the range of ±2 cm−1, which indicates reasonable accuracy and usability of the Raman system. Then, the surface enhancement technique of Raman spectrum was employed to the present system. To this end, we used chemically prepared colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles as substrate and Rhodamine 6G as probe. We could observe significant enhancement of Raman signal from Rhodamine 6G using the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles the average magnitude of which is estimated to be 103.

  9. Wind Tunnel Study on Flows over Various Two-dimensional Idealized Urban-liked Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Extensive human activities (e.g. increased traffic emissions) emit a wide range of pollutants resulting in poor urban area air quality. Unlike open, flat and homogenous rural terrain, urban surface is complicated by the presence of buildings, obstacles and narrow streets. The irregular urban surfaces thus form a random roughness that further modifies the near-surface flows and pollutant dispersion. In this study, a physical modelling approach is employed to commence a series of wind tunnel experiments to study the urban-area air pollution problems. The flow characteristics over different hypothetical urban roughness surfaces were studied in a wind tunnel in isothermal conditions. Preliminary experiments were conducted based on six types of idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyon models with various building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/12. The main instrumentation is an in-house 90o X-hotwire anemometry. In each set of configuration, a sampling street canyon was selected near the end of the streamwise domain. Its roof level, i.e. the transverse between the mid points of the upstream and downstream buildings, was divided into eight segments. The measurements were then recorded on the mid-plane of the spannwise domain along the vertical profile (from building roof level to the ceiling of wind tunnel) of the eight segments. All the data acquisition processes were handled by the NI data acquisition modules, NI 9239 and CompactDAQ-9188 hardware. Velocity calculation was carried out in the post-processing stage on a digital computer. The two-component flow velocities and velocity fluctuations were calculated at each sampling points, therefore, for each model, a streamwise average of eight vertical profiles of mean velocity and velocity fluctuations was presented. A plot of air-exchange rate (ACH) against ARs was also presented in order to examine the ventilation performance of different tested models. Preliminary results

  10. Documentation of the Santa Clara Valley regional ground-water/surface-water flow model, Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.T.; Li, Zhen; Faunt, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Clara Valley is a long, narrow trough extending about 35 miles southeast from the southern end of San Francisco Bay where the regional alluvial-aquifer system has been a major source of water. Intensive agricultural and urban development throughout the 20th century and related ground-water development resulted in ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet and land subsidence of as much as 12.7 feet between the early 1900s and the mid-1960s. Since the 1960s, Santa Clara Valley Water District has imported surface water to meet growing demands and reduce dependence on ground-water supplies. This importation of water has resulted in a sustained recovery of the ground-water flow system. To help support effective management of the ground-water resources, a regional ground-water/surface-water flow model was developed. This model simulates the flow of ground water and surface water, changes in ground-water storage, and related effects such as land subsidence. A numerical ground-water/surface-water flow model of the Santa Clara Valley subbasin of the Santa Clara Valley was developed as part of a cooperative investigation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District. The model better defines the geohydrologic framework of the regional flow system and better delineates the supply and demand components that affect the inflows to and outflows from the regional ground-water flow system. Development of the model includes revisions to the previous ground-water flow model that upgraded the temporal and spatial discretization, added source-specific inflows and outflows, simulated additional flow features such as land subsidence and multi-aquifer wellbore flow, and extended the period of simulation through September 1999. The transient-state model was calibrated to historical surface-water and ground-water data for the period 197099 and to historical subsidence for the period 198399. The regional ground-water flow system consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped

  11. Spatial Resolution of Core Surface Flow Models Derived From Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymin, C.; Hulot, G.

    Core surface flows are usually computed from observations of the internal magnetic field and its secular variation. With observatory based secular variation models, the spatial resolution of core surface flows was mainly limited by the resolution of the secular variation model itself. This resolution dramatically improved with magnetic satellite data and for the first time the main limitation on core surface flow compu- tations comes from the hiding of the smallest length scale of the internal magnetic field by the crust. Indeed, the invisible small scale magnetic field may interact with core flows to produce large scale secular variation. This interaction cannot be taken into account during the flow computation process and may alter the computed flow models, even for large length scales. We investigate here the effects of the truncation of the internal magnetic field with known flow models using two different and inde- pendent core surface flow computation methods. In particular, we try to estimate the amplitude of the error introduced by this truncation and the spatial resolution that can be obtained with the new satellite data for core surface flows.

  12. The curved shape of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus enhances colonization of surfaces in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Gitai, Zemer; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria thrive in all types of fluid environments; flow is thus a ubiquitous aspect of their lives. Bacteria have evolved a variety of cellular components contributing to their growth in specific environments. However, cellular features that help them survive and develop in flow have been rarely characterized. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus may have evolved its curved shape to enhance the colonization of surfaces in flow. C. crescentus curvature is preserved in the wild but straight mutants have no known growth disadvantage in standard laboratory conditions. Leveraging microfluidics and single-cell imaging, we demonstrate that curvature enhances surface colonization in flow, promoting the formation of larger microcolonies. Cells attach to a surface from a single pole, so that flow affects their orientation. In flow, viscous forces generate a torque on the curved cell body, which reorients the cell in the direction of the flow. The curved cell appears to arc above the surface, optimally orienting its unattached pole towards the surface. This reduces the distance between the surface and the pole, thereby enhancing attachment of its progeny. Additionally, we show that curved shape enhances colony spreading across the direction of the flow, generating more robust biofilm compared to straight mutants.

  13. Pressure-dependent surface viscosity and its surprising consequences in interfacial lubrication flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-02-01

    The surface shear rheology of many insoluble surfactants depends strongly on the surface pressure (or concentration) of that surfactant. Here we highlight the dramatic consequences that surface-pressure-dependent surface viscosities have on interfacially dominant flows, by considering lubrication-style geometries within high Boussinesq (Bo) number flows. As with three-dimensional lubrication, high-Bo surfactant flows through thin gaps give high surface pressures, which in turn increase the local surface viscosity, further amplifying lubrication stresses and surface pressures. Despite their strong nonlinearity, the governing equations are separable, so that results from two-dimensional Newtonian lubrication analyses may be immediately adapted to treat surfactant monolayers with a general functional form of ηs(Π ) . Three paradigmatic systems are analyzed to reveal qualitatively new features: a maximum, self-limiting value for surfactant fluxes and particle migration velocities appears for Π -thickening surfactants, and kinematic reversibility is broken for the journal bearing and for suspensions more generally.

  14. Heat Transfer from a dc Laminar Plasma-Jet Flow to Different Solid Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟显; 潘文霞; 吴承康

    2003-01-01

    The heat flux distributions were measured by using transient method for an argon dc laminar plasma-jet flow impinging normally on a plate surface embedded with copper probes. Different powders were coated on the probe surfaces and the effect of powder coatings on the heat transfer from jet flow to the probe surface was examined.Experimental results show that the maximum values of the heat flux to the probe increase with the coating of fine metal powders, while for the surfaces coated with fine ceramic powders, the maximum values of heat flux decrease, compared with that to the bare copper probe surface.

  15. Modelling of Urban Water Flow - Coupling Surface and Pipe Flow. The State of The Eureka Projekt Risursim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschulz, K.-P.; Risursim Project Group

    The challenge of serving the cities with efficient drainage networks and waste water systems is increasingly getting larger as the cities grow. Urban flooding, sewer over- flow and rainfall impact are high priority issues in most countries. The German and Norwegian EUREKA-Project RISURSIM (Risk management for urban drainage systems simulation and optimization) headed by ITWM focuses these problems. The overall objective is the development of an integrated planning and man- agement tool to allow cost effective management for urban drainage systems. The project consortium includes applied mathematics and water engineering research in- stitutes, municipal drainage works as well as insurance companies. Focussing on flooding events caused by surcharged sewer systems a dual drainage model has been developed to most accurately describe the hydraulic processes of flooded drainage systems taking in account the possible interactions between surface and surcharged sewer system. This dual drainage simulation model is computing water levels above ground and assessing possible damage costs. Hydraulic models for both, surface runoff and flooded surfaces, and sewer flow have been established. Surface flow is simulated in a 2-dimensional shallow water approach using GIS-based detailed physical surface data. Links to the hydraulic pipe flow model are stablished at all inlets of surface drainage (manholes, street inlets and private drain pipes) to the underground sewer system. These inlets are interpreted as possible sinks or sources in the mathematical model of both, surface and sewer flow simulation. In addition, the interaction between the public sewer system and private drains is taken into account in order to assess flooding of buildings or private ground via house drains. The status of the project is outlined; the structure of the being developed decision support system is presented.

  16. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k- ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  17. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  18. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit varying architectures as environmental factors are varied, which for immersed biofilms includes the shear rate of the surrounding flow. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include affine flow and employ it to analyze the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws for surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions and measure the thickness of the active surface layer, which is shown to anticorrelate with roughness. Flow is shown to monotonically reduce surface roughness without affecting the thickness of the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to nonlocal surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field, which are curtailed when advection competes with diffusion. We further argue the need for simplified models to elucidate the underlying mechanisms coupling flow to growth.

  19. Flow and heat transfer in compact offset strip fin surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi DONG; Jiangping CHEN; Zhijiu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of air-side heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of offset strip fins and flat tube heat exchangers were performed. A series of tests were conducted for 9 heat exchangers with different fin space, fin height, fin strip length and flow length, at a constant tube-side water flow rate of 2.5 m3/h. The char-acteristics of the heat transfer and pressure drop of differ-ent fin space, fin height and fin length were analyzed and compared. The curves of the heat transfer coefficients vs. The pumping power per unit frontal area were then plot-ted. Moreover, the enhanced heat transfer mechanism of offset strip fins was analyzed using field synergy theory. The results showed that fin length and flow length have more obviously effect on the thermal hydraulic character-istics of offset strip fins.

  20. Analysis on MHD Stability of Free Surface Jet flow in a Gradient Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许增裕; 康伟山; 潘传杰

    2004-01-01

    The simplified modeling for analysis on MHD stability of free surface jet flow in a gradient magnetic fields is based on the theoretical and experimental results on channel liquid metal MHD flow, especially, the results of MHD flow velocity distribution in cross-section of channels (rectangular duct and circular pipe), and the expected results from the modeling are well agreed with the recent experimental data obtained. It is the first modeling which can efficiently explain the experimental results of liquid-metal free surface jet flow.

  1. A surface-aware projection basis for quasigeostrophic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, K S

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that altimetric observations of the ocean's mesoscale eddy field reflect the combined influence of surface buoyancy and interior potential vorticity anomalies. The former have a surface-trapped structure, while the latter have a more grave form. To assess the relative importance of each contribution to the signal, it is useful to project the observed field onto a set of modes that separates their influence in a natural way. However, the surface-trapped dynamics are not well-represented by standard baroclinic modes; moreover, they are dependent on horizontal scale. Here we derive a modal decomposition that results from the simultaneous diagonalization of the energy and a generalisation of potential enstrophy that includes contributions from the surface buoyancy fields. This approach yields a family of orthonomal bases that depend on two parameters: the standard baroclinic modes are recovered in a limiting case, while other choices provide modes that represent surface and interior dynami...

  2. Effect of Surface Forces on the Gas Flow in Nanosize Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldughin, V. I.; Zhdanov, V. M.

    2005-05-01

    The flow of gas in ultrafine capillary under the action of temperature gradient is considered with allowance for the action of surface forces. It is shown that the presence of surface forces considerably increases the effect of thermal transpiration compared to the classical value determined in a free molecular regime of gas flow. The coefficient responsible for the mechanocaloric effect for the case of gas flow under the pressure gradient was also determined using Onsager relation for the kinetic coefficients calculated with accownt of the effect of surface forces.

  3. Numerical Modeling of an Active Salt System in Canyonlands, Utah: The Role of Topography in Driving Plastic Flow and Brittle Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, K.; Upton, P.; Mueller, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Needles District of Canyonlands, Utah contains a coupled array of extensional faults, salt diapirs and an elongate anticline produced by gravitational stresses associated with erosion and canyon cutting along the Colorado River and its tributaries. Three-dimensional numerical models using high-resolution topography have been produced using FLAC3D to test how plastic flow of evaporites and brittle extension of overburden are coupled during deformation and how they combine to form salt structures in the region. High resolution (50 m DEM) topographic models were built of the Needles District and of the region to the southwest of the Needles containing the Imperial Valley fault. The overburden in these models was described by a strain-softening Mohr-Coulomb rheology and is 400 m thick from the surface to the base of the Colorado River canyon. It overlays a flat, 340 m thick, viscous layer representing the salt, which outcrops in the Colorado river downstream of the grabens. The Needles District is dominated by horst and graben structures which extend updip from the Colorado River to the southeast. In models of the Needles, lateral displacement is dominantly to the northwest, toward the river canyon with the most displacement occurring in regions containing side canyons. In the canyon, salt flows upward to form an anticline that follows the sinuosity of the river, and diapirs appear adjacent to side canyons or where the canyon widens, which is observed in the field and the models. Without a salt layer, models show much smaller displacement rates that vary from northwest to southeast demonstrating the importance of a flat lying salt layer in propagating deformation toward the river. The region to the southwest is an area of broader subsidence bounded by a major fault (Imperial Valley fault) with fewer developed extensional faults near the river canyon. The Imperial Valley fault model shows similar patterns in which deformation is driven perpendicular to the river

  4. Core surface flow modelling from high-resolution secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, R.; Olsen, Nils

    2006-01-01

    -flux hypothesis, but the spectrum of the SV implies that a conclusive test of frozen-flux is not possible. We parametrize the effects of diffusion as an expected misfit in the flow prediction due to departure from the frozen-flux hypothesis; at low spherical harmonic degrees, this contribution dominates...

  5. Rotating polygon instability of a swirling free surface flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Bohr, Tomas; Mougel, J.;

    2013-01-01

    an analytically soluble model, which, together with estimates of the circulation based on angular momentum balance, reproduces the main features of the experimental phase diagram. The generality of our arguments implies that the instability should not be limited to flows with a rotating bottom (implying singular...

  6. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  7. Control and optimzation of sub-surface flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the flow of fluids (e.g. water, oil, natural gas or CO2) in subsurface porous media is a technical process with many mathematical challenges. The underlying physics can be described with coupled nearly-elliptic and nearly-hyperbolic nonlinear partial differential equations, which require

  8. Free-surface grease flow on a rotating plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerberg, L.G.; Li, Jianchang; Höglund, E.; Lugt, Pieter Martin; Baart, P.

    2014-01-01

    Grease lubrication is traditionally used in a great variety of mechanical systems such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears where it has been shown more advantageous than oil, mainly due to its consistency allowing the grease to stay inside the system and not leak out. Knowledge of the flow dynamic

  9. Molecular dynamics of fluid flow at solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Willemsen, Jorge F.

    1989-05-01

    Molecular dynamics techniques are used to study the microscopic aspects of several slow viscous flows past a solid wall, where both fluid and wall have a molecular structure. Systems of several thousand molecules are found to exhibit reasonable continuum behavior, albeit with significant thermal fluctuations. In Couette and Poiseuille flow of liquids it is found that the no-slip boundary condition arises naturally as a consequence of molecular roughness, and that the velocity and stress fields agree with the solutions of the Stokes equations. At lower densities slip appears, which can be incorporated into a flow-independent slip-length boundary condition. The trajectories of individual molecules in Poiseuille flow are examined, and it is also found that their average behavior is given by Taylor-Aris hydrodynamic dispersion. An immiscible two-fluid system is simulated by a species-dependent intermolecular interaction. A static meniscus is observed whose contact angle agrees with simple estimates and, when motion occurs, velocity-dependent advancing and receding angles are observed. The local velocity field near a moving contact line shows a breakdown of the no-slip condition and, up to substantial statistical fluctuations, is consistent with earlier predictions of Dussan [AIChE J. 23, 131 (1977)].

  10. Modelling free surface flow with curvilinear streamlines by a non-hydrostatic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Yebegaeshet T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a particular phenomenon in open channel flows for which the basic assumption of hydrostatic pressure distribution is essentially invalid, and expands previous suggestions to flows where streamline curvature is significant. The proposed model incorporates the effects of the vertical curvature of the streamline and steep slope, in making the pressure distribution non-hydrostatic, and overcomes the accuracy problem of the Saint-Venant equations when simulating curvilinear free surface flow problems. Furthermore, the model is demonstrated to be a higher-order one-dimensional model that includes terms accounting for wave-like variations of the free surface on a constant slope channel. Test results of predicted flow surface and pressure profiles for flow in a channel transition from mild to steep slopes, transcritical flow over a short-crested weir and flow with dual free surfaces are compared with experimental data and previous numerical results. A good agreement is attained between the experimental and computed results. The overall simulation results reveal the satisfactory performance of the proposed model in simulating rapidly varied gravity-driven flows with predominant non-hydrostatic pressure distribution effects. This study suggests that a higher-order pressure equation should be used for modelling the pressure distribution of a curvilinear flow in a steeply sloping channel.

  11. Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Flows on Rough Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Multiscale Finite Element Method (MsFEM) for problems on rough heterogeneous surfaces. We consider the diffusion equation on oscillatory surfaces. Our objective is to represent small-scale features of the solution via multiscale basis functions described on a coarse grid. This problem arises in many applications where processes occur on surfaces or thin layers. We present a unified multiscale finite element framework that entails the use of transformations that map the reference surface to the deformed surface. The main ingredients of MsFEM are (1) the construction of multiscale basis functions and (2) a global coupling of these basis functions. For the construction of multiscale basis functions, our approach uses the transformation of the reference surface to a deformed surface. On the deformed surface, multiscale basis functions are defined where reduced (1D) problems are solved along the edges of coarse-grid blocks to calculate nodalmultiscale basis functions. Furthermore, these basis functions are transformed back to the reference configuration. We discuss the use of appropriate transformation operators that improve the accuracy of the method. The method has an optimal convergence if the transformed surface is smooth and the image of the coarse partition in the reference configuration forms a quasiuniform partition. In this paper, we consider such transformations based on harmonic coordinates (following H. Owhadi and L. Zhang [Comm. Pure and Applied Math., LX(2007), pp. 675-723]) and discuss gridding issues in the reference configuration. Numerical results are presented where we compare the MsFEM when two types of deformations are used formultiscale basis construction. The first deformation employs local information and the second deformation employs a global information. Our numerical results showthat one can improve the accuracy of the simulations when a global information is used. © 2013 Global-Science Press.

  12. MHD Flow Towards a Permeable Surface with Prescribed Wall Heat Flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anuar Ishak; Roslinda Nazar; Ioan Pop

    2009-01-01

    The steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convection flow towards a vertical permeable surface with prescribed heat flux is investigated. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically by a finite-difference method. The features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analysed and discussed. Both assisting and opposing flows are considered. It is found that dual solutions exist for the assisting flow, besides the solutions usually reported in the literature for the opposing flow.

  13. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of the habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  14. Surface flow types, near-bed hydraulics and the distribution of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in hydraulic conditions in streams often results in distinct water surface patterns, or surface flow types. Visual assessments of the distribution of surface flow types have been used to provide rapid assessment of habitat heterogeneity. The efficacy of this approach is predicated on the notion that surface flow types consistently represent a distinct suite of hydraulic conditions with biological relevance. This study tested this notion, asking three specific questions. First, do surface flow types provide a characterisation of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates? Second, how well do near-bed hydraulic conditions explain macroinvertebrate distributions? Third, what components of near-bed hydraulic conditions exert the strongest influence on macroinvertebrate distributions?

    Results show that hydraulic conditions (incorporating direct measurements of near-bed velocity and turbulence in three dimensions and substratum character (incorporating estimates of particle size distribution, and biofilm and macrophyte cover within each surface flow type were largely distinct and that macroinvertebrate assemblages differed across flow types in taxon richness and assemblage composition, thus supporting the notion that rapid assessments of surface flow type distributions provide biologically relevant information.

    Macroinvertebrate assemblages were most strongly correlated with water depth, size of a flow type patch, near-bed velocity in the downstream direction, turbulence in the transverse direction, % pebble, % sand, % silt and clay and macrophyte cover. This study suggests that surface flow type mapping provides an assessment of physical habitat that is relevant to macroinvertebrates. The strong relationship detected between macroinvertebrate assemblages and transverse turbulence also highlights the value of directly measuring near-bed hydraulics. Further investigations are required to test the

  15. What Supergranule Flow Models Tell Us About the Sun's Surface Shear Layer and Magnetic Flux Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David

    2011-01-01

    Models of the photospheric flows due to supergranulation are generated using an evolving spectrum of vector spherical harmonics up to spherical harmonic wavenumber l1500. Doppler velocity data generated from these models are compared to direct Doppler observations from SOHO/MDI and SDO/HMI. The models are adjusted to match the observed spatial power spectrum as well as the wavenumber dependence of the cell lifetimes, differential rotation velocities, meridional flow velocities, and relative strength of radial vs. horizontal flows. The equatorial rotation rate as a function of wavelength matches the rotation rate as a function of depth as determined by global helioseismology. This leads to the conclusions that the cellular structures are anchored at depths equal to their widths, that the surface shear layer extends to at least 70 degrees latitude, and that the poleward meridional flow decreases in amplitude and reverses direction at the base of the surface shear layer (approx.35 Mm below the surface). Using the modeled flows to passively transport magnetic flux indicates that the observed differential rotation and meridional flow of the magnetic elements are directly related to the differential rotation and meridional flow of the convective pattern itself. The magnetic elements are transported by the evolving boundaries of the supergranule pattern (where the convective flows converge) and are unaffected by the weaker flows associated with the differential rotation or meridional flow of the photospheric plasma.

  16. Linear surface roughness growth and flow smoothening in a three-dimensional biofilm model

    CERN Document Server

    Head, D A

    2013-01-01

    The sessile microbial communities known as biofilms exhibit different surface structures as environmental factors are varied, including nutrient availability and flow-generated shear stresses. Here we modify an established agent-based biofilm model to include adhesive interactions, permitting it to mechanically react to an imposed stress. This model is employed to analyse the growth of surface roughness of single-species, three-dimensional biofilms. We find linear growth laws of surface geometry in both horizontal and vertical directions, and an active surface layer whose thickness anti-correlates with roughness. Flow is consistently shown to reduce surface roughness without affecting the active layer. We argue that the rapid roughening is due to non-local surface interactions mediated by the nutrient field which are curtailed by sufficiently rapid flows, and suggest simplified models will need to be developed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Modelling free surface flows with smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Di G.Sigalotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is extended to include an adaptive density kernel estimation (ADKE procedure. It is shown that for a van der Waals (vdW fluid, this method can be used to deal with free-surface phenomena without difficulties. In particular, arbitrary moving boundaries can be easily handled because surface tension is effectively simulated by the cohesive pressure forces. Moreover, the ADKE method is seen to increase both the accuracy and stability of SPH since it allows the width of the kernel interpolant to vary locally in a way that only the minimum necessary smoothing is applied at and near free surfaces and sharp fluid-fluid interfaces. The method is robust and easy to implement. Examples of its resolving power are given for both the formation of a circular liquid drop under surface tension and the nonlinear oscillation of excited drops.

  18. A quantitative description of the extension and retraction of surface protrusions in spreading 3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht-Buehler, G; Lancaster, R M

    1976-11-01

    We suggest a method of quantitating the motile actions of surface protrusions in spreading animal cells in culture. Its basis is the determination of the percentage of freshly plated cells which produce particle-free areas around them on a gold particle-coated glass cover slip within 50 min. Studying 3T3 cells with this assay, we found that the presence of Na+, K+, Cl-, and Mg++ or Ca++ in a neutral or slightly alkaline phosphate or bicarbonate buffered solution is sufficient to support the optimal particle removal by the cells for at least 50 min. Two metabolic inhibitors, 2,4-dinitrophenol and Na-azide, inhibit the particle removal. If D-glucose is added along with the inhibitors, particle removal can be restored, whereas the addition of three glucose analogues which are generally believed to be nonmetabolizable cannot restore the activity. Serum is not required for the mechanism(s) of the motile actions of surface protrusions in spreading 3T3 cells. However, it contains components which can neutralize the inhibitory actions of bovine serum albumin and several amino acids, particularly L-cystine or L-cystein and L-methionine. Furthermore, serum codetermines which of the major surface extension, filopodia, lamellipodia, or lobopodia, is predominantly active. We found three distinct classes of extracellular conditions under which the active surface projections are predominantly either lamellipodia, (sheetlike projections), lobopodia (blebs), or filopodia (microspikes). The quantitated dependencies on temperature, pH and the inhibition by cytochalasin B or the particle removal are very similar in all three cases. Preventing the cells from anchoring themselves for 15-20 min before plating in serum-free medium seems to stimulate particle removal threefold.

  19. A fully coupled depth-integrated model for surface water and groundwater flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyi; Yuan, Dekui; Lin, Binliang; Teo, Fang-Yenn

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the development of a fully coupled surface water and groundwater flow model. The governing equations of the model are derived based on a control volume approach, with the velocity profiles of the two types of flows being both taken into consideration. The surface water and groundwater flows are both modelled based on the unified equations and the water exchange and interaction between the two types of flows can be taken into account. The model can be used to simulate the surface water and groundwater flows simultaneously with the same numerical scheme without other effort being needed to link them. The model is not only suitable for the porous medium consisting of fine sediments, but also for coarse sediments and crushed rocks by adding a quadratic friction term. Benchmark tests are conducted to validate the model. The model predictions agree well with the data.

  20. Weak Anchoring and Surface Elasticity Effects in Electroosmotic Flow of Nematic Liquid Crystals Through Narrow Confinements

    CERN Document Server

    Poddar, Antarip; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Advent of nematic liquid crystals flows have attracted renewed attention in view of microfluidic transport phenomena. Among various transport processes, electroosmosis stands as one of the efficient flow actuation method through narrow confinement. In the present study, we explore the electrically actuated flow of a nematic fluid with ionic inclusions taking into account the influences from surface induced elastic and electrical double layer phenomena. Influence of surface effects on the flow characteristics is known to get augmented in micro-confined environment and must be properly addressed. Towards this, we devise the coupled flow governing equations from fundamental free energy analysis considering the contributions from first and second-order elastic, dielectric, flexoelectric, ionic and entropic energies. We have further considered weak anchoring surface conditions with second order elasticity which helps us to more accurately capture the director deformations along the boundaries. The present study fo...

  1. Effects of Asymmetrical Micro Electrode Surface Topography to AC Electroosmosis flow Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Hong-Yuan, Jiang; Zhen-Xiu, Hou; Yu-Kun, Ren; Yong-Jun, Sun

    2010-01-01

    AC Electroosmosis (ACEO) has many advantages such as low power consumption, non-moving parts, and easy to integrate etc., so it is widely used for low concentration microfluid manipulation in low frequency range. Classical ACEO theory assumes that electric double layer (EDL) is the main cause of electric field induced flow, and gives electric-flow field coupling equations for ACEO flow rate. But the calculation data usually are tens times faster than the experimental velocities. In this paper, electrode surface topography is included to solve ACEO flow rate. With electrode surface roughness as the characteristic parameter, equivalent EDL model is set up to modify the classical EDL model. The relationship between flow rate and electrode surface roughness is studied. Experiment results agree with the simulation very well, proving the feasibility of equivalent EDL model.

  2. A Robust volume conservative divergence-free ISPH framework for free-surface flow problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahar, Gourabananda; Dhar, Anirban

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a Volume Conservative approach for resolving volume conservation issue in divergence-free incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH). Irregular free surface deformation may introduce error in volume computation, which has a cascading effect over time. Proposed correction decreases this numerical compressibility to a minimal value. The correction is obtained directly by solving Navier-Stokes momentum equation. Consequently, the framework does not require any parametric study for mixed source/sink term or iterative solution of pressure Poisson equations. The correction is implemented on four different types of flow: (a) pressurized flow in a closed box, (b) dambreak flow, (c) flow through porous block, (d) lock-exchange flow of immiscible fluids (both free-surface and pressurized flow). All four scenarios are shown to have minimal error compared to pure divergence-free ISPH.

  3. Segregating photoelastic particles in free-surface granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amalia L.; Vriend, Nathalie M.

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally investigate bimodal avalanches of photoelastic discs between two narrow side-walls. We visualize the physical phenomena that occur during segregation and quantify the dynamic appearance of force chains within the bulk of the flow from fringe patterns using photoelastic theory. The photoelastic technique has been used in granular research for almost half a century and has been applied in a variety of quasi-steady systems. We have now adapted the technique to perform well within dynamic granular flows where collisions are short-lived and force chains are formed and broken continuously. Our photoelastic urethane discs are cast in-house to provide high-resolution fringe patterns and a high stress-optic coefficient. In addition we carried out stress relaxation tests to study the viscoelastic properties of the photoelastic material, and measured the speed of force transmission and dampening from a moving particle onto a static chain of particles. In our avalanche experiments, we also employ particle tracking and particle velocimetry techniques to measure the general flow field within the avalanche. The overall goal of our work is to investigate and quantify the influence of the distribution of forces on the fundamental processes that drive segregation.

  4. Non-hydrostatic versus hydrostatic modelings of free surface flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xin; SUKHODOLOV Alexander N.; LIU Hua

    2014-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of geophysical flows in oceanic shelves, estuaries, and rivers are often studied by solving shallow water equations under either hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic assumptions. Although the hydrostatic models are quite accurate and cost-efficient for many practical applications, there are situations when the fully hydrodynamic models are preferred despite a larger cost for computations. The present numerical model is implemented by the finite volume method (FVM) based on unstructured grids. The model can be efficiently switched between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic modules. The case study shows that for waves pro- pagating along the bar a criterion with respect to the shallowness alone, the ratio between the depth and the wave length, is insu- fficient to warrant the performance of shallow flow equations with a hydrostatic approach and the nonlinearity in wave dynamics can be better accounted with a hydrodynamic approach. Besides the prediction of the flows over complex bathymetries, for instance, over asymmetrical dunes, by a hydrodynamic approach is shown to be superior in accuracy to the hydrostatic simulation.

  5. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...... equations in time are discussed. We investigate theory of di erential algebraic equations, and connect the theory to current methods for solving the unsteady fluid flow equations. We explore the use of a semi-implicit spectral deferred correction method having potential to achieve high temporal order...

  6. An adaptive numerical method for free surface flows passing rigidly mounted obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, Kirill D; Terekhov, Kirill M; Vassilevski, Yuri V; Yanbarisov, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops a method for the numerical simulation of a free-surface flow of incompressible viscous fluid around a streamlined body. The body is a rigid stationary construction partially submerged in the fluid. The application we are interested in the paper is a flow around a surface mounted offshore oil platform. The numerical method builds on a hybrid finite volume / finite difference discretization using adaptive octree cubic meshes. The mesh is dynamically refined towards the free surface and the construction. Special care is taken to devise a discretization for the case of curvilinear boundaries and interfaces immersed in the octree Cartesian background computational mesh. To demonstrate the accuracy of the method, we show the results for two benchmark problems: the sloshing 3D container and the channel laminar flow passing the 3D cylinder of circular cross-section. Further, we simulate numerically a flow with surface waves around an offshore oil platform for the realistic set of geophysical data.

  7. LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF FREE SURFACE TURBULENT CHANNEL FLOW WITH HEAT TRANSFER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to study the free-surface turbulent channel flow with passive heat transfer. The three-dimensional filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation were numerically solved with dynamic Subgrid Scale (SGS) models for modeling turbulent stresses and heat flux. To compare the turbulent behavior of the free-surface and two-walled channel flows, the LES of two-walled turbulent channel flow was performed. The statistical quantities and flow structures of the free-surface turbulence with heat transfer in the vicinity of the free-surface were investigated. The results are also in good agreement with theoretical analysis and available results by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS).

  8. Fabrication of Nanopillar Micropatterns by Hybrid Mask Lithography for Surface-Directed Liquid Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Arai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for fabricating nanopillar micropatterns for surface-directed liquid flows. It employs hybrid mask lithography, which uses a mask consisting of a combination of a photoresist and nanoparticles in the photolithography process. The nanopillar density is controlled by varying the weight ratio of nanoparticles in the composite mask. Hybrid mask lithography was used to fabricate a surface-directed liquid flow. The effect of the surface-directed liquid flow, which was formed by the air-liquid interface due to nanopillar micropatterns, was evaluated, and the results show that the oscillation of microparticles, when the micro-tool was actuated, was dramatically reduced by using a surface-directed liquid flow. Moreover, the target particle was manipulated individually without non-oscillating ambient particles.

  9. Scaling up ecohydrological processes: role of surface water flow in water-limited landscapes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Popp, A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available microscale processes like ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and spatial exchange like surface water flow, the authors derive transition probabilities from a fine-scale simulation model. They applied two versions of the landscape model, one that includes...

  10. Numerical study on cavitating flow due to a hydrofoil near a free surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chen Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical strategy is proposed for a viscous uniform flow past a 2-D partially cavitating hydrofoil placed at a finite depth from the free surface. The flow was modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. A finite-volume method with the SIMPLE scheme and k-ε turbulence model were employed for computations. The “full cavitation model,” which included the effects of vaporization, noncondensible gases and compressibility, was incorporated in the computation of cavitating flow. The cavity shape and free surface were updated iteratively till a reasonable convergence was reached. As for the determination of the free surface, the VOF approach was adopted. The test cases show the accuracy and stability of our procedure to capture the cavitating flow near the free surface.

  11. A field study of colloid transport in surface and subsurface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Xian, Qing-Song; Weisbrod, Noam; Yang, Jae E.; Wang, Hong-Lan

    2016-11-01

    Colloids have been recognized to enhance the migration of strongly-sorbing contaminants. However, few field investigations have examined combined colloid transport via surface runoff and subsurface flows. In a headwater catchment of the upper Yangtze River, a 6 m (L) by 4 m (W) sloping (6°) farmland plot was built by cement walls to form no-flow side boundaries. The plot was monitored in the summer of 2014 for the release and transport of natural colloids via surface runoff and subsurface flows (i.e., the interflow from the soil-mudrock interface and fracture flow from the mudrock-sandstone interface) in response to rain events. The water sources of the subsurface flows were apportioned to individual rain events using a two end-member model (i.e., mobile pre-event soil water extracted by a suction-cup sampler vs. rainwater (event water)) based on δ18O measurements. For rain events with high preceding soil moisture, mobile pre-event soil water was the main contributor (generally >60%) to the fracture flow. The colloid concentration in the surface runoff was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that in the subsurface flows. The lowest colloid concentration was found in the subsurface interflow, which was probably the result of pore-scale colloid straining mechanisms. The rainfall intensity and its temporal variation govern the dynamics of the colloid concentrations in both surface runoff and subsurface flows. The duration of the antecedent dry period affected not only the relative contributions of the rainwater and the mobile pre-event soil water to the subsurface flows but also the peak colloid concentration, particularly in the fracture flow. The rain period because their transport in association with colloids may occur rapidly over long distances via both surface runoff and subsurface flows with rainfall.

  12. Lagrangian study of surface transport in the Kuroshio Extension area based on simulation of propagation of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lagrangian approach is applied to study near-surface large-scale transport in the Kuroshio Extension area using a simulation with synthetic particles advected by AVISO altimetric velocity field. A material line technique is applied to find the origin of water masses in cold-core cyclonic rings pinched off from the jet in summer 2011. Tracking and Lagrangian maps provide the evidence of cross-jet transport. Fukushima derived caesium isotopes are used as Lagrangian tracers to study transport and mixing in the area a few months after the March of 2011 tsunami that caused a heavy damage of the Fukushima nuclear power plant (FNPP). Tracking maps are computed to trace the origin of water parcels with measured levels of Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations collected in two R/V cruises in June and July 2011 in the large area of the Northwest Pacific. It is shown that Lagrangian simulation is useful to finding the surface areas that are potentially dangerous due to the risk of radioactive contamination. The results of sim...

  13. Thermographic investigation of surface temperature of the evaporating liquid layer under the action of gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreta Aleksei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of the temperature field on the surface of horizontal liquid layer (Ethanol evaporating into gas flow (Air has been performed. Temperature gradient of the gas-liquid interface has been measured with the help of Titanium 570M IR camera. Shear stresses on gas-liquid interface induced by thermocapillary effect and inert gas flow have been defined.

  14. Should blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass be individualized more than to body surface area?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Larsson, A; Andreasen, Jan Jesper;

    Blood flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is calculated on body surface area (BSA). Increasing comorbidity, age and weight of today's cardiac patients question this calculation as it may not reflect individual metabolic requirement. The hypothesis was that a measured cardiac index (CI) prior...... not improve cerebral and systemic oxygenation compared to a blood flow based on BSA....

  15. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores t

  16. Efficient numerical solution of steady free-surface Navier-Stokes flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, E.H. van; Raven, H.C.; Koren, B.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical solution of flows that are partially bounded by a freely moving boundary is of great importance in practical applications such as ship hydrodynamics. The usual method for solving steady viscous free-surface flow subject to gravitation is alternating time integration of the kinematic cond

  17. A stereo vision method for tracking particle flow on the weld pool surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Richardson, I.M.; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C.R.; Saldi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The oscillation of a weld pool surface makes the fluid flow motion quite complex. Two-dimensional results cannot reflect enough information to quantitatively describe the fluid flow in the weld pool; however, there are few direct three-dimensional results available. In this paper, we describe a

  18. Aluminum-contaminant transport by surface runoff and bypass flow from an acid sulphate soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying the process and the amount of acid-contaminant released to the surroundings is important in assessing the environmental hazards associated with reclaiming acid sulphate soils (ASS). The roles of surface runoff and bypass flow (i.e. the rapid downward flow of free water along macropores t

  19. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  20. Detection of three-dimensional surfaces from optic flow: the effects of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G J; Wuestefeld, A P

    1993-09-01

    Previous research (Andersen, 1989) has suggested that the recovery of 3-D shape from nonsmooth optic flow (motion transparency) can be performed by segregating surfaces according to the distributions of velocities present in the flow field. Five experiments were conducted to examine this hypothesis in a surface detection paradigm and to determine the limitations of human observers to detect 3-D surfaces in the presence of noise. Two display types were examined: a flow field that simulated a surface corrugated in depth and a flow field that simulated a random volume. In addition, two types of noise were examined: a distribution of noise velocities that overlapped or did not overlap the velocity distribution that defined the surface. Corrugation frequency and surface density were also examined. Detection performance increased with decreasing corrugation frequency, decreasing noise density, and decreasing surface density. Overall, the subjects demonstrated remarkable tolerance to the presence of noise and, for some conditions, could discriminate surface from random conditions when noise density was twice the surface density. Discrimination accuracy was greater for the nonoverlapping than for the overlapping noise, providing support for an analysis based on the distribution of velocities.

  1. Tomo-PIV measurement of flow around an arbitrarily moving body with surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Jeon, Young Jin; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-02-01

    A three-dimensional surface of an arbitrarily moving body in a flow field was reconstructed using the DAISY descriptor and epipolar geometry constraints. The surface shape of a moving body was reconstructed with tomographic PIV flow measurement. Experimental images were captured using the tomographic PIV system, which consisted of four high-speed cameras and a laser. The originally captured images, which contained the shape of the arbitrary moving body and the tracer particles, were separated into the particle and surface images using a Gaussian smoothing filter. The weak contrast of the surface images was enhanced using a local histogram equalization method. The histogram-equalized surface images were used to reconstruct the surface shape of the moving body. The surface reconstruction method required a sufficiently detailed surface pattern to obtain the intensity gradient profile of the local descriptor. The separated particle images were used to reconstruct the particle volume intensity via tomographic reconstruction approaches. Voxels behind the reconstructed body surface were neglected during the tomographic reconstruction and velocity calculation. The three-dimensional three-component flow vectors were calculated based on the cross-correlation functions between the reconstructed particle volumes. Three-dimensional experiments that modeled the flows around a flapping flag, a rotating cylinder, and a flapping robot fish tail were conducted to validate the present technique.

  2. Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to solid surfaces under liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szlavik, Julie; Soares Paiva, Dionísio; Mørk, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    strains of L. monocytogenes was investigated under liquid flow at two levels of shear stress on six different surfaces using a flow chamber set-up with microscopy measurements. The surfaces tested were glass and PVC, and glass coated with beef extract, casein, and homogenised and unhomogenised milk....... In addition, the effect of prior environmental stress (5% NaCl, low nutrient availability) on initial adhesion was investigated. The hydrophobicity of the investigated surfaces was determined by contact angle measurements and the surface properties of the investigated L. monocytogenes strains were determined.......001) was observed but not of interactions between surface-shear stress. No correlation between surface hydrophobicity and IAR was observed. Addition of 5% NaCl during propagation resulted in a decrease in IAR whilst propagation in low nutrient media caused an increase indicating a general change in surface...

  3. Experimental Study of gas-liquid two-phase flow affected by wall surface wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamasa, T. [Faculty of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima, Koto, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Hazuku, T. [Faculty of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima, Koto, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)], E-mail: hazuku@kaiyodai.ac.jp; Hibiki, T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of wall surface wettability on the characteristics of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in a vertical pipe, an experimental study was performed using three test pipes: an acrylic pipe, a hydrophilic pipe and a hydrophobic pipe. Basic flow characteristics such as flow patterns, pressure drop and void fraction were measured in these three pipes. In the hydrophilic pipe, a slug to churn flow transition boundary was shifted to a higher gas velocity at a given liquid velocity, whereas a churn to annular flow transition boundary was shifted to a lower gas velocity at a given liquid velocity. In the hydrophobic pipe, an inverted-churn flow regime was observed in the region where the churn flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe, while a droplet flow regime was observed in the region where an annular flow regime was observed in the acrylic pipe. At a high gas flow rate, the mean void fraction in the hydrophobic pipe was higher than in the acrylic pipe. The effect of surface wettability on frictional pressure loss was confirmed to be insignificant under the present experimental conditions.

  4. Hall-magnetohydrodynamic surface waves in solar wind flow-structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, Rossitsa; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Erdélyi, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This paper investigates the parallel propagation of agnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves travelling along an ideal steady plasma slab surrounded by a steady plasma environment in the framework of Hall magnetohydrodynamics. The magnitudes of the ambient magnetic field, plasma density and flow velocity inside and outside the slab are different. Two possible directions of the relative flow velocity (in a frame of reference co-moving with the ambient flow) have been studied. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are usually assumed to be pure surface or pseudo-surface waves, the Hall-MHD approach makes it necessary to treat the normal MHD slab's modes as generalized surface waves. The latter have to be considered as a superposition of two partial waves, one of which is a pure/pseudo-surface-wave whereas the other constitutive wave is a leaky one. From the two kinds of surface-wave modes that can propagate, notably sausage and kink ones, the dispersion behaviour of the kink mode turns out to be more complicated than that of the sausage mode. In general, the flow increases the waves' phase velocities comparing with their magnitudes in a static Hall-MHD plasma slab. The applicability of the results to real solar wind flow-structures is briefly discussed. EHPRG Award Lecture.

  5. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, A.; Pacuraru, F.

    2010-08-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  6. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungu, A; Pacuraru, F, E-mail: adrian.lungu@ugal.r [Department of Ship Hydrodynamics, ' Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati 47 Domneasca Street, Galati 800008 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  7. Laminar flow in a microchannel with hydrophobic surface patterned microribs oriented parallel to the flow direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, D.; Jeffs, K.; Woolford, B.; Webb, B. W.

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports results of an analytical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow in a parallel-plate microchannel with ultrahydrophobic top and bottom walls. The walls are fabricated with microribs and cavities that are oriented parallel to the flow direction. The channel walls are modeled in an idealized fashion, with the shape of the liquid-vapor meniscus approximated as flat. An analytical model of the vapor cavity flow is employed and coupled with a numerical model of the liquid flow by matching the local liquid and vapor phase velocity and shear stress at the interface. The numerical predictions show that the effective slip length and the reduction in the classical friction factor-Reynolds number product increase with increasing relative cavity width, increasing relative cavity depth, and decreasing relative microrib/cavity module length. Comparisons were also made between the zero shear interface model and the liquid-vapor cavity coupled model. The results illustrate that the zero shear interface model underpredicts the overall flow resistance. Further, the deviation between the two models was found to be significantly larger for increasing values of both the relative rib/cavity module width and the cavity fraction. The trends in the frictional pressure drop predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements made at similar conditions, with greater deviation observed at increasing size of the cavity fraction. Based on the numerical predictions, an expression is proposed in which the friction factor-Reynolds number product may be estimated in terms of the important variables.

  8. Estimation of Near Surface Wind Speeds in Strongly Rotating Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Crowell, Sean; Wicker, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Modeling studies consistently demonstrate that the most violent winds in tornadic vortices occur in the lowest tens of meters above the surface. These velocities are unobservable by radar platforms due to line of sight consider- ations. In this work, a methodology is developed which utilizes parametric tangential velocity models derived from Doppler radar measurements, to- gether with a tangential momentum and mass continuity constraint, to esti- mate the radial and vertical velocities in a steady axisymmetric frame. The main result is that information from observations aloft can be extrapolated into the surface layer of the vortex. The impact of the amount of information available to the retrieval is demonstrated through some numerical tests with pseudo-data.

  9. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  10. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: suva_112@yahoo.co.in [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  11. Direct velocity measurement and enhanced mixing in laminar flows over ultrahydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jia

    2005-11-01

    A series of experiment are presented studying the kinematics of water flowing over drag-reducing ultrahydrophobic surfaces. The surfaces are fabricated from silicon wafers using photolithography and are designed to incorporate patterns of microridges with precise spacing and alignment. These surfaces are reacted with an organosilane to achieve high hydrophobicity. Microridges with different widths, spacing and alignments are tested in a microchannel flow cell with rectangular cross-section. The velocity profile across the microchannel is measured with micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) capable of resolving the flow down to length scales well below the size of the surface features. A maximum slip velocity of >60% of the average velocity in the flow is observed at the center of the air-water interface supported between these hydrophobic microridges, and the no-slip boundary condition is found at the hydrophobic microridges. The μ-PIV measurements demonstrate that slip along the shear-free air-water interface supported between the hydrophobic micron-sized ridges is the primary mechanism responsible for the drag reduction. The experiment velocity and pressure drop measurement are compared with the prediction of numerical simulation and an analytical model. By aligning the hydrophobic microridges at an acute angle to the flow direction a secondary flow is produced which can significantly enhance mixing in this laminar flow.

  12. Phase-detection measurements in free-surface turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    High-velocity self-aerated flows are described as ‘white waters’ because of the entrained air bubbles. The air entrainment induces a drastic change in the multiphase flow structure of the water column and this leads to significant bubble-turbulence interactions, turbulence modulation and associated mixing processes impacting on the bulk flow properties. In these high-velocity free-surface turbulent flows, the phase-detection needle probe is a most reliable instrumentation. The signal processing of a phase-detection probe is re-visited herein. It is shown that the processing may be performed on the raw probe signal as well as the thresholded data. The latter yields the time-averaged void fraction, the bubble count rate, the particle chord time distributions and the particle clustering properties within the particulate flow regions. The raw probe signal analysis gives further the auto-correlation time scale and the power spectrum density function. Finally dimensional considerations are developed with a focus on the physical modelling of free-surface flows in hydraulic structures. It is argued that the notion of scale effects must be defined in terms of some specific set of air-water flow properties within well-defined testing conditions, while a number of free-surface flow characteristics are more prone to scale effects than others, even in large-size physical facilities.

  13. Mode pattern of internal flow in a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun; Lim, Hee-Chang

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the mode pattern of the internal flow in a water droplet placed on a hydrophobic surface that periodically and vertically vibrates. As a result, a water droplet on a vibrating hydrophobic surface has a typical shape that depends on each resonance mode, and, additionally, we observed a diversified lobe size and internal flows in the water droplet. The size of each lobe at the resonance frequency was relatively greater than that at the neighboring frequencies, and the internal flow of the nth order mode was also observed in the flow visualization. In general, large symmetrical flow streams were generated along the vertical axis in each mode, with a large circulating movement from the bottom to the top, and then to the triple contact line along the droplet surface. In contrast, modes 2 and 4 generated a Y-shaped flow pattern, in which the flow moved to the node point in the lower part of the droplet, but modes 6 and 8 had similar patterns, with only a little difference. In addition, as a result of the PIV measurement, while the flow velocity of mode 4 was faster than that of model 2, those of modes 6 and 8 were almost similar.

  14. The effect of surface roughness on rarefied gas flows by lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chao-Feng; Ni Yu-Shan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the roughness effect combining with effects of rarefaction and compressibility by a lattice Boltzmann model for rarefied gas flows at high Knudsen numbers. By discussing the effect of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient on the rough boundary condition, the lattice Boltzmann simulations of nitrogen and helium flows are performed in a two-dimensional microchannel with rough boundaries. The surface roughness effects in the microchannel on the velocity field, the mass flow rate and the friction coefficient are studied and analysed. Numerical results for the two gases in micro scale show different characteristics from macroscopic flows and demonstrate the feasibility of the lattice Boltzmann model in rarefied gas dynamics.

  15. Effects of Surface Wettability and Roughness on the Heat Transfer Performance of Fluid Flowing through Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The surface characteristics, such as wettability and roughness, play an important role in heat transfer performance in the field of microfluidic flow. In this paper, the process of a hot liquid flowing through a microchannel with cold walls, which possesses different surface wettabilities and microstructures, is simulated by a transient double-distribution function (DDF two-phase thermal lattice Boltzmann BGK (LBGK model. The Shan-Chen multiphase LBGK model is used to describe the flow field and the independent distribution function is introduced to solve the temperature field. The simulation results show that the roughness of the channel wall improves the heat transfer, no matter what the surface wettability is. These simulations reveal that the heat exchange characteristics are directly related to the flow behavior. For the smooth-superhydrophobic-surface flow, a gas film forms that acts as an insulating layer since the thermal conductivity of the gas is relatively small in comparison to that of a liquid. In case of the rough-superhydrophobic-surface flow, the vortex motion of the gas within the grooves significantly enhances the heat exchange between the fluid and wall.

  16. Trace projection transformation: a new method for measurement of debris flow surface velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Cui, Peng; Guo, Xiaojun; Ge, Yonggang

    2016-12-01

    Spatiotemporal variation of velocity is important for debris flow dynamics. This paper presents a new method, the trace projection transformation, for accurate, non-contact measurement of a debris-flow surface velocity field based on a combination of dense optical flow and perspective projection transformation. The algorithm for interpreting and processing is implemented in C ++ and realized in Visual Studio 2012. The method allows quantitative analysis of flow motion through videos from various angles (camera positioned at the opposite direction of fluid motion). It yields the spatiotemporal distribution of surface velocity field at pixel level and thus provides a quantitative description of the surface processes. The trace projection transformation is superior to conventional measurement methods in that it obtains the full surface velocity field by computing the optical flow of all pixels. The result achieves a 90% accuracy of when comparing with the observed values. As a case study, the method is applied to the quantitative analysis of surface velocity field of a specific debris flow.

  17. Mathematical modelling of surface water-groundwater flow and salinity interactions in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, Katerina; Kampanis, Nikolaos A.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are the most densely-populated areas in the world. Consequently water demand is high, posing great pressure on fresh water resources. Climatic change and its direct impacts on meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation) and indirect impact on sea level rise, as well as anthropogenic pressures (e.g. groundwater abstraction), are strong drivers causing groundwater salinisation and subsequently affecting coastal wetlands salinity with adverse effects on the corresponding ecosystems. Coastal zones are a difficult hydrologic environment to represent with a mathematical model due to the large number of contributing hydrologic processes and variable-density flow conditions. Simulation of sea level rise and tidal effects on aquifer salinisation and accurate prediction of interactions between coastal waters, groundwater and neighbouring wetlands requires the use of integrated surface water-groundwater models. In the past few decades several computer codes have been developed to simulate coupled surface and groundwater flow. In these numerical models surface water flow is usually described by the 1-D Saint Venant equations (e.g. Swain and Wexler, 1996) or the 2D shallow water equations (e.g. Liang et al., 2007). Further simplified equations, such as the diffusion and kinematic wave approximations to the Saint Venant equations, are also employed for the description of 2D overland flow and 1D stream flow (e.g. Gunduz and Aral, 2005). However, for coastal bays, estuaries and wetlands it is often desirable to solve the 3D shallow water equations to simulate surface water flow. This is the case e.g. for wind-driven flows or density-stratified flows. Furthermore, most integrated models are based on the assumption of constant fluid density and therefore their applicability to coastal regions is questionable. Thus, most of the existing codes are not well-suited to represent surface water-groundwater interactions in coastal areas. To this end, the 3D integrated

  18. Free-surface flow simulations for discharge-based operation of hydraulic structure gates

    CERN Document Server

    Erdbrink, C D; Sloot, P M A

    2014-01-01

    We combine non-hydrostatic flow simulations of the free surface with a discharge model based on elementary gate flow equations for decision support in operation of hydraulic structure gates. A water level-based gate control used in most of today's general practice does not take into account the fact that gate operation scenarios producing similar total discharged volumes and similar water levels may have different local flow characteristics. Accurate and timely prediction of local flow conditions around hydraulic gates is important for several aspects of structure management: ecology, scour, flow-induced gate vibrations and waterway navigation. The modelling approach is described and tested for a multi-gate sluice structure regulating discharge from a river to the sea. The number of opened gates is varied and the discharge is stabilized with automated control by varying gate openings. The free-surface model was validated for discharge showing a correlation coefficient of 0.994 compared to experimental data. A...

  19. SIMULATION OF STRONG TURBULENCE FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF STREAMLINE CURVATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui-chao; LIU Yu-ling; WEI Wen-li

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a mathematical model for two-dimensional strong turbulence flow with free surface including the effects of streamline curvature in orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, with which the characteristics of the turbulence flow field on the ogee spillway was numerical simulated. In the numerical simulation, the flow control equations in orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discretized by the finite volume method, the physical parameters( P, U,V,K,ε,γt,etc.) were arranged on a staggered grid, the discretized equations were solved with the SIMPLEC method, and the complex free surface was dealt with VOF method. The computed results show that the velocity fields, pressure field, shear stress distribution and kinetic energy of turbulent flow on the ogee spillway are in agreement with experimental data. This confirms that the model can be used for numerical simulation of the turbulence flow on ogee spillway.

  20. Inertia Effects in the Flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ERF between Fixed Surfaces of Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Walicka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many electrorheological fluids (ERFs as fluids with microstructure demonstrate viscoplastic behaviours. Rheometric measurements indicate that some flows of these fluids may be modelled as the flows of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. In this paper, the flow of a Herschel-Bulkley ER fluid—with a fractional power-law exponent—in a narrow clearance between two fixed surfaces of revolution with common axis of symmetry is considered. The flow is externally pressurized, and it is considered with inertia effect. In order to solve this problem, the boundary layer equations are used. The influence of inertia forces on the pressure distribution is examined by using the method of averaged inertia terms of the momentum equation. Numerical examples of externally pressurized ERFs flows in the clearance between parallel disks and concentric spherical surfaces are presented.

  1. Surface supersaturation in flow-rate modulation epitaxy of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Tetsuya; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kumakura, Kazuhide

    2017-06-01

    Hillocks on N-face GaN (000 1 bar) films are effectively eliminated by group-III-source flow-rate modulation epitaxy (FME), wherein the flow-rate of group-III sources are sequentially modulated under a constant supply of NH3. A hillock-free smooth surface obtained by group-III-source FME is attributed to the enhancement of step-flow growth. We found that a hillock originates from a micropipe and grows by spiral growth around the micropipe. The spiral growth rate rapidly decreases with decreasing the degree of surface supersaturation σ, while the step-flow growth rate decreases linearly. For group-III-source FME, wherein σ is lower than conventional continuous growth, the spiral growth rate could be lower than the step-flow growth one so that the formation of hillocks is suppressed.

  2. Lubrication of textured surfaces: a general theory for flow and shear stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaraggi, Michele

    2012-08-01

    We report on a mean field theory of textured surface lubrication. We study the fluid flow dynamics occurring at the interface as a function of the texture characteristics, e.g. texture area density, shape and distribution of microstructures, and local slip lengths. The present results may be very important for the investigation of tailored microtextured surfaces for low-friction hydrodynamic applications.

  3. Early bifurcation in rotating fluid flow with free surface studied by axisymmetric numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, M. B. L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1996-01-01

    . This one is a coaxial disk in contact with the fluid surface but without covering it entirely. The study focuses on the occurrence of time-dependent flow, more specifically, the first transition to unsteadiness, by considering cavity cases with different amounts of free surface, for a fixed aspect ratio...

  4. CFD simulation of two- and three-dimensional free-surface flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsley, David; Hu, Wei

    2003-06-01

    The paper describes the implementation of moving-mesh and free-surface capabilities within a 3-d finite-volume Reynolds-averaged-Navier-Stokes solver, using surface-conforming multi-block structured meshes. The free-surface kinematic condition can be applied in two ways: enforcing zero net mass flux or solving the kinematic equation by a finite-difference method. The free surface is best defined by intermediate control points rather than the mesh vertices. Application of the dynamic boundary condition to the piezometric pressure at these points provides a hydrostatic restoring force which helps to eliminate any unnatural free-surface undulations. The implementation of time-marching methods on moving grids are described in some detail and it is shown that a second-order scheme must be applied in both scalar-transport and free-surface equations if flows driven by free-surface height variations are to be computed without significant wave attenuation using a modest number of time steps. Computations of five flows of theoretical and practical interest - forced motion in a pump, linear waves in a tank, quasi-1d flow over a ramp, solitary wave interaction with a submerged obstacle and 3-d flow about a surface-penetrating cylinder - are described to illustrate the capabilities of our code and methods.

  5. Surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadatomi, Michio, E-mail: sadatomi@mech.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawahara, Akimaro [Dept. of Advanced Mechanical Systems, Kumamoto Univ., 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Chuou-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Aruta [Plant Design & Engineering Dept., Environment, Energy & Plant Headquarters, Hitachi Zosen Corporation, 7-89, Nankokita 1-chome, Suminoe-ku, Osaka, 559-8559 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Surface tension effects were clarified on annular flow in a small diameter pipe. • The mean liquid film thickness became thinner with decreasing of surface tension. • The liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress became higher with it. • New prediction methods for the above parameters were developed and validated. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to study the surface tension effects on vertical upward annular flows in a 5 mm I.D. pipe using water and low surface tension water with a little surfactant as the test liquid and air as the test gas. Firstly, the experimental results on the mean liquid film thickness, the liquid droplet fraction and the interfacial shear stress in annular flows together with some flow pictures are presented to clarify the surface tension effects. From these, the followings are clarified: In the low surface tension case, the liquid film surface becomes rough, the liquid film thickness thin, the liquid droplet fraction high, and the interfacial shear stress high. Secondary, correlations in literatures for the respective parameters are tested against the present data. The test results show that no correlation for the respective parameters could predict well the present data. Thus, correlations are revised by accounting for the surface tension effects. The results of the experiments, the correlations tests and their revisions mentioned above are presented in the present paper.

  6. Molecular weight dependence of surface flow near the bulk glass transition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yu; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the study on molecular weight dependent sub-Tg surface dynamics of polymer thin films by using the Nano-step experiment [McGraw et al. Soft Matter 7, 7832 (2011)]. By varying the molecular weight, we are able to probe the surface dynamics of the free surface below Tg with the polymer size comparable to the surface depth. In particular, we define and use a correlation function to compare measured and calculated profiles to analyze the transition from the bulk flow to flow restricted to the surface region. Surprisingly, even for the polymers with Mw = 22,000 surface flow is still observed below the bulk Tg value. A numerical simulation of random walk is used to find the fraction of polymer of which all of the polymer segments are located in the free surface region. The simulation results indicate that there are still a significant fraction of polymer molecules where all segments are in the near free surface region. These molecules can undergo flow consistent with the experimental results.

  7. Effect of Vapor Flow on Jumping Droplets during Condensation on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J.; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Limia, Alexander; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-11-01

    Upon coalescence of droplets on a superhydrophobic surface, the net reduction in droplet surface area results in a release of surface energy that can cause the coalesced droplet to ``jump'' away from the surface. Jumping condensing surfaces have been shown to enhance condensation heat transfer by up to 30% compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensing surfaces. While the heat transfer enhancement of jumping condensation is well documented, droplet behavior after departure from the surface has not been considered. Vapor flows to the condensing surface due to mass conservation. This flow can increase drag on departing droplets, resulting in complete droplet reversal and return to the surface. Upon return, these larger droplets impede heat transfer until they jump again or finally shed due to gravity. By characterizing individual droplet trajectories during condensation on hydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces for a variety of heat fluxes (q'' = 0.1 - 2 W/cm2), we showed that vapor flow entrainment dominates droplet motion for droplets smaller than R ~ 30 um at high heat fluxes (q'' >2 W/cm2). Furthermore, we developed an analytical model of droplet motion based on first principles and the Reynolds drag equation which agreed well with the experimental data. We considered condensation on both flat and tubular geometries with our model, and we suggest avenues to further enhance heat transfer which minimize droplet return due to entrainment.

  8. Quantitative reconstruction of late Holocene surface evolution on an alpine debris-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Peter; Densmore, Alexander L.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Rosser, Nick J.; Kober, Florian; Schlunegger, Fritz; McArdell, Brian; Alfimov, Vasili

    2016-12-01

    Debris-flow fans form a ubiquitous record of past debris-flow activity in mountainous areas, and may be useful for inferring past flow characteristics and consequent future hazard. Extracting information on past debris flows from fan records, however, requires an understanding of debris-flow deposition and fan surface evolution; field-scale studies of these processes have been very limited. In this paper, we document the patterns and timing of debris-flow deposition on the surface of the large and exceptionally active Illgraben fan in southwestern Switzerland. We use terrain analysis, radiocarbon dating of sediment fill in the Illgraben catchment, and cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl exposure dating of debris-flow deposits on the fan to constrain the temporal evolution of the sediment routing system in the catchment and on the fan during the past 3200 years. We show that the fan surface preserves a set of debris-flow lobes that were predominantly deposited after the occurrence of a large rock avalanche near the fan apex at about 3200 years ago. This rock avalanche shifted the apex of the fan and impounded sediment within the Illgraben catchment. Subsequent evolution of the fan surface has been governed by both lateral and radial shifts in the active depositional lobe, revealed by the cosmogenic radionuclide dates and by cross-cutting geometrical relationships on the fan surface. This pattern of frequent avulsion and fan surface occupation provides field-scale evidence of the type of large-scale compensatory behavior observed in experimental sediment routing systems.

  9. COUPLING SIMULATION OF SURFACE FLOW AND SUBSURFACE FLOW OVER POROUS MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Pei-wen; LIU De-fu; SONG Yu-pu

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical model of water flow over porous media is developed, the computer program is compiled ,and an example is given to verify the validity of the model. The results of the calculation show that the model is very useful and worth going further study in practical engineering.

  10. A Level Set Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Free Surface Flows - and Water-Wave Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grooss, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... accurately. We present techniques for reinitialization, and outline the strengths and weaknesses of the level set method. Through a few numerical tests, the robustness and versatility of the proposed scheme is confirmed.......We present a discontinuous Galerkin method on a fully unstructured grid for the modeling of unsteady incompressible fluid flows with free surfaces. The surface is modeled by a level set technique. We describe the discontinuous Galerkin method in general, and its application to the flow equations....... The deferred correction method is applied on the fluid flow equations and show good results in periodic domains. We describe the design of a level set method for the free surface modeling. The level set utilize the high order accurate discontinuous Galerkin method fully and represent smooth surfaces very...

  11. Numerical modeling and simulation of flow through porous fabric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zheng; Li, Xiaolin

    We designed a numerical scheme to model the permeability of the fabric surface in an incompressible fluid by coupling the projection method with the Ghost Fluid Method in the front tracking framework. The pressure jump condition is obtained by adding a source term to the Poisson's equation in the projection step without modifications on its coefficients. The numerical results suggest that this approach has the ability to reproduce the relationship between pressure drop and relative velocity observed in the experiments. We use this algorithm to study the effects of porosity on the drag force and stability of parachutes during its inflation and deceleration.

  12. Free-surface modelling technology for compressible and violent flows

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, Johan A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available of bench-marked test cases FCSCF is compared to a state-of-the-art higher-resolution scheme. II.B. Evaluation of FCSCF FCSCF is evaluated by applying it to a number of benchmark problems presented in literature. To asses the increased accuracy.... In line with the above a new weakly compressible formulation for the volume-of-fluid free-surface mod- elling approach is presented, where after it is evaluated by considering various bench-marked test cases. 9 of 16 American Institute of Aeronautics...

  13. Flow of groundwater from great depths into the near surface deposits - modelling of a local domain in northeast Uppland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Forsman, Jonas [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-15

    Purpose: To study the flow of groundwater from rock masses at great depths and into the surface near deposits by use of mathematical models; and to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater from great depths in the surface near deposits (quaternary deposits). The study is about the hydraulic interaction between the geosphere and the biosphere. Methodology: The system studied is represented by time dependent three dimensional mathematical models. The models include groundwater flows in the rock mass and in the quaternary deposits as well as surface water flows. The established groundwater models have such a resolution (degree of detail) that both rock masses at great depth and near surface deposits are included in the flow system studied. The modelling includes simulations under both steady state conditions and transient conditions The transient simulations represents the varying state of the groundwater system studied, caused by the variation in hydro-meteorological conditions during a normal year, a wet-year and a dry-year. The boundary condition along the topography of the model is a non-linear boundary condition, representing the ground surface above the sea and the varying actual groundwater recharge. Area studied: The area studied is located in Sweden, in the Northeast of the Uppland province, close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. Water balance modelling: To obtain three significantly different groundwater recharge periods for the transient groundwater flow simulations a water balance modelling was carried out based on a statistical analysis of available hydro-meteorological data. To obtain a temporal distribution of the runoff (i.e. potential groundwater recharge), we have conducted a numerical time dependent water balance modelling. General conclusions of groundwater modelling: The discharge areas for the flow paths from great depth are given by the topography and located along valleys and lakes; the spatial and temporal extension of

  14. Seasonal predictability of sea surface temperature anomalies over the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension: Low in summer and high in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yujie; Duan, Wansuo; Rong, Xinyao

    2016-09-01

    The seasonal predictability of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension (KOE) is explored by performing perfect model predictability experiments from the viewpoint of initial error growth in a global coupled model. It is found that prediction errors of KOE-SSTA always increase in the boreal summer and decrease in the boreal winter. This leads to smaller (larger) prediction errors and higher (lower) prediction skills in boreal winter (summer). This seasonal characteristic of the KOE-SSTA error growth implies a season-dependent predictability that is lower in summer and higher in winter. The mechanism responsible for error growth associated with seasonal predictability is also explored. The error increase in summer and error decrease in winter in the KOE-SSTA are both largely attributed to the seasonal evolution of latent heat flux error and mean temperature advection by vertical current error in the KOE region, both of which are forced by the prediction error of 1 month leading zonal wind stress per unit mass for the mixed layer over the KOE region. The shallowest (deepest) mixed layer in summer (winter) amplifies (reduces) the forcing of zonal wind stress errors on the error growth of KOE-SSTA, thereby causing the seasonal evolution of prediction errors of KOE-SSTA and ultimately resulting in the season-dependent predictability of the KOE-SSTA, i.e., low in summer and high in winter.

  15. MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum

    2017-06-01

    The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.

  16. Simulation of Vapor Flows Between Two Closed Surfaces of Evaporation and Condensation at High Vacuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭斌; 许春建; 周明

    2003-01-01

    The steady multi-component vapor flows between two closed surfaces of evaporation and condensation are investigated numerically by the nonlinear Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation. The mathematical model will make it possible to determine the profiles of the process variables between two surfaces of evaporation and condensation if the conditions of evaporation and condensation surfaces are taken into consideration. It is used to simulate the vapor behaviors of the pure dibutylphthalate and the ethylhexyl phthalate-ethylhexyl sebacate mixture. The effects of the liquid composition of the evaporation surface, the evaporation temperature, the condensation temperature and the distance between evaporation and condensation surfaces on the evaporation efficiency and separation factor are discussed.

  17. Measurements of slip length for flows over graphite surface with gas domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dayong; Wang, Yuliang; Pan, Yunlu; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2016-10-01

    We present the measurements of slip lengths for the flows of purified water over graphite surface covered with surface nanobubbles or nano/micropancakes, which can be produced after using high temperature water to replace low temperature water. The slip length values measured on bare graphite surface, nano/micropancake or nanobubble covered graphite surfaces are about 8 nm, 27 nm, and 63 nm, respectively. Our results indicate that the gaseous domains formed at the solid-liquid interface, including surface nanobubbles and nano/micropancakes, could act as a lubricant and significantly increase slip length.

  18. Influences of the Exhaust Flow on the Boundary Layer Flow on the Wafer Surface in Spin Coating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seiichi KIMURA; Mizue MUNEKATA; Hiroaki KURISHIMA; Kazuyoshi MATSUZAKI; Hideki OHBA

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recently, development of high technology has been required for the formation of thin uniform film in manufacturing processes of semiconductor as the semiconductor become more sophisticated. Spin coating is usually used for spreading photoresist on a wafer surface. However, since rotating speed of the disk is very high in spin coating, the dropped resist scatters outward and reattaches to the film surface. So, the scattered resist is removed by the exhaust flow generated at the gap between the wafer edge and the catch cup. It is seriously concemed that the stripes called Ekman spiral vortices appears on the disk in the case of high rotating speed and the film thickness increases near the wafer edge in the case of low rotating speed, because it prevent the formation of uniform film. The purpose of this study is to make clear the generation mechanism of Ekman spiral vortices and the influence of exhaust flow on it. Moreover the influence of the catch cup geometry on the wafer surface boundary layer flow is investigated.

  19. The Hydroelastic Response of a Flexible Surface-Piercing Strut in Wetted, Ventilated, and Cavitating Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Casey; Ward, Jacob; Young, Yin Lu; Felli, Mario; Falchi, Massimo; Ceccio, Steven

    2016-11-01

    High-speed and highly loaded lifting surfaces are prone to ventilation and cavitation. Increasing use of compliant materials (e.g. composites) in such systems necessitates a better understanding of the fluid-structure interactions of lifting surfaces in multiphase flow. Experiments on a flexible surface-piercing hydrofoil have been performed in a towing tank and a free-surface cavitation tunnel. The objectives are (i) to demonstrate the effects of material compliance upon hydrodynamic performance and stability of multiphase flow regimes, and (ii) to quantify the effects of multiphase flow upon the structural response and hydroelastic stability of flexible lifting bodies. A non-optical shape-sensing method is developed, which permits 3D bending and twisting deformations of the hydrofoil to be accurately inferred. The effects of the foil's compliance on hydrodynamic loads, structural motions and flow regimes are discussed. Partial immersion of the hydrofoil causes a mode-dependent change in added-mass that can encourage coalescence of higher modes. At the same time, increasing flow speed and ventilated flow decrease the damping associated with certain modes. Unsteady cavity shedding modulates the system parameters, causing a broadening of the frequency response. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Dr. Ki-Han Kim under ONR Grant Number N00014-13-1-0383 and N00014-16-1-2433.

  20. The dynamic response of hyporheic zone redox zonation after surface flow perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    As water in a stream or river flows over ripples and other bedforms, differential surface pressures create bedform-induced hyporheic exchange. The oxygen, carbon, and nutrients carried into the bed by the surface water as well as those already existing in the bed material form the basis for microbial communities in the sediment.The resulting dissolved oxygen conditions are a critical control on the ecological function of the hyporheic zone (HZ), from both micro- and macro-biological habitat perspectives. Because hyporheic exchange rates are controlled by surface flow velocity, variations in surface flow have significant impact on the subsurface oxygen conditions. Most rivers are subject to flow velocity variations due to natural forcing including precipitation and variations in evapotranspiration as well as anthropogenic forces like dam releases. We use a large (10m x 0.7m x 0.3m) programmable flume instrumented with a bedform-scale high-resolution planar optode dissolved oxygen imaging system to observe the distribution of oxygenated sediment within the HZ over time. Using this system we characterize the rate at which hyporheic oxygen conditions reconfigure in response to changes in the surface flow velocity, particularly the time it takes for conditions to recover after a pulse of increased flow velocity. In addition, we make use of numerical models to further identify critical response time drivers. With these tools, we develop equations to describe the post-disturbance recovery time as a function of relative pulse magnitude and duration. Using these equations we can predict the time scale over which the hyporheic zone will recover following both natural and anthropogenic flow regime disturbances. Being able to predict the magnitude and duration of dissolved oxygen changes in the wake of flow perturbing events allows us to better understand the impact these disturbances have on the ecology of the hyporheic zone.

  1. Diagnostics of basal conditions - the formation of extensive zones of surface ribs in ice-sheets and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Creyts, Timothy T.

    2015-04-01

    Most if not all current predictions of the evolution of ice-streams to changes induced by global change assume static basal conditions. This is a result of current restrictions in the remote sensing of the ice-sheet basal physical environment, which cannot resolve the small-scale phenomena believed to control the basal traction. The search therefore is on for observable structures or features that are the result of the operation of basal processes. Any successful theory of ice-sheet basal processes would need to be able to explain such phenomena associated with or caused by special properties of the basal environment. We present one class of these phenomena, and also present tentative hypotheses as to their formation. Using recent high-resolution observations of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets topography, the computed driving stress and the inferred basal traction reveal broad-scale organization in 5-20 km band-like patterns in both quantities. The similarity of patterns on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets suggests that the flow of ice sheets is controlled by the same fundamental processes operating at their base, which control ice sheet sliding and are highly variable on relatively short spatial and temporal scales. The formation mechanism for these bands contains information about the operation of the sub-glacial system. There are three possible, non-exclusive causes of these ribs which we examine from a theoretical and evidential point-of-view (i) They are the surface response to similar bands in the basal topography, whose regularity would equally require an explanation in terms of basal processes. (ii) They are translating surface waves in the ice, supported by membrane stress gradients rather than by gradients in the basal resistance. (iii) The ribs are due to the development of a band-like structure in the basal shear stress distribution that is the result of a pattern-forming instability in sub-glacial till and water flow, perhaps related to

  2. Tsunami-induced force and surface pressure on multiple rectangular buildings in an unsteady free-surface channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmanpour, Alireza; Eames, Ian

    2016-11-01

    We study the flow around multiple rectangular obstacles in an unsteady free-surface channel flow using a combination of mathematical models, computations and experiments. The unsteady flow is triggered by a dam-break. The total drag force and surface pressure distribution on the obstacles are examined. The height and length of the building are fixed; the influence of initial water height and blocking ratio b / w is studied. The force scalings are confirmed from the computational analysis and found to be consistent with the experimental results. The effects of the additional buildings on the total drag force are noted and compared against the case of a single building. Increasing the number of buildings as well as the blocking ratio results in the water to inundate further onshore. The pressure distribution on the individual surfaces are analyzed and shown to vary linearly with height from the building base and dominated by the hydrostatic component. We summarize the results in terms of a new Fr - b / w regime diagram and explain how the force on buildings subject to an unsteady flow can be estimated from the upstream velocity and water height. We would like to thank HR Wallingford for their continued support in funding the project.

  3. Extensive investigation of the sap flow of maize plants in an oasis farmland in the middle reach of the Heihe River, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liwen; He, Zhibin; Zhao, Wenzhi; Yang, Qiyue

    2016-09-01

    A better understanding of the sap flow characteristics of maize plants is critical for improving irrigation water-use efficiency, especially for regions facing water resource shortages. In this study, sap flow rates, related soil-physics and plant-growth parameters, and meteorological factors, were simultaneously monitored in a maize field in two consecutive years, 2011 and 2012, and the sap flow rates of the maize plants were extensively analyzed based on the monitored data. Seasonal and daily variational characteristics were identified at different growth stages and under different weather conditions, respectively. The analyses on the relationships between sap flow rate and reference evapotranspiration (ET0), as well as several plant-growth parameters, indicate that the irrigation schedule can exert an influence on sap flow, and can consequently affect crop yield. The ranking of the main meteorological factors affecting the sap flow rate was: net radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed. For a quick estimation of sap flow rates, an empirical formula based on the two top influencing factors was put forward and verified to be reliable. The sap flow rate appeared to show little response to irrigation when the water content was relatively high, implying that some of the irrigation in recent years may have been wasted. These results may help to reveal the bio-physical processes of maize plants related to plant transpiration, which could be beneficial for establishing an efficient irrigation management system in this region and also for providing a reference for other maize-planting regions.

  4. Co-seismic secondary surface fractures on southeastward extension of the rupture zone of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayangondaperumal, R.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-01-01

    After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, we mapped surface ground fractures in Tangdhar, Uri, Rajouri and Punch sectors and liquefaction features in Jammu area lying close to the eastern side of the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir, India. The NW trending ground fractures occurred largely in the hanging wall zone of the southeastern extension of the causative fault in Tangdhar and Uri sectors. The principal compressive stress deduced from the earthquake induced ground fractures is oriented at N10°, whereas the causative Balakot-Bagh fault strikes 330°. The fault-plane solution indicates primarily SW thrusting of the causative fault with a component of strike-slip motion. The ground fractures reflect pronounced strike-slip together with some tensile component. The Tangdhar area showing left-lateral strike-slip motion lies on the hanging wall, and the Uri region showing right-lateral strike-slip movement is located towards the southeastern extension of the causative fault zone. The shear fractures are related to static stress that was responsible for the failure of causative fault. The tensile fractures with offsets are attributed to combination of both static and dynamic stresses, and the fractures and openings without offsets owe their origin due to dynamic stress. In Punch-Rajouri and Jammu area, which lies on the footwall, the fractures and liquefactions were generated by dynamic stress. The occurrence of liquefaction features in the out board part of the Himalayan range front near Jammu is suggestive of stress transfer ˜ 230 km southeast of the epicenter. The Balakot-Bagh Fault (BBF), the Muzaffarabad anticline, the rupture zone of causative fault and the zone of aftershocks — all are aligned in a ˜ 25 km wide belt along the NW-SE trending regional Himalayan strike of Kashmir region and lying between the MBT and the Riasi Thrust (Murree Thrust), suggesting a seismogenic zone that may propagate towards the southeast to trigger an earthquake in the eastern part of

  5. Evolution of material surfaces in the temporal transition in channel flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yaomin; Chen, Shiyi

    2016-01-01

    We report a Lagrangian study on the evolution of material surfaces in the K-type temporal transitional channel flow. Based on the Eulerian velocity field from the DNS, a backward-particle-tracking method is applied to solve the transport equation of the Lagrangian scalar field, and then the iso-surfaces of the Lagrangian field can be extracted as material surfaces in the evolution. Three critical issues for Lagrangian investigations on the evolution of coherent structures using material surfaces are addressed. First, the initial scalar field is uniquely determined based on proposed criteria, so that the initial material surfaces can be approximated as vortex surfaces, and keep invariant in the initial laminar state. Second, the evolution of typical material surfaces initially from different wall distances is presented, and then the influential material surface with the maximum deformation is identified. Large vorticity variations with the maximum curvature growth of vortex lines are also observed on this surf...

  6. Retention/Diffusivity Studies in Free-Surface Flowing Liquid Lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Stubbers; G.H. Miley; M. Nieto; W. Olczak; D.N. Ruzic; A. Hassanein

    2004-12-14

    FLIRE was designed to measure the hydrogen and helium retention and diffusivity in a flowing stream of liquid lithium, and it has accomplished these goals. Retention coefficients for helium in the flowing liquid stream were 0.1-2% for flow speeds of 44 cm/s and implantation energies between 500 and 2000 eV. The energy dependence of retention is linear for the energy range considered, as expected, and the dependence of retention on flow velocity fits the expected square-root of flow speed dependence. Estimates of the helium diffusion coefficient in the flowing lithium stream were {approx} 4 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, and are independent of implantation energy. This value is much lower than expected, which could be due to several factors, such as mixing, bubble formation or surface film formation. In the case of hydrogen, long term retention and release mechanisms are of greatest importance, since this relates to tritium inventory in flowing lithium PFCs for fusion applications. The amount of hydride formation was measured for flowing lithium exposed to neutral deuterium gas. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements indicate that the hydride concentration was between 0.1 and 0.2% over a wide range of pressures (6.5 x 10{sup -5} to 1 Torr). This result implies that the deuterium absorption rate is limited by the surface dissociation rate, since deuterium (hydrogen/tritium) is absorbed in its atomic form, not its molecular form.

  7. Lubricant-impregnated surfaces for drag reduction in viscous laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brian; Khalil, Karim; Varanasi, Kripa; MIT Team

    2013-11-01

    For the first time, we explore the potential of lubricant impregnated surfaces (LIS) in reducing drag. LIS, inspired by the surface of the Nepenthes pitcher plant, have been introduced as a novel way of functionalizing a surface. LIS are characterized by extremely low contact angle hysteresis and have been show to effectively repel various liquids including water, oils, ketchup and blood. Motivated by the slippery nature of such surfaces, we explore the potential of LIS to reduce drag in internal flows. We observe a reduction in drag for LIS surfaces in a viscous laminar drag flow and model the impact of relevant system parameters (lubricant viscosity, working fluid viscosity, solid fraction, depth of texture, etc.).

  8. Boundary layer flow near a stagnation point on a permeable vertical surface immersed in a nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noor Adila; Yacob, Nor Azizah; Bachok, Norfifah; Ramli, Nazirah; Ishak, Anuar

    2015-10-01

    A steady mixed convection boundary layer flow near a stagnation point on a permeable vertical surface immersed in a nanofluid is investigated. The velocity of the external flow is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation-point. The governing partial differential equations are first transformed into ordinary differential equations, before being solved numerically using the Keller box method with the help of MATLAB software. The effects of physical parameters such as the suction/injection parameter, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter and Lewis number on the heat and mass transfer rate at the surface as well as the temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed and discussed. Both assisting and opposing flows are considered. It is found that, increasing the thermophoresis parameter, Brownian motion parameter and Lewis number are to decrease the heat transfer rate at the surface, but on the other hand increase the mass transfer rate at the surface for both assisting and opposing flows. In addition, increasing suction parameter tends to increase the heat transfer rate at the surface. However, the opposite behavior occurs for the effect of mass transfer rate at the surface.

  9. Accounting for Surface Concentrations Using a VOF Front Tracking Method in Multiphase Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, David Warren

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a numerical method for trackingsurfactants on an interface in multiphase flow, along withapplications of the method to two physical problems. We alsopresent an extension of our method to track charged droplets. Ourmethod combines a traditional volume of fluid (VOF) method withmarker tracking. After describing this method in detail, wepresent a series of tests we used to validate our method. Theapplications we consider are the coalescence of surfactant-ladendro...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE RELATION OF BED MORPHOLOGY WITH SURFACE FLOW IN MEANDER CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Alternate bars have the property that they migrate downstream whenever floods occur. However,in meander channels whose bend angles are larger than a critical value, the migration of bars can be suppressed, and the positions of bank erosion and flood attack also will be steady. In this study, the bed morphology in flume channels with bends of various lengths and angles is investigated at various flow discharges, and the relation of bed morphology to surface flow is investigated in detail using fluid measuring software. An effort is made to obtain guidelines for the plane shape design of meander channels. Based on the experimental results of bed topography and measurement of surface flow direction and velocity distribution, from the viewpoint of bank erosion and the concentration and dispersion of flood flow the most suitable plane shape for meandering channels is suggested through which the migration of alternate bars is suppressed.

  11. Surface heat transfer and flow properties of vortex arrays induced artificially and from centrifugal instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, C. S.; Ligrani, P. M.; Tuzzolo, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents and compares fluid-flow and heat transfer properties from artificially induced vortices in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer and naturally occurring vortices due to centrifugal instabilities in a curved-channel laminar flow. Pairs and arrays of vortices are artificially induced by placing half-delta wings on the plate surface. With both arrays and pairs of vortices, streamwise velocities and total pressures are high, and surface heat transfer is locally augmented in vortex downwash regions. In contrast to vortices in the arrays vortices in the pairs tend to move in the streamwise direction with significant divergence (when the common flow between pair is toward the wall) or convergence (when the common flow between pair is away from the wall). The vortices in the arrays cause maximum peak-to-peak heat transfer variations of up to 12 percent of local spanwise-averaged values for initial vortex spacings between 1 to 2.5 generator heights.

  12. A wind tunnel study of flows over idealised urban surfaces with roughness sublayer corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Dynamics in the roughness (RSLs) and inertial (ISLs) sublayers in the turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) over idealised urban surfaces are investigated analytically and experimentally. In this paper, we derive an analytical solution to the mean velocity profile, which is a continuous function applicable to both RSL and ISL, over rough surfaces in isothermal conditions. Afterwards, a modified mixing-length model for RSL/ISL transport is developed that elucidates how surface roughness affects the turbulence motions. A series of wind tunnel experiments are conducted to measure the vertical profiles of mean and fluctuating velocities, together with momentum flux over various configurations of surface-mounted ribs in cross flows using hot-wire anemometry (HWA). The analytical solution agrees well with the wind tunnel result that improves the estimate to mean velocity profile over urban surfaces and TBL dynamics as well. The thicknesses of RSL and ISL are calculated by monitoring the convergence/divergence between the temporally averaged and spatio-temporally averaged profiles of momentum flux. It is found that the height of RSL/ISL interface is a function of surface roughness. Examining the direct, physical influence of roughness elements on near-surface RSL flows reveals that the TBL flows over rough surfaces exhibit turbulence motions of two different length scales which are functions of the RSL and ISL structure. Conclusively, given a TBL, the rougher the surface, the higher is the RSL intruding upward that would thinner the ISL up to 50 %. Therefore, the conventional ISL log-law approximation to TBL flows over urban surfaces should be applied with caution.

  13. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF CYLINDER ON FLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of surface roughness on flow structure was numerically studied.An adaptive numerical method, the fast vortex method was employed.A mathematical roughness, which comes from the no-slip condition of vortex method, was introduced.The numerical results indicate that the roughness has appreciable influence on the flow structure.The vortex shedding could be controlled if the forward multi-layer boundary condition is exerted.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.

  15. On Limiting Behavior of Contaminant Transport Models in Coupled Surface and Groundwater Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Ervin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of work on models for coupling surface-water with groundwater flows which is at its core the Stokes-Darcy problem. The resulting (Stokes-Darcy fluid velocity is important because the flow transports contaminants. The analysis of models including the transport of contaminants has, however, focused on a quasi-static Stokes-Darcy model. Herein we consider the fully evolutionary system including contaminant transport and analyze its quasi-static limits.

  16. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE FLOW IN FRACTURED ROCK MASS DUE TO SURFACE INFILTRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Seepage flow in fractured rock mass due to surface infiltration is a saturated-unsaturated seepage process. Aimed at rock mass with large fracture density, which can be equivalent to continuum, a mathematical model for saturated-unsaturated seepage flow in fractured rock mass due to surface infiltration was established in this paper. The Galerkin finite element method was used in numerical simulation and a finite element program used to calculate saturated-unsaturated seepage flow due to surface infiltration was worked out. A model experiment was employed examine the reasonableness of the program. The results show that the proposed model and program are reasonable. The application of the analysis method in this paper in an engineering project shows that the method is reliable and feasible.

  17. Light-Driven Transport of a Liquid Marble with and against Surface Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavokine, Nikita; Anyfantakis, Manos; Morel, Mathieu; Rudiuk, Sergii; Bickel, Thomas; Baigl, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Liquid marbles, that is, liquid drops coated by a hydrophobic powder, do not wet any solid or liquid substrate, making their transport and manipulation both highly desirable and challenging. Herein, we describe the light-driven transport of floating liquid marbles and emphasize a surprising motion behavior. Liquid marbles are deposited on a water solution containing photosensitive surfactants. Irradiation of the solution generates photoreversible Marangoni flows that transport the liquid marbles toward UV light and away from blue light when the thickness of the liquid substrate is large enough (Marangoni regime). Below a critical thickness, the liquid marbles move in the opposite direction to that of the surface flow at a speed increasing with decreasing liquid thickness (anti-Marangoni). We demonstrate that the anti-Marangoni motion is driven by the free surface deformation, which propels the non-wetting marble against the surface flow. We call this behavior "slide effect".

  18. Flooding in urban drainage systems: Coupling hyperbolic conservation laws for sewer systems and surface flow

    CERN Document Server

    Borsche, Raul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for a sewer network coupled to surface flow and investigate it numerically. In particular, we present a new model for the manholes in storm sewer systems. It is derived using the balance of the total energy in the complete network. The resulting system of equations contains, aside from hyperbolic conservation laws for the sewer network and algebraic relations for the coupling conditions, a system of ODEs governing the flow in the manholes. The manholes provide natural points for the interaction of the sewer system and the run off on the urban surface modelled by shallow water equations. Finally, a numerical method for the coupled system is presented. In several numerical tests we study the influence of the manhole model on the sewer system and the coupling with 2D surface flow.

  19. PIV MEASUREMENTS OF THE NEAR-WAKE FLOW OF AN AIRFOIL ABOVE A FREE SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The near-wake flow of a NACA0012 airfoils mounted above a water surface were experimentally studied in a wind/wave tunnel. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the free surface on the structure of the airfoil trailing wake. The flow structure was measured with different ride heights between the airfoil and free surface using a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The Reynolds number based on the chord length of the airfoil was about 3.5×103. For each experimental condition, large amount of instantaneous velocity fields were captured and ensemble-averaged to get the spatial distributions of mean velocity and mean vorticity, as well as turbulence statistics. The results show that the flow structures of the airfoil wake varies remarkably with the change in the ride height.

  20. Surface coatings on carbon steel for prevention of flow accelerated corrosion under two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Kyung Mo; Hur, Do Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Since the occurrence of a Surry-2 pipe rupture accident, a lot of effort has been made to prevent FAC of carbon steel piping. Some of the chemicals were suggested as a corrosion inhibitor. A platinum decoration was applied as another prevention strategy of carbon steel thinning. The severe FAC-damaged carbon steel pipings were replaced by tolerant materials such as SA335 Gr.P22. However, some components such as the piping materials between moisture separator and turbine have still suffered from the FAC degradation. This work provides a coating method to prevent the FAC degradation of the SA106 Gr.B, which is a piping material between moisture separator and high-pressure turbine, under two-phase flow. We suggested the coating materials to prevent FAC of SA106Gr.B under two-phase water-vapor flow. The FAC resistance of SA106Gr.B was improved with 5 times by electroless-deposited Ni-P protective layer. Other coating materials also enhanced the tolerance up to 5 times for the FAC in a condition of 150 .deg. C and 3.8 bar at 9.5 compared to non-coated SA106Gr.B.

  1. Surface energy balance of an extensive green roof as quantified by full year eddy-covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinger, Jannik; Weber, Stephan

    2017-01-15

    Green roofs are discussed as a promising type of green infrastructure to lower heat stress in cities. In order to enhance evaporative cooling, green roofs should ideally have similar Bowen ratio (β=sensible heat flux/latent heat flux) characteristics such as rural sites, especially during summer periods with high air temperatures. We use the eddy-covariance (EC) method to quantify the energy balance of an 8600m(2) extensive, non-irrigated green roof at the Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Germany over a full annual cycle. To understand the influence of water availability on green roof-atmosphere energy exchange, we studied dry and wet periods and looked into functional relationships between leaf area, volumetric water content (VWC) of the substrate, shortwave radiation and β. The surface energy balance was dominated by turbulent heat fluxes in comparison to conductive substrate heat fluxes. The Bowen ratio was slightly below unity on average but highly variable due to ambient meteorology and substrate water availability, i.e. β increased to 2 in the summer season. During dry periods mean daytime β was 3, which is comparable to typical values of urban instead of rural sites. In contrast, mean daytime β was 0.3 during wet periods. Following a summer wet period the green roof maximum daily evapotranspiration (ET) was 3.3mm, which is a threefold increase with respect to the mean summer ET. A multiple regression model indicated that the substrate VWC at the present site has to be >0.11m(3)m(-3) during summer high insolation periods (>500Wm(-2)) in order to maintain favourable green roof energy partitioning, i.e. mid-day βgreen roofs can be significantly optimised by using sustainable irrigation approaches.

  2. Effective slip for flow through a channel bounded by lubricant-impregnated grooved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Ng, Chiu-On

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate effective slip arising from pressure-driven flow through a slit channel bounded by lubricant-impregnated grooved surfaces. The problem for flow over longitudinal grooves is solved analytically using the methods of domain decomposition and eigenfunction expansion, while that for flow over transverse grooves is solved numerically using the front tracking method. It is found that the effective slip length and the lubricant flow rate can depend strongly on the geometry of the microstructure, the direction of flow, and the lubricant viscosity. In particular, the effective slip can be effectively enhanced by increasing the thickness of a lubricating film atop the ribs. Under the same conditions, a flow that is parallel to the lubricant-impregnated grooves will have a larger effective slip, but also a larger lubricant flow rate, when compared with the case of flow normal to the grooves. It is also shown that, in the case of transverse grooves, because of the downward displacement of the interface between the working/lubricating fluids, the effective slip length and lubricant flow rate may vary non-monotonically with the groove depth.

  3. Image-space texture-based output-coherent surface flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun

    2013-09-01

    Image-space line integral convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to precompute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the image-based flow visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of data sets.

  4. Effects of Steady Flow on Magnetoacoustic-Gravity Surface Waves: I. The Weak Field Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, R.; Mather, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Magnetoacoustic gravity (MAG) waves have been studied for some time. In this article, we investigate the effect that a shear flow at a tangential discontinuity embedded in a gravitationally stratified and magnetised plasma has on MAG surface waves. The dispersion relation found is algebraically analogous to the relation of the non-flow cases obtained by Miles and Roberts ( Solar Phys. 141, 205, 1992), except for the introduction of a Doppler-shifted frequency for the eigenvalue. This feature, however, introduces rather interesting physics, including the asymmetric presence of forward- and backward-propagating surface waves. We find that increasing the equilibrium flow speed leads to a shift in the permitted regions of propagation for surface waves. For most wave number combinations this leads to the fast mode being completely removed, as well as more limited phase speed regimes for slow-mode propagation. We also find that upon increasing the flow, the phase speeds of the backward propagating waves are increased. Eventually, at high enough flow speeds, the wave's direction of propagation is reversed and is in the positive direction. However, the phase speed of the forward-propagating wave remains mainly the same. For strong enough flows we find that the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can also occur when the forward- and backward-propagating modes couple.

  5. Controlled uniform coating from the interplay of Marangoni flows and surface-adsorbed macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Button, Ernie; Stone, Howard A

    2016-01-01

    Surface coatings and patterning technologies are essential for various physicochemical applications. In this Letter, we describe key parameters to achieve uniform particle coatings in binary solutions: First, multiple sequential Marangoni flows, set by solute and surfactant simultaneously, prevent non-uniform particle distributions and continuously mix suspended materials during droplet evaporation. Second, we show the importance of particle-surface interactions that can be established by surface-adsorbed macromolecules. To achieve a uniform deposit in a binary mixture a small concentration of surfactant and surface-adsorbed polymer (0.05 wt% each) is sufficient, which offers a new physicochemical avenue for control of coatings.

  6. Pollutant removal from municipal wastewater employing baffled subsurface flow and integrated surface flow-floating treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Tanveer; Al-Muyeed, Abdullah; Afrin, Rumana; Rahman, Habibur; Sun, Guangzhi

    2014-04-01

    This article reports pollutant removal performances of baffled subsurface flow, and integrated surface flow-floating treatment wetland units, when arranged in series for the treatment of municipal wastewater in Bangladesh. The wetland units (of the hybrid system) included organic, inorganic media, and were planted with nineteen types of macrophytes. The wetland train was operated under hydraulic loading fluctuation and seasonal variation. The performance analyses (across the wetland units) illustrated simultaneous denitrification and organics removal rates in the first stage vertical flow wetland, due to organic carbon leaching from the employed organic media. Higher mean organics removal rates (656.0 g COD/(m(2)·day)) did not completely inhibit nitrification in the first stage vertical flow system; such pattern could be linked to effective utilization of the trapped oxygen, as the flow was directed throughout the media by the baffle walls. Second stage horizontal flow wetland showed enhanced biodegradable organics removal, which depleted organic carbon availability for denitrification. The final stage integrated wetland system allowed further nitrogen removal from wastewater, via nutrient uptake by plant roots (along with nitrification), and generation of organic carbon (by the dead macrophytes) to support denitrification. The system achieved higher E. coli mortality through protozoa predation, E. coli oxidation, and destruction by UV radiation. In general, enhanced pollutant removal efficiencies as demonstrated by the structurally modified hybrid wetland system signify the necessity of such modification, when operated under adverse conditions such as: substantial input organics loading, hydraulic loading fluctuation, and seasonal variation. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of axial vibration on free surface flows in cylindrical liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Xiu-Hong; Jin Wei-Qing

    2005-01-01

    The influence of axial vibration on free surface flows in an open cylindrical container was studied by optical in situ observation method under isothermal conditions. This ground-based experiment was performed on an electromagnetic vibrator with oscillatory frequency of 100Hz. Water-glycerol mixture was chosen as the model liquid. Results showed that small amplitude (< 100μm) could generate a new type of steady streaming flows on a free surface, which were mainly driven by the combination of propagating surface wave and Stokes layer effect. The steady flow manifested various patterns according to the vibration amplitude level. Higher amplitude made steady flow periodical or turbulent,which could be characterized by the critical vibrational dimensionless Reynolds number (Nre)c. The calculated value of (Nre)c was of the magnitude of 10-2 - 10-1. In addition, surface streaming velocities were measured by the particle scattering technique. It was found that the velocity increased parabolically with vibration amplitude and decreased with viscosity for a fixed flow pattern.

  8. A novel permanent gauge-cam station for surface-flow observations on the Tiber River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Porfiri, Maurizio; Giandomenico, Lorenzo; Bernardi, Guido; Mele, Francesco; Spina, Domenico; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    Flow monitoring of riverine environments is crucial for hydrology and hydraulic engineering practice. Besides few experimental implementations, flow gauging relies on local water level and surface-flow velocity measurements through ultrasonic meters and radars. In this paper, we describe a novel permanent gauge-cam station for large-scale and continuous observation of surface flows, based on remote acquisition and calibration of video data. Located on the Tiber River, in the center of Rome, Italy, the station captures 1 min videos every 10 min over an area oriented along the river cross section of up to 20.6 × 15.5 m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that accurate surface-flow velocity estimations can be obtained by analyzing experimental images via particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). In medium illumination conditions (70-75 lux), PTV leads to velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records and is less affected by uneven lighting than large-scale particle image velocimetry. Future efforts will be devoted to the development of a comprehensive test bed infrastructure for investigating the potential of multiple optics-based approaches for surface hydrology.

  9. Role of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on laminar flow in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongping; Zhang, Chengbin; Shi, Mingheng; Peterson, G. P.

    2009-08-01

    A three-dimensional model of laminar flow in microchannels is numerically analyzed incorporating surface roughness effects as characterized by fractal geometry. The Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function is proposed to characterize the multiscale self-affine roughness. The effects of Reynolds number, relative roughness, and fractal dimension on laminar flow are all investigated and discussed. The results indicate that unlike flow in smooth microchannels, the Poiseuille number in rough microchannels increases linearly with the Reynolds number, Re, and is larger than what is typically observed in smooth channels. For these situations, the flow over surfaces with high relative roughness induces recirculation and flow separation, which play an important role in single-phase pressure drop. More specifically, surfaces with the larger fractal dimensions yield more frequent variations in the surface profile, which result in a significantly larger incremental pressure loss, even though at the same relative roughness. The accuracy of the predicted Poiseuille number as calculated by the present model is verified using experimental data available in the literature.

  10. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ACTIVE ELEMENTS ON FLUID FLOW OF MIG WELDPOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.Sun; J.Q.Gao; Y.Fcng; Y.W.Luan

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the behavior of metal inert gas(MIG)welding is formulated in the paper.By means of numerical simulation,the influence of surfaceactive elements on fluid flow of MIG weldpool is studied.The calculation results show that by adding surface-active elements,the fluid flow behavior is drastically changed and the flow fluid flows from lower to upper in vertical direction at the rear of weldpool(w>0).The physical phenomenon is explained from the viewpoint of fluid flow behavior of weldpool that the properties of weld metal is greatly improved and the content of diffused hydrogen is reduced,thus providing a basis for developing new welding materials.

  11. Stagnation-Point Flow toward a Vertical, Nonlinearly Stretching Sheet with Prescribed Surface Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Wei Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid towards a stretching vertical sheet. It is assumed that the sheet is stretched nonlinearly, with prescribed surface heat flux. This problem is governed by three parameters: buoyancy, velocity exponent, and velocity ratio. Both assisting and opposing buoyant flows are considered. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations and solved numerically by finite difference Keller-box method. The flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analyzed and discussed. Dual solutions are found in the opposing buoyant flows, while the solution is unique for the assisting buoyant flows.

  12. Analysis of atmospheric flow over a surface protrusion using the turbulence kinetic energy equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.; Fichtl, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Mean-flow results are compared with those given in a previous paper where the same problem was attacked using a Prandtl mixing-length hypothesis. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow. They highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient.

  13. Diffusion of chemically reactive species in Casson fluid flow over an unsteady permeable stretching surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUKHOPADHYAY Swati; VAJRAVELU Kuppalapalle

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the two-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over an unsteady stretching permeable surface.The Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior.First-order constructive/destructive chemical reaction is considered.With the help of a shooting method,numerical solutions for a class of nonlinear coupled differential equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained.For the steady flow,the exact solution is obtained.The flow features and the mass transfer characteristics for different values of the governing parameters are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  14. Nanoscale surface modifications to control capillary flow characteristics in PMMA microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Subhadeep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA microfluidic devices have been fabricated using a hot embossing technique to incorporate micro-pillar features on the bottom wall of the device which when combined with either a plasma treatment or the coating of a diamond-like carbon (DLC film presents a range of surface modification profiles. Experimental results presented in detail the surface modifications in the form of distinct changes in the static water contact angle across a range from 44.3 to 81.2 when compared to pristine PMMA surfaces. Additionally, capillary flow of water (dyed to aid visualization through the microfluidic devices was recorded and analyzed to provide comparison data between filling time of a microfluidic chamber and surface modification characteristics, including the effects of surface energy and surface roughness on the microfluidic flow. We have experimentally demonstrated that fluid flow and thus filling time for the microfluidic device was significantly faster for the device with surface modifications that resulted in a lower static contact angle, and also that the incorporation of micro-pillars into a fluidic device increases the filling time when compared to comparative devices.

  15. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity of the ...... replace double-difference GPS positioning in remote or hostile environments, and be used to retrieve the surface ice flow velocity without any reference station. Furthermore, the solution can be derived epoch-by-epoch with accuracy in the centimeters to decimeter range....

  16. HVOF on the Surface Strengthen Treatment to the flow Parts of Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI You-zhong; LU Jin-yu; TU Yang-wen; LI Cui-lin

    2004-01-01

    China has the most outstanding and serious problem of silt abrasion on hydraulic turbine, especially in the power station on mainstream of Yellow River and the upriver anabranch of Yangtze River. For many years, in order to find the destruction rules of silt to hydraulic turbine, and study how to slow down the destruction speed of sandiness stream to surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine, various kinds of new technology, new material, new craftwork have been verified in lab and on spot. It is proved that using high velocity oxygen fuel to strengthen the surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine can effectively prolong the service life of hydroelectric generating set.

  17. A stereo vision method for tracking particle flow on the weld pool surface

    OpenAIRE

    C. X. Zhao; Richardson, I. M.; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C.R.; Saldi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The oscillation of a weld pool surface makes the fluid flow motion quite complex. Two-dimensional results cannot reflect enough information to quantitatively describe the fluid flow in the weld pool; however, there are few direct three-dimensional results available. In this paper, we describe a three-dimensional reconstruction method to measure weld pool surface features based on a single high-speed camera. A stereo adapter was added in front of the high-speed camera lens to obtain two images...

  18. Surface ice flow velocity and tide retrieval of the amery ice shelf using precise point positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2006-01-01

    Five days of continuous GPS observation data were collected in the frontal zone of the Amery ice shelf and subsequently post-processed using precise point position (PPP) technology based on precise orbit and clock products from the International GNSS service. The surface ice flow velocity...... replace double-difference GPS positioning in remote or hostile environments, and be used to retrieve the surface ice flow velocity without any reference station. Furthermore, the solution can be derived epoch-by-epoch with accuracy in the centimeters to decimeter range....

  19. Surface treatment of flow channels in microfluidic devices fabricated by stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Kanako; Tsuchiya, Masaki; Sugiyama, Hitomi; Katakura, Toru; Hayakawa, Masatoshi; Kanai, Toshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    A microfluidic device with three-dimensional flow channels was fabricated by stereolithography, and hydrophilic surface treatment of the flow channel was performed by coating the wall of the channel with a silica layer. After the treatment, the device produced monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. The silica layer on the channel surface was then coated with a fluorinated silane coupling agent to make it hydrophobic, thus enabling the treated device to produce monodisperse inverted water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions.

  20. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  1. Debris flow grain size scales with sea surface temperature over glacial-interglacial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Araújo, João Paulo C.

    2015-04-01

    Debris flows are common erosional processes responsible for a large volume of sediment transfer across a range of landscapes from arid settings to the tropics. They are also significant natural hazards in populated areas. However, we lack a clear set of debris flow transport laws, meaning that: (i) debris flows remain largely neglected by landscape evolution models; (ii) we do not understand the sensitivity of debris flow systems to past or future climate changes; and (iii) it remains unclear how to interpret debris flow stratigraphy and sedimentology, for example whether their deposits record information about past tectonics or palaeoclimate. Here, we take a grain size approach to characterising debris flow deposits from 35 well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Owens Valley, California. We show that the average grain sizes of these granitic debris flow sediments precisely scales with sea surface temperature throughout the entire last glacial-interglacial cycle, increasing by ~ 7 % per 1 ° C of climate warming. We compare these data with similar debris flow systems in the Mediterranean (southern Italy) and the tropics (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and find equivalent signals over a total temperature range of ~ 14 ° C. In each area, debris flows are largely governed by rainfall intensity during triggering storms, which is known to increase exponentially with temperature. Therefore, we suggest that these debris flow systems are transporting predictably coarser-grained sediment in warmer, stormier conditions. This implies that debris flow sedimentology is governed by discharge thresholds and may be a sensitive proxy for past changes in rainfall intensity. Our findings show that debris flows are sensitive to climate changes over short timescales (≤ 104 years) and therefore highlight the importance of integrating hillslope processes into landscape evolution models, as well as providing new observational constraints to guide this. Finally, we comment on what grain size

  2. Mapping lava flow textures using three-dimensional measures of surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallonee, H. C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; McGregor, M.; Hughes, S. S.; Neish, C.; Downs, M.; Delparte, D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Lava flow emplacement conditions are reflected in the surface textures of a lava flow; unravelling these conditions is crucial to understanding the eruptive history and characteristics of basaltic volcanoes. Mapping lava flow textures using visual imagery alone is an inherently subjective process, as these images generally lack the resolution needed to make these determinations. Our team has begun mapping lava flow textures using visual spectrum imagery, which is an inherently subjective process involving the challenge of identifying transitional textures such as rubbly and slabby pāhoehoe, as these textures are similar in appearance and defined qualitatively. This is particularly problematic for interpreting planetary lava flow textures, where we have more limited data. We present a tool to objectively classify lava flow textures based on quantitative measures of roughness, including the 2D Hurst exponent, RMS height, and 2D:3D surface area ratio. We collected aerial images at Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in 2015 and 2016 as part of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) and BASALT (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) research projects. The aerial images were stitched together to create Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) with resolutions on the order of centimeters. The DTMs were evaluated by the classification tool described above, with output compared against field assessment of the texture. Further, the DTMs were downsampled and reevaluated to assess the efficacy of the classification tool at data resolutions similar to current datasets from other planetary bodies. This tool allows objective classification of lava flow texture, which enables more accurate interpretations of flow characteristics. This work also gives context for interpretations of flows with comparatively low data resolutions, such as those on the Moon and Mars. Textural maps based on

  3. An extension of the open-source porousMultiphaseFoam toolbox dedicated to groundwater flows solving the Richards' equation

    CERN Document Server

    Horgue, Pierre; Guibert, Romain; Debenest, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    In this note, the existing porousMultiphaseFoam toolbox, developed initially for any two-phase flow in porous media is extended to the specific case of the Richards' equation which neglect the pressure gradient of the non-wetting phase. This model is typically used for saturated and unsaturated groundwater flows. A Picard's algorithm is implemented to linearize and solve the Richards' equation developed in the pressure head based form. This new solver of the porousMultiphaseFoam toolbox is named groundwaterFoam. The validation of thesolver is achieved by a comparison between numerical simulations and results obtained from the literature. Finally, a parallel efficiency test is performed on a large unstructured mesh and exhibits a super-linear behavior as observed for the other solvers of the toolbox.

  4. Stochastic particle based models for suspended particle movement in surface flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christina W.TSAI; Chuanjian MAN; Jungsun OH

    2014-01-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment particle movement in surface water can be achieved by stochastic particle tracking model approaches. In this paper, different mathematical forms of particle tracking models are introduced to describe particle movement under various flow conditions, i.e., the stochastic diffusion process, stochastic jump process, and stochastic jump diffusion process. While the stochastic diffusion process can be used to represent the stochastic movement of suspended particles in turbulent flows, the stochastic jump and the stochastic jump diffusion processes can be used to describe suspended particle movement in the occurrences of a sequence of extreme flows. An extreme flow herein is defined as a hydrologic flow event or a hydrodynamic flow phenomenon with a low probability of occurrence and a high impact on its ambient flow environment. In this paper, the suspended sediment particle is assumed to immediately follow the extreme flows in the jump process (i.e. the time lag between the flow particle and the sediment particle in extreme flows is considered negligible). In the proposed particle tracking models, a random term mainly caused by fluid eddy motions is modeled as a Wiener process, while the random occurrences of a sequence of extreme flows can be modeled as a Poisson process. The frequency of occurrence of the extreme flows in the proposed particle tracking model can be explicitly accounted for by the Poisson process when evaluating particle movement. The ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be obtained from the proposed stochastic models via simulations. The ensemble mean and variance of particle velocity are verified with available data. Applicability of the proposed stochastic particle tracking models for sediment transport modeling is also discussed.

  5. Theory for source-responsive and free-surface film modeling of unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    A new model explicitly incorporates the possibility of rapid response, across significant distance, to substantial water input. It is useful for unsaturated flow processes that are not inherently diffusive, or that do not progress through a series of equilibrium states. The term source-responsive is used to mean that flow responds sensitively to changing conditions at the source of water input (e.g., rainfall, irrigation, or ponded infiltration). The domain of preferential flow can be conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films along the walls of pores. These films may be considered to have uniform thickness, as suggested by field evidence that preferential flow moves at an approximately uniform rate when generated by a continuous and ample water supply. An effective facial area per unit volume quantitatively characterizes the medium with respect to source-responsive flow. A flow-intensity factor dependent on conditions within the medium represents the amount of source-responsive flow at a given time and position. Laminar flow theory provides relations for the velocity and thickness of flowing source-responsive films. Combination with the Darcy-Buckingham law and the continuity equation leads to expressions for both fluxes and dynamic water contents. Where preferential flow is sometimes or always significant, the interactive combination of source-responsive and diffuse flow has the potential to improve prediction of unsaturated-zone fluxes in response to hydraulic inputs and the evolving distribution of soil moisture. Examples for which this approach is efficient and physically plausible include (i) rainstorm-generated rapid fluctuations of a deep water table and (ii) space- and time-dependent soil water content response to infiltration in a macroporous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  6. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Uleysky, M Yu; Budyansky, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using Lagrangian methods we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait correlate significantly with the Near Strait inflow and Bering Strait outflow. Enhanced westward surface flow of the Alaskan Stream across the $174^\\circ$ E section in the northern North Pacific is accompanied by an increased inflow into the Bering Sea through the Near Strait. In summer, the surface flow pattern in the Kamchatka Strait is determined by passage of anticyclonic and cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The wind stress over the Bering basin in winter - spring is responsible for eddy generation in the region.

  7. Influence of Rough Flow over Sea Surface on Dry Atmospheric Deposition Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Meteorological model and a dry deposition module were used to estimate the effects of sea surface rough flow (SSRF over the sea surface on dry deposition velocities. The dry deposition turbulence resistance, Ra, and sub-layer resistance, Rb, decreased more than 10% and 5% due to SSRF, respectively. For example, for HNO3, the mean dry deposition velocities (Vd were 0.51 cm s-1 in January, 0.58 in April, 0.65 cm s-1 in July and 0.79 cm s-1 in October with only smooth flow over the sea surface. However, the SSRF increased the Vd of HNO3 by 5 - 20% in the east China seas. These results show that SSRF is an important factor in estimating surface roughness to further improve calculation of the dry deposition velocities over the ocean. Improvements in parameterization of sea roughness length will be a worthwhile effort in related future studies.

  8. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...... algorithm, leakances operate as a valve for gas pressure in a liquid-covered porous medium facilitating the simulation of air out-break events through the land surface. General criteria are stated to guarantee stability in a sequential iterative coupling algorithm and, in addition, for leakances to control...... the mass exchange between compartments. A benchmark test, which is based on a classic experimental data set on infiltration excess (Horton) overland flow, identified a feedback mechanism between surface runoff and soil air pressures. Our study suggests that air compression in soils amplifies surface runoff...

  9. Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H Jay; Abdalati, Waleed; Herring, Tom; Larson, Kristine; Saba, Jack; Steffen, Konrad

    2002-07-12

    Ice flow at a location in the equilibrium zone of the west-central Greenland Ice Sheet accelerates above the midwinter average rate during periods of summer melting. The near coincidence of the ice acceleration with the duration of surface melting, followed by deceleration after the melting ceases, indicates that glacial sliding is enhanced by rapid migration of surface meltwater to the ice-bedrock interface. Interannual variations in the ice acceleration are correlated with variations in the intensity of the surface melting, with larger increases accompanying higher amounts of summer melting. The indicated coupling between surface melting and ice-sheet flow provides a mechanism for rapid, large-scale, dynamic responses of ice sheets to climate warming.

  10. Surface flow observations from a gauge-cam station on the Tiber river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Petroselli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the kinematic organization of natural water bodies is central to hydrology and environmental engineering practice. Reliable and continuous flow observations are essential to comprehend flood generation and propagation mechanisms, erosion dynamics, sediment transport, and drainage network evolution. In engineering practice, flood warning systems largely rely on real-time discharge measurements, and flow velocity monitoring is important for the design and management of hydraulic structures, such as reservoirs and hydropower plants. Traditionally, gauging stations have been equipped with water level meters, and stage-discharge relationships (rating curves) have been established through few direct discharge measurements. Only in rare instances, monitoring stations have integrated radar technology for local measurement of surface flow velocity. Establishing accurate rating curves depends on the availability of a comprehensive range of discharge values, including measurements recorded during extreme events. However, discharge values during high-flow events are often difficult or even impossible to obtain, thereby hampering the reliability of discharge predictions. Fully remote observations have been enabled in the past ten years through optics-based velocimetry techniques. Such methodologies enable the estimation of the surface flow velocity field over extended regions from the motion of naturally occurring debris or floaters dragged by the current. Resting on the potential demonstrated by such approaches, here, we present a novel permanent gauge-cam station for the observation of the flow velocity field in the Tiber river. This new station captures one-minute videos every 10 minutes over an area of up to 20.6 × 15.5m2. In a feasibility study, we demonstrate that experimental images analyzed via particle tracking velocimetry and particle image velocimetry can be used to obtain accurate surface flow velocity estimations in close agreement with radar records

  11. Simulations of flow mode distributions on rough fracture surfaces using a parallelized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Shigorina, E.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Pan, W.; Geyer, T.

    2015-12-01

    Under idealized conditions (smooth surfaces, linear relationship between Bond number and Capillary number of droplets) steady-state flow modes on fracture surfaces have been shown to develop from sliding droplets to rivulets and finally (wavy) film flow, depending on the specified flux. In a recent study we demonstrated the effect of surface roughness on droplet flow in unsaturated wide aperture fractures, however, its effect on other prevailing flow modes is still an open question. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of complex flow modes on fracture surfaces employing an efficient three-dimensional parallelized SPH model. The model is able to simulate highly intermittent, gravity-driven free-surface flows under dynamic wetting conditions. The effect of surface tension is included via efficient pairwise interaction forces. We validate the model using various analytical and semi-analytical relationships for droplet and complex flow dynamics. To investigate the effect of surface roughness on flow dynamics we construct surfaces with a self-affine fractal geometry and roughness characterized by the Hurst exponent. We demonstrate the effect of surface roughness (on macroscopic scales this can be understood as a tortuosity) on the steady-state distribution of flow modes. Furthermore we show the influence of a wide range of natural wetting conditions (defined by static contact angles) on the final distribution of surface coverage, which is of high importance for matrix-fracture interaction processes.

  12. Cooling of a channeled lava flow with non-Newtonian rheology: crust formation and surface radiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Santini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present here the results from dynamical and thermal models that describe a channeled lava flow as it cools by radiation. In particular, the effects of power-law rheology and of the presence of bends in the flow are considered, as well as the formation of surface crust and lava tubes. On the basis of the thermal models, we analyze the assumptions implicit in the currently used formulae for evaluation of lava flow rates from satellite thermal imagery. Assuming a steady flow down an inclined rectangular channel, we solve numerically the equation of motion by the finite-volume method and a classical iterative solution. Our results show that the use of power-law rheology results in relevant differences in the average velocity and volume flow rate with respect to Newtonian rheology. Crust formation is strongly influenced by power-law rheology; in particular, the growth rate and the velocity profile inside the channel are strongly modified. In addition, channel curvature affects the flow dynamics and surface morphology. The size and shape of surface solid plates are controlled by competition between the shear stress and the crust yield strength: the degree of crust cover of the channel is studied as a function of the curvature. Simple formulae are currently used to relate the lava flow rate to the energy radiated by the lava flow as inferred from satellite thermal imagery. Such formulae are based on a specific model, and consequently, their validity is subject to the model assumptions. An analysis of these assumptions reveals that the current use of such formulae is not consistent with the model.

  13. Time-Distance Helioseismology with f Modes as a Method for Measurement of Near-Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Gizon, Laurent

    1999-01-01

    Travel times measured for the f mode have been used to study flows near the solar surface in conjunction with simultaneous measurements of the magnetic field. Previous flow measurements of doppler surface rotation, small magnetic feature rotation, supergranular pattern rotation, and surface meridional circulation have been confirmed. In addition, the flow in supergranules due to Coriolis forces has been measured. The spatial and temporal power spectra for a six-day observing sequence has been measured.

  14. Surface functionalization of SPR chip for specific molecular interaction analysis under flow condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization of sensor chip for probe immobilization is crucial for the biosensing applications of surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensors. In this paper, we report a method circulating the dopamine aqueous solution to coat polydopamine film on sensing surface for surface functionalization of SPR chip. The polydopamine film with available thickness can be easily prepared by controlling the circulation time and the biorecognition elements can be immobilized on the polydopamine film for specific molecular interaction analysis. These operations are all performed under flow condition in the fluidic system, and have the advantages of easy implementation, less time consuming, and low cost, because the reagents and devices used in the operations are routinely applied in most laboratories. In this study, the specific absorption between the protein A probe immobilized on the sensing surface and human immunoglobulin G in the buffer is monitored based on this surface functionalization strategy to demonstrated its feasibility for SPR biosensing applications.

  15. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combés, Benoit; Heitz, Dominique; Guibert, Anthony; Mémin, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the combined use of a kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation (DA) method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This DA scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor in capturing the temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is qualified for a wave in a real rectangular flat bottomed tank. It is shown that for basic initial conditions, the particle filter rapidly and remarkably reconstructs the velocity and height of the free surface flow based on noisy measurements of the elevation alone.

  16. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combés, Benoit; Heitz, Dominique; Guibert, Anthony [IRSTEA, UR TERE, 17 avenue de Cucillé, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Mémin, Etienne, E-mail: dominique.heitz@irstea.fr, E-mail: etienne.memin@inria.fr [INRIA, Fluminance group, Campus universitaire de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the combined use of a kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation (DA) method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This DA scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor in capturing the temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally, the efficiency of the algorithm is qualified for a wave in a real rectangular flat bottomed tank. It is shown that for basic initial conditions, the particle filter rapidly and remarkably reconstructs the velocity and height of the free surface flow based on noisy measurements of the elevation alone. (paper)

  17. Analysis of electro-osmotic flow in a microchannel with undulated surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Washizu, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    The electro-osmotic flow through a channel between two undulated surfaces induced by an external electric field is investigated. The gap of the channel is very small and comparable to the thickness of the electrical double layers. A lattice Boltzmann simulation is carried out on the model consisting of the Poisson equation for electrical potential, the Nernst--Planck equation for ion concentration, and the Navier--Stokes {\\color{black}equations} for flows of the electrolyte solution. An analytical model that predicts the flow rate is also derived under the assumption that the channel width is very small compared with the characteristic length of the variation along the channel. The analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by using the lattice Boltzmann method. In the case of a constant surface charge density along the channel, the variation of the channel width reduces the electro-osmotic flow, and the flow rate is smaller than that of a straight channel. In the case of a surface ch...

  18. Oscillating line source in a shear flow with a free surface: critical layer-like contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2016-01-01

    The linearized water-wave radiation problem for an oscillating submerged line source in an inviscid shear flow with a free surface is investigated analytically at finite, constant depth in the presence of a shear flow varying linearly with depth. The surface velocity is taken to be zero relative to the oscillating source, so that Doppler effects are absent. The radiated wave out from the source is calculated based on Euler's equation of motion with the appropriate boundary and radiation conditions, and differs substantially from the solution obtained by assuming potential flow. To wit, an additional wave is found in the downstream direction in addition to the previously known dispersive wave solutions; this wave is non-dispersive and we show how it is the surface manifestation of a critical layer-like flow generated by the combination of shear and mass flux at the source, passively advected with the flow. As seen from a system moving at the fluid velocity at the source's depth, streamlines form closed curves ...

  19. Drag reductions and the air-water interface stability of superhydrophobic surfaces in rectangular channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxian; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei

    2016-11-01

    Flow in a rectangular channel with superhydrophobic (SH) top and bottom walls was investigated experimentally. Different SH surfaces, including hierarchical structured surfaces and surfaces with different micropost sizes (width and spacing) but the same solid fraction, were fabricated and measured. Pressure loss and flow rate in the channel with SH top and bottom walls were measured, with Reynolds number changing from 700 to 4700, and the corresponding friction factor for the SH surface was calculated. The statuses of the air plastron on different SH surfaces were observed during the experiment. In our experiment, compared with the experiment for the smooth surface, drag reductions were observed for all SH surfaces, with the largest drag reduction of 42.2%. It was found that the hierarchy of the microstructure can increase the drag reduction by decreasing the solid fraction and enhancing the stability of the air-water interface. With a fixed solid fraction, the drag reduction decreases as the post size (width and spacing) increases, due to the increasing curvature and instability effects of the air-water interface. A correlation parameter between the contact angle hysteresis, the air-water interface stability, and the drag reduction of the SH surfaces was found.

  20. Free-surface flow of liquid oxygen under non-uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Rui-Ping; Wang, Kai; Zhi, Xiao-Qin; Qiu, Li-Min

    2017-01-01

    The paramagnetic property of oxygen makes it possible to control the two-phase flow at cryogenic temperatures by non-uniform magnetic fields. The free-surface flow of vapor-liquid oxygen in a rectangular channel was numerically studied using the two-dimensional phase field method. The effects of magnetic flux density and inlet velocity on the interface deformation, flow pattern and pressure drop were systematically revealed. The liquid level near the high-magnetic channel center was lifted upward by the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The interface height difference increased almost linearly with the magnetic force. For all inlet velocities, pressure drop under 0.25 T was reduced by 7-9% due to the expanded local cross-sectional area, compared to that without magnetic field. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of employing non-uniform magnetic field to control the free-surface flow of liquid oxygen. This non-contact method may be used for promoting the interface renewal, reducing the flow resistance, and improving the flow uniformity in the cryogenic distillation column, which may provide a potential for enhancing the operating efficiency of cryogenic air separation.

  1. Two-dimensional surface river flow patterns measured with paired RiverSondes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    Two RiverSondes were operated simultaneously in close proximity in order to provide a two-dimensional map of river surface velocity. The initial test was carried out at Threemile Slough in central California. The two radars were installed about 135 m apart on the same bank of the channel. Each radar used a 3-yagi antenna array and determined signal directions using direction finding. The slough is approximately 200 m wide, and each radar processed data out to about 300 m, with a range resolution of 15 m and an angular resolution of 1 degree. Overlapping radial vector data from the two radars were combined to produce total current vectors at a grid spacing of 10 m, with updates every 5 minutes. The river flow in the region, which has a maximum velocity of about 0.8 m/s, is tidally driven with flow reversals every 6 hours, and complex flow patterns were seen during flow reversal. The system performed well with minimal mutual interference. The ability to provide continuous, non-contact two-dimensional river surface flow measurements will be useful in several unique settings, such as studies of flow at river junctions where impacts to juvenile fish migration are significant. Additional field experiments are planned this year on the Sacramento River. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  2. Effects of fluid recirculation on mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Guo Zhang; Xi-Wen Zhang; Ying-Xi Liu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of disturbed flow on the mass transfer from arterial surface to flowing blood was studied numerically,and the results were compared with that of our previous work.The arterial wall was assumed to be viscoelastic and the blood was assumed to be incompressible and non-Newtonian fluid,which is more close to human arterial system.Numerical results indicated that the mass transfer from the arterial surface to flowing blood in regions of disturbed flow is positively related with the wall shear rates and it is significantly enhanced in regions of disturbed flow with a local minimum around the reattachment point which is higher than the average value of the downstream.Therefore,it may be implied that the accumulation of cholesterol or lipids within atheromatous plaques is not caused by the reduced efflux of cholesterol or lipids,but by the infiltration of the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) from the flowing blood to the arterial wall.

  3. Experimental study on the clustering of floaters on the free surface of a turbulent flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the statistical properties of millimetric spheres floating on the surface of a turbulent flow. The flow is generated in a layer of liquid metal by an electromagnetic forcing. \\textcolor{red}{By using two magnet arrays,} we are able to create one highly fluctuating flow and one almost stationary flow. In both cases, we follow the motion of hundreds of millimeter-size particles floating at the deformed interface of the liquid metal. We evidence the clustering of floaters by a statistical study of the local density of particles. Some dynamical properties of clusters are exposed. With the almost stationary flow obtained with the random array of magnets, we are able to relate the cluster formation to compression effects. Hence, although floaters are not passive scalar and move on a disturbed interface, we propose that the main clustering effect is the same as the one reported for passive scalar on an almost flat surface of a turbulent flow.

  4. Three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface with prescribed surface temperature and prescribed surface heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Tasawar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the mathematical modelling for three-dimensional flow of an incompressible Oldroyd- B fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Mathematical formulation incorporates the effect of internal heat source/sink. Two cases of heat transfer namely the prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF are considered. Computations for the governing nonlinear flow are presented using homotopy analysis method. Comparison of the present analysis is shown with the previous limiting result. The obtained results are discussed by plots of interesting parameters for both PST and PHF cases. We examine that an increase in Prandtl number leads to a reduction in PST and PHF. It is noted that both PST and PHF are increased with an increase in source parameter. Further we have seen that the temperature is an increasing function of ratio parameter

  5. Turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces with shear-dependent slip length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosh Aghdam, Sohrab; Seddighi, Mehdi; Ricco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Motivated by recent experimental evidence, shear-dependent slip length superhydrophobic surfaces are studied. Lyapunov stability analysis is applied in a 3D turbulent channel flow and extended to the shear-dependent slip-length case. The feedback law extracted is recognized for the first time to coincide with the constant-slip-length model widely used in simulations of hydrophobic surfaces. The condition for the slip parameters is found to be consistent with the experimental data and with values from DNS. The theoretical approach by Fukagata (PoF 18.5: 051703) is employed to model the drag-reduction effect engendered by the shear-dependent slip-length surfaces. The estimated drag-reduction values are in very good agreement with our DNS data. For slip parameters and flow conditions which are potentially realizable in the lab, the maximum computed drag reduction reaches 50%. The power spent by the turbulent flow on the walls is computed, thereby recognizing the hydrophobic surfaces as a passive-absorbing drag-reduction method, as opposed to geometrically-modifying techniques that do not consume energy, e.g. riblets, hence named passive-neutral. The flow is investigated by visualizations, statistical analysis of vorticity and strain rates, and quadrants of the Reynolds stresses. Part of this work was funded by Airbus Group. Simulations were performed on the ARCHER Supercomputer (UKTC Grant).

  6. Drag reduction by surface treatment in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greidanus, A.J.; Delfos, R.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use a Taylor-Couette facility to study the drag reducing effects of commercial surface products at high shear Reynolds numbers (Res) under perfect couter-rotating conditions (riwi=rowo). The correlation between torque contribution of the von Karman flow and shear Reynolds number is investigated.

  7. Practical computational aeroacoustics for compact surfaces in low mach number flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradera-Mallabiabarrena, Ainara; Keith, Graeme; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    compared to the wavelength of interest. This makes it possible to focus on the surface source term of the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation. In this paper, in order to illustrate the basic method for storing and utilizing data from the CFD analysis, the flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number...

  8. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo

    In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland...

  9. Modeling heat efficiency, flow and scale-up in the corotating disc scraped surface heat exchanger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Alan; Szabo, Peter; Karlson, Torben

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of two different scale corotating disc scraped surface heat exchangers (CDHE) was performed experimentally. The findings were compared to predictions from a finite element model. We find that the model predicts well the flow pattern of the two CDHE's investigated. The heat transfer...

  10. Free surface modeling of contacting solid metal flows employing the ALE formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelt, van der A.A.; Bor, T.C.; Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Akkerman, R.; Huetink, J.; Merklein, M.; Hagenah, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical problem with contacting solid metal flows is presented and solved with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The problem consists of two domains which mechanically interact with each other. For this simulation a new free surface boundary condition i

  11. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, van der B.; Rozemeijer, J.C.; Griffioen, J.; Velde, van der Y.

    2014-01-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters though co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and 5 P immobilization along the flow-path fro

  12. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphate immobilization along the flow-path from groundwater into surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, B.; Rozemeijer, J. C.; Griffioen, J.; van der Velde, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The retention of phosphorus in surface waters though co-precipitation of phosphate with Fe-oxyhydroxides during exfiltration of anaerobic Fe(II) rich groundwater is not well understood. We developed an experimental field set-up to study Fe(II) oxidation and P immobilization along the flow-path from

  13. A coupled surface/subsurface flow model accounting for air entrapment and air pressure counterflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delfs, Jens Olaf; Wang, Wenqing; Kalbacher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces the soil air system into integrated hydrology by simulating the flow processes and interactions of surface runoff, soil moisture and air in the shallow subsurface. The numerical model is formulated as a coupled system of partial differential equations for hydrostatic (diffusive...

  14. A second-order boundary-fitted projection method for free-surface flow computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Prosperetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the high-fidelity simulation of axisymmetric free-surface flows. A boundary-fitted grid is coupled with a new projection method for the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations with second-order accuracy in space and time. Two variants of this new method are dev

  15. Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Colton; Dorsey, Alison; Louie, John [UNR; Schwering, Paul; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Colton Dudley, Alison Dorsey, Paul Opdyke, Dustin Naphan, Marlon Ramos, John Louie, Paul Schwering, and Satish Pullammanappallil, 2013, Near-surface geophysical characterization of Holocene faults conducive to geothermal flow near Pyramid Lake, Nevada: presented at Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, Pacific Section Annual Meeting, Monterey, Calif., April 19-25.

  16. Recursive estimation of 3D motion and surface structure from local affine flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calway, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    A recursive structure from motion algorithm based on optical flow measurements taken from an image sequence is described. It provides estimates of surface normals in addition to 3D motion and depth. The measurements are affine motion parameters which approximate the local flow fields associated with near-planar surface patches in the scene. These are integrated over time to give estimates of the 3D parameters using an extended Kalman filter. This also estimates the camera focal length and, so, the 3D estimates are metric. The use of parametric measurements means that the algorithm is computationally less demanding than previous optical flow approaches and the recursive filter builds in a degree of noise robustness. Results of experiments on synthetic and real image sequences demonstrate that the algorithm performs well.

  17. Experimental Study of Stable Surfaces for Anti-Slug Control in Multi-phase Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Stampe, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    Severe slugging flow is always challenging in oil & gas production, especially for the current offshore based production. The slugging flow can cause a lot of problems, such as those relevant to production safety, fatigue as well as capability. As one typical phenomenon in multi-phase flow dynamics......, the slug can be avoided or eliminated by proper facility design or control of operational conditions. Based on a testing facility which can emulate a pipeline-riser or a gas-lifted production well in a scaled-down manner, this paper experimentally studies the correlations of key operational parameters...... that the capability, performance and efficiency of anti-slug control can be dramatically improved if these stable surfaces can be experimentally determined beforehand. The paper concludes that obtaining the stable surface on the new developed map can significantly improve the production rate in a control scheme. Even...

  18. Ricci flow and the determinant of the Laplacian on non-compact surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Albin, Pierre; Rochon, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    On compact surfaces with or without boundary, Osgood, Phillips and Sarnak proved that the maximum of the determinant of the Laplacian within a conformal class of metrics with fixed area occurs at a metric of constant curvature and, for negative Euler characteristic, exhibited a flow from a given metric to a constant curvature metric along which the determinant increases. The aim of this paper is to perform a similar analysis for the determinant of the Laplacian on a non-compact surface whose ends are asymptotic to hyperbolic funnels or cusps. In that context, we show that the Ricci flow converges to a metric of constant curvature and that the determinant increases along this flow.

  19. Hydrodynamics of free surface flows modelling with the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    A definitive guide for accurate state-of-the-art modelling of free surface flows Understanding the dynamics of free surface flows is the starting point of many environmental studies, impact studies, and waterworks design. Typical applications, once the flows are known, are water quality, dam impact and safety, pollutant control, and sediment transport. These studies used to be done in the past with scale models, but these are now being replaced by numerical simulation performed by software suites called "hydro-informatic systems". The Telemac system is the leading software package worldwide, and has been developed by Electricité de France and Jean-Michel Hervouet, who is the head and main developer of the Telemac project. Written by a leading authority on Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book aims to provide environmentalists, hydrologists, and engineers using hydro-informatic systems such as Telemac and the finite element method, with the knowledge of the basic principles, capabilities, different hypothese...

  20. Drag-reducing performance of obliquely aligned superhydrophobic surface in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-04-01

    Friction drag reduction effect by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. The simulations are performed under a constant pressure gradient at the friction Reynolds number of 180. A special focus is laid upon the influence of the angle of microridge structure to flow direction, while the gas area fraction on the surface is kept at 50% and the groove width is kept constant at 33.75 wall units. Larger drag reduction effect is observed for a smaller angle: the bulk-mean velocity is increased about 15% when the microridge is parallel to the flow. The drag reduction effect is found to deteriorate rapidly with the microridge angle due to a decrease in the slip velocity. The Reynolds stress budgets show that the modification in each physical effect is qualitatively similar but more pronounced when the microridge is aligned with the stream.

  1. Simulation of Effective Slip and Drag in Pressure-Driven Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanding Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow on superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using finite element modeling (FEM. Surfaces with different textures like grooves, square pillars, and cylinders immersed in liquid forming Cassie state were modeled. Nonslip boundary condition was assumed at solid-liquid interface while slip boundary condition was supposed at gas-liquid interface. It was found that the flow rate can be affected by the shape of the texture, the fraction of the gas-liquid area, the height of the channel, and the driving pressure gradient. By extracting the effective boundary slip from the flow rate based on a model, it was found that the shape of the textures and the fraction of the gas-liquid area affect the effective slip significantly while the height of the channel and the driving pressure gradient have no obvious effect on effective slip.

  2. Pulsatory characteristics of wind velocity in sand flow over typical underlying surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pulsatory characteristics of wind velocity in sand flow over Gobi and mobile sand surface have been investigated experimentally in the wind tunnel. The primary goal of this paper is to reveal the relation- ship between pulsatory characteristics of instantaneous wind speed in sand flow and the motion state of sand grains. For a given underlying surface, pulsation of wind velocities in sand flow on different heights has a good correlation. As the space distance among different heights increases, fluctuation of instantaneous wind speed presents a decreasing trend and its amplitude is closely related to the mo- tion state of sand grains and their transport. Pulsatory intensity increases with the indicated wind speed, but its relative value does not depend on it, only agrees with height.

  3. Free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    efficient, allowing simulations of tens of thousands of rigid particles within a reasonable computational time. Furthermore, the framework does not require any fitting constants or parameters devoid of a clear physical meaning and it is stable, robust and can be easily generalized to a variety of problems......A numerical framework capable of predicting the free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is described. The framework is a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow, the mass tracking algorithm for free surface representation, the immersed...... boundary method for two-way coupled interactions between fluid and rigid particles and an algorithm for the dynamics and mutual interactions of rigid particles. The framework is able to simulate the flow of suspensions at the level of the largest suspended particles and, at the same time, the model is very...

  4. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that

  5. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  6. Thiolene-based microfluidic flow cells for surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Gareth; Oseki, Takao; Baba, Akira; Patton, Derek; Kaneko, Futao; Mao, Leidong; Locklin, Jason

    2011-06-01

    Thiolene-based microfluidic devices have been coupled with surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) to provide an integrated platform to study interfacial interactions in both aqueous and organic solutions. In this work, we develop a photolithographic method that interfaces commercially available thiolene resin to gold and glass substrates to generate microfluidic channels with excellent adhesion that leave the underlying sensor surface free from contamination and readily available for surface modification through self-assembly. These devices can sustain high flow rates and have excellent solvent compatibility even with several organic solvents. To demonstrate the versatility of these devices, we have conducted nanomolar detection of streptavidin-biotin interactions using in situ SPRI.

  7. Multi-parameter flow cytometry and cell sorting reveal extensive physiological heterogeneity in Bacillus cereus batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Want, Andrew; Hancocks, Helen; Thomas, Colin R; Stocks, Stuart M; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Based on two staining protocols, DiOC(6)(3)/propidium iodide (PI) and RedoxSensor Green (an indicator of bacterial reductase activity)/PI, multi-parameter flow cytometry and cell sorting has identified at least four distinguishable physiological states during batch cultures of Bacillus cereus. Furthermore, dependent on the position in the growth curve, single cells gave rise to varying numbers of colonies when sorted individually onto nutrient agar plates. These growing colonies derived from a single cell had widely different lag phases, inferred from differences in colony size. This further highlights the complex population dynamics of bacterial monocultures and further demonstrates that individual bacterial cells in a culture respond in markedly dissimilar ways to the environment, resulting in a physiologically heterogenous and dynamic population.

  8. No muon excess in extensive air showers at ~10^17 eV primary energy: EAS-MSU muon versus surface detector data

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Yu A; Karpikov, I S; Kulikov, G V; Kuznetsov, M Yu; Rubtsov, G I; Sulakov, V P; Troitsky, S V

    2016-01-01

    Some discrepancies have been reported between observed and simulated muon content of extensive air showers: the number of observed muons exceeded the expectations in HiRes-MIA, Yakutsk and Pierre Auger Observatory data. Here, we analyze the data of the Moscow State University Extensive Air Shower (EAS-MSU) array on E_mu>~10 GeV muons in showers caused by ~10^17 eV primary particles and demonstrate that they agree with simulations (QGSJET-II-04 hadronic interaction model) once the primary composition inferred from the surface-detector data is assumed.

  9. StreamFlow 1.0: an extension to the spatially distributed snow model Alpine3D for hydrological modelling and deterministic stream temperature prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallice, Aurélien; Bavay, Mathias; Brauchli, Tristan; Comola, Francesco; Lehning, Michael; Huwald, Hendrik

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is expected to strongly impact the hydrological and thermal regimes of Alpine rivers within the coming decades. In this context, the development of hydrological models accounting for the specific dynamics of Alpine catchments appears as one of the promising approaches to reduce our uncertainty of future mountain hydrology. This paper describes the improvements brought to StreamFlow, an existing model for hydrological and stream temperature prediction built as an external extension to the physically based snow model Alpine3D. StreamFlow's source code has been entirely written anew, taking advantage of object-oriented programming to significantly improve its structure and ease the implementation of future developments. The source code is now publicly available online, along with a complete documentation. A special emphasis has been put on modularity during the re-implementation of StreamFlow, so that many model aspects can be represented using different alternatives. For example, several options are now available to model the advection of water within the stream. This allows for an easy and fast comparison between different approaches and helps in defining more reliable uncertainty estimates of the model forecasts. In particular, a case study in a Swiss Alpine catchment reveals that the stream temperature predictions are particularly sensitive to the approach used to model the temperature of subsurface flow, a fact which has been poorly reported in the literature to date. Based on the case study, StreamFlow is shown to reproduce hourly mean discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) of 0.82 and hourly mean temperature with a NSE of 0.78.

  10. A novel algorithm for delineating wetland depressions and mapping surface hydrologic flow pathways using LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    In traditional watershed delineation and topographic modeling, surface depressions are generally treated as spurious features and simply removed from a digital elevation model (DEM) to enforce flow continuity of water across the topographic surface to the watershed outlets. In re...

  11. A Study on Inviscid Flow with a Free Surface over an Undulating Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikumar Panda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem involving inviscid flow with a free surface over an undulating bottom is studied within the framework of linear theory. Applying perturbation analysis in conjunction with the Fourier transform technique, the boundary value problem arising from the flow problem is solved analytically. Behaviour of both interface and free-surface profiles, which are unknown at the outset, are analyzed. It is found that each profile (interface and free-surface possesses a wave free region at the far upstream, followed by a modulated downstream wave. It also observed, for the first time, that the amplitude of the downstream wave is varying. Further, the effects of various system parameters are analyzed and demonstrated in graphical forms.

  12. Optical contouring of an acrylic surface for non-intrusive diagnostics in pipe-flow investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Benjamin J.; Coronado-Diaz, Haydee; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2008-07-01

    In this work, an acrylic surface was optically contoured to correct for the optical distortion caused by a transparent pipe wall. This method can be applied to non-invasive viewing/imaging techniques for fluid flow experiments. Software tools were developed to aid in the design of an optically contoured acrylic test section for pipe-flow experiments. Numerical models were computed for a standard acrylic pipe, inner diameter 57.15 mm, with water enclosed. An optical contour prototype was machined on a 5-axis CNC machine, and polished with 1-15 μm diamond paste, alleviating any surface imperfections without significantly altering the contoured surface. Experiments were then performed to measure the emerging optical wavefront and was found to emerge planar when utilizing the optical contour. It was determined that the wavefront was corrected to within ten wavelengths of a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser beam.

  13. Chemically Reactive Solute Distribution in a Steady MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned to find the distribution of the chemically reactant solute in the MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid over a stretching surface. The first order chemical reaction and the variable solute distribution along the surface are taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions for flow field and reactive solute are transformed into a set of non-linear self-similar ordinary differential equations by using scaling group of transformations. An exact analytic solution is obtained for the velocity field. Using this velocity field, we obtain numerical solution for the reactant concentration field. It reveals from the study that the values of concentration profile enhances with the increase of the magnetic field and decreases with increase of Schmidt number as well as the reaction rate parameter. Most importantly, when the solute distribution along the surface increases then the concentration profile decreases.

  14. Simulation of Free Surface Compressible Flows Via a Two Fluid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Frederic; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to discuss the simulation of a free surface compressible flow between two fluids, typically air and water. We use a two fluid model with the same velocity, pressure and temperature for both phases. In such a numerical model, the free surface becomes a thin three dimensional zone. The present method has at least three advantages: (i) the free-surface treatment is completely implicit; (ii) it can naturally handle wave breaking and other topological changes in the flow; (iii) one can easily vary the Equation of States (EOS) of each fluid (in principle, one can even consider tabulated EOS). Moreover, our model is unconditionally hyperbolic for reasonable EOS.

  15. Life on a Surface in a Low-Reynolds-Number Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Howard A.

    2014-11-01

    There are many studies of the dynamics of swimming microorganisms. There are far fewer studies of how bacteria that attach to surfaces respond to motions of the surrounding fluid. Such motions can influence bacterial orientation, which can, in turn, impact bacterial colonization and motility on surfaces. Moreover, as biofilms develop, stresses from the flow on the surface can cause three-dimensional rearrangements of the soft biofilm in the form of ``streamers'' that can bridge the sides of a porous system; such suspended filaments trigger rapid clogging. Some of the underlying fluid dynamics will be discussed in the spirit of how the flow couples to the spatial and temporal evolution of these bacterial systems. Joint work with N. Autrusson, B. Bassler, K. Drescher, Z. Gitai, L. Guglielmini, F. Ingremeau, M.K. Kim, S. Lecuyer, O. Pak, A. Persat, R. Rusconi, Y. Shen, A. Siryaporn, N. Wingreen.

  16. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.

    1986-01-01

    To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.

  19. TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF SURFACE FRACTAL DIMENSION AND MORPHOLOGY OF MESOPOROUS TITANIA USING DYNAMIC FLOW ADSORPTION AND ITS CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2010-01-01

    A technique to determine the surface fractal dimension of mesoporous TiO­2 using a dynamic flow adsorption instrument is described. Fractal dimension is an additional technique to characterize surface morphology. Surface fractal dimension, a quantitative measurement of surface ruggedness, can be determined by adsorbing a homologous series of adsorbates onto an adsorbent sample of mesoporous TiO­2. Titania wet gel prepared by hydrolysis of Ti-alkoxide was immersed in the flow of supercritical ...

  20. On the stability and extension of reduced-order Galerkin models in incompressible flows. A numerical study of vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Imran; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ribbens, Calvin J.

    2009-07-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been used to develop a reduced-order model of the hydrodynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder. Direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been performed using a parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder. Snapshots of the velocity and pressure fields are used to calculate the divergence-free velocity and pressure modes, respectively. We use the dominant of these velocity POD modes (a small number of eigenfunctions or modes) in a Galerkin procedure to project the Navier-Stokes equations onto a low-dimensional space, thereby reducing the distributed-parameter problem into a finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system in time. The solution of the reduced dynamical system is a limit cycle corresponding to vortex shedding. We investigate the stability of the limit cycle by using long-time integration and propose to use a shooting technique to home on the system limit cycle. We obtain the pressure-Poisson equation by taking the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation and then projecting it onto the pressure POD modes. The pressure is then decomposed into lift and drag components and compared with the CFD results.

  1. On the stability and extension of reduced-order Galerkin models in incompressible flows. A numerical study of vortex shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Imran [Virginia Tech, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech, Interdisciplinary Center for Applied Mathematics, MC 0531, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Nayfeh, Ali H. [Virginia Tech, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ribbens, Calvin J. [Virginia Tech, Department of Computer Science, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been used to develop a reduced-order model of the hydrodynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder. Direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been performed using a parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder. Snapshots of the velocity and pressure fields are used to calculate the divergence-free velocity and pressure modes, respectively. We use the dominant of these velocity POD modes (a small number of eigenfunctions or modes) in a Galerkin procedure to project the Navier-Stokes equations onto a low-dimensional space, thereby reducing the distributed-parameter problem into a finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system in time. The solution of the reduced dynamical system is a limit cycle corresponding to vortex shedding. We investigate the stability of the limit cycle by using long-time integration and propose to use a shooting technique to home on the system limit cycle. We obtain the pressure-Poisson equation by taking the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation and then projecting it onto the pressure POD modes. The pressure is then decomposed into lift and drag components and compared with the CFD results. (orig.)

  2. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minh Khang Phan; Jichul Shin

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC sur-face glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force pro-duced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0%chord length and/or at 10%chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25°) is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequen-cies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70%by a selec-tive operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the opti-mized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  3. Comparison of Flow Characteristics of Different Sphere Geometries Under the Free Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of the experimental results of turbulent flow structures between a smooth sphere and a sphere with a vent hole, roughened, and o-ring is presented in the presence of a free-surface. Dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV techniques were performed to examine effects of passive control methods on the sphere wake for Reynolds number Re = 5000 based on the sphere diameter with a 42.5mm in an open water channel. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the sphere were examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the range of 0≤h/D≤2.0 where h was the space between the top point of the sphere and the free surface. The ratio of ventilation hole to sphere diameter was 0.15, o-ring was located at 55° with a 2 mm from front stagnation point of the sphere and roughened surface was formed by means of totally 410 circular holes with a 3 mm diameter and around 2 mm depth in an equilateral triangle arrangement. The flow characteristics of instantaneous velocity vectors, vorticity contours, time-averaged streamline patterns, Reynolds stress correlations and streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations for both the smooth and passively controlled sphere were interpreted.

  4. Influence of the enclosed fluid on the flow over a microstructured surface in the Cassie state

    CERN Document Server

    Schönecker, Clarissa; Hardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the flow field as well as for the effective slip length of a shear flow over a surface with periodic rectangular grooves are derived. The primary fluid is in the Cassie state with the grooves being filled with a secondary immiscible fluid. The coupling of both fluids is reflected in a locally varying slip distribution along the fluid-fluid interface, which models the effect of the secondary fluid on the outer flow. The obtained closed-form analytical expressions for the flow field and effective slip length of the primary fluid explicitly contain the influence of the viscosities of the two fluids as well as the magnitude of the local slip, which is a function of the surface geometry. They agree well with results from numerical computations of the full geometry. The analytical expressions allow investigating the influence of the viscous stresses inside the secondary fluid for arbitrary geometries of the rectangular grooves. For classic superhydrophobic surfaces, the deviations in the ...

  5. Comparison of Flow Characteristics of Different Sphere Geometries Under the Free Surface Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgoren, M.; Dogan, S.; Okbaz, A.; Aksoy, M. H.; Sahin, B.; Akıllı, H.

    2013-04-01

    Comparison of the experimental results of turbulent flow structures between a smooth sphere and a sphere with a vent hole, roughened, and o-ring is presented in the presence of a free-surface. Dye visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques were performed to examine effects of passive control methods on the sphere wake for Reynolds number Re = 5000 based on the sphere diameter with a 42.5mm in an open water channel. Instantaneous and time-averaged flow patterns in the wake region of the sphere were examined from point of flow physics for the different sphere locations in the range of 0≤h/D≤2.0 where h was the space between the top point of the sphere and the free surface. The ratio of ventilation hole to sphere diameter was 0.15, o-ring was located at 55° with a 2 mm from front stagnation point of the sphere and roughened surface was formed by means of totally 410 circular holes with a 3 mm diameter and around 2 mm depth in an equilateral triangle arrangement. The flow characteristics of instantaneous velocity vectors, vorticity contours, time-averaged streamline patterns, Reynolds stress correlations and streamwise and cross-stream velocity fluctuations for both the smooth and passively controlled sphere were interpreted.

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Flows in an Oxidation Ditch Driven by a New Surface Aerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Li, Kun; Wang, Gan; Wang, Yingzhe

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present a newly designed inverse umbrella surface aerator, and tested its performance in driving flow of an oxidation ditch. Results show that it has a better performance in driving the oxidation ditch than the original one with higher average velocity and more uniform flow field. We also present a computational fluid dynamics model for predicting the flow field in an oxidation ditch driven by a surface aerator. The improved momentum source term approach to simulate the flow field of the oxidation ditch driven by an inverse umbrella surface aerator was developed and validated through experiments. Four kinds of turbulent models were investigated with the approach, including the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, realizable k-ɛ model, and Reynolds stress model, and the predicted data were compared with those calculated with the multiple rotating reference frame approach (MRF) and sliding mesh approach (SM). Results of the momentum source term approach are in good agreement with the experimental data, and its prediction accuracy is better than MRF, close to SM. It is also found that the momentum source term approach has lower computational expenses, is simpler to preprocess, and is easier to use.

  7. Rarefied flow and heat transfer characteristics over a vertical stretched surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Al-Kouz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Similarity solution for the steady-state two-dimensional laminar natural convection heat transfer for a rarefied flow over a linearly vertical stretched surface is being proposed. Similarity conditions are obtained for the boundary layer equations for the vertical flat plate subjected to power law for the temperature variations. It is found that the similarity solution exists for linear temperature variation and linear stretching surface. The study shows that there are three different parameters affecting the flow and heat transfer characteristics for the rarefied flow over a vertical linearly stretched surface. These parameters represent the effects of the velocity slip (K1, temperature jump (K2, and the Prandtl number (Pr. The effects of these parameters are presented. It is found that the velocity slip parameter affects both the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of such flows. Correlations for the skin friction as well as Nusselt number are being proposed in terms of Grashof number (Grx, the slip velocity parameter (K1, and the temperature jump parameter (K2.

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Free Surface Effect on the Conical Taylor-Couette Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to highlight the critical thresholds corresponding to the onset of different instabilities considered in the flow between two vertical coaxial cones with and without free surface. The inner cone is rotating and the outer one is maintained at rest. Both cones have the same apex angle Φ =12° giving a constant annular gap δ =d/R1max. The height of the fluid column is H=155mm and It can be progressively decreased for each studied case of the flow system. Two kinds of configurations are studied, small and large gap. The working fluid is assumed as Newtonian and having constant properties like density and viscosity within the range of the required experimental conditions. By means of visualization technique of the flow we have been able to show the different transition modes occurring in the conical flow system according to the aspect ratio and then the induced action of the free surface which introduces a delay in the onset of different instability modes. The obtained results in term of features and stability of the flow are compared to those of Wimmer and Noui-Mehidi.

  9. Determination of thermal/dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander; Tsepelev, Igor; Kovtunov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Rapid development of ground based thermal cameras, drones and satellite data allows getting repeated thermal images of the surface of the lava flow. Available instrumentation allows getting a large amount of data during a single lava flow eruption. These data require development of appropriate quantitative techniques to link subsurface dynamics with observations. We present a new approach to assimilation of thermal measurements at lava's surface to the bottom of the lava flow to determine lava's thermal and dynamic characteristics. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. Using an adjoint method we develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem based on the determination of the missing boundary condition and lava flow characteristics. Numerical results show that in the case of smooth input data lava temperature and velocity can be determined with a high accuracy. A noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. The proposed approach to assimilate measured data brings an opportunity to estimate thermal budget of the lava flow.

  10. Integrated Coupling of Surface and Subsurface Flow with HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anne; Šimůnek, Jirka; Wöhling, Thomas; Schütze, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Describing interactions between surface and subsurface flow processes is important to adequately define water flow in natural systems. Since overland flow generation is highly influenced by rainfall and infiltration, both highly spatially heterogeneous processes, overland flow is unsteady and varies spatially. The prediction of overland flow needs to include an appropriate description of the interactions between the surface and subsurface flow. Coupling surface and subsurface water flow is a challenging task. Different approaches have been developed during the last few years, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. A new approach by Weill et al. (2009) to couple overland flow and subsurface flow based on a generalized Richards equation was implemented into the well-known subsurface flow model HYDRUS-2D (Šimůnek et al., 2011). This approach utilizes the one-dimensional diffusion wave equation to model overland flow. The diffusion wave model is integrated in HYDRUS-2D by replacing the terms of the Richards equation in a pre-defined runoff layer by terms defining the diffusion wave equation. Using this approach, pressure and flux continuity along the interface between both flow domains is provided. This direct coupling approach provides a strong coupling of both systems based on the definition of a single global system matrix to numerically solve the coupled flow problem. The advantage of the direct coupling approach, compared to the loosely coupled approach, is supposed to be a higher robustness, when many convergence problems can be avoided (Takizawa et al., 2014). The HYDRUS-2D implementation was verified using a) different test cases, including a direct comparison with the results of Weill et al. (2009), b) an analytical solution of the kinematic wave equation, and c) the results of a benchmark test of Maxwell et al. (2014), that included several known coupled surface subsurface flow models. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects

  11. Biomechanics of cell rolling: shear flow, cell-surface adhesion, and cell deformability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Lei, X X

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) deformation and adhesion to endothelial cells (EC) has been investigated using a novel in vitro side-view flow assay. HL-60 cell rolling adhesion to surface-immobilized P-selectin was used to model the WBC-EC adhesion process. Changes in flow shear stress, cell deformability, or substrate ligand strength resulted in significant changes in the characteristic adhesion binding time, cell-surface contact and cell rolling velocity. A 2-D model indicated that cell-substrate contact area under a high wall shear stress (20 dyn/cm2) could be nearly twice of that under a low stress (0.5 dyn/cm2) due to shear flow-induced cell deformation. An increase in contact area resulted in more energy dissipation to both adhesion bonds and viscous cytoplasm, whereas the fluid energy that inputs to a cell decreased due to a flattened cell shape. The model also predicted a plateau of WBC rolling velocity as flow shear stresses further increased. Both experimental and computational studies have described how WBC deformation influences the WBC-EC adhesion process in shear flow.

  12. Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces in fully developed pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimon, Hafeez; Lee, Marcus; Hellström, Leo; Rosenberg, Brian; Smits, Alexander; Hultmark, Marcus

    2013-11-01

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) are created by locking a thin layer of viscous lubricating oil into a porous surface that is textured at the micro/nano scale, with resulting omniphobicity. The oil layer lies between the solid boundary and the surrounding flow, with the potential to create a partial-slip condition at the boundary. SLIPS therefore offers a new approach to achieve drag reduction. Here, SLIPS is applied to fully developed pipe flow for Reynolds numbers ranging from 600 to 1 . 8 ×105 . The pipe flow facility consists of two test sections, an untreated and a SLIPS treated section, both 32 diameters long. The two test sections are mounted in series, the first preceded by a 120 diameter long untreated developing section and the second preceded by a 60 diameter long SLIPS treated developing section, to ensure fully developed pipe flow. The effects of SLIPS using oils of different viscosity on the flow resistance is quantified by simultaneously measuring and comparing the pressure drop along the untreated and the SLIPS treated test sections. Supported under ONR Grants N00014-12-1-0875 and N00014-12-1-0962 (program manager Ki-Han Kim). M.L. was supported by the Lewis fund for innovation in Energy and the Environment through Princeton Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment.

  13. Rotating flow of a nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching surface with suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Siti Nur Alwani; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md

    2017-08-01

    An analysis of the rotating nanofluid flow past an exponentially stretched surface with the presence of suction is studied in this work. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper, titania and alumina are considered. The system of ordinary differential equations is computed numerically using a shooting method in Maple software after being transformed from the partial differential equations. This transformation has considered the similarity transformations in exponential form. The physical effect of the rotation, suction and nanoparticle volume fraction parameters on the rotating flow and heat transfer phenomena is investigated and has been described in detail through graphs. The dual solutions are found to appear when the governing parameters reach a certain range.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Nitrogen in the Soil of Constructed Wetland with Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubaszek Anita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of nitrogen compounds in constructed wetlands depends on various physical, chemical and biomechanical factors as well as on conditions of the environment. The paper presents the results of a statistical analysis of the depositing of nitrogen at HSSF (horizontal subsurface flow construcred wetland. The results of the substrate showed that the highest contents of nitrogen existed in the surface soil layer up to 20 cm of the depth. Nitrogen accumulation decreased in the deposit with depth, and in the direction of the wastewater flow.

  15. Step-Flow Growth on Vicinal GaAs Surfaces by Migration-Enhanced Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Yoshiji

    1989-08-01

    The mechanism of step-flow growth on vicinal GaAs substrates during migration-enhanced epitaxy are studied using the reflection high-energy electron diffraction technique. Results show that the low As pressure during migration-enhanced epitaxy growth accelerates step-flow growth. In addition, it is also shown that monolayer terraces composed of surface Ga atoms are formed from step edges during the Ga deposition process. A GaAs/AlAs tilted superlattice is established using this growth technique. X-ray diffraction measurement and transmission electron microscopy observations show that the fabricated structure has periodic composition modulation along the axis tilted from the substrate azimuth.

  16. Ferromagnetic Flow of Viscous Fluid in a Slot between Fixed Surfaces of Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the steady laminar flow of viscous incompressible ferromagnetic fluid is considered in a slot between fixed surfaces of revolution having a common axis of symmetry. The boundary layer ferromagnetic equations for axial symmetry are expressed in terms of the intrinsic curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system x, θ ,y.The method of perturbation is used to solve the boundary layer equations. As a result, the formulae defining such parameters of the flow as the velocity components vx, vy, and the pressure , were obtained.

  17. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  18. Stability and accuracy of free surface time integration in viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Buffett, Bruce; Heister, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Geodynamic simulations increasingly rely on models with a true free surface to investigate questions of dynamic topography, tectonic deformation, gravity perturbations, and global mantle convection. However, implementations of free surface boundary conditions have proven challenging from a standpoint of accuracy, robustness, and stability. In particular, time integration of a free surface tends to suffer from a numerical instability that manifests as sloshing surface motions, also known as the "drunken sailor" instability. This instability severely limits stable timestep sizes to those much smaller than can be used in geodynamic simulations without a free surface. Several schemes have been proposed in the literature to deal with these instabilities. Here we analyze the problem of creeping viscous flow with a free surface and discuss the origin of these instabilities. We demonstrate their cause and how existing stabilization schemes work to damp them out. We also propose a new scheme for removing instabilities from free surface calculations. It does not require modifications to the system matrix, nor additional variables, but is instead an explicit scheme based on nonstandard finite differences. It relies on a single stabilization parameter which may be identified with the smallest relaxation timescale of the free surface. Finally, we present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the new approach and discuss the free surface implementation in the open source, community based mantle convection software ASPECT.

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF HIGHLY NONLINEAR STEADY AND UNSTEADY FREE SURFACE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chi; HUANG Fuxin; WANG Lijue; WAN De-cheng

    2011-01-01

    A numerical simulation model based on an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package-Open Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been developed to study highly nonlinear steady and unsteady free surface flows.A two-fluid formulation is used in this model and the free surface is captured using the classical Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method.The incompressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method on unstructured polyhedral cells.Both steady and unsteady free surface flows are simulated,which include:(1) a submerged NACA0012 2-D hydrofoil moving at a constant speed,(2) the Wigley hull moving at a constant speed,(3) numerical wave tank,(4) green water overtopping a fixed 2-D deck,(5) green water impact on a fixed 3-D body without or with a vertical wall on the deck.The numerical results obtained have been compared with the experimental measurements and other CFD results,and the agreements are satisfactory.The present numerical model can thus be used to simulate highly nonlinear steady and unsteady free surface flows.

  20. DNS of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces: effect of texture randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongmin; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) are non-wetting surfaces consisting of hydrophobic material and nano/micro-scale structures. When in contact with overlaying liquid flows, such structures can entrap gas and therefore suppress the direct contact between water and solid, reducing skin friction. SHS patterns can utilize a wide range of geometries including posts, ridges, and etched holes, either in a pre-specified arrangement or randomly distributed. In this work we investigate how the randomness of such patterns affect the drag reduction and interfacial robustness when these surfaces are under turbulent flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over randomly patterned slip surface on a wide range of texture parameters. We present slip lengths of randomly distributed SHS for texture widths w+ = 4 - 26, and solid fractions from 11% to 25%. For fixed gas fraction and texture size, the slip lengths of randomly distributed textures are less than those of aligned textures. We show that the geometric randomness of texture distribution weakens the interfacial robustness of the gas pocket. Support from Office of Naval Research (ONR) under Grant #3002451214 is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Bayesian modeling of perceived surface slant from actively-generated and passively-observed optic flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Caudek

    Full Text Available We measured perceived depth from the optic flow (a when showing a stationary physical or virtual object to observers who moved their head at a normal or slower speed, and (b when simulating the same optic flow on a computer and presenting it to stationary observers. Our results show that perceived surface slant is systematically distorted, for both the active and the passive viewing of physical or virtual surfaces. These distortions are modulated by head translation speed, with perceived slant increasing directly with the local velocity gradient of the optic flow. This empirical result allows us to determine the relative merits of two alternative approaches aimed at explaining perceived surface slant in active vision: an "inverse optics" model that takes head motion information into account, and a probabilistic model that ignores extra-retinal signals. We compare these two approaches within the framework of the bayesian theory. The "inverse optics" bayesian model produces veridical slant estimates if the optic flow and the head translation velocity are measured with no error; because of the influence of a "prior" for flatness, the slant estimates become systematically biased as the measurement errors increase. The bayesian model, which ignores the observer's motion, always produces distorted estimates of surface slant. Interestingly, the predictions of this second model, not those of the first one, are consistent with our empirical findings. The present results suggest that (a in active vision perceived surface slant may be the product of probabilistic processes which do not guarantee the correct solution, and (b extra-retinal signals may be mainly used for a better measurement of retinal information.

  2. A Variational Model for Two-Phase Immiscible Electroosmotic Flow at Solid Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Sihong

    2012-01-01

    We develop a continuum hydrodynamic model for two-phase immiscible flows that involve electroosmotic effect in an electrolyte and moving contact line at solid surfaces. The model is derived through a variational approach based on the Onsager principle of minimum energy dissipation. This approach was first presented in the derivation of a continuum hydrodynamic model for moving contact line in neutral two-phase immiscible flows (Qian, Wang, and Sheng, J. Fluid Mech. 564, 333-360 (2006)). Physically, the electroosmotic effect can be formulated by the Onsager principle as well in the linear response regime. Therefore, the same variational approach is applied here to the derivation of the continuum hydrodynamic model for charged two-phase immiscible flows where one fluid component is an electrolyte exhibiting electroosmotic effect on a charged surface. A phase field is employed to model the diffuse interface between two immiscible fluid components, one being the electrolyte and the other a nonconductive fluid, both allowed to slip at solid surfaces. Our model consists of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for momentum transport, the Nernst-Planck equation for ion transport, the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field equation for interface motion, and the Poisson equation for electric potential, along with all the necessary boundary conditions. In particular, all the dynamic boundary conditions at solid surfaces, including the generalized Navier boundary condition for slip, are derived together with the equations of motion in the bulk region. Numerical examples in two-dimensional space, which involve overlapped electric double layer fields, have been presented to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the model, and a few salient features of the two-phase immiscible electroosmotic flows at solid surface. The wall slip in the vicinity of moving contact line and the Smoluchowski slip in the electric double layer are both investigated. © 2012 Global-Science Press.

  3. Solution of plane cascade flow using improved surface singularity methods. [application of panel method to internal aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    A solution method was developed for calculating compressible inviscid flow through a linear cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. The method uses advanced surface singularity formulations which were adapted from those in current external flow analyses. The resulting solution technique provides a fast flexible calculation for flows through turbomachinery blade rows. The solution method and some examples of the method's capabilities are presented.

  4. Sea-surface temperature effects on 3D bora-like flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraljevic, L. [Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Zagreb (Croatia); Grisogono, B. [Dept. of Geophysics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-04-15

    A COAMPS (TM) nonhydrostatic numerical model with a higher order turbulence closure scheme is used to study the effect of the sea-surface temperature (SST) on the idealized nonlinear flow over an idealized mountain in the presence of rotation. The low-level jet (LLJ) that develops at both flanks of the mountain is intensified by the Coriolis effect on the northern flank for a westerly flow. Shooting flow develops down the slope ending over the sea while resembling a hydraulic jump. This is considered as bora (bura) like flow. The front is related to the abrupt slowdown of the shooting flow through the hydraulic jump. Seven different idealized cases are addressed, the control run, nearly linear case with Fr = 1.2, and the cases with the SST 10 K colder, and 2.5 K, 5 K, 7.5 K and 10 K warmer than the control run. The maximum wind speeds in the shooting flow and the LLJs are around two times higher than the background wind speeds. The interplay of SST effects and the effects of the asymmetric lee-side vortices modify the location and the shape of the bora front which is found not to be parallel with the shoreline. The front is not stationary in time but exhibits vibrations which are more pronounced at the southern flank associated with the weaker LLJ. (orig.)

  5. Flow of Oldroyd 8-constant fluid in a scraped surface heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, A.; Siddiqui, A. M.; Rana, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the flow of the Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model in a scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) is studied. We have taken the steady incompressible isothermal flow of a fluid around a periodic arrangement of pivoted scraper blades in a channel for a generalized Poiseuille flow, and the flow is modeled using the lubrication-approximation theory (LAT), where as in SSHE the gaps between the blades and the device walls are narrow. Using these approximations we got the non-linear boundary value problem which is solved using the Adomian decomposition method. Expressions for velocity profiles for different regions, flow rates, stream function are obtained. Graphical and tabular representation for the velocity profile and for the different flow parameters involved is also incorporated. Foodstuffs behave as non-Newtonian material, possess shear-thinning and shear-thickening effects, so they are considered for the understanding of non-Newtonian effects inside the SSHE Oldroyd 8-constant fluid model. In addition to food industry this work will also be helpful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as most of the materials used in the industry are non-Newtonian in nature.

  6. Surface Patterning: Controlling Fluid Flow Through Dolphin and Shark Skin Biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Lawren; Lang, Amy; Bradshaw, Michael; McVay, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Dolphin skin is characterized by circumferential ridges, perpendicular to fluid flow, present from the crest of the head until the tail fluke. When observing a cross section of skin, the ridges have a sinusoidal pattern. Sinusoidal grooves have been proven to induce vortices in the cavities that can help control flow separation which can reduce pressure drag. Shark skin, however, is patterned with flexible scales that bristle up to 50 degrees with reversed flow. Both dolphin ridges and shark scales are thought to help control fluid flow and increase swimming efficiency by delaying the separation of the boundary layer. This study investigates how flow characteristics can be altered with bio-inspired surface patterning. A NACA 4412 hydrofoil was entirely patterned with transverse sinusoidal grooves, inspired by dolphin skin but scaled so the cavities on the model have the same Reynolds number as the cavities on a swimming shark. Static tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 100,000 and at varying angles of attack. The results were compared to the smooth hydrofoil case. The flow data was quantified using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The results of this study demonstrated that the patterned hydrofoil experienced greater separation than the smooth hydrofoil. It is hypothesize that this could be remediated if the pattern was placed only after the maximum thickness of the hydrofoil. Funding through NSF REU grant 1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Estimates of Median Flows for Streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    The Kansas State Legislature, by enacting Kansas Statute KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., mandated the criteria for determining which Kansas stream segments would be subject to classification by the State. One criterion for the selection as a classified stream segment is based on the statistic of median flow being equal to or greater than 1 cubic foot per second. As specified by KSA 82a?2001 et. seq., median flows were determined from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging-station data by using the most-recent 10 years of gaged data (KSA) for each streamflow-gaging station. Median flows also were determined by using gaged data from the entire period of record (all-available hydrology, AAH). Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating median flows for uncontrolled stream segments. The drainage area of the gaging stations on uncontrolled stream segments used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. A logarithmic transformation of the data was needed to develop the best linear relation for computing median flows. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. Tobit analyses of KSA data yielded a model standard error of prediction of 0.285 logarithmic units, and the best equations using Tobit analyses of AAH data had a model standard error of prediction of 0.250 logarithmic units. These regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute median flows for the uncontrolled stream segments on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Measured median flows from gaging stations were incorporated into the regression-estimated median flows along the stream segments where available. The segments that were uncontrolled were interpolated using gaged data weighted according to the drainage area and the bias between the

  8. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  9. Effect of Electro-Osmotic Flow on Energy Conversion on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, Gowrishankar

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that superhydrophobic surfaces, due to the presence of a no-shear zone, can greatly enhance transport of surface charges, leading to a considerable increase in the streaming potential. This could find potential use in micro-energy harvesting devices. In this paper, we show using analytical and numerical methods, that when a streaming potential is generated in such superhydrophobic geometries, the reverse electro-osmotic flow and hence current generated by this, is significant. A decrease in streaming potential compared to what was earlier predicted is expected. We also show that, due to the electro-osmotic streaming-current, a saturation in both the power extracted and efficiency of energy conversion is achieved in such systems for large values of the free surface charge densities. Nevertheless, under realistic conditions, such microstructured devices with superhydrophobic surfaces have the potential to even reach energy conversion efficiencies only achieved in nanostructured devices so ...

  10. Optimal surface segmentation using flow lines to quantify airway abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Nielsen, Mads; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a graph construction method for multi-dimensional and multi-surface segmentation problems. Such problems can be solved by searching for the optimal separating surfaces given the space of graph columns defined by an initial coarse surface. Conventional straight graph columns...... are not well suited for surfaces with high curvature, we therefore propose to derive columns from properly generated, non-intersecting flow lines. This guarantees solutions that do not self-intersect. The method is applied to segment human airway walls in computed tomography images in three-dimensions. Phantom...... measurements show that the inner and outer radii are estimated with sub-voxel accuracy. Two-dimensional manually annotated cross-sectional images were used to compare the results with those of another recently published graph based method. The proposed approach had an average overlap of 89...

  11. Flow, heat transfer, and free surface shape during the optical fiber drawing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhihui

    1997-12-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model is introduced for analyzing glass and gas flows, heat transfer, and fiber formation during the optical fiber drawing process. This study consists of simulations in three different areas: the upper region, the tip region, and the whole furnace region. Conjugating the glass and gas flows and heat transfer, the shapes of an optical fiber as free surfaces in the upper neck-down and the tip regions are separately obtained by solving the coupled continuity, momentum, and energy equations. In the upper region simulation, a surface-to-surface radiation model is used for the enclosure which consists of the wall and the glass surface, and the Rosseland approximation radiation model is employed to account for the radiation effect in the glass region. In the tip region simulation, only the glass fiber region is considered and a convective heat transfer model on the fiber surface is employed to account for the energy exchange between the fiber surface and the purge gas. In the fiber, radiation in the axial direction is included. The whole furnace simulation uses a calculated fiber neck-down shape and an assumed fiber tip shape as a fixed interface and computes the convective heat transfer coefficient profile in the tip region which was used in the tip region simulation. The glass viscosity is temperature-dependent and significantly affects the fiber shape. The finite element code FIDAP is used in the study. The effects of various operating conditions such as draw speed, wall temperature distribution, and gas flow rate are studied.

  12. Non-textured laser modification of silica glass surface: Wettability control and flow channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Tokura, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    Local wettability of silica glass surface is modified by infrared laser irradiation. The silica glass surface exhibits hydrophobic property in the presence of sbnd CF3 or sbnd (CH3)2 terminal functional groups, which are decomposed by thermal treatment, and degree of the decomposition depends on the applied heat. Laser irradiation can control the number of remaining functional groups according to the irradiation conditions; the contact angle of deionized water on the laser modified surfaces range from 100° to 40°. XPS analysis confirms that the variation in wettability corresponds to the number of remaining sbnd CF3 groups. The laser irradiation achieves surface modification without causing any cracks or damages to the surface, as observed by SEM and AFM; moreover, surface transparency to visible light and surface roughness remains unaffected. The proposed method is applied to plane flow channel systems. Dropped water spreads only on the hydrophilic and invisible line modified by the laser irradiation without formation of any grooves. This indicates that the modified line can act as a surface channel. Furthermore, self-transportation of liquid is also demonstrated on a channel with gradually-varied wettability along its length. A water droplet on a hydrophobic side is self-transported to a hydrophilic side due to contact-angle hysteresis force without any actuators or external forces.

  13. The role of bed surface configuration on river response under increasing flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Boix, Carles; Elgueta, María A.; Hassan, Marwan A.

    2017-04-01

    This research aims to explore how bed surface configuration influence channel evolution, vertical and downstream sediment sorting, and sediment transport in gravel bed streams under varying flows. While a significant body of research has been focused on channel evolution under constant flow regimes, few studies have focused on the impacts of flow variations in channel adjustments. Particularly, we are interested in examining the impact of the degree of bed surface coarsening and particle arrangement on channel adjustments and sediment transport rates. To this end, we conducted a set of experiments in a 0.55 m-wide, 5 m-long tilting flume. Flow discharge during the runs was initially held constant at 25 l/s for a period of time after which discharge was gradually increased at steps of certain duration. Flow rates during the rising limb of the hydrographs ranged from 26 l/s to 40 l/s. Initial bed slope was 0.04 m/m for all runs. Some of the experiments were conducted under no feed conditions while others were carried out with sediment supply, which ranged from 1 kg/h to 10 kg/h. The feed texture in these latter runs was identical to that of the original mixture (Dg = 5.65 mm and σg = 3.05). Bed slopes and surface configuration were obtained after varying times of conditioning under constant flow and no feed. Data acquisition included: 1) bed surface images covering the entire flume, 2) bed scans at 2 mm resolution of the whole flume and 3) real-time measurements of bedload transport (rate and texture) at the outlet of the flume. This set up allows us to obtain fractional particle mobility, i.e. how much bed area covered by a particular grain size changed at a given time and to link to sediment transport rates. Data gathered from this study 1) will contribute to better understanding of river dynamics under unsteady flow conditions (floods) and 2) will help us improve sediment transport predictions under such conditions.

  14. Computational flow and heat transfer of a row of circular jets impinging on a concave surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, B.V.N.R.; Prasad, B.V.S.S.S. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Thermal Turbomachines Lab, Chennai (India)

    2008-04-15

    A computational investigation is carried out to study the flow and heat transfer from a row of circular jets impinging on a concave surface. The computational domain simulates the impingement cooling zone of a gas turbine nozzle guide vane. The parameters, which are varied in the study include jet Reynolds number (Re{sub d} = 5000-67800), inter-jet distance to jet diameter ratio (c/d = 3.33 and 4.67) and target plate distance to jet diameter ratio (H/d = 1, 3 and 4). The flow field, predicted with K-{omega} turbulence model and using Fluent 6.2.16, is characterized with the presence of a pair of counter rotating vortices, an upwash fountain flow and entrainment. The local pressure coefficient and Nusselt number variations along the concave plate are presented and these values are found to under predict the available experimental data by about 12%. (orig.)

  15. Phase field modeling and simulation of three-phase flow on solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Phase field models are widely used to describe the two-phase system. The evolution of the phase field variables is usually driven by the gradient flow of a total free energy functional. The generalization of the approach to an N phase (N ≥ 3) system requires some extra consistency conditions on the free energy functional in order for the model to give physically relevant results. A projection approach is proposed for the derivation of a consistent free energy functional for the three-phase Cahn-Hilliard equations. The system is then coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to describe the three-phase flow on solid surfaces with moving contact line. An energy stable scheme is developed for the three-phase flow system. The discrete energy law of the numerical scheme is proved which ensures the stability of the scheme. We also show some numerical results for the dynamics of triple junctions and four phase contact lines.

  16. A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegle Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.

  17. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Lin; Zhai, Qinglan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface fore (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter visa Cahn-Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection-diffusion equation for temperature field is also solved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and a two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then ...

  18. Fabrication, Operation and Flow Visualization in Surface-acoustic-wave-driven Acoustic-counterflow Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515

  19. Treatment of laboratory wastewater in a tropical constructed wetland comparing surface and subsurface flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meutia, A A

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater treatment by constructed wetland is an appropriate technology for tropical developing countries like Indonesia because it is inexpensive, easily maintained, and has environmentally friendly and sustainable characteristics. The aim of the research is to examine the capability of constructed wetlands for treating laboratory wastewater at our Center, to investigate the suitable flow for treatment, namely vertical subsurface or horizontal surface flow, and to study the effect of the seasons. The constructed wetland is composed of three chambered unplanted sedimentation tanks followed by the first and second beds, containing gravel and sand, planted with Typha sp.; the third bed planted with floating plant Lemna sp.; and a clarifier with two chambers. The results showed that the subsurface flow in the dry season removed 95% organic carbon (COD) and total phosphorus (T-P) respectively, and 82% total nitrogen (T-N). In the transition period from the dry season to the rainy season, COD removal efficiency decreased to 73%, T-N increased to 89%, and T-P was almost the same as that in the dry season. In the rainy season COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to 95% respectively, while T-P remained unchanged. In the dry season, COD and T-P concentrations in the surface flow showed that the removal efficiencies were a bit lower than those in the subsurface flow. Moreover, T-N removal efficiency was only half as much as that in the subsurface flow. However, in the transition period, COD removal efficiency decreased to 29%, while T-N increased to 74% and T-P was still constant, around 93%. In the rainy season, COD and T-N removal efficiencies increased again to almost 95%. On the other hand, T-P decreased to 76%. The results show that the constructed wetland is capable of treating the laboratory wastewater. The subsurface flow is more suitable for treatment than the surface flow, and the seasonal changes have effects on the removal efficiency.

  20. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.

    2005-04-01

    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three

  1. Lagrangian flows within reflecting internal waves at a horizontal free-slip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi, E-mail: q.zhou@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Diamessis, Peter J. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper sequel to Zhou and Diamessis [“Reflection of an internal gravity wave beam off a horizontal free-slip surface,” Phys. Fluids 25, 036601 (2013)], we consider Lagrangian flows within nonlinear internal waves (IWs) reflecting off a horizontal free-slip rigid lid, the latter being a model of the ocean surface. The problem is approached both analytically using small-amplitude approximations and numerically by tracking Lagrangian fluid particles in direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets of the Eulerian flow. Inviscid small-amplitude analyses for both plane IWs and IW beams (IWBs) show that Eulerian mean flow due to wave-wave interaction and wave-induced Stokes drift cancels each other out completely at the second order in wave steepness A, i.e., O(A{sup 2}), implying zero Lagrangian mean flow up to that order. However, high-accuracy particle tracking in finite-Reynolds-number fully nonlinear DNS datasets from the work of Zhou and Diamessis suggests that the Euler-Stokes cancelation on O(A{sup 2}) is not complete. This partial cancelation significantly weakens the mean Lagrangian flows but does not entirely eliminate them. As a result, reflecting nonlinear IWBs produce mean Lagrangian drifts on O(A{sup 2}) and thus particle dispersion on O(A{sup 4}). The above findings can be relevant to predicting IW-driven mass transport in the oceanic surface and subsurface region which bears important observational and environmental implications, under circumstances where the effect of Earth rotation can be ignored.

  2. Coupling of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics with Finite Volume method for free-surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, S.; Di Mascio, A.; Le Touzé, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm for the solution of free surface flows with large front deformation and fragmentation is presented. The algorithm is obtained by coupling a classical Finite Volume (FV) approach, that discretizes the Navier-Stokes equations on a block structured Eulerian grid, with an approach based on the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, implemented in a Lagrangian framework. The coupling procedure is formulated in such a way that each solver is applied in the region where its intrinsic characteristics can be exploited in the most efficient and accurate way: the FV solver is used to resolve the bulk flow and the wall regions, whereas the SPH solver is implemented in the free surface region to capture details of the front evolution. The reported results clearly prove that the combined use of the two solvers is convenient from the point of view of both accuracy and computing time.

  3. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo

    .020 mg P and unfiltered TP decreases with 75 % to 0.040 mg P l-1. The results from this study seem to indicate that constructed surface flow wetlands are able to remove nitrogen and retain phosphorus from agricultural drainage run-off although the nutrient concentrations are much lower as compared......In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland...... giving a mean residence time of 15 hours. The pond is densely covered with macrophytes and algae, while the riparian wetland is completely overgrown with watercress. The Willowfarm Wetland was constructed in 2008 and put into operation in April 2008. It consists of two ponds with an area of 500 and 1485...

  4. Flow-Cytometric Isolation of Human Antibodies from a Nonimmune Saccharomyces cerevisiae Surface Display Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldhaus, Michael (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Siegel, Robert W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Opresko, Lee (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Coleman, James R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Feldhaus, Jane M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Yeung, Yik A.(Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Cochran, Jennifer R.(Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Heinzelman, Peter (Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Colby, David (Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Swers, Jeffrey (Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Graff, Christilyn (Massachusetts Institute Of Tec); Wiley, H Steven (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wittrup, K D.(Massachusetts Institute Of Tec)

    2003-02-28

    A nonimmune library of 109 human antibody scFv fragments has been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast, and nanomolar-affinity scFvs routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 1010-fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity, enabling effectively indefinite expansion of the library. The expression, stability, and antigen binding properties of more than 50 isolated scFv clones were assessed directly on the yeast cell surface by immunofluorescent labeling and flow cytometry, obviating separate subcloning, expression, and purification steps and thereby expediting the isolation of novel affinity reagents. The ability to use multiplex library screening demonstrates the utility of this approach for high throughput antibody isolation for proteomics applications.

  5. Stagnation point flow towards nonlinear stretching surface with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Zubair, M.; Ayub, M.; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-10-01

    Here the influence of the non-Fourier heat flux in a two-dimensional (2D) stagnation point flow of Eyring-Powell liquid towards a nonlinear stretched surface is reported. The stretching surface is of variable thickness. Thermal conductivity of fluid is taken temperature-dependent. Ordinary differential systems are obtained through the implementation of meaningful transformations. The reduced non-dimensional expressions are solved for the convergent series solutions. Convergence interval is obtained for the computed solutions. Graphical results are displayed and analyzed in detail for the velocity, temperature and skin friction coefficient. The obtained results reveal that the temperature gradient enhances when the thermal relaxation parameter is increased.

  6. A theoretical prediction of friction drag reduction in turbulent flow by superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagata, Koji; Kasagi, Nobuhide; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2006-05-01

    We present a theoretical prediction for the drag reduction rate achieved by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow. The predicted drag reduction rate is in good agreement with results obtained from direct numerical simulations at Reτ≃180 and 400. The present theory suggests that large drag reduction is possible also at Reynolds numbers of practical interest (Reτ˜105-106) by employing a hydrophobic surface, which induces a slip length on the order of ten wall units or more.

  7. Flow past superhydrophobic surfaces with cosine variation in local slip length

    CERN Document Server

    Asmolov, Evgeny S; Harting, Jens; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic super-hydrophobic surfaces have the potential to greatly reduce drag and enhance mixing phenomena in microfluidic devices. Recent work has focused mostly on cases of super-hydrophobic stripes. Here, we analyze a relevant situation of cosine variation of the local slip length. We derive approximate formulae for maximal (longitudinal) and minimal (transverse) directional effective slip lengths that are in good agreement with the exact numerical solution and lattice-Bolzmann simulations for any surface slip fraction. The cosine texture can provide a very large effective (forward) slip, but it was found to be less efficient in generating a transverse flow as compared to super-hydrophobic stripes.

  8. Elastically driven surface plumes in rimming flow of a non-Newtonian fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiden, Gabriel; Steinberg, Victor

    2012-11-01

    A polymer solution partially filling a rotating horizontal drum undergoes an elastically driven instability at low Reynolds numbers. This instability manifests itself through localized plumelike bursts, perturbing the free liquid surface. Here we present an expanded experimental account regarding the dynamics of individual plumes and the statistics pertaining to the complex collective interaction between plumes, which leads to plume coagulation. We also present a detailed description of an optical technique that enables the visualization and measurement of surface perturbations in coating flows within a rotating horizontal drum.

  9. Effect of superhydrophobic surfaces on the flow over a hydrofoil at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Hyungmin

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the effect of superhydrophobic surface on the flow over a hydrofoil at low Rec hydrofoil. As a hydrofoil, we consider the cross-sections typically used for airfoils like NACA0012, NACA0024, and NACA4412, which stand for thin, thick and cambered hydrofoils, respectively. Spray-coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles are applied onto the hydrofoil surface and subsequent velocity fields are measured in a water tunnel using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry at different angles of attack, α =0° -20° . At small α's (for example, less than 10°), it is found that the surface slip tends to affect the flow separation slightly and also modify the size of recirculation region in the wake. Since a massive separation occurs at the leading edge at larger α's, however, the effect of superhydrophobic surface becomes diminished. In the talk, the dependence of the hydrodynamic role of surface slip on the hydrofoil shape and Rec will be presented. Supported by the NRF Programs (NRF-2012M2A8A4055647, NRF-2013R1A1A1008373) of Korean government.

  10. Uniform surface polished method of complex holes in abrasive flow machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A-Cheng WANG; Lung TSAI; Kuo-Zoo LIANG; Chun-Ho LIU; Shi-Hong WENG

    2009-01-01

    Abrasive flow machining(AFM) is an effective method that can remove the recasting layer produced by wire electrical discharge machining(WEDM). However, the surface roughness will not be easily uniform when a complex hole is polished by this method. CFD numerical method is aided to design good passageways to find the smooth roughness on the complex hole in AFM. Through the present method, it reveals that the shear forces in the polishing process and the flow properties of the medium in AFM play the roles in controlling the roughness on the entire surface. A power law model was firstly set up by utilizing the effect of shear rates on the medium viscosities, and the coefficients of the power law would be found by solving the algebraic equation from the relations between the shear rates and viscosities. Then the velocities, strain rates and shear forces of the medium acting on the surface would be obtained in the constant pressure by CFD software. Finally, the optimal mold core put into the complex hole could be designed after these simulations. The results show that the shear forces and strain rates change sharply on the entire surface if no mold core is inserted into the complex hole, whereas they hardly make any difference when the core shape is similar to the complex hole. Three experimental types of mold core were used. The results demonstrate that the similar shape of the mold core inserted into the hole could find the uniform roughness on the surface.

  11. Flow and thermal behavior of the top surface flux/powder layers in continuous casting molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, R. M.; Thomas, B. G.

    1996-08-01

    Steady-state finite-element models have been formulated to investigate the coupled fluid flow and thermal behavior of the top-surface flux layers in continuous casting of steel slabs. The three-dimensional (3-D) FIDAP model includes the shear stresses imposed on the flux/steel interface by flow velocities calculated in the molten steel pool. It also includes different temperature-dependent powder properties for solidification and melting. Good agreement between the 3-D model and experimental measurements was obtained. The shear forces, imposed by the steel surface motion toward the submerged entry nozzle (SEN), create a large recirculation zone in the liquid flux pool. Its depth increases with increasing casting speed, increasing liquid flux conductivity, and decreasing flux viscosity. For typical conditions, this zone contains almost 4 kg of flux, which contributes to an average residence time of about 2 minutes. Additionally, because the shear forces produced by the narrowface consumption and the steel flow oppose each other, the flow in the liquid flux layer separates at a location centered 200 mm from the narrowface wall. This flow separation depletes the liquid flux pool at this location and may contribute to generically poor feeding of the mold-strand gap there. As a further consequence, a relatively cold spot develops at the wideface mold wall near the separation point. This nonuniformity in the temperature distribution may result in nonuniform heat removal, and possibly nonuniform initial shell growth in the meniscus region along the wideface off-corner region. In this way, potential steel quality problems may be linked to flow in the liquid flux pool.

  12. Surface Characterization of LMMS Molybdenum Disilicide Coated HTP-8 Using Arc- Jet Hypersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Surface properties for an advanced Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) molybdenum disilicide coated insulation (HTP-8) were determined using arc-jet flow to simulate Earth entry at hypersonic speeds. The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for this advanced thermal protection system was determined from arc-jet data taken in both oxygen and nitrogen streams at temperatures ranging from 1255 K to roughly 1600 K. In addition, optical and chemical stability data were obtained from these test samples.

  13. Parallel Simulation of Three-Dimensional Free Surface Fluid Flow Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAER,THOMAS A.; SACKINGER,PHILIP A.; SUBIA,SAMUEL R.

    1999-10-14

    Simulation of viscous three-dimensional fluid flow typically involves a large number of unknowns. When free surfaces are included, the number of unknowns increases dramatically. Consequently, this class of problem is an obvious application of parallel high performance computing. We describe parallel computation of viscous, incompressible, free surface, Newtonian fluid flow problems that include dynamic contact fines. The Galerkin finite element method was used to discretize the fully-coupled governing conservation equations and a ''pseudo-solid'' mesh mapping approach was used to determine the shape of the free surface. In this approach, the finite element mesh is allowed to deform to satisfy quasi-static solid mechanics equations subject to geometric or kinematic constraints on the boundaries. As a result, nodal displacements must be included in the set of unknowns. Other issues discussed are the proper constraints appearing along the dynamic contact line in three dimensions. Issues affecting efficient parallel simulations include problem decomposition to equally distribute computational work among a SPMD computer and determination of robust, scalable preconditioners for the distributed matrix systems that must be solved. Solution continuation strategies important for serial simulations have an enhanced relevance in a parallel coquting environment due to the difficulty of solving large scale systems. Parallel computations will be demonstrated on an example taken from the coating flow industry: flow in the vicinity of a slot coater edge. This is a three dimensional free surface problem possessing a contact line that advances at the web speed in one region but transitions to static behavior in another region. As such, a significant fraction of the computational time is devoted to processing boundary data. Discussion focuses on parallel speed ups for fixed problem size, a class of problems of immediate practical importance.

  14. Drag reduction by surface treatment in turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, A. J.; Delfos, R.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use a Taylor-Couette facility to study the drag reducing effects of commercial surface products at high shear Reynolds numbers (Res) under perfect couter-rotating conditions (riwi = -rowo). The correlation between torque contribution of the von Kármán flow and shear Reynolds number is investigated. At this moment no significant drag changes are found for the commercial products. However, further research is needed to exclude uncertainties and errors from the torque measurements.

  15. Drag Reduction Control for Flow over a Hump with Surface-Mounted Thermoacoustic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    fabricating graphene/ carbon nanotube -based surface compliant loud speakers, the effectiveness of thermoacoustic actuators that locally introduce high...as a flow control actuator. A membrane of carbon nanotubes /graphene laid on a backing material such as paper under AC power has been shown to produce...propagated through the fluid field as high-intensity acoustic waves.7,8 One of the attractive characteristics of this carbon -based sound-emitting device

  16. A particle filter to reconstruct a free-surface flow from a depth camera

    CERN Document Server

    Combès, Benoit; Guibert, Anthony; Mémin, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the combined use of a Kinect depth sensor and of a stochastic data assimilation method to recover free-surface flows. More specifically, we use a Weighted ensemble Kalman filter method to reconstruct the complete state of free-surface flows from a sequence of depth images only. This particle filter accounts for model and observations errors. This data assimilation scheme is enhanced with the use of two observations instead of one classically. We evaluate the developed approach on two numerical test cases: a collapse of a water column as a toy-example and a flow in an suddenly expanding flume as a more realistic flow. The robustness of the method to depth data errors and also to initial and inflow conditions is considered. We illustrate the interest of using two observations instead of one observation into the correction step, especially for unknown inflow boundary conditions. Then, the performance of the Kinect sensor to capture temporal sequences of depth observations is investigated. Finally,...

  17. Supersonic flow about cone eith ijection of gas through its surface described by power law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, A. M.; Zakrevskiy, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of intensive mass transfer on the supersonic flow of gas about a cone of finite length is investigated. The mathematical model describing the interaction of the primary flow and the transverse flow formed by injection is the boundary problem for a system of equations presented with boundary conditions on the cone and on the contact discontinuity. It is found that the contact surface is nonrectilinear when the injected gas is described by a power law and that the thickness of the layer coming in contact with the cone increases as the intensity of the injection becomes higher. The distribution of the pressure coefficient along a finite cone is calculated as a function of the parameter(s) associated with the injection flow rate, and the Mach number of the oncoming stream. It is found that the pressure coefficient drops off along the generatrix of a cone for all velocities of injection and oncoming stream when the injection is distributed. As the injection intensity increases, the pressure coefficient on the surface increases.

  18. Investigation into flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel with enhanced heating surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of flow boiling in a minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating element for the working fluid (FC-72 that flows along the minichannel is a single-sided enhanced alloy foil made from Haynes-230. Microrecesses were formed on the selected area of the heating foil by laser technology. The observations of the flow structure were carried out through a piece of glass. Simultaneously, owing to the liquid crystal layer placed on the opposite side of the enhanced foil surface, it was possible to measure temperature distribution on the heating wall through another piece of glass. The experimental research has been focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e. the zone of boiling incipience and further development of boiling. The objective of the paper is determining of the void fraction for some cross-sections of selected images for increasing heat fluxes supplied to the heating surface. The flow structure photos were processed in Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes was developed in Techystem Globe software.

  19. Effects of bulk and free surface shear flows on amyloid fibril formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, David; Sorci, Mirco; Belfort, Georges; Hirsa, Amir

    2008-11-01

    Amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's, among others, are characterized by the conversion of monomers to oligomers (precursors) and then to amyloid fibrils. Besides factors such as concentration, pH, and ionic strength, evidence exists that shearing flow strongly influences amyloid formation in vitro. Also, during fibrillation in the presence of either gas or solid surfaces, both the polarity and roughness of the surfaces play a significant role in the kinetics of the fibrillation process. By studying the nucleation and growth of a model system (insulin fibrils) in a well-defined flow field, we can identify the flow and interfacial conditions that impact protein aggregation kinetics. The present flow system consists of an annular region, bounded by stationary inner and outer cylinders and driven by rotation of the floor, with either a hydrophobic (air) or hydrophilic (solid) interface. We show both the combined and separated effects of shear and interfacial hydrophobicity on the fibrillation process, and the use of interfacial shear viscosity as a parameter for quantifying the oligomerization process.

  20. A stereo vision method for tracking particle flow on the weld pool surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. X.; Richardson, I. M.; Kenjeres, S.; Kleijn, C. R.; Saldi, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The oscillation of a weld pool surface makes the fluid flow motion quite complex. Two-dimensional results cannot reflect enough information to quantitatively describe the fluid flow in the weld pool; however, there are few direct three-dimensional results available. In this paper, we describe a three-dimensional reconstruction method to measure weld pool surface features based on a single high-speed camera. A stereo adapter was added in front of the high-speed camera lens to obtain two images in the same frame from different view points at the same time. According to machine vision theory, three-dimensional parameters can be reconstructed based on two such images. In this work, three-dimensional velocity fields have been obtained using this method. Based on the calibration technique employed, the associated error is estimated to be less than 11.4%. Quantitative experimental results are useful for understanding the flow pattern, and possibly for controlling the flow of liquid in the weld pool.

  1. Effects of fluid flow on elution of hydrophilic modifier from dialysis membrane surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masato; Sato, Mika; Sakata, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takahisa; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Yakushiji, Taiji; Fukuda, Makoto; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2008-01-01

    When uremic blood flows through dialyzers during hemodialysis, dialysis membrane surfaces are exposed to shear stress and internal filtration, which may affect the surface characteristics of the dialysis membranes. In the present study, we evaluated changes in the characteristics of membrane surfaces caused by shear stress and internal filtration using blood substitutes: water purified by reverse osmosis and 6.7 wt% dextran70 solution. We focused on the levels of a hydrophilic modifier, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), on the membrane surface measured by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Experiments involving 4 h dialysis, 0-144 h shear-stress loading, and 4 h dead-end filtration were performed using polyester-polymer alloy (PEPA) and polysulfone (PS) membranes. After the dialysis experiments with accompanying internal filtration, average PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was 93.7% in all areas, whereas that on the PS membrane surface was 98.9% in all areas. After the shear-stress loading experiments, PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface decreased as shear-stress loading time and the magnitude of shear stress increased. However, with the PS membrane, PVP retention scarcely changed. After the dead-end filtration experiments, PVP retention decreased in all areas for both PEPA and PS membranes, but PVP retention on the PEPA membrane surface was lower than that on the PS membrane surface. PVP on the PEPA membrane surface was eluted by both shear stress and internal filtration, while that on the PS membrane surface was eluted only by internal filtration.

  2. An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.

  3. Interfacial stress balances in structured continua and free surface flows in ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Arlex [School of Chemical Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Calle 9 Cra. 27, Edificio 24, Bucaramanga, Santander (Colombia); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Interfacial linear and internal angular momentum balances are obtained for a structured continuum and for the special case of a ferrofluid, a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a Newtonian fluid. The interfacial balance equations account for the effects of surface tension and surface tension gradient, magnetic surface excess forces, antisymmetric stresses, and couple stresses in driving interfacial flows in ferrofluids. Application of the interfacial balance equations is illustrated by obtaining analytical expressions for the translational and spin velocity profiles in a thin film of ferrofluid on an infinite flat plate when a rotating magnetic field is applied with axis of rotation parallel to the ferrofluid/air interface. The cases of zero and non-zero spin viscosity are considered for small applied magnetic field amplitude. Expressions for the maximum translational velocity, slope of the translational velocity profile at the ferrofluid/air interface, and volumetric flow rate are obtained and their use to test the relevance of spin viscosity and couple stresses in the flow situation under consideration is discussed.

  4. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  5. Analysis of the effect of the coastal discontinuity on near-surface flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Pryor

    Full Text Available Conditional sampling is used herein to examine the effect of fetch, stability, and surface roughness changes on wind speeds in the coastal zone. Using data from an offshore wind farm it is shown that at a distance of 1.2–1.7 km from the coast, up to a height of 20 m above the surface, differences in wind speed distributions from onshore and offshore masts are statistically significant for flow moving offshore under all stability conditions. In contrast, differences between the distribution of wind speeds at 38 and 48 m at masts located at the coast and in the coastal zone are not significant for flow moving offshore, indicating that flow at these heights is not fully adjusted to the change in surface roughness (land to sea. These findings are in accordance with calculations of the internal boundary layer (IBL height which indicate that the IBL would frequently be below the two upper measurement heights at 1.2–1.6 km from the coast. The analyses presented here indicate that the wind speed distribution at a potential offshore wind farm site is not solely dependent on fetch (distance from the coast but also depends on the stability climate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics · Mesoscale meteorology · Ocean-atmosphere interaction · Marine meteorology

  6. Unsteady Free-surface Waves Due to a Submerged Body in Two-dimensional Oseen Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUDong-qiang; AllenT.CHWANG

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional unsteady free-surface waves due to a submerged body moving in an incompressible viscous fluid of infinite depth is considered.The disturbed flow is governed by the unsteadyOseen equations with the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions linearized for the free-surface waves.Accordingly, the body is mathematically simulated by an Oseenlet with a periodically oscillating strength.By means of Fourier transforms,the exact solution for the free-surface waves is expressed by an integral with a complex dispersion function, which explicitly shows that the wave dynamics is characterized by a Reynolds number and a Strouhal number.By applying Lighthill's theorem, asymptotic representations are derived for the far-field waves with a sub-critical and a super-critical Strouhal number. It is found that the generated waves due to the oscillating Oseenlet consist of the steady-state and transient responses. For the viscous flow with a sub-critical Strouhal number, there exist four waves: three propagate downstream while one propagates upstream.However, for the viscous flow with a super-critical Strouhal number, there exist two waves only,which propagate downstream.

  7. Cavity formation and surface modeling of laser milling process under a thin-flowing water layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwarodomnukun, Viboon

    2016-11-01

    Laser milling process normally involves a number of laser scans over a workpiece to selectively remove the material and then to form cavities with shape and dimensions required. However, this process adversely causes a heat accumulation in work material, which can in turn damage the laser-milled area and vicinity in terms of recast deposition and change of material properties. Laser milling process performing in a thin-flowing water layer is a promising method that can overcome such damage. With the use of this technique, water can flush away the cut debris and at the same time cool the workpiece during the ablation. To understand the potential of this technique for milling application, the effects of process parameters on cavity dimensions and surface roughness were experimentally examined in this study. Titanium sheet was used as a workpiece to be milled by a nanosecond pulse laser under different water flow velocities. A smooth and uniform cut feature can be obtained when the metal was ablated under the high laser pulse frequency and high water flow velocity. Furthermore, a surface model based on the energy balance was developed in this study to predict the cavity profile and surface roughness. By comparing to the experiments, the predicted profiles had a good agreement with the measured ones.

  8. Integrable generalizations of Schrodinger maps and Heisenberg spin models from Hamiltonian flows of curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anco, S C

    2010-01-01

    A moving frame formulation of non-stretching geometric curve flows in Euclidean space is used to derive a 1+1 dimensional hierarchy of integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models containing the Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin model as well as a model given by a spin-vector version of the mKdV equation. These models describe a geometric realization of the NLS hierarchy of soliton equations whose bi-Hamiltonian structure is shown to be encoded in the Frenet equations of the moving frame. This derivation yields an explicit bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, and constants of motion for each model in the hierarchy. A generalization of these results to geometric surface flows is presented, where the surfaces are non-stretching in one direction while stretching in all transverse directions. Through the Frenet equations of a moving frame, such surface flows are shown to encode a hierarchy of 2+1 dimensional integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models, along with their bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, ...

  9. Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel

    KAUST Repository

    Budiman, Alexander Christantho

    2014-12-04

    Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. A numerical study of turbulent boundary layer flow over a dimpled surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kithcart, M.E. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., CAR, Greensboro, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail: kithcart@ncat.edu; Klett, D.E. [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Mechanical Engineering, Greensboro, North Carolina (United States)]. E-mail: klett@ncat.edu

    2002-07-01

    Turbulent boundary layer flow over a flat surface with a single dimple, and a surface with two dimples in tandem has been investigated numerically using the FLUENT CFD software package, and compared to an experiment, which studied the same configuration. The impetus for this work came as a result of previous studies, which indicate that dimple surfaces enhance heat transfer comparably to protrusion roughness elements, but the heat transfer augmentation does come with the penalty of increased drag. However, the exact physical mechanisms involved in the effects associated with dimples were not well known prior this study. Results for the single dimple configuration are in good agreement with an experiment, which studied the same configuration, particularly the confirmation of the existence of a region of enhanced heat transfer created by the dimple. In addition, it can be determined from the numerical study that the heat transfer enhancement is a consequence of the development of a stagnation flow region within the dimple geometry. In the two-dimple roughness simulation, the elements were spaced one half diameter apart, in order to observe any possible interaction. The results of the simulation indicate that the local flow-field in the vicinity of a dimple is unaffected by the presence of a neighboring element. (author)

  11. Extension of the prognostic model of sea surface temperature to rain-induced cool and fresh lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellenger, Hugo; Drushka, Kyla; Asher, William; Reverdin, Gilles; Katsumata, Masaki; Watanabe, Michio

    2017-01-01

    The Zeng and Beljaars (2005) sea surface temperature prognostic scheme, developed to represent diurnal warming, is extended to represent rain-induced freshening and cooling. Effects of rain on salinity and temperature in the molecular skin layer (first few hundred micrometers) and the near-surface turbulent layer (first few meters) are separately parameterized by taking into account rain-induced fluxes of sensible heat and freshwater, surface stress, and mixing induced by droplets penetrating the water surface. Numerical results from this scheme are compared to observational data from two field studies of near-surface ocean stratifications caused by rain, to surface drifter observations and to previous computations with an idealized ocean mixed layer model, demonstrating that the scheme produces temperature variations consistent with in situ observations and model results. It reproduces the dependency of salinity on wind and rainfall rate and the lifetime of fresh lenses. In addition, the scheme reproduces the observed lag between temperature and salinity minimum at low wind speed and is sensitive to the peak rain rate for a given amount of rain. Finally, a first assessment of the impact of these fresh lenses on ocean surface variability is given for the near-equatorial western Pacific. In particular, the variability due to the mean rain-induced cooling is comparable to the variability due to the diurnal warming so that they both impact large-scale horizontal surface temperature gradients. The present parameterization can be used in a variety of models to study the impact of rain-induced fresh and cool lenses at different spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Drag reduction by the introduction of shear-free surfaces in a turbulent channel flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AJAY KUMAR SOOD; MURALI R CHOLEMARI; BALAJI SRINIVASAN

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel technique for drag reduction in turbulent flows is presented. The technique involves the modification of the large scales of turbulent flows and is a passive approach. The lateral transport of momentum, which is a dominant mechanism in turbulence, is attenuated by the introduction of moving shearfree surfaces (SFSes). This brings about a reduction in the drag. 2D simulations have been carried out for aturbulent channel flow using shear stress transport (SST) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) model and validated with the available experimental results. The interaction between the plates and the fluid is two way,and is enforced either by the use of a rigid body solver with moving mesh, or by considering the SFSes to befixed at particular locations and then updating the velocities of the plates at those locations. The latter is equivalent to solving a fully developed flow in the moving mesh case. The number, shape, size and placement of the SFSes strongly influence the amount of drag reduction. The phenomenon is confirmed to be governed by a ‘slow’ turbulent time scale. Further, the efficacy of the method is seen to depend on the ratio of two time scales – an advection time scale indicating the ‘resident time’ near an SFS, and the turbulent time scale. In addition, the effectiveness of the approach is improved by judicious placement of multiple SFSes in the flow.

  13. A pipe network simulation model with dynamic transition between free surface and pressurized flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fernández-Pato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flow numerical simulation in urban pipe systems is one of the topics that shows the need for surface flows and pressurized flows in steady and transient situations. The governing equations for both flow types are different and this must be taken into account in order to get a complete numerical model for solving transients. A numerical simulation model is developed in this work, capable of solving pipe networks mainly unpressurized, with isolated peaks of pressurization. For this purpose, a reformulation of the mathematical model through the Preissmann slot method is proposed. By means of this technique, a reasonable estimation of the water pressure is calculated in cases of pressurization. The numerical model is based on the first order Roe's scheme, in the frame of finite volume methods. It is adapted to abrupt transient situations, with subcritial and supercritical flows. The validation has been done by means of several cases with analytic solutions or empirical laboratory data. It has also been applied to some more complex and realistic cases, like junctions or pipe networks.

  14. Continuous surface force based lattice Boltzmann equation method for simulating thermocapillary flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Lin, E-mail: lz@njust.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zheng, Song [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Zhejiang University of Finance and Economics, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhai, Qinglan [School of Economics Management and Law, Chaohu University, Chaohu 238000 (China)

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we extend a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) with continuous surface force (CSF) to simulate thermocapillary flows. The model is designed on our previous CSF LBE for athermal two phase flow, in which the interfacial tension forces and the Marangoni stresses as the results of the interface interactions between different phases are described by a conception of CSF. In this model, the sharp interfaces between different phases are separated by a narrow transition layers, and the kinetics and morphology evolution of phase separation would be characterized by an order parameter via Cahn–Hilliard equation which is solved in the frame work of LBE. The scalar convection–diffusion equation for temperature field is resolved by thermal LBE. The models are validated by thermal two layered Poiseuille flow, and two superimposed planar fluids at negligibly small Reynolds and Marangoni numbers for the thermocapillary driven convection, which have analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature. Then thermocapillary migration of two/three dimensional deformable droplet are simulated. Numerical results show that the predictions of present LBE agreed with the analytical solution/other numerical results. - Highlights: • A CSF LBE to thermocapillary flows. • Thermal layered Poiseuille flows. • Thermocapillary migration.

  15. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, Daniel P. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States); Owkes, Mark [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Regele, Jonathan D., E-mail: jregele@iastate.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge–Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten–Lax–van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas–liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  16. A finite-volume HLLC-based scheme for compressible interfacial flows with surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Daniel P.; Owkes, Mark; Regele, Jonathan D.

    2017-06-01

    Shock waves are often used in experiments to create a shear flow across liquid droplets to study secondary atomization. Similar behavior occurs inside of supersonic combustors (scramjets) under startup conditions, but it is challenging to study these conditions experimentally. In order to investigate this phenomenon further, a numerical approach is developed to simulate compressible multiphase flows under the effects of surface tension forces. The flow field is solved via the compressible multicomponent Euler equations (i.e., the five equation model) discretized with the finite volume method on a uniform Cartesian grid. The solver utilizes a total variation diminishing (TVD) third-order Runge-Kutta method for time-marching and second order TVD spatial reconstruction. Surface tension is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model. Fluxes are upwinded with a modified Harten-Lax-van Leer Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver. An interface compression scheme is employed to counter numerical diffusion of the interface. The present work includes modifications to both the HLLC solver and the interface compression scheme to account for capillary force terms and the associated pressure jump across the gas-liquid interface. A simple method for numerically computing the interface curvature is developed and an acoustic scaling of the surface tension coefficient is proposed for the non-dimensionalization of the model. The model captures the surface tension induced pressure jump exactly if the exact curvature is known and is further verified with an oscillating elliptical droplet and Mach 1.47 and 3 shock-droplet interaction problems. The general characteristics of secondary atomization at a range of Weber numbers are also captured in a series of simulations.

  17. Unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical stretching surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Su, Ning; Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical permeable stretching surface in porous medium, where the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity are also considered. By using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are first transformed into coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Numerical solutions to these equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained by the numerical shooting technique with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. Numerical results show that as viscosity variation parameter increases both the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient increase whereas the temperature decreases slightly. With the increase of viscosity variation parameter, the velocity decreases near the sheet surface but increases far away from the surface of the sheet in the boundary layer. The increase in permeability parameter leads to the decrease in both the temperature and the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient, and the increase in both the velocity and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient.

  18. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  19. Unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical stretching surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Cai

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical permeable stretching surface in porous medium, where the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity are also considered. By using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are first transformed into coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Numerical solutions to these equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained by the numerical shooting technique with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. Numerical results show that as viscosity variation parameter increases both the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient increase whereas the temperature decreases slightly. With the increase of viscosity variation parameter, the velocity decreases near the sheet surface but increases far away from the surface of the sheet in the boundary layer. The increase in permeability parameter leads to the decrease in both the temperature and the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient, and the increase in both the velocity and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient.

  20. Influence of magmatism on mantle cooling, surface heat flow and Urey ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Tackley, Paul J.

    2012-05-01

    Two-dimensional thermo-chemical mantle convection simulations are used to investigate the influence of melting-inducted differentiation on the thermal evolution of Earth's mantle, focussing in particular on matching the present-day surface heat flow and the 'Urey ratio'. The influence of internal heating rate, initial mantle temperature and partitioning of heat-producing elements into basaltic crust are studied. High initial mantle temperatures, which are expected following Earth's accretion, cause major differences in early mantle thermo-chemical structures, but by the present-day surface heat flux and internal structures are indistinguishable from cases with a low initial temperature. Assuming three different values of mantle heat production that vary by more than a factor of two results in small differences in present-day heat flow, as does assuming different partitioning ratios of heat-producing elements into crust. Indeed, all of the cases presented here, regardless of exact parameters, have approximately Earth's present-day heat flow, with substantial fractions coming from the core and from mantle cooling. As a consequence of the model present-day surface heat flow varying only slightly with parameters, the Urey ratio (the ratio of total heat production to the total surface heat flow) is highly dependent on the amount of internal heat production, and due to the large uncertainty in this, the Urey ratio is considered to be a much poorer constraint on thermal evolution than the heat flow. The range of present-day Urey ratio observed in simulations here is about 0.3 to 0.5, which is consistent with observational and geochemical constraints (Jaupart et al., 2007). Magmatic heat transport contributes an upper bound of 9% to Earth's present-day heat loss but a much higher fraction at earlier times—often more than convective heat loss—so neglecting this causes an overestimation of the Urey ratio. Magmatic heat transport also plays an important role in mantle