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Sample records for extension study evaluating

  1. Evidence of Impact: Examination of Evaluation Studies Published in the "Journal of Extension"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jeffrey D.; Scheer, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Research was conducted to explore the level of evidence of impact collected through program evaluation (outcome studies) by Extension as published in "JOE." Articles reviewed were those listed under the headings of "Feature Articles" and "Research in Brief" in 5-year increments (1965-69, 1975-79, 1985-89, 1995-99, and…

  2. Controlled categorisation processing in brand extension evaluation by Indo-European language speakers. An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudali-Czyż, Agnieszka; Ratomska, Marta; Cudo, Andrzej; Francuz, Piotr; Kopiś, Natalia; Tużnik, Przemysław

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of our experiment was to test event-related potentials (ERP) accompanying the process of brand extension evaluation in people speaking Indo-European languages. The experimental procedure consisted of sequential presentations of pairs of stimuli; namely, a beverage brand name and a product name. The products fell into the category of beverages (congruent trials) or clothes (incongruent trials). In the response condition (RC), the participants decided whether they accepted the product as an extension of the brand. In the no-response condition (NRC), the participants' task was to attend the stimuli and try to remember them. In the response condition, the amplitudes of the N270, P300 and N400 components were sensitive to incongruence between the product category and the previously presented brand. However, in the no-response condition, differences emerged only at the level of early P1 and P2 components. Our results suggest that, in people speaking one of the Indo-European languages, the process of categorisation in brand extension evaluation is not automatic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Sustainability Evaluation Model Based on the Matter-Element Extension Method: A Case Study of Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy sustainability is of vital importance to regional sustainability, because energy sustainability is closely related to both regional economic growth and social stability. The existing energy sustainability evaluation methods lack a unified system to determine the relevant influencing factors, are relatively weak in quantitative analysis, and do not fully describe the ‘paradoxical’ characteristics of energy sustainability. To solve those problems and to reasonably and objectively evaluate energy sustainability, we propose an energy sustainability evaluation model based on the matter-element extension method. We first select energy sustainability evaluation indexes based on previous research and experience. Then, a variation coefficient method is used to determine the weights of these indexes. Finally, the study establishes the classical domain, joint domain, and the matter-element relationship to evaluate energy sustainability through matter-element extension. Data from Shandong Province is used as a case study to evaluate the region’s energy sustainability. The case study shows that the proposed energy sustainability evaluation model, based on the matter-element extension method, can effectively evaluate regional energy sustainability.

  4. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Imo State fisheriers extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the Imo State Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries Extension Programmes. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 15 randomly selected extension staff and 200 proportionately selected fish farmers from the three fisheries zones of the state between November 1997 and February 1998. Data were ...

  6. Logo Effects on Brand Extension Evaluations from the Electrophysiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Dai, Shenyi; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-01-01

    Brand extension typically has two strategies: brand name extension (BN) and brand logo extension (BL). The current study explored which strategy (BN or BL) better enhanced the success of dissimilar brand extension and product promotion in enterprises. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate electrophysiological processes when subjects evaluated their acceptance of the brand extension using a combined picture of S1 and S2. S1 was a famous brand presented by two identity signs (brand name and brand logo). S2 was a picture of an extension product that belonged to a dissimilar product category than S1. The behavior data showed that BL was more acceptable than BN in the dissimilar brand extension. The neurophysiology process was reflected by a less negative N2 component and a larger P300 component in the BL than in the BN. We suggested that N2 reflected a whole conflict between the brand-product combination and the long-term memory and that P300 could be regarded as the reflection of the categorization process in the working memory.

  7. Evaluation of performance of extension workers in Lesotho | Mokone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of performance of extension workers in Lesotho. ... role to play in ensuring that extension workers improve their work performance and as ... This cannot be true since most of the factors that affect efficiency were found to be negative.

  8. Evaluating retail format extensions : The role of shopping goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Although retail extensions have become a common growth strategy, more than 50% fail to survive. The question what drives extension success, therefore remains a key issue. This research tests the hypothesis that expectations about the attributes of extensions, and as a result of their evaluations,

  9. Collaboratively Evaluating Cooperative Extension Educational Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Debb; Murphy, Dennis J.; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Three intervention models to reduce hazards and risks of farm work were tested: self-audit (n=73), youth safety and health program (n=64), and a community coalition for safety and health (n=17). Despite some difficulties, university researchers and agents did accomplish the primary goal: scientific evaluation of models of safety education. (SK)

  10. Evaluating Extensions to Coherent Mortality Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazreen Shair

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent models were developed recently to forecast the mortality of two or more sub-populations simultaneously and to ensure long-term non-divergent mortality forecasts of sub-populations. This paper evaluates the forecast accuracy of two recently-published coherent mortality models, the Poisson common factor and the product-ratio functional models. These models are compared to each other and the corresponding independent models, as well as the original Lee–Carter model. All models are applied to age-gender-specific mortality data for Australia and Malaysia and age-gender-ethnicity-specific data for Malaysia. The out-of-sample forecast error of log death rates, male-to-female death rate ratios and life expectancy at birth from each model are compared and examined across groups. The results show that, in terms of overall accuracy, the forecasts of both coherent models are consistently more accurate than those of the independent models for Australia and for Malaysia, but the relative performance differs by forecast horizon. Although the product-ratio functional model outperforms the Poisson common factor model for Australia, the Poisson common factor is more accurate for Malaysia. For the ethnic groups application, ethnic-coherence gives better results than gender-coherence. The results provide evidence that coherent models are preferable to independent models for forecasting sub-populations’ mortality.

  11. An open-label extension study to evaluate the safety of ropinirole prolonged release in Chinese patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoying; Chen, Shengdi; Wang, Zhenfu; Zhang, Baorong; Liu, Chunfeng; Qu, Qiumin; Cheng, Yan; Zhu, Rongxuan; Li, Jie; Hu, Jingqiu; Cai, Meng

    2015-04-01

    This open-label extension (OLE) study evaluated the safety profile of ropinirole prolonged release (PR) administered for 24 weeks as adjunctive to levodopa in Chinese patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). This was a 24 week, flexible-dose, OLE study in Chinese patients with advanced PD who received 24 week treatment with ropinirole PR in the preceding double-blind (DB), phase III study (NCT01154166) and had no break in receiving study treatment while switching from the DB study to the OLE study. In the OLE study, patients received ropinirole PR once daily, starting with 2 mg/d and increasing up to 8 mg/d at week 4 (2 mg increment/week); if tolerable, the dose could be further increased in 4 mg increments up to 24 mg/d according to clinical judgment. There were no efficacy assessments. Safety assessments included monitoring adverse events (AEs), neurological examination, Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale questionnaire, liver chemistry, and laboratory tests. Of the 295 enrolled patients, 282 completed the study. The most common reason for withdrawal was AEs (n = 9, 3.1%). The mean duration to ropinirole PR treatment was 173.1 days and an overall median daily dose of ropinirole was 8 mg (range: 2-24 mg). Overall, 114 (38.6%) patients experienced on-treatment AEs; the most frequent reported AEs ( ≥ 2%) were dyskinesia (6.1%), dizziness (4.1%), nausea (3.4%), hallucinations (3.4%), somnolence (2.7%) and decreased weight (2.4%). Sixty-eight patients (23.1%) experienced treatment-related AEs. Six patients experienced serious AEs (SAEs), of which hallucination was determined to be a treatment-related SAE. There were no other significant safety findings. No new safety signals for ropinirole were identified. The safety profile of ropinirole was consistent with the preceding DB study and also with the established safety profile for ropinirole. Results support the long-term use of ropinirole PR as an adjunctive to levodopa in Chinese patients

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Cooperative Extension Outreach via Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Twitter is increasingly being used by Extension educators as a teaching and program-marketing tool. It is not enough, however, to simply use Twitter to disseminate information. Steps must be taken to evaluate program impact with quantitative and qualitative data. This article described the following Twitter evaluation metrics: unique hashtags,…

  13. Evaluation of brand extensions:the case of fragrances

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, José António

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the intentions and the influences that determine the consumption of fragrances, inferring about the symbolic meaning of its purchase. Additionally, it tries to evaluate whether fragrances are a success, as an extension of a luxury brand. Fragrances are part of the market of personal luxury goods, which represents the second most important segment of the luxury industry. Luxury brands have been implementing new marketing strategies, such as the use of brand extensions. Desi...

  14. Characteristics of Human Brain Activity during the Evaluation of Service-to-Service Brand Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Seungji; Seomoon, Eunbi; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2018-01-01

    Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1) followed by extended service name (S2) were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori . The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels ( p service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods.

  15. Esmeralda project for studying extensive sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophy, Y.M.; Roy, D.; Bentz, A.; Gerosa, A.; Noel, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the Esmeralda Project for studying extensive fires involving up to 70 metric tons of sodium. The motivations which prompted the decision to create this research facility are related to construction of the Super-Phenix breeder reactor and to the scale effect problems posed by the use of very large quantities of sodium. Information is included on the dimensions of the installation, the objectives of the project, the means to be employed, the timetable to be followed, and the organization which was created for this project within the context of Franco-Italian cooperation

  16. Characteristics of Human Brain Activity during the Evaluation of Service-to-Service Brand Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyang Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG. A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1 followed by extended service name (S2 were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori. The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels (p < 0.05. The N400 amplitude was more negative for the mid- and high-level fits than the low level. The ERP results of P300 and N400 indicate that the early stage of brain extension evaluation might first detect low-fit brand extension as an improbable target followed by the late stage of the integration of S2 into S1. Along with previous findings, our results demonstrate different cognitive evaluation of service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods.

  17. Characteristics of Human Brain Activity during the Evaluation of Service-to-Service Brand Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Seungji; Seomoon, Eunbi; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2018-01-01

    Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1) followed by extended service name (S2) were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori. The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels (p < 0.05). The N400 amplitude was more negative for the mid- and high-level fits than the low level. The ERP results of P300 and N400 indicate that the early stage of brain extension evaluation might first detect low-fit brand extension as an improbable target followed by the late stage of the integration of S2 into S1. Along with previous findings, our results demonstrate different cognitive evaluation of service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods. PMID:29479313

  18. Implicit personality theory in evaluation of brand extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, K E; Pappas, J M

    2000-06-01

    Transference, the extent to which consumers transfer their opinions of a parent brand to a new extension, is critical to the success of any brand-extension strategy. Past research has shown that transference is a complex process that varies among persons depending upon an implicit personality theory, entity versus incremental. In a laboratory experiment analysis of ratings for 100 21-yr.-old undergraduates of attitude, perceived fit and risk, prior product involvement, and implicit personality theory (entity versus incremental) the influence of consumers' implicit personality theory on transference was considered within the brand-extension context. As expected, the amount of transference differed between those espousing entity and incremental theories. "Entity theorists" were much more likely to transfer feelings associated with the parent brand to the new extension than were "incremental theorists" who did not rely on prior brand information when forming evaluations of a new extension. This effect did not occur when perceived fit between the parent brand and the extension was high.

  19. Evaluation of an omental pedicle extension technique in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, W E; Pardo, A D

    1993-01-01

    A two-step omental pedicle extension technique was performed on 10 dogs. Step 1 of the pedicle extension involved release of the dorsal leaf of the omentum from its pancreatic attachment, whereas step 2 consisted of an inverse L-shaped incision to double the length of the pedicle. The pedicle dimensions were measured and the distance reached when extended toward the hind limb, forelimb, and the muzzle recorded after each stage of the procedure. The vascular patency of the pedicle was determined by intravenous injection of fluorescein dye after the second stage of omental extension. Mean pedicle lengths were 44.5 cm with the first stage of extension and 82.0 cm after full extension. The mean width at the caudal extent of the pedicles after dorsal and full extension was 30.4 cm and 17.2 cm, respectively. Eight of the 10 pedicles were patent after full extension. The fully extended omental pedicles reached and, in most cases, extended beyond the distal extremities and the muzzle. The findings in this study suggest that the canine omentum can be extended to any part of the body without being detached from its vascular supply.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Extension Education Centers in Universities Based on the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Yi-Kuei; Chang, Chi-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at developing a set of appropriate performance evaluation indices mainly based on balanced scorecard (BSC) for extension education centers in universities by utilizing multiple criteria decision making (MCDM). Through literature reviews and experts who have real practical experiences in extension education, adequate performance…

  1. An Extensive Evaluation of Portfolio Approaches for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amadini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Constraint Programming, a portfolio approach exploits the complementary strengths of a portfolio of different constraint solvers. The goal is to predict and run the best solver(s of the portfolio for solving a new, unseen problem. In this work we reproduce, simulate, and evaluate the performance of different portfolio approaches on extensive benchmarks of Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Empirical results clearly show the benefits of portfolio solvers in terms of both solved instances and solving time.

  2. Food irradiation and its role in shelf life extension of horticulture produce: a comprehensive evaluation of studies carried out in India and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, J.; Gautam, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food irradiation is the process of treating foods to a controlled source of ionizing radiation, to reduce post-harvest losses and ensure its safety. With respect to horticulture produce, the role of food irradiation has been well established to fulfill the phytosanitary requirement of the importing countries and also to ensure food safety in certain commodities. Still for establishing its relevance in extending the shelf-life of horticulture produce, substantial scientific inputs are required. Our objective was therefore to summarize in brief the research findings where role of radiation processing in shelf-life extension of horticulture produce has been addressed. Low dose (0.1 kGy) of γ-radiation resulted in sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, thus prolonging their storage life upto 4 months at 11-12℃. Radiation processing also delayed ripening process in the climacteric fruits by a week upto one month depending on the cultivars and stored condition. Shelf-life of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) was extended up to 10-15 days by γ-radiation treatment of 2-3 kGy and storage at 10±2℃ . A 5 kGy radiation dose and 10℃ storage temperature increased the shelf life of peeled ginger samples upto 70 days. Irradiation of guava fruits with 0.1 kGy γ-radiation increased its post harvest life by 8 days. Shelf-life of Litchi was increased upto 28 days by radiation treatment at 0.5 kGy and subsequent low temperature storage. Shelf-life of leafy vegetables increased upto 20 days by a combination process including γ-radiation (Khade, et.al., unpublished data). Electron beam irradiation (2 kGy) extended shelf-life of fresh strawberry fruits upto 4 day. Apples irradiated at 0.2-0.4 kGy showed improved quality upto 3 months of storage. Shelled sweet corn kernels treated with combination process including γ-radiation (5 kGy) treatment showed prolonged shelf-life of 30 days at 4℃ (Kumar S. et.al., unpublished data). In recent study conducted by us on shelf life

  3. Study on risk insight for additional ILRT interval extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M. R.; Hong, S. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Chung, B. S.; Oh, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In U.S., the containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) interval was extended from 3 times per 10 years to once per 10 years based on NUREG-1493 'Performance-Based Containment Leak-Test Program' in 1995. In September, 2001, ILRT interval was extended up to once per 15 years based on Nuclear Energy Industry (NEI) provisional guidance 'Interim Guidance for Performing Risk Impact Assessments In Support of One-Time Extensions for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test Surveillance Intervals'. In Korea, the containment ILRT was performed with 5 year interval. But, in MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology) Notice 2004-15 'Standard for the Leak- Rate Test of the Nuclear Reactor Containment', the extension of the ILRT interval to once per 10 year can be allowed if some conditions are met. So, the safety analysis for the extension of Yonggwang Nuclear (YGN) Unit 1 and 2 ILRT interval extension to once per 10 years was completed based on the methodology in NUREG-1493. But, during review process by regulatory body, KINS, it was required that some various risk insight or index for risk analysis should be developed. So, we began to study NEI interim report for 15 year ILRT interval extension. As previous analysis based on NUREG-1493, MACCS II (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) computer code was used for the risk analysis of the population, and the population dose was selected as a reference index for the risk evaluation

  4. Two-stage categorization in brand extension evaluation: electrophysiological time course evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available A brand name can be considered a mental category. Similarity-based categorization theory has been used to explain how consumers judge a new product as a member of a known brand, a process called brand extension evaluation. This study was an event-related potential study conducted in two experiments. The study found a two-stage categorization process reflected by the P2 and N400 components in brand extension evaluation. In experiment 1, a prime-probe paradigm was presented in a pair consisting of a brand name and a product name in three conditions, i.e., in-category extension, similar-category extension, and out-of-category extension. Although the task was unrelated to brand extension evaluation, P2 distinguished out-of-category extensions from similar-category and in-category ones, and N400 distinguished similar-category extensions from in-category ones. In experiment 2, a prime-probe paradigm with a related task was used, in which product names included subcategory and major-category product names. The N400 elicited by subcategory products was more significantly negative than that elicited by major-category products, with no salient difference in P2. We speculated that P2 could reflect the early low-level and similarity-based processing in the first stage, whereas N400 could reflect the late analytic and category-based processing in the second stage.

  5. Brand Extension: a Case Study of Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Bokii, Artem

    2017-01-01

    The thesis investigates the topic of brand extension and its importance in the business practice of companies. The theoretical part of the research outlines the key theoretical aspects related to brand and brand extension. The practical part investigates the case study of Starbucks brand extension and compares it with other famous brand extension cases. The paper illustrates how Starbucks brand extension from coffee onto the ice cream market had been successful on the initial stage, and how i...

  6. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A.

    1993-01-01

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  7. NPP Evaluation, backfitting and life extension. An engineering viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Lopez, A [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    During the decade of the 80s, the Owners of the two oldest operating plants in Spain designed and built during the 60s - namely, Jose Cabrera NPP, a Westinghouse PWR, and Santa Maria de Garona NPP, a GE BWR- undertook the following important programs: 1. A far-reaching Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for the Jose Cabrera NPP consisting in the systematic safety review of the plant design, followed by the necessary hardware modifications, to upgrade it and make it comply with current safety criteria, and a Plant Upgrading Program for the Garona Nuclear Station focusing on specific topics affecting GE BWR Mark-I type plants of the same vintage. 2. A Remaining Life Management Program to ensure that the units, after extensive backfittings and high capital investment, would complete their design life, leaving open the option for plant life extension. These two units are today considered by the Spanish nuclear industry as the pilot plants for Plant Life Extension (PLEX) programs for PWRs and BWRs in our country The purpose of this paper is to summarize the principal lessons learned from EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS' participation as an architect-engineering organization in the engineering, design and implementation of these Programs. They are practical examples of positive experience which could be considered as a reference when carrying out similar programs for other plants. (author)

  8. Evaluating the impact of agricultural extension programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailemichael Taye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, impact evaluation has been used to assess whether agricultural extension interventions have brought the intended result or to establish causal linkages between interventions and outcomes. However, there is some scepticism about the validity and reliability of the results of the impact evaluation reports due to some contradictory and exaggerated results. Objectives: This article analyses some impact evaluation studies conducted in SSA as to why contradictions and exaggerations are manifested in some reports and what would be the future prospects of impact evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in the region. Methods: Impact evaluation reports and results of agricultural extension programmes from 10 SSA countries were reviewed and analysed based on impact evaluation principles and theories. Results: The results show that most of the evaluations reported positive impacts. There are also conflicting reports on extension performance. The fact that the overwhelming majority of impact evaluation reports claim positive extension impacts is not in line with the reports on agricultural productivity growth in the region. There are various reasons for over estimated impacts and contradictory results, which include use of poor impact evaluation methodologies, lack of reliable data and insufficient capacity to conduct rigorous impact evaluations. Conclusion: Due to these challenges and the shift in agricultural research and extension approaches, it is recommended that rather than investing effort in trying to prove impact, greater attention should be given to improving impact as well as using other innovative monitoring and evaluation (M&E and learning tools that consider the dynamic nature of agricultural development.

  9. Extension and origin of parasellar meningiomas. Evaluation on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Asada, Masahiro; Tamaki, Norihiko

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated MRI of forty patients who had histologically confirmed meningiomas around the sella turcica. Coronal section of the spin-echo/fast spin-echo T 1 weighted imaging (with and without GD-DTPA enhancement) were mainly investigated. We precisely examined two points; the location of the bulk of tumor mass, the anatomical relationship between the tumor and the anterior clinoid process, superior orbital fissure, optic nerve, and the internal carotid artery (ICA). Based on MRI findings, we recognized five different tumor origins. Meningiomas originating lateral to the anterior clinoid process never extended medially into the cavernous sinus or the sella turcica, while tumors originating medial to the anterior clinoid process did not migrate laterally beyond the process. Tumors originating from the cavernous sinus tended to invade though the dura into the superior orbital fissure and involved the anterior clinoid process. Based upon the tumor origin and their extension investigated as revealed by MRI, we speculated that the anterior clinoid process and the tough dural folds attached to it (the anterior and posterior petroclinoid ligaments, and the interclinoid ligament) played important roles as barriers against the extension of meningiomas. These dural folds may be the unique part of the dura that most resists invasion of meningiomas from extracavernous regions. Meningiomas originated from the inferomedial surface of the anterior clinoid process may have been misdiagnosed as tuberculum sellae meningiomas; however, the close anatomical relation of the tumor origin and the distal carotid suggests their potential to directly invade the internal carotid artery. (K.H.)

  10. The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning: extension and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2006-06-01

    An extensively revised heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning is presented incorporating three principles of hypothetical thinking. The theory assumes that reasoning and judgment are facilitated by the formation of epistemic mental models that are generated one at a time (singularity principle) by preconscious heuristic processes that contextualize problems in such a way as to maximize relevance to current goals (relevance principle). Analytic processes evaluate these models but tend to accept them unless there is good reason to reject them (satisficing principle). At a minimum, analytic processing of models is required so as to generate inferences or judgments relevant to the task instructions, but more active intervention may result in modification or replacement of default models generated by the heuristic system. Evidence for this theory is provided by a review of a wide range of literature on thinking and reasoning.

  11. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    A Case For Participatory (Cost Sharing) Approach to Agricultural. Extension ... designed and implemented in the past towards the benefit of hand picked ... farmers, of which 95% is carried out by public extension (Rivera and Cary, 1997).

  12. Evaluating the impact of agricultural extension programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hailemichael Taye

    2013-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), impact evaluation has been used to assess whether agricultural extension interventions have brought the intended result or to establish causal linkages between interventions and outcomes. However, there is some scepticism about the validity and reliability of the results of the impact evaluation reports due to some contradictory and exaggerated results. Objectives: This article analyses some impact evaluation studies conducted in SSA as to why cont...

  13. What extension evaluation before therapy have we to do in the nasopharynx cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elloumi, F.; Mnejja, W.; Siala, W.; Daoud, J.; Hammami, B.; Ghorbel, M.; Frikhan, M.

    2007-01-01

    NMR imaging has proved its superiority on scanography in the study of limits and tumor extension and should be the first examination. The practice of of a scanography or cervical NMR should be the best mean of ganglions evaluation. As regards the extension evaluation at distance, it is recommended to require systematically a thorax radiograph and a bone scintigraphy for any patient. The liver echography is rather indicated among male patients, aged between 40 and 45 and having a stage 3 lymph node (according to the U.I.C.C. 1997 classification). (N.C.)

  14. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  15. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    ... Olaleye, R. S. and Umar, I. S.. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Technology ... objectives are to determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents ..... Essentials of Agricultural Economics. Impact Publishers.

  16. Evaluation of the agricultural extension programmes of Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Agricultural Extension Services as part of her corporate social responsibilities in Rivers, ... limited by inadequate communication and transport facilities, non-repayment of soft loans ...

  17. Research on Liquidity Risk Evaluation of Chinese A-Shares Market Based on Extension Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai-Qing, Sun; Peng-Xiang, Liu; Lin, Zhang; Yan-Ge, Li

    This research defines the liquidity risk of stock market in matter-element theory and affair-element theory, establishes the indicator system of the forewarning for liquidity risks,designs the model and the process of early warning using the extension set method, extension dependent function and the comprehensive evaluation model. And the paper studies empirically A-shares market through the data of 1A0001, which prove that the model can better describe liquidity risk of China’s A-share market. At last, it gives the corresponding policy recommendations.

  18. Imaging techniques in evaluation of juvenile angiofibroma with lateral extension in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, A.; Pietura, R.; Drelich-Zbroja, A.; Trojanowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign tumour arising in the nasopharynx and penetrating laterally into the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and orbit. Precise preoperative evaluation of the presence and extension of its lateral spread is crucial for choosing the best surgical approach and performing radical operation. The aim of the study was to assess usefulness of imaging methods in diagnosis and evaluation of lateral extension of juvenile angiofibroma. In a group of 39 patients operated on from 1973 to 2002 due to juvenile angiofibroma in 21 (54%) cases a lateral extension of the tumor was diagnosed. All patients underwent carotid angiography (CA) and lateral plain skull X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18,and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients. In all cases the extension of the tumor and its lateral spread was verified during surgery. A widening of the pterygopalatine fossa on lateral plain X-ray was present in 13 (62%) patients. CT and MRI demonstrated the presence of lateral extension in all patients diagnosed with these methods. In 9 cases, lateral CA revealed dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The presence of big lateral extension of the juvenile angiofibroma is demonstrated on lateral plain X-ray as anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus (Holman-Miller sign). MRI shows better than CT the extent and margins of the tumor in soft tissues. Lateral CA shows dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery and its course in relation to the lateral extension of the tumor, which is important for surgical planning. (author)

  19. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    media sources (P<0.05).However ... should assist farmers in the area by sponsoring adult education so that farmers can make ... experience (World Bank, 1990), since the purpose of communication is to bring about change of attitude ..... (television, news papers, extension bulletin exhibition, talking drum, and film and slide.

  20. a comparative study of two agricultural extension approaches in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    each approach are described and their strengths and weaknesses are revealed including the implications of having two extension ... line of technical support and administrative control, b) to change the multi-purpose role ... evaluation and training plots called Management Training Plots (MTPs). According to Quinones et al; ...

  1. Workplace Issues in Extension--A Delphi Study of Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Michael; Peutz, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Using the Delphi technique, expert Extension educators identified and prioritized those workplace issues they believe will be the most important to attract, motivate, and retain Extension educators/agents over the next 5 to 7 years. Obtaining and then utilizing a talented, highly motivated workforce during a period when many will be retiring will…

  2. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included

  3. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    and orientation and had higher socio-economic impacts on their beneficiaries than the CPRA. The study recommends restructuring the CPRA and CIRDDC as well as streamlining their activities in line with workable public-private partnership to work with other rural-oriented organizations. The conclusion is that sustainable.

  4. The ESMERALDA project for studying extensive sodium fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sophy, Y.M.; Roy, D.; Noel, H.; Gerosa, A.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the Esmeralda Project for studying extensive fires involving up to 70 metric tons of sodium. The motivations which prompted the decision to create this research facility are related to construction of the Super-Phenix breeder reactor and to the scale effect problems posed by the use of very large quantities of sodium. Information is included on the dimensions of the installation, the objectives of the project, the means to be employed, the timetable to be followed, and the organization which was created for this project within the context of Franco-Italian cooperation

  5. Meeting Extension Programming Needs with Technology: A Case Study of Agritourism Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Samantha Rozier; Komar, Stephen; Schilling, Brian; Tomas, Stacy R.; Carleo, Jenny; Colucci, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    As clientele needs diversify, Extension educators are examining new technologies, including online tools, to deliver educational programming and resources. Using agritourism as the educational topic, the study reported here sought to evaluate participants' acceptance of online educational programming (webinars) and the effectiveness of the…

  6. Enhancing the Capacity to Create Behavior Change: Extension Key Leaders' Opinions about Social Marketing and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators endeavor to create and measure outcomes beyond knowledge gain. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the role of social marketing as a method for creating behavior change within the University of Florida Extension system through key leader opinions. Additionally, the study sought to identify perceptions about…

  7. Application and Assessment of Extension of Time Claim: Findings of Case Studies Conducted in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Mohd Danuri,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common phenomenon for construction projects to have applications for extension of time. Many problems are encountered in practice in the application and preparation of extension of time claims. A study was conducted to identify the main problems encountered in the application and assessment of extension of time claim in selected construction projects in Malaysia. Three (3 case studies have been used 10 investigate the extension of time issues. Findings from the study revealed that local contractors usually fail to comply with the contract procedural requirements to submit timely notification of delay and have difficulty in demonstrating their entitlement for extension of time. The main problem faced by contract administrators is that contractors tend to "inflate" their extension of time entitlement with the intention to maximise their claims. Adherence to the agreed procedure in preparing and evaluating of delay claims and the implementation of a set of agreed standardised delay analysis may help to minimize the frequency and impact of such problems.

  8. Extensive Evaluation of Using a Game Project in a Software Architecture Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alf Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an extensive evaluation of introducing a game project to a software architecture course. In this project, university students have to construct and design a type of software architecture, evaluate the architecture, implement an application based on the architecture, and test this implementation. In previous years, the domain…

  9. Development of an aging evaluation and life extension program for the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, J.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A life extension program has been developed for the US Department of Energy's Advanced Test Reactor. The program is an adaptation of life extension pilot programs at the Surry Unit 1 and Monticello generating stations and is being completed in three phases. In Phase 1, the critical plant components were identified. In Phase 2, existing lifetime analyses and support data for the critical components were reviewed. The results from the review give a preliminary indication that an overall plant lifetime in excess of forty years is feasible. In Phase 3, now in progress, detailed evaluations for component life extensions are being performed. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  11. Study of oral Ketoconazole on recurrent & extensive Pityriasis Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddami M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Several topical agents have been used for treating Pityriasis versicolor. But the main problem is recurrence. In this study 82 patients with recurrent and/or extensive from of infection were treated with oral Ketoconazole. 200 mg once daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Seventeen patients have been infected for the first time and sixty five for the several times. The duration of disease in most cases (35.4% were between 1-3 years. Out of 82 studied patients only 60 cases were referred for follow up. The clinical and mycological cure were seen in 54 cases (90% after 15 days therapy. In other 6 patients after 15 days the lesions have not cured completely so the treatment was continued for other 2 weeks, but after that, only one of them referred to the clinic, which treatment extended with topical therapy.

  12. Economic and microbiologic evaluation of single-dose vial extension for hazardous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Erinn C; Savage, Scott W; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Gergen-Teague, Maria; Eckel, Stephen F

    2012-07-01

    The update of US Pharmacopeia Chapter in 2008 included guidelines stating that single-dose vials (SDVs) opened and maintained in an International Organization for Standardization Class 5 environment can be used for up to 6 hours after initial puncture. A study was conducted to evaluate the cost of discarding vials after 6 hours and to further test sterility of vials beyond this time point, subsequently defined as the beyond-use date (BUD). Financial determination of SDV waste included 2 months of retrospective review of all doses prescribed. Additionally, actual waste log data were collected. Active and control vials (prepared using sterilized trypticase soy broth) were recovered, instead of discarded, at the defined 6-hour BUD. The institution-specific waste of 19 selected SDV medications discarded at 6 hours was calculated at $766,000 annually, and tracking waste logs for these same medications was recorded at $770,000 annually. Microbiologic testing of vial extension beyond 6 hours showed that 11 (1.86%) of 592 samples had one colony-forming unit on one of two plates. Positive plates were negative at subsequent time points, and all positives were single isolates most likely introduced during the plating process. The cost of discarding vials at 6 hours was significant for hazardous medications in a large academic medical center. On the basis of microbiologic data, vial BUD extension demonstrated a contamination frequency of 1.86%, which likely represented exogenous contamination; vial BUD extension for the tested drugs showed no growth at subsequent time points and could provide an annual cost savings of more than $600,000.

  13. A Formative Evaluation with Extension Educators: Exploring Implementation Approaches Using Web-based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne M. Duke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the formative evaluation of a bullying prevention program called Be SAFE from the perspective of Extension educators. Twelve regional and county educators from Family and Child Development and 4-H Youth Development participated in our study. We used a web-based, mixed methods approach, utilizing both Qualtrics, an online survey software platform, and Scopia, a video conferencing application, to collect survey data and do a focus group. The results of the survey show that three activities, Clear Mind, Mud Mind, Take a Stand, and The Relationship Continuum, were perceived as garnering the most participation from students. However, focus group data indicated that while there was often a high level of participation, the subject matter of the curriculum was too advanced for students in the fifth grade and that classroom size affected how well educators could teach lessons. Furthermore, school access was not an implementation challenge, but the amount of days available to implement the full curriculum was sometimes limited. The data collected through this formative evaluation were used to improve implementation efforts. The process outlined in this article can be used as a model to help program leaders who are interested in using web-based tools to evaluate implementation processes.

  14. The proboscis extension reflex to evaluate learning and memory in honeybees ( Apis mellifera): some caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Elisabeth H.; Shutler, Dave; Hillier, Neil Kirk

    2012-09-01

    The proboscis extension reflex (PER) is widely used in a classical conditioning (Pavlovian) context to evaluate learning and memory of a variety of insect species. The literature is particularly prodigious for honeybees ( Apis mellifera) with more than a thousand publications. Imagination appears to be the only limit to the types of challenges to which researchers subject honeybees, including all the sensory modalities and a broad diversity of environmental treatments. Accordingly, some remarkable insights have been achieved using PER. However, there are several challenges to evaluating the PER literature that warrant a careful and thorough review. We assess here variation in methods that makes interpretation of studies, even those researching the same question, tenuous. We suggest that the numerous variables that might influence experimental outcomes from PER be thoroughly detailed by researchers. Moreover, the influence of individual variables on results needs to carefully evaluated, as well as among two or more variables. Our intent is to encourage investigation of the influence of numerous variables on PER results.

  15. [Views of students of extension nursing studies about cancer prophylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Włodzimierz D; Majewska, Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Cancer prophylaxis seems nowadays to be the more and more powerful tool in fight with these serious diseases. The aim of this work is to find out opinions of students of nursing extension studies on contemporary cancer prophylaxis. The question about possibilities of practical efforts for prophylaxis and early detection of cancer was directed to 160 students of four consecutive years (2002-2006), at the end of the fourth year of lasting five and a half years extension nursing studies, during ending exam on subject: oncological nursing. There were 154 women and 6 men, predominantly at their third decade of life, with nursing experience approximately more than 5 years. Out of 160 asked students, 131 of them firstly indicated necessity of breast cancer prophylaxis, 117 mentioned lung cancer, 113 cervix cancer, 95 colorectal cancer, 33 prostate cancer. In families with cancer problems, more frequent control investigations (23 answers), and genetic tests (16) were called for. Patients should be qualified to appropriate risk groups (13) and controlled more frequently there (24). Apart from necessary wide education in media (126) personal contact with patient to discuss his or her personal problems relating to cancer is needed (91). If atypical symptoms are self-detected by patients it should alert them to not neglect and contact family physician (33). Healthy diet (62) containing fresh vegetables and fruits (73), high fibre diet (42) with less animal fat (38) and less red meat (30), containing no preservative agents (45) is recommended. Increased physical activity (84) to cease or reduce smoking (102), and alcohol intake (55), limited exposition to ultraviolet rays (49), and systematic controls of breast (105), uterus cervix (88), lungs (77), colon (55) and prostate (28) are proposed. The pollution of environment by combustion gases and smokes (34) not excluding risk factors of medical workplace (29) are mentioned as cancerogenic factors. In the time of increasing

  16. Use of Interactive Electronic Audience Response Tools (Clickers) to Evaluate Knowledge Gained in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Patrick; Loy, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Effectively measuring short-term impact, particularly a change in knowledge resulting from Extension programming, can prove to be challenging. Clicker-based technology, when used properly, is one alternative that may allow educators to better evaluate this aspect of the logic model. While the potential interface between clicker technology and…

  17. 78 FR 78462 - Open Government: Use of Genetic Information in Documenting and Evaluating Disability; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On November 26... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0054] Open Government: Use of Genetic Information in Documenting and Evaluating Disability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Social Security...

  18. Concept design of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    In this report the frameworks of the plans for the Overall Evaluation System and the 8 systems concerning the plant Life extension are discussed. Main results are as follows. 1) The extension period decision subsystem supported by the AI techniques and Fuzzy theory will be added to the Overall Evaluation System. By using this subsystem the plant lives will be overall evaluated. 2) The range of the data collection for constructing the plant operation and maintenance data base is covered by, i) Operation data in the typical plant start/stop cycling, ii) Operation data at the representative point of the period, iii) All data of the repair and replacement. 3) The degradation monitoring and diagnosing system will be constructed for the expert system based on the knowledge base using the elastic wave theorem. (author) 74 refs

  19. Improvement and Extension of Shape Evaluation Criteria in Multi-Scale Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, M.; Honda, Y.; Kondo, A.

    2016-06-01

    From the last decade, the multi-scale image segmentation is getting a particular interest and practically being used for object-based image analysis. In this study, we have addressed the issues on multi-scale image segmentation, especially, in improving the performances for validity of merging and variety of derived region's shape. Firstly, we have introduced constraints on the application of spectral criterion which could suppress excessive merging between dissimilar regions. Secondly, we have extended the evaluation for smoothness criterion by modifying the definition on the extent of the object, which was brought for controlling the shape's diversity. Thirdly, we have developed new shape criterion called aspect ratio. This criterion helps to improve the reproducibility on the shape of object to be matched to the actual objectives of interest. This criterion provides constraint on the aspect ratio in the bounding box of object by keeping properties controlled with conventional shape criteria. These improvements and extensions lead to more accurate, flexible, and diverse segmentation results according to the shape characteristics of the target of interest. Furthermore, we also investigated a technique for quantitative and automatic parameterization in multi-scale image segmentation. This approach is achieved by comparing segmentation result with training area specified in advance by considering the maximization of the average area in derived objects or satisfying the evaluation index called F-measure. Thus, it has been possible to automate the parameterization that suited the objectives especially in the view point of shape's reproducibility.

  20. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of RSVP-TE Extensions for Survivable Translucent WSON Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in communication networks is ever increasing. The target of reducing the energy can be approached from different points: еnergy usage reduction of different hardware components, sleep mode, energy efficient routing and signalling protocol extensions. Another interesting aspect...... and wavelength converters. Furtheron signaling extensions that can reduce the energy usage by reducing the usage of electrical ports can be designed. In this paper, we use GMPLS extensions to integrate energyefficiency considerations into the network protection paradigm; and we use OPNET Modeler to evaluate our...... in communication networks is that connections must be protected against failures. The backup resources are normally connected and powered on, which also contributes to the energy budget. Using Shared Path Protection (SPP) minimizes the protection resources by efficient sharing of wavelengths, regenerators...

  1. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  2. Shelf life extension as solution for environmental impact mitigation: A case study for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Cavaliere, Alessia; Falcone, Giacomo; Giovenzana, Valentina; Banterle, Alessandro; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-06-15

    Over the last years, increasing attention has been paid to environmental concerns related to food production and potential solutions to this issue. Among the different strategies being considered to reduce the impact food production has on the environment, only moderate has been paid to the extension of shelf life; a longer shelf life can reduce food losses as well as the economic and environmental impacts of the distribution logistics. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of whole-wheat breadsticks with extended shelf lives and to evaluate whether the shelf-life extension is an effective mitigation solution from an environmental point of view. To this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied from a "cradle-to-grave" perspective. Rosmarinic acid was used as an antioxidant to extend the shelf life. To test the robustness of the results and to investigate the influence of the choices made in the modelling phase, a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were carried out. The achieved results highlighted how, for 10 of the 12 evaluated impact categories, the shelf-life extension is a proper mitigation solution, and its effectiveness depends on the magnitude of product loss reduction that is achieved. The shelf-life extension doesn't allow for the reduction of environmental impact in the categories of human toxicity, cancer effects and freshwater eutrophication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term, interventional, open-label extension study evaluating the safety of tocilizumab treatment in patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis from Poland and Russia who completed the global, international CHERISH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoka-Winiarska, Violetta; Żuber, Zbigniew; Alexeeva, Ekaterina; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav; Nikishina, Irina; Dębowska, Grażyna; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2018-04-13

    Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, were demonstrated in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with polyarticular course (pJIA) in the CHERISH trial. This observational, III phase study evaluated long-term treatment of TCZ in pJIA patients was conducted by members of the Pediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organization (PRINTO) from Poland and Russia. Forty-one patients, who had completed the CHERISH core study (104 weeks), were extensionally treated with TCZ (8 mg/kg, intravenous infusion every 4 weeks). Total treatment time was from 131 to 193 weeks. The long-term safety (the primary endpoint) and efficacy were evaluated. All patients achieved ACR70 response in the core study and continued to achieve at least ACR50 response up to week 24 of this study. The safety population comprised 46.41 patient-years (PY). Rates per 100 PY of adverse (AEs) and serious events (SAEs) were 181.0 and 6.46, respectively. Pharyngitis and respiratory tract infections were the most common AEs. Except one AE (severe neutropenia), all others were classified as mild (24.4%) or moderate (29.3%). The incidence of SAEs was low (7.3%). No new safety findings were observed. The safety profile of over 2.5-year treatment with TCZ is consistent with the pre-marketing CHERISH clinical trial. Presented data and continued efficacy response support the use of TCZ in pJIA. EUDRACT No: 2011-001607-12. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01575769?term=ML27783.

  4. Extension Master Gardener Social Media Needs: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Karen A.; Jeannette, Karen; Eubanks, Emily; Lawrence, Maggie; Radhakrishna, Rama

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to assess the feasibility of providing training on the use of social media for the Extension Master Gardener (EMG) program. Volunteers (n = 1,275) and coordinators (n = 111) responded. Findings indicate the existence of sufficient interest in a nationally coordinated social media training. Inclusion of social media…

  5. EVALUATION OF SCENARIOS OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMISSIONS BY THE AIRPORT EXPANSION AND ASSOCIATED INFRASTRUCTURE - CASE STUDY OF THE EXTENSION OF VIRACOPOS AIRPORT AT CAMPINAS, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia H.G. Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the airport segment faces environmental externalities especially related to the increase in emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs from combustion of fossil fuels by the aircraft engine, by the machinery for the maintenance of the planes and also by the vehicles used for passengers connections (private cars, taxicabs or public transportation system. In this scope, the current work presents the case study of the expansion of the Viracopos International Airport at Campinas – São Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate that, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was implemented to estimate the emissions of GHGs by aircraft for the years 2008 (before expansion, 2012 (current picture and 2018 (future scenario observing the changes in demand for passengers and cargo transportation. To evaluate the emissions from the vehicles it was used the AIMSUN microsimulation software to estimate emissions in the years 2012 and to simulate sensitivity scenarios for the year 2018. It was found that the inventory of CO2 emissions for both types of transports considered for the Viracopos airport showed similar orders of magnitude, what can be inferred about the equivalent contribution of these two modes on emissions of GHGs for the study area. These results may serve as a basis for establishing emission management plans of air pollutants by the competent organizations and to propose more targeted and effective measures to reduce the GHG emissions by these sources.

  6. Application of dynamic programming to evaluate the slope stability of a vertical extension to a balefill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, Arie; Tsompanakis, Yiannis

    2010-04-01

    The slope-stability of a proposed vertical extension of a balefill was investigated in the present study, in an attempt to determine a geotechnically conservative design, compliant with New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection regulations, to maximize the utilization of unclaimed disposal capacity. Conventional geotechnical analytical methods are generally limited to well-defined failure modes, which may not occur in landfills or balefills due to the presence of preferential slip surfaces. In addition, these models assume an a priori stress distribution to solve essentially indeterminate problems. In this work, a different approach has been applied, which avoids several of the drawbacks of conventional methods. Specifically, the analysis was performed in a two-stage process: (a) calculation of stress distribution, and (b) application of an optimization technique to identify the most probable failure surface. The stress analysis was performed using a finite element formulation and the location of the failure surface was located by dynamic programming optimization method. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the various waste strength parameters of the underlying mathematical model on the results, namely the factor of safety of the landfill. Although this study focuses on the stability investigation of an expanded balefill, the methodology presented can easily be applied to general geotechnical investigations.

  7. Comparison of economic evaluation methodology for the nuclear plant lifetime extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2003-01-01

    In connection with economic evaluation of NPP lifetime management, there are lots of methodologies such as present worth calculation, Levelized Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) calculation, and market benefit comparison methodology. In this paper, economic evaluation of NPP lifetime management was carried out by using these three methodologies, and the results of each was compared with the other methodologies. With these three methodologies, break even points of investment cost related to life extension of nuclear power plant were calculated. It was turned out to be as a analysis result that LUEC is more conservative than present worth calculation and that benefit comparison is more conservative than LUEC, which means that Market Benefit Comparison is the most conservative methodology, and which means base load demand of the future would be far more important than any other factors such as capacity factor, investment cost of life extension, and performance of replacing power plant

  8. Evaluation and measures of the life extension of TVO I and TVO II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, J.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous and wide preventive maintenance and renovation is chosen to the life extension strategy at TVO I and II units. This requires extensive concentration on all ageing phenomena on theoretical level as well as on following their development at the power plant. The work related to ageing is partly performed by persons who are responsible for systems and components in the power plant organization, partly by the working groups, which are organized for those purposes. The evaluation of the ageing phenomenon of the power plant systems, of large components and of different technical fields has revealed several needs for measures. Partly those are already performed. However the evaluation has not revealed any such ageing phenomena, which would limit the power plant life time to originally planned 40 years. (orig.)

  9. The relative associations of shape and weight over-evaluation, preoccupation, dissatisfaction, and fear of weight gain with measures of psychopathology: An extension study in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Castle, David; Newton, Richard; Harrison, Philippa; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Griffiths, Scott; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah

    2018-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that certain components of body image (i.e., shape and weight over-evaluation, preoccupation, and dissatisfaction) in secondary school students shared a distinct clinical significance because of their differential relation to measures of psychopathology. The present study aimed to replicate and extend on these findings by examining the distinctiveness of these body image constructs, in addition to a fear of weight gain, in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN)-a disorder this is facilitated and maintained by extreme body image concerns. Treatment-seeking females with AN (n = 124) completed a questionnaire battery that measured these constructs. Findings demonstrated that once any shared variance between body image components was removed in regression analyses, fear of weight gain was the only unique predictor of eating disorder psychopathology (e.g., dietary restraint and compulsive exercise), while over-evaluation and preoccupation were the only unique predictors of general psychopathology (e.g., depressive and anxiety symptoms). Overall, these findings demonstrate certain components of body image may operate differently in AN, and reinforce previous calls to consider and assess for distinct facets of body image in this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IMPROVEMENT AND EXTENSION OF SHAPE EVALUATION CRITERIA IN MULTI-SCALE IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakamoto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the last decade, the multi-scale image segmentation is getting a particular interest and practically being used for object-based image analysis. In this study, we have addressed the issues on multi-scale image segmentation, especially, in improving the performances for validity of merging and variety of derived region’s shape. Firstly, we have introduced constraints on the application of spectral criterion which could suppress excessive merging between dissimilar regions. Secondly, we have extended the evaluation for smoothness criterion by modifying the definition on the extent of the object, which was brought for controlling the shape’s diversity. Thirdly, we have developed new shape criterion called aspect ratio. This criterion helps to improve the reproducibility on the shape of object to be matched to the actual objectives of interest. This criterion provides constraint on the aspect ratio in the bounding box of object by keeping properties controlled with conventional shape criteria. These improvements and extensions lead to more accurate, flexible, and diverse segmentation results according to the shape characteristics of the target of interest. Furthermore, we also investigated a technique for quantitative and automatic parameterization in multi-scale image segmentation. This approach is achieved by comparing segmentation result with training area specified in advance by considering the maximization of the average area in derived objects or satisfying the evaluation index called F-measure. Thus, it has been possible to automate the parameterization that suited the objectives especially in the view point of shape’s reproducibility.

  11. Evaluation of Online Video Usage and Learning Satisfaction: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Judit T.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the determining factors of students' video usage and their learning satisfaction relating to the supplementary application of educational videos, accessible in a Moodle environment in a Business Mathematics Course. The research model is based on the extension of "Technology Acceptance Model" (TAM), in…

  12. Public Value Posters: Conveying Societal Benefits of Extension Programs through Evaluation Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazdon, Scott; Meyer, Nathan; Mohr, Caryn; Troschinetz, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The public value poster session is a new tool for effectively demonstrating and reporting the public value of Extension programming. Akin to the research posters that have long played a critical role in the sharing of findings from academic studies, the public value poster provides a consistent format for conveying the benefits to society of…

  13. Policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinnagbe O. Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation are important, yet, frequently neglected functions in most organisations. In Nigeria, many programmes have been established over the years but only little monitoring and evaluation have been carried out because of many implementation problems and lack of realistic and/or stable policy framework. This paper was designed to X-ray policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. Inductive and deductive reasoning through a review of relevant literature was used in this philosophical paper. To improve the performance of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria, the following policy issues must be addressed: The questions of what should be monitored or evaluated, when should monitoring and/or evaluation be carried out and who should monitor and/or evaluate; and the methodology to be adopted in any project should be included in any agricultural programmes and/or policies. Manpower and financial resources, effective communication and the issue of accountability must be properly considered. The tools for monitoring and evaluation are also very crucial. The paper concluded that planning a good agricultural programme is not a problem in Nigeria but poor implementation is, as a result of poor monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, attention should be on when, how and who should be involved in monitoring and evaluation.

  14. Economic evaluation of Kori and Wolsong Unit 1 plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jeong, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Wolsong Unit 1 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by the utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of plant lifetime management economic evaluations of both units have been presented in comparison with Korean standard nuclear power plant 10, 20 and 30 year life extension cases respectively. In addition to that, sensitivity analysis and break even point analysis results are presented with the variables of capacity factor, operation and maintenance cost, and discount rate

  15. Cultured allogenic keratinocytes for extensive burns: a retrospective study over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxenfans, Celine; Shipkov, Hristo; Bach, Christine; Catherine, Zulma; Lacroix, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Damour, Odile; Braye, Fabienne

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to review the use and indications of cultured allogenic keratinocytes (CAlloK) in extensive burns and their efficiency. This retrospective study comprised 15 years (1997-2012). all patients who received CAlloK. patients who died before complete healing. Evaluation criteria were clinical. Time and success of wound healing after CAlloK use were evaluated. The CAlloK were used for 2 indications - STSG donor sites and deep 2nd degree burns in extensively burned patients. A total of 70 patients were included with severity Baux score of 99.2 (from 51 to 144) and mean percentage of TBSA of 63.49% (from 21 to 96%). Fifty nine patients received CAlloK for STSG donor sites with a mean number of applications of 4 and mean surface of 3800 cm(2) per patient. Treated donor sites were re-harvested 2.5 times. The mean time of complete epithelialization was 7 days. In 11 patients, CAlloK were used for deep 2nd degree burns. The mean percentage of burned surface was 73.7%. The mean surface of CAlloK per patient was 2545 cm(2). Complete healing was achieved in 6.4 days. The CAlloK allow rapid healing of STSG donor-sites and deep 2nd second degree burns in extensively burned patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Aging management and life extension - Containment aging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Tom M.; Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Bechtel is currently completing an aging study on a concrete containment structure. The target plant is a two-unit PWR plant with a generating capacity of about 850 MWe from each unit. Both units are less than 20 years old. The total electrical energy output from this plant site accounts for more than 50% of the utility's baseload operation. Although no utility in the United States has made a decision to submit a license renewal application, some have begun to investigate the feasibility of developing an life cycle management (LCM) program for a strategy to operate their plants efficiently, to investigate the financial benefit and safety implications of license renewal to operate their nuclear power plants beyond their current licensed periods, and to prepare a program plan for plant decommissioning. The LCM program includes economic, environmental, regulatory and technical aspects of continuing plant operations beyond the current license period. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been supportive to assist utilities and owners groups in their research and development efforts to develop the technical requirements and the issues associated with important to license renewal structures. The focus of this paper is on the technical issues related to the evaluation of the material condition of the containment structure with respect to aging and the effective management of that aging. (author)

  17. Influence of Abutment Angle on Implant Strain When Supporting a Distal Extension Removable Partial Dental Prosthesis: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Toshihito; Tomita, Akiko; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    This study evaluated the impact of angled abutments on strain in implants supporting a distal extension removable partial denture. An in vitro model of an implant supporting a distal extension removable partial denture was developed. The implant was positioned with a 17- or 30-degree mesial inclination, with either a healing abutment or a corrective multiunit abutment. Levels of strain under load were compared, and the results were compared using t test (P = .05). Correcting angulation with a multiunit angled abutment significantly decreased strain (P abutment. An angled abutment decreased the strain on an inclined implant significantly more than a healing abutment when loaded under a distal extension removable partial denture.

  18. Clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of the extension of uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 62 patients with uterine cervical cancer and the preoperative MRI findings were compared with the pathological findings following surgery. The surgical stages of 62 patients were 2 at stage 0, 18 at stage Ia, 19 at stage Ib, 9 at stage IIa, 11 at stage IIb, 2 at stage IIIa, and 1 at stage IIIb. The MRI findings in the present study included: (1) the existence of a high intensity area (HIA) in the uterine cervix or minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue, (2) necrotic cavity, (3) pyometra, (4) irregular margin of the cervix, (5) parametrial invasion, (6) vaginal invasion, (7) bladder invasion, and (8) lymph node enlargement. No HIA was observed in any patient with stage 0 or stage Ia, in 8 patients with stage Ib, and in 2 patients with stage IIa, while all patients with cancer tissues greater than 10 mm in diameter had a HIA. In 39 patients in whom hysterectomy was undergone without conization, the findings of MRI correlated significantly (r=0.929, p<0.001) with the minimum thickness of residual normal cervical tissue by the pathological measurement. When the irregular margin of the cervix was regarded as a disruption of the cervical myo-metrium by cancer tissue, accuracy was 87%. Furthermore, the degrees of accuracy for parametrial invasion, vaginal invasion and bladder invasion were 92%, 90% and 94%, respectively. When lymphnodes greater than 15 mm in diameter were regarded as a positive in MRI, accuracy was 88%. The present results indicate that MRI is clinically effective in preoperatively evaluating the extension of uterine cervical cancer. (author)

  19. Road safety risk evaluation and target setting using data envelopment analysis and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Vanhoof, Koen

    2012-09-01

    Currently, comparison between countries in terms of their road safety performance is widely conducted in order to better understand one's own safety situation and to learn from those best-performing countries by indicating practical targets and formulating action programmes. In this respect, crash data such as the number of road fatalities and casualties are mostly investigated. However, the absolute numbers are not directly comparable between countries. Therefore, the concept of risk, which is defined as the ratio of road safety outcomes and some measure of exposure (e.g., the population size, the number of registered vehicles, or distance travelled), is often used in the context of benchmarking. Nevertheless, these risk indicators are not consistent in most cases. In other words, countries may have different evaluation results or ranking positions using different exposure information. In this study, data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a performance measurement technique is investigated to provide an overall perspective on a country's road safety situation, and further assess whether the road safety outcomes registered in a country correspond to the numbers that can be expected based on the level of exposure. In doing so, three model extensions are considered, which are the DEA based road safety model (DEA-RS), the cross-efficiency method, and the categorical DEA model. Using the measures of exposure to risk as the model's input and the number of road fatalities as output, an overall road safety efficiency score is computed for the 27 European Union (EU) countries based on the DEA-RS model, and the ranking of countries in accordance with their cross-efficiency scores is evaluated. Furthermore, after applying clustering analysis to group countries with inherent similarity in their practices, the categorical DEA-RS model is adopted to identify best-performing and underperforming countries in each cluster, as well as the reference sets or benchmarks for those

  20. The evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC) in breast carcinoma using MR mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Mineta, Masayuki; Yamada, Tomonori [Asahikawa Medical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-one patients with breast cancer underwent MR mammography (MRM) for evaluation of extensive intraductal component (EIC). Linear or small nodular structures continuing to main tumor, irregular margin, and early stain on dynamic scan were considered to be suggestive of EIC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of detecting EIC were 88.9%, 91.7% and 90.5%, respectively. Misleading structures or pathological conditions to distinguish from EIC on MRM were interstitial connective tissue, interstitial spreading of the cancer, mastitis, and vessels. Although MRM appears to be very useful in evaluating EIC of the breast cancer, it is necessary for the radiologist to understand that there are several misleading signal intensities or abnormal enhancement to discriminate from EIC. (author)

  1. An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

  2. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume I. Evaluation summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The EES pilot program was initiated in August 1977, when 10 states were selected on a competitive basis for participation. The pilot states (Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming) devoted the first 6 months to start-up activities. This document is a follow-up report to the three volume Evaluation Summary of the first year of the pilot EES program published in September 1979. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the impacts and costs of the two years of the pilot program, and to check the consistency of findings over the two year period. The analysis addresses the following: (1) were the impact findings of Year I and Year II consistent, or did Year I and Year II attitudes and behavior vary. If variation existed, could it be attributed to program changes as the EES progressed from a start-up phase (Year I) to more normal service delivery (Year II); and (2) did costs of service delivery change (again reflecting start-up and normal service delivery costs). Did cost changes affect conclusions about the relative cost effectiveness of delivering services to different target audiences.

  3. Multicentre prospective evaluation of implant-assisted mandibular bilateral distal extension removable partial dentures: patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Daniel; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Payne, Alan G T

    2013-01-01

    To compare the levels of patient satisfaction with either conventional mandibular bilateral distal extension partial dentures or those assisted by bilateral distal implants. Forty-eight participants who were dissatisfied with their existing conventional mandibular distal extension dentures opposing complete maxillary dentures were selected for a multicentre prospective study in New Zealand, Colombia and the Netherlands. A control group of 12 participants in New Zealand received conventional mandibular partial dentures. Three test groups involving 36 participants in New Zealand (12), Colombia (12) and the Netherlands (12) received bilateral distal implants in the second molar regions. After conventional loading, the test group participants initially had healing caps placed on the distal implants providing support only, followed after approximately 6 months by ball abutments (retentive anchors) for support and retention. Patient outcomes were determined with questionnaires completed at specific stages of the study for up to 3 years. Visual analogue scale, Likert and oral health impact questionnaires before and after treatment indicated improved results. There were significantly improved parameters of overall satisfaction, stability, chewing and appearance after 3 years (P removable partial dentures are a preferable treatment option for patients with complaints about their conventional distal extension partial dentures. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Evaluation of the Dawson College Shooting Psychological Intervention: Moving Toward a Multimodal Extensive Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Monique; Chawky, Nadia; Lesage, Alain; Boyer, Richard; Guay, Stéphane; Bleau, Pierre; Miquelon, Paule; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Steiner, Warren; Roy, Denise

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, following the shooting at Dawson College, the authorities implemented an intervention plan. This provided an opportunity to analyze the responses to services offered, and afforded a learning opportunity, which led to the proposal of an extensive multimodal short- and long-term psychological plan for future needs. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered 18 months after the event, involving the participation of 948 students and staff. Mental health problems and the perception of services offered after the shooting were investigated, using standardized measures. Second, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among a subgroup of participants (support team members; teachers and employees; students and parents) and permitted to gather data on services received and services required. Individual report of events, the extent of psychological impact and services offered and received were analyzed in terms of the following dimensions: intervention philosophy, training, ongoing offer of services and finally, detection and outreach. A significant incidence of disorders and a high rate of exacerbation of preexisting mental disorders were observed within the 18 months following the shooting. Postimmediate and short-term intervention appeared adequate, but the long-term collective vision toward community support and availability of mental health services were lacking. Lessons learned from this evaluation and other school shootings suggest that preparedness and long-term community responses are often overlooked. A multimodal extensive plan is proposed based on a theoretical model from which interventions strategies could be drawn. PMID:24795790

  5. Extensive Functional Evaluations to Monitor Aerobic Training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Caterina; Rossi, Bruno; Chisari, Carmelo

    2016-06-13

    Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease's rehabilitative treatment.

  6. Extensive functional evaluations to monitor aerobic training in Becker Muscular Dystrophy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Tramonti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity aerobic training seems to have positive effects on muscle strength, endurance and fatigue in Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD patients. We describe the case of a 33-year old BMD man, who performed a four-week aerobic training. Extensive functional evaluations were executed to monitor the efficacy of the rehabilitative treatment. Results evidenced an increased force exertion and an improvement in muscle contraction during sustained exercise. An improvement of walk velocity, together with agility, endurance capacity and oxygen consumption during exercise was observed. Moreover, an enhanced metabolic efficiency was evidenced, as shown by reduced lactate blood levels after training. Interestingly, CK showed higher levels after the training protocol, revealing possible muscle damage. In conclusion, aerobic training may represent an effective method improving exercise performance, functional status and metabolic efficiency. Anyway, a careful functional assessment should be taken into account as a useful approach in the management of the disease’s rehabilitative treatment.

  7. An extensive characterization study of different Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study between sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and DNA hybridization was performed on 25 chosen different strains of B. ... The crystal proteins were quantified and then separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis (SDS-PAGE).

  8. Patent extension policy for paediatric indications: an evaluation of the impact within three drug classes in a state Medicaid programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E; McAdam-Marx, Carrie; Evans, Megan L; Ward, Robert; Campbell, Benjamin; Brixner, Diana; Lafleur, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    expiration date if the patent extension had not been granted. Medicaid rebates were assumed to be 15.1% for branded products and 11% for generics. The 6-month extension policy was estimated to cost Utah's Medicaid $US2.2 (95% CI 1.9, 2.4) million for these three drug classes over the 18 months following the original patent expiration date (year 2007 values). Projected to the US Medicaid population, this cost was $US430 (95% CI 371, 475) million. For the individual drugs that we examined, the percentage cost decrease in reimbursement amount resulting from exclusivity expiration and generic entry ranged from 24.4% (p branded drugs evaluated were given market exclusivity extensions for conducting studies of their medications in children. The costs found in this study are just a small portion of the total paid, which include those born by other payers. Whether the benefits of this policy outweigh these costs is an open question, but these results suggest that the costs to Medicaid and thus taxpayers are substantial.

  9. Tests at constant extension velocity CERT for the evaluation of environmental assisted cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The test at constant velocity extension (CERT) is firmly established as a technique for the study of environmentally cracking (stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement) and is widely used, mainly in mechanistic studies. In CERT test, an increasing charge is applied to a sample and the extension velocity is hold up constant to allow that corrosion interplay in the process. The type of crack and ductility measurements with the conditions for testing are compared with a cracked sample in an inert media. Required equipment: 1) A charge mechanism capable to control the elongation of test samples in a rank of 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -7 inch/inch sec and capable to hold up constant such elongation. 2) A suitable standard (Astm standard A-370). 3) A chamber or cell for the media in which the chemical composition of the solution, the gas composition, the pressure, temperature and electrochemical potential can be controlled in order to simulate with anticipation the service conditions. The cell must allow the mechanical access of the test sample to the charge train of the machine. (Author)

  10. Consumer Evaluation of a Vertical Brand Extension in the Lodging Industry: Relationships among Brand Trust, Band Loyalty, Brand Distance, and Brand Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yu Mi

    2013-01-01

    Vertical brand extensions have been used as popular strategies in the lodging industry. Research on brand extension that is related with brand trust and brand loyalty has been useful in making brand extensions successful. However, previous research focused on aggregated relationships among brand trust, brand loyalty, and brand extension. In addition, it has been found that quality and price distance from a core brand of the brand extension has an impact on the success of the brand extension. ...

  11. Using C Language Extensions for Developing Embedded Software : A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelter, M.; Van Deursen, A.; Kolb, B.; Eberle, S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on an industrial case study on developing the embedded software for a smart meter using the C programming language and domain-specific extensions of C such as components, physical units, state machines, registers and interrupts. We find that the extensions help significantly with managing

  12. Natural history of extensive diaphragmatic injury on the right side: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Henrique Rivaben

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the natural healing of the rat diaphragm that suffered an extensive right penetrating injury.METHODS: Animals were submitted to an extensive penetrating injury in right diaphragm. The sample consisted of 40 animals. The variables studied were initial weight, weight 21 days after surgery; healing of the diaphragm, non-healing of the diaphragm, and herniated abdominal contents into the chest.RESULTS: Ten animals were used as controls for weight and 30 animals were operated. Two animals died during the experiment, so 28 animals formed the operated group; healing of the diaphragm occurred in 15 animals (54%, 11 other animals showed diaphragmatic hernia (39% and in two we observed only diaphragmatic injury without hernia (7%. Among the herniated organs, the liver was found in 100% of animals, followed by the omentum in 77%, small bowel in 62%, colon in 46%, stomach in 31% and spleen in 15%. The control group and the diaphragmatic healing subgroup showed increased weight since the beginning of the study and the 21 days after surgery (p <0.001. The unhealed group showed no change in weight (p = 0.228.CONCLUSION: there is a predominance of spontaneous healing in the right diaphragm; animals in which there was no healing of the diaphragm did not gain weight, and the liver was the organ present in 100% the diaphragmatic surface in all rats with healed diaphragm or not.

  13. MR imaging evaluation of the temporomandibular joint following cervical extension-flexion injury (whiplash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellock, F.G.; Pressman, B.D.; Schames, J.; Schames, M.; Meeks, T.

    1990-01-01

    To determine abnormalities of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) associated with cervical extension-flexion injury (whiplash) with use of MR imaging. Sixteen patients (32 joints) with TMJ syndrome-related symptoms after whiplash injuries from automobile accidents were evaluated by MR imaging. None of the patients had direct trauma to the jaw, mouth, or face. T1-weighted closed- and opened-mouth views were obtained in the sagittal plane, and closed-mouth views were obtained in the coronal plane. T2-weighted closed-mouth views obtained in the sagittal plane were also obtained to optimize identification of fluid/edema. Fourteen (87%) of 16 patients had one or more of the following TMJ abnormalities: 11 (34%) had anterior displacement of the disk with reduction and 2 (6%) had anterior displacement of the disk without reduction. On T2-weighted images, 17 TMJs (53%) had joint fluid and 5 (16%) had fluid localized to the capsule and/or pterygoid muscle. These data demonstrated a high incidence of TMJ abnormalities related to whiplash injury. The predominant finding was associated fluid/edema, suggesting that T2-weighted images are particularly useful for the evaluation of patients who present with whiplash injury

  14. Developmental Stages and Work Capacities of Community Coalitions: How Extension Educators Address and Evaluate Changing Coalition Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Allison; Riffe, Jane; Peck, Terrill; Kaczor, Cheryl; Nix, Kelly; Faulkner-Van Deysen, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Extension educators provide resources to community coalitions. The study reported here adds to what is known about community coalitions and applies an assessment framework to a state-level coalition-based Extension program on healthy relationships and marriages. The study combines the Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy (ICOH) framework with four…

  15. Evaluation of lateral margin of left lobe of the liver on CT scan : focus on perisplenic extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chang Hye; Cha, Seong Sook; Lee, Byung Jin; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Choong Ki

    1996-01-01

    The perisplenic extension of the left lobe of the liver can be misinterpreted as a splenic or perisplenic lesion on ultrasonography(US) and computed tomography(CT). The purpose of our study is to classify the lateral margin of the left lobe of the liver into three types and to evaluate the incidence and the relationship between each type and abnormal liver on CT scan. A total of 515 abdominal CT scans from patients over 15 years old were retrospectively evaluated. Liver contours were divided into three types on the basis of degree of the left lateral extension of the left lobe of the liver. Type A was defined as the lateral extension of the left lobe of liver to the medial portion of the stomach, type C as the perisplenic portion, and type B as between the two types. Each type was further divided into normal and abnormal liver groups based on clinical, CT, surgical and patholigic findings and evaluated on its ratio of normal and abnormal liver, intrahepatic diseases associated with an abnormal liver and statistical significance between a normal and abnormal liver. The incidence of the three types of liver among the 515 patients was 360(69.9%), 121(23.5%) and 34(6.6%) patients in type A, B and C, respectively. Type C showed normal liver in six patients, which was 2.7% of all normal livers(221/515) and abnormal liver in 28 patients, which was 9.5% of all abnormal livers(294/515). Type A showed normal liver in 49.7%, abnormal liver in 50.3% and there was not statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(p>0.05). Type B showed normal liver in 29.8% and abnormal liver in 70.2%;type C showed normal liver in 17.6%, abnormal liver in 82.4% and there was a statistically significant difference between normal and abnormal liver(P<0.001). The space occupying lesion(SOL) was most common(52.6%) in all the abnormal livers and hepatoma was the most common disease in the SOL(47.2%). In the abnormal type C liver, SOL(58%) and diffuse hepatopathy(32.8%) were

  16. Life prediction study of reactor pressure vessel as essential technical foundation for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, N.; Kondo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The life of a LWR plant is determined essentially by the limit of reliable performance of the components which are difficult to replace without high economic and/or safety risks. Typical of such a component is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The engineering life of a RPV of a given quality of steel is considered to be a complex function of factors such as the resistance to fracture, which has deteriorated due to neutron irradiation and thermal aging, and generation of surface flaws by environmental effects such as corrosion and their growth under operational load that varies during steady state operation and transients. In an attempt to evaluate the engineering life of a RPV of a LWR, a preliminary survey was made by applying a set of knowledge accumulated primarily in the field of subcritical crack growth behavior of RPV steels in reactor water environments. The major conclusions drawn are: (1) the life of a RPV is dependent on the quality of steel used, particularly with respect to any minor impurities it contains. (2) The issue of plant life extension in RPV aspect is found to be optimistic for cases where the steels used satisfy a reasonable level of quality control. (3) The importance of providing sound scientific foundation is stressed for the implementation of a practicable life extension scheme: this can be established through intensified studies of flaw growth and fracture behaviours in well defined testings under reasonably simulated service conditions

  17. Development of EULAR recommendations for the reporting of clinical trial extension studies in rheumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Maya H; Silva-Fernandez, Lucia; Carmona, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our initiative aimed to produce recommendations on post-randomised controlled trial (RCT) trial extension studies (TES) reporting using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) standard operating procedures in order to achieve more meaningful output and standardisation of reports....... The resulting set of recommendations was further refined and a final vote taken for task force acceptance. RESULTS: Seven key domains and individual components were evaluated and led to agreed recommendations including definition of a TES (100% agreement), minimal data necessary (100% agreement), method of data...... analysis (agreement mean (SD) scores ranging between 7.9 (0.84) and 9.0 (2.16)) and reporting of results as well as ethical issues. Key recommendations included reporting of absolute numbers at each stage from the RCT to TES with reasons given for drop-out at each stage, and inclusion of a flowchart...

  18. Deconstructing tolerance with clobazam: Post hoc analyses from an open-label extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidal, Barry E; Wechsler, Robert T; Sankar, Raman; Montouris, Georgia D; White, H Steve; Cloyd, James C; Kane, Mary Clare; Peng, Guangbin; Tworek, David M; Shen, Vivienne; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate potential development of tolerance to adjunctive clobazam in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Eligible patients enrolled in open-label extension study OV-1004, which continued until clobazam was commercially available in the United States or for a maximum of 2 years outside the United States. Enrolled patients started at 0.5 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 clobazam, not to exceed 40 mg/d. After 48 hours, dosages could be adjusted up to 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 (maximum 80 mg/d) on the basis of efficacy and tolerability. Post hoc analyses evaluated mean dosages and drop-seizure rates for the first 2 years of the open-label extension based on responder categories and baseline seizure quartiles in OV-1012. Individual patient listings were reviewed for dosage increases ≥40% and increasing seizure rates. Data from 200 patients were included. For patients free of drop seizures, there was no notable change in dosage over 24 months. For responder groups still exhibiting drop seizures, dosages were increased. Weekly drop-seizure rates for 100% and ≥75% responders demonstrated a consistent response over time. Few patients had a dosage increase ≥40% associated with an increase in seizure rates. Two-year findings suggest that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to the antiseizure actions of clobazam. Observed dosage increases may reflect best efforts to achieve seizure freedom. It is possible that the clinical development of tolerance to clobazam has been overstated. NCT00518713 and NCT01160770. This study provides Class III evidence that the majority of patients do not develop tolerance to clobazam over 2 years of treatment. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of the Presence of an Extensive Intraductal Component in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, O.; Nishimura, R.; Miyayama, H.; Yasunaga, T.; Ozaki, Y.; Tsuji, A.; Yamashita, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the presence of extensive intraductal components (EIC) in breast carcinomas can be accurately evaluated on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Material and Methods: Ninety-three women with breast cancer, aged between 32 and 79 years (mean 54 years), underwent three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging (dyMRI) with fat suppression and magnetization transfer contrast before breast-conserving surgery. The tumors were classified on dyMRI as circumscribed, microlobulated, and/or speculated, and their size was measured. Spotty or linear continuous enhancement (SLE) from the main tumor to the nipple and segmental enhancement surrounding the main tumor (SE) were considered indicative of intraductal tumor spread. The correlation between preoperative MRI and macroscopic and microscopic findings was examined. Results: On MR images, the tumor sizes ranged from 0.8 to 3.4 cm. These measurements coincided with histologic measurements in circumscribed tumors. However, in tumors with microlobulated or spiculated borders, tumor size tended to be underestimated on MR images. Of 93 patients, 59 (63.4%) had histologically confirmed EIC; 42 of the 59 cancers (71.2%) manifested SLE or SE on MR images. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR imaging in detecting EIC were 71%, 85%, and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: MR imaging facilitates the detection of EIC in breast masses. This information is valuable for the planning of breast-conserving surgery

  20. On the extension of (e,2e) theory to coincidence studies of ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; Kampp, Marco; Sulik, B.; Walters, H.R.J.; Whelan, Colm T.

    2007-01-01

    The extension of (e,2e) theory to the coincidence studies of ion-atom collisions is considered. The simultaneous ionization of projectile and target is discussed and results are presented for transfer ionization

  1. Fabrication and evaluation of auto-stripped tri-layer wound dressing for extensive burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.-H.; Tsai, J.-C.; Chen, T.-M.; Chen, K.-S.; Yang, J.-M.; Kang, P.-L.; Wu, T-H.

    2007-01-01

    In the study, we are going to develop a tri-layer membrane as the artificial skin for extensive burn injury. The first layer is a three-dimensional tri-copolymer sponge of gelatin/hyaluronan/chodroitin-6-sulfate with 70% in porosity and 20-100 μm in pore size. The layer is constructed as a dermis analogous layer to stimulate capillaries penetration, to promote dermal fibroblast migration and to induce the secretion of extra-cellular matrix, which provides a better physiological environment for burn patient recovery. The second layer is as so called auto-stripped layer composed by poly-N-isopropyacrylamide (PNIPAAm). The layer will be automatically peeled off from the tri-copolymer layer once the wound site closed and recovered. The third layer is composed by polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabric, which provides an open structure for exudates drainage out that will reduce the risk of second infection. The tri-layer wound dressing has been successfully prepared by subsequently high-energy plasma treatment, γ-ray irradiation, UV light exposure, and lyophilized process. From the results of MTT, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α measurement, the developed material will not induce tissue inflammatory or immune response. The dermal fibroblasts showed initial contact with the material surface through the radial extension of filopodia followed by cytoplasmic webbing that could be examined by SEM. Dermal fibroblasts subsequently flattened for further proliferation and extra-cellular matrix secretion. Dermal analog layer provides a three-dimensional architecture for normal dermis regeneration. The layer can be completely biodegraded within 4 weeks post-operation. After served as a scaffold for the ingrowth of self-fibroblasts, a normal dermis like layer will be regenerated. The dressing will fall off automatically without any damage once the wound site healed completely

  2. Study of the lateral and temporal distributions of particles in the extensive air shower front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, G.; Brancus, I. M.; Mitrica, B.; Badea, A. F.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Sima, O.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the influence of the primary particle (mass and energy) on the development of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) a study has been performed on simulated events. A number of showers have been simulated using CORSIKA simulation program for different primary particles (p, C, Fe) and different energies (5.62x10 16 and 10 17 eV). The arrival time distributions of particles arriving at ground (detector level) have been studied for different primary energies and masses. Arrival time quartiles have been calculated and compared for different primaries. Arrival time distributions for different distances to shower core and different threshold energies have been compared. To obtain information about the influence of the primary particle on the shape of the lateral distribution of detected shower particles, the simulated lateral density distribution has been approximated with a parametric Lateral Density Function (LDF). The interaction of the shower particles with the detectors has been simulated and the energy deposited in the detectors has been evaluated. This method was used for obtaining the reconstructed (equivalent to the experimental) lateral density distribution, afterwards approximated with the same LDF. To check the quality of the fit and to investigate the sensitivity to fitting conditions, the study was done for three radial ranges, 40-200 m, 350-650 m, 0-1000 m. The total number of particles in the shower front and the truncated number of particles (in the fitting range) have been reconstructed to be compared with the real number of particles from CORSIKA simulations and to investigate the potential use of these parameters in a multiparametric study of extensive air showers. (authors)

  3. Open-label extension studies: do they provide meaningful information on the safety of new drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard O; Williams, Kenneth M

    2007-01-01

    The number of open-label extension studies being performed has increased enormously in recent years. Often it is difficult to differentiate between these extension studies and the double-blind, controlled studies that preceded them. If undertaken primarily to gather more patient-years of exposure to the new drug in order to understand and gain confidence in its safety profile, open-label extension studies can play a useful and legitimate role in drug development and therapeutics. However, this can only occur if the open-label extension study is designed, executed, analysed and reported competently. Most of the value accrued in open-label extension studies is gained from a refinement in the perception of the expected incidence of adverse effects that have most likely already been identified as part of the preclinical and clinical trial programme. We still have to rely heavily on post-marketing safety surveillance systems to alert us to type B (unpredictable) adverse reactions because open-label extension studies are unlikely to provide useful information about these types of often serious and relatively rare adverse reactions. Random allocation into test and control groups is needed to produce precise incidence data on pharmacologically expected, or type A, adverse effects. Some increased confidence about incidence rates might result from the open-label extension study; however, as these studies are essentially uncontrolled and biased, the data are not of great value. Other benefits have been proposed to be gained from open-label extension studies. These include ongoing access to an effective but otherwise unobtainable medicine by the volunteers who participated in the phase III pivotal trials. However, there are unappreciated ethical issues about the appropriateness of enrolling patients whose response to previous treatment is uncertain, largely because treatment allocation in the preceding randomised, double-blind, controlled trial has not been revealed at the

  4. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume II. State reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report, Vol. II, presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1979. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement an 18-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. In September 1978, each State received an additional $370,000 for service-delivery programs for the extension of the pilot program, April 1979 through September 1979. A case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each State is provided here, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each State for more-detailed study and survey research. Although the thrust of this volume is descriptive, some survey data and analyses are presented for the emphasis programs. Two telephone surveys of clients and a non-client sample were conducted, one at the end of the first year of the pilot program (October 1977 - September 1978) and one at the end of the second year (October 1978 - September 1979).

  5. Multicentre prospective evaluation of implant-assisted mandibular bilateral distal extension removable partial dentures: patient satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismeijer, D.; Tawse-Smith, A.; Payne, A.G.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the levels of patient satisfaction with either conventional mandibular bilateral distal extension partial dentures or those assisted by bilateral distal implants. Materials and methods Forty-eight participants who were dissatisfied with their existing conventional mandibular

  6. Development of stress corrosion techniques for structural integrity evaluation and life extension of PWR facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Pedro A.L.D.L. Pinheiro; Vilela, Jeferson J.; Lorenzo, Roberto F. Di; Lopes, Jadir A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The stress corrosion is a mechanism of degradation present in the nuclear plants. To extend the life of the plants components, this corrosion type it should be known. An evaluation for the implantation of methodologies of stress corrosion study in CDTN/CNEN, shows that the technique of slow deformation can be used in the evaluation of integrity structural nuclear power stations. This technique consists of straining a sample slowly, usually, in strain rate between 10 -4 and 10- 8 s -1 and in conditions that simulate the reactivity of the metal in environment (pressure, temperature, chemical composition of the water and etc) similar to the found at the nuclear power power stations. This simulation allows evaluating susceptibility the stress corrosion of components mechanical and structure that operate in central nuclear. (author)

  7. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  8. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  9. Research on Risk Evaluation of Transnational Power Networking Projects Based on the Matter-Element Extension Theory and Granular Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In project management, risk assessment is crucial for stakeholders to identify the risk factors during the whole life cycle of the project. A risk evaluation index system of a transnational networking project, which provides an effective way for the grid integration of clean electricity and the sustainable development of the power industry, is constructed in this paper. Meanwhile, a combination of granular computing and order relation analysis (G1 method is applied to determine the weight of each indicator and the matter-element extension evaluation model is also employed to seek the global optimal decision during the risk assessment. Finally, a case study is given to validate the index system and evaluation model established in this paper by assessing two different investment schemes of a transnational high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission project. The result shows that the comprehensive risk level of Scheme 1 is “Low” and the level of Scheme 2 is “General”, which means Scheme 1 is better for the stakeholders from the angle of risk control. The main practical significance of this paper lies in that it can provide a reference and decision support for the government’s power sectors, investment companies and other stakeholders when carrying out related activities.

  10. Risk-based evaluation of allowed outage time and surveillance test interval extensions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this work is, through the use of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), to evaluate Technical Specification (TS) Allowed Outage Times (AOT) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI) extensions for Angra 1 nuclear power plant. PSA has been incorporated as an additional tool, required as part of NPP licensing process. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency (CDF), obtained from the Angra 1 PSA Level 1. AOT and STI extensions are calculated for the Safety Injection System (SIS), Service water System (SAS) and Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFS) through the use of SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for the SIS and SAS with the implementation of compensatory measures. The proposed AOT extension is not acceptable for the AFS. The STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems. (author)

  11. Life extension studies and refurbishing of C and I systems of Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awale, P.K.; Sumanth, P.; Roy, Kallol; Bharadwaj, G.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ageing and component obsolescence of C and I systems of Cirus has been studied, by classifying the C and I systems as (a) those which may affect the operating life of the plant and cannot be repaired/replaced without core-unloading and dismantling the reactor structure. (Group-A), (b) those components which can be repaired/replaced but with considerable difficulty (Group-B) and (c) those which do not affect plant operations and can be easily repaired or replaced (Group-C). Life extension studies included performance assessment, reliability centred evaluation, parametric deviations from base-line characteristics and identification of specific ageing phenomenon and examination of internals. Based on these studies a comprehensive ageing mitigation programme was evolved, necessitating suitable modifications, instrumentation upgradation and component repair/replacement. A major modification job has been to provide an alternate failed fuel detection (FFD) system, since the success rate of the present system, had been decreasing over the years. Further, taking advantage of the available refurbishing outage, a number of instruments and accessories, pertaining to Group-C, were also replaced with state-of-the-art, components. Consideration is also given to requirements of special reactor start-up instrumentation for sensing the initial low neutron count in presence of a high gamma background, during the ensuing reactor start-up with fresh fuel. (author)

  12. An application of modulated poisson processes to aging evaluation for the extension of qualified life of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da Cruz

    2003-03-01

    The modulated power law process (MPLP) is a three-parameter stochastic point process model that can be used to describe the failures time of reparable systems. While the power law process implies that a system is exactly on the same condition just after a repair as just before a failure, the MPLP allows for the system to be affected both by failure and repair. For this reason this model is adequate for evaluating the recurrent events that incorporate both time trends and effects of past events such as the renewal type behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MPLP as a model for the rate of occurrence of failures of a repairable system to decide for an extension of qualified life in the context of licence renewal of a nuclear power plant. Standard statistical techniques, such as the maximum likelihood and linear regression models, are applied to estimate parameters of the MPLP. As a conclusion of the study, the MPLP is adequate for modelling rate of occurrence of failures that are time dependent, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in the operation of repairable systems. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute Clinical Psychology Internship: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, Sandra R; Myers, DeRosset; Forand, Angela Q; Holmes, George R; McNulty, George F; Frey, Linda; Bolton, Staci S

    2010-12-01

    This study extends three earlier investigations involving participants who completed their predoctoral clinical psychology internship at the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute. Intern graduates (N = 37) evaluated how effectively their internship training prepared them for seven aspects of their current work as practicing psychologists. Participants also rated the relevancy of 24 different internship training experiences to their current work and how much these experiences contributed to their development as clinical psychologists. The present study, in conjunction with the three previous studies, covers most of the 40-year period since the inception of the internship program. Analysis of the current data indicates the internship has improved over time and was deemed an exceptional training experience by its graduates. Findings may be of particular interest to internship directors and faculty interested in improving their training program and those who plan to conduct a self-study to maintain their accreditation for clinical psychology internship.

  14. Extensive Green Roof Species and Soilless Media Evaluations in Semi-arid Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, soilless media blends and plant interactions on an existing, modular-extensive (shallow, 10 cm deep) green roof in Denver, Colo...

  15. Evaluation of a Cooperative Extension Curriculum in Florida: Food Modification for Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J.; Ford, Amanda L.; Radford, Allyson; Gal, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    State and national surveys of adult family care homes identified a strong need for education on texture-modified food preparation and the nutritional needs of older adults. An Extension curriculum, Food Modification for Special Needs, was developed to provide an overview of chewing and swallowing problems, food texture, pureed food preparation,…

  16. Extensive Evaluation of a Diffusion Denuder Technique for the Quantification of Atmospheric Stable and Radioactive Molecular Iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hou, Xiaolin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the evaluation and optimization of a new approach for the quantification of gaseous molecular iodine (I2) for laboratory- and field-based studies and its novel application for the measurement of radioactive molecular iodine. α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) in combination with 129I......, and condition of release and derivatization of iodine, is extensively evaluated and optimized. The collection efficiency is larger than 98% and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained is 0.17 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv) for a sampling duration of 30 min at 500 mL min−1. Furthermore, the potential use...... of this protocol for the determination of radioactive I2 at ultra trace level is also demonstrated when 129I− used in the coating is replaced by 127I− and a multiple denuder system is used. Using the present method we observed 25.7−108.6 pptv 127I2 at Mweenish Bay, Ireland and 108 molecule m−3 129I2 at Mainz...

  17. Evaluation of extensions of luxury brands:the case of fragrances in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, José António

    2016-01-01

    Fragrances are part of the market of personal luxury goods, which represents the second most important segment of the luxury industry. Luxury brands have been implementing new marketing strategies, such as the use of brand extensions. This strategy has become fundamental to the business model of many luxury brand. This research has the intention to understand the influences that have determined the consumption of fragrances, inferring about the symbolic meaning of its purchase. Additionally, ...

  18. Development of EULAR recommendations for the reporting of clinical trial extension studies in rheumatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Maya H.; Silva-Fernandez, Lucia; Carmona, Loreto; Aletaha, Daniel; Christensen, Robin; Combe, Bernard; Emery, Paul; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Guillemin, Francis; Kvien, Tore K.; Landewe, Robert; Pavelka, Karel; Saag, Kenneth; Smolen, Josef S.; Symmons, Deborah; van der Heijde, Désirée; Welling, Joep; Wells, George; Westhovens, Rene; Zink, Angela; Boers, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Our initiative aimed to produce recommendations on post-randomised controlled trial (RCT) trial extension studies (TES) reporting using European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) standard operating procedures in order to achieve more meaningful output and standardisation of reports. We formed a task

  19. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations : a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.

    Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural

  20. The Dynamics of Project-Based Learning Extension Courses: The "Laboratory of Social Projects" Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, Joao Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In this case study we discuss the dynamics that drive a free-of-charge project-based learning extension course. We discuss the lessons learned in the course, "Laboratory of Social Projects." The course aimed to teach project management skills to the participants. It was conducted from August to November of 2015, at Federal University of…

  1. Unravelling the secret of successful brand extensions: a case study to explore consumer response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter; Bohemia, Erik; Rieple, Alison; Liedtka, Jeanne; Cooper, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we try to disentangle the design of successful brand extensions and test this with two case studies. Earlier research revealed that typicality and novelty are related to the aesthetic preference of products. Despite the fact these two predictors are also each other’s suppressors, the

  2. Taking on Baseball, Hotdogs, Apple Pie, and Chevrolet: Evaluating Extension's Presence on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, Paula I.; Newman, Michael E.

    An evaluation was conducted of the Mississippi State University Web site as a source of information and education. A purpose sample of 67 Web experts was selected to evaluate the site, and a random sample of 104 site users was selected. Thirty-six experts and 25 users responded to questionnaires. Most users and evaluators expressed satisfaction…

  3. Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Heather Keyronica

    2016-01-01

    Heather K. Petty ABSTRACT Title: Evaluation of Teen Cuisine: An Extension-Based Cooking Program to Increase Self-efficacy in Teens Background: Childhood, adolescent, and adult obesity is a major health and economic concern affecting the United States and various countries across the globe. Obese children and adolescents are at a potential risk for developing certain chronic diseases as they transition into adulthood. There are community-based cooking intervention programs designed t...

  4. Why Work for Extension? An Examination of Job Satisfaction and Motivation in a Statewide Employee Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Amy; Gouldthorpe, Jessica; Goodwin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Understanding motivation and job satisfaction is important for increasing rates of employee retention within Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to explore factors positively affecting the motivation of Extension professionals in their careers. An online survey of Extension professionals in Colorado was conducted. Factors such as…

  5. Community Development and Divergent Forces in Philippine State Universities and Colleges: Developing a Protocol in Evaluating Extension Projects Towards Community Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter S. Ontoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Divergent paradigms operate in State Universities and Colleges SUCs, which influence the performance of extension projects towards attainment of full empowerment as the ultimate goal implied by the universally-accepted definition of community development. In particular, a livelihood and environment project of Cebu Normal University (CNU implemented in Caputatan Norte, Medillin, Cebu, Philippines was assessed based on five (5 primary parameters and two (2 secondary parameters. A novel protocol using Delphi Method shows was developed and used for this particular study, which could be adapted in evaluating the performance of community extension projects. In this particular case, the performance of CNU livelihood and environment project falls between ―demonstration‖ and ―community organizing‖. The evaluation shows that there is still a need to reinforce activities to the ultimate goal. However, it is also implied that the secondary parameters are more robust indicators in assessing the outcomes of the project implementation towards full community empowerment.

  6. Role of X-ray CT in the evaluation of extension of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of X-ray computed tomography (CT) in the management of malignant ovarian tumor, preoperative CT of 89 patients with ovarian cancer were analyzed on the basis of their surgically confirmed findings. Relationships between CT findings and clinical factors such as actual tumor spread, stage, and accomplished surgery were studied. The results obtained were as follows. The rates of correct diagnosis in tumor spread were 79.8% for tumor growth on the external surface of the ovary, 77.6% for involvement of both ovaries, 79.8% for ascites, 78.2% for metastasis to the uterus, 68.2% for peritoneal metastasis, 77.0% for metastasis to the intestine, and 79.3% for the metastasis to the omentum. Comparing the stage suggested by CT (CT stage) and the stage revealed by surgery (surgical stage), the stages coincided in 57 patients (64.0%). CT stages were overestimated in 9 caces and underestimated in 23 caces. As for the practicability of surgery, either complete or standard operation was performed in 31 of 33 caces (93.9%) of CT stage I, 21 of 28 (75.0%) of CT stage II, and 11 of 28 (39.3%) of CT stage III. The possibility of accomplishing surgery was very low when CT indicated stage III disease. (author)

  7. Evaluating Extension Based Leadership Development Programs in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to evaluate and accurately articulate the outcomes associated with leadership development programs is critical to their continued financial and administrative support. With calls for outcome-based accountability, the need for rigorous evaluation is particularly relevant for those programs administered through the Cooperative Extension…

  8. Risk evaluations of aging phenomena: The linear aging reliability model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Wolford, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A model for component failure rates due to aging mechanisms is developed from basic phenomenological considerations. In the treatment, the occurrences of deterioration are modeled as following a Poisson process. The severity of damage is allowed to have any distribution, however the damage is assumed to accumulate independently. Finally, the failure rate is modeled as being proportional to the accumulated damage. Using this treatment, the linear aging failure rate model is obtained. The applicability of the linear aging model to various mechanisms is discussed. Extensions of the model to cover nonlinear and dependent aging phenomena are also described. The implementability of the linear aging model is demonstrated by applying it to the aging data collected in the U.S. NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. (orig./HP)

  9. Evaluation of the properties of cemented low level radioactive wastes through an extensive characterization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; De Angelis, G.

    1990-01-01

    The immobilized radioactive wastes have to fulfill the demands for packing, interim storage, trasportation and final disposal. For this purpose the possession of various properties, more or less relevant, are required by authorized agencies. In addition to transport regulations the attention is generally focused on physico-chemical and mechanical properties, thermal, radiation and water stability, as well as confinement ability. The assessment of such requirements needs the set up of experimental procedured. With this in mind an extensive programme for the characterization of cemented low level wastes has been undertaken at ENEA Casaccia in the frame of the Third (1985-1989) Europen Communities Programme on Radioactive Waste Management (Contract No. FI1W-0101-I(A)). Three types of waste streams of general interest have been taken into account: bead ion-exchange resins, BWR evaporator concentrates (Sulphates) and filter sludges. Both labo. and full scale experiments have been carried out

  10. A simple theoretical extension to the analysis of photothermal deflection signal for low thermal diffusivity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, Jyotsna; Lekshmi, S.; Nair, K.P.R.; Rasheed, T.M.A

    2004-01-01

    A modified amplitude method to analyze the photothermal probe beam deflection signal for the determination of low thermal diffusivity values of materials is proposed. This simple theoretical model, which is an extension of the amplitude method proposed by Quelin et al., takes into account the dependence of the photothermal signal on the height of the probe beam above the sample surface which affects mirage measurements when the thermal diffusivity of the coupling medium is greater than that of the sample. The present work is similar to the modification to the phase method proposed by Bertolotti et al. for determination of low thermal diffusivity. The method can be applied irrespective of whether the sample is optically transparent or optically opaque and is independent of thickness

  11. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  12. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  13. Longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in children: A twenty-year study from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan; Alfutaisi, Amna M; Mani, Renjith; Abdel Rahim, Rana A; Sankhla, Dilip K; Al Azri, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study. The diagnosis was based on the established criteria. Other causes of myelopathy were excluded. 19 children with idiopathic transverse myelitis were found. There were 18 out of 19 (94.6%) children with longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Longitudinal transverse extensive myelitis is the most common form of ITM in Oman.

  14. External Economies Evaluation of Wind Power Engineering Project Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process and Matter-Element Extension Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ze Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external economies of wind power engineering project may affect the operational efficiency of wind power enterprises and sustainable development of wind power industry. In order to ensure that the wind power engineering project is constructed and developed in a scientific manner, a reasonable external economies evaluation needs to be performed. Considering the interaction relationship of the evaluation indices and the ambiguity and uncertainty inherent, a hybrid model of external economies evaluation designed to be applied to wind power engineering project was put forward based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and matter-element extension model in this paper. The AHP was used to determine the weights of indices, and the matter-element extension model was used to deduce final ranking. Taking a wind power engineering project in Inner Mongolia city as an example, the external economies evaluation is performed by employing this hybrid model. The result shows that the external economies of this wind power engineering project are belonged to the “strongest” level, and “the degree of increasing region GDP,” “the degree of reducing pollution gas emissions,” and “the degree of energy conservation” are the sensitive indices.

  15. Optical coherence tomography evaluation of retinal nerve fiber layer in longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico C. Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare optical coherence tomography (OCT measurements on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL of healthy controls and patients with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM without previous optic neuritis. METHOD: Twenty-six eyes from 26 patients with LETM and 26 control eyes were subjected to automated perimetry and OCT for comparison of RNFL measurements. RESULTS: The mean deviation values from perimetry were significantly lower in patients with LETM than in controls (p<0.0001. RNFL measurements in the nasal quadrant and in the 3-o'clock segment were significantly smaller in LETM eyes than in controls. (p=0.04 and p=0.006, respectively. No significantly differences in other RNFL measurements were found. CONCLUSION: Patients with LETM may present localized RNFL loss, particularly on the nasal side of the optic disc, associated with slight visual field defects, even in the absence of previous episodes of optic neuritis. These findings emphasize the fact that patients with LETM may experience attacks of subclinical optic nerve damage.

  16. Development of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soneda, Naoki; Takao, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Life and integrity assessment of structural components is essential for the nuclear plant life evaluation. Many works have been done on the life and integrity assessment methods up to date. However, there are few methods for the reliability evaluation of analysis results obtained by those methods. This report presents a reliability evaluation method of analysis results based on knowledge base and its application to the integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessel against PTS event. Probabilistic fracture mechanics method is used to obtain the sensitivity of failure probability to analysis inputs. Knowledge base of fuzzy rules is constructed using the sensitivity analysis results. This method makes it possible to set reasonable safety margins to the analysis results. (author)

  17. Teaching Basic Cooking Skills: Evaluation of the North Carolina Extension "Cook Smart, Eat Smart" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Baughman, Kristen; Levine, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Cook Smart, Eat Smart (CSES) is a 12-hour cooking school that teaches participants to prepare nutritious, delicious food using simple, healthy preparation techniques, basic ingredients, and minimal equipment. The purpose of this evaluation was to examine the impact of CSES on food preparation and meal consumption behavior. Program outcomes include…

  18. Extension of the Parana Basin to offshore Brazil: Implications for coalbed methane evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, M.; Kalkreuth, W.; Rolim, S.B.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is a worldwide exploration target of the petroleum industry. In Brazil, the most important coal-bearing succession is associated with the Permian Rio Bonito Formation of the Parana Basin. The gas-prone areas are located at the southeastern margin of the Parana Basin and possibly in the offshore region of the northern part of the Pelotas Basin. Coalfields end abruptly at the present day shoreline, a result of rifting of Gondwana and the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean. All geologic indicators suggest that in pre-rift times the coal seams extended further eastwards, probably now lying deeply buried below the sedimentary succession of the Pelotas Basin. The present paper discusses structural, stratigraphic, seismic and aeromagenetic data that support the preservation of continental crust beneath ocean sediment. If the coal beds had similar lateral extent to known onshore coals, and coal beds extended across the projected extension of the Parana basin, and there was a conservative 5 m of cumulative coal thickness, then a potential methane volume can be estimated for this newly inferred resource. Average onshore coal gas content is 32 scf/ton (1.00 m(3)/ton). If this is similar in the offshore coal deposits, then the hypothetical methane volume in the offshore area could be in excess of 1.9 x 10(12) scf (56 x 10(9) m(3)). Metamorphism from dikes associated with rifting are potential complicating factors in these deposits, and since no borehole reaching the deep-lying strata in the offshore area are available, this is a hypothetical gas resource with a certain level of uncertainty which should be tested in the future by drilling a deep borehole.

  19. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  20. ComprehensiveBench: a Benchmark for the Extensive Evaluation of Global Scheduling Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Laércio L.; Bozzetti, Tiago C.; Castro, Márcio; Navaux, Philippe O. A.; Méhaut, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    Parallel applications that present tasks with imbalanced loads or complex communication behavior usually do not exploit the underlying resources of parallel platforms to their full potential. In order to mitigate this issue, global scheduling algorithms are employed. As finding the optimal task distribution is an NP-Hard problem, identifying the most suitable algorithm for a specific scenario and comparing algorithms are not trivial tasks. In this context, this paper presents ComprehensiveBench, a benchmark for global scheduling algorithms that enables the variation of a vast range of parameters that affect performance. ComprehensiveBench can be used to assist in the development and evaluation of new scheduling algorithms, to help choose a specific algorithm for an arbitrary application, to emulate other applications, and to enable statistical tests. We illustrate its use in this paper with an evaluation of Charm++ periodic load balancers that stresses their characteristics.

  1. Comparison of Accuracy of Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with Accuracy of Non-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Evaluation of Local Extension of Base of Tongue Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of base of tongue malignancy can be obtained through clinical examination and biopsy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT are used to detect its local extension, nodal spread and distant metastases. The main aim of study was to compare the accuracy of MRI and contrast enhanced CT in determining the local extent of base of tongue malignancy. Twenty five patients, biopsy proven cases of squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue were taken. 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Unit with T2 weighted axial, coronal image; T1 weighted axial, coronal image; and STIR (Short tau inversion recovery axial and coronal images were used. 16 slice Computed Tomography unit with non-contrast and contrast enhanced images were used. Accuracy of CT to detect midline crossing: 50%; accuracy of MRI to detect midline crossing: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect anterior extension: 92%; accuracy of MRI to detect anterior extension: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect tonsillar fossa invasion: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 83%; accuracy of MRI to detect oro pharyngeal spread: 100%; accuracy of CT to detect bone involvement: 20%; accuracy of MRI to detect bone involvement: 100%. MRI proved to be a better investigation than CT, in terms of evaluation of depth of invasion, presence of bony involvement, extension to opposite side, anterior half of tongue, tonsillar fossa, floor of mouth or oropharynx.

  2. Towards high dynamic range extensions of HEVC: subjective evaluation of potential coding technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Řeřábek, Martin; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports the details and results of the subjective evaluations conducted at EPFL to evaluate the responses to the Call for Evidence (CfE) for High Dynamic Range (HDR) and Wide Color Gamut (WCG) Video Coding issued by Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). The CfE on HDR/WCG Video Coding aims to explore whether the coding efficiency and/or the functionality of the current version of HEVC standard can be signi_cantly improved for HDR and WCG content. In total, nine submissions, five for Category 1 and four for Category 3a, were compared to the HEVC Main 10 Profile based Anchor. More particularly, five HDR video contents, compressed at four bit rates by each proponent responding to the CfE, were used in the subjective evaluations. Further, the side-by-side presentation methodology was used for the subjective experiment to discriminate small differences between the Anchor and proponents. Subjective results shows that the proposals provide evidence that the coding efficiency can be improved in a statistically noticeable way over MPEG CfE Anchors in terms of perceived quality within the investigated content. The paper further benchmarks the selected objective metrics based on their correlations with the subjective ratings. It is shown that PSNR-DE1000, HDRVDP- 2, and PSNR-Lx can reliably detect visible differences between the proposed encoding solutions and current HEVC standard.

  3. Morphological size evaluation of the mid-substance insertion areas and the fan-like extension fibers in the femoral ACL footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruga, Makoto; Horaguchi, Takashi; Iriuchishima, Takanori; Yahagi, Yoshiyuki; Iwama, Genki; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Aizawa, Shin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detailed anatomy of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site, with special attention given to the morphology of the mid-substance insertion areas and the fan-like extension fibers. Twenty-three non-paired human cadaver knees were used (7 Males, 16 Females, median age 83, range 69-96). All soft tissues around the knee were resected except the ligaments. The ACL was divided into antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) bundles according to the difference in macroscopic tension patterns. The ACL was carefully dissected and two outlines were made of the periphery of each bundle insertion site: those which included and those which excluded the fan-like extension fibers. An accurate lateral view of the femoral condyle was photographed with a digital camera, and the images were downloaded to a personal computer. The area of each bundle, including and excluding the fan-like extension fibers, was measured with Image J software (National Institution of Health). The width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were also evaluated using same image. The femoral ACL footprint was divided into four regions (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). The measured areas of the mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles were 35.5 ± 12.5, and 32.4 ± 13.8 mm 2 , respectively. Whole width and length of the mid-substance insertion sites were 5.3 ± 1.4, and 15.5 ± 2.9 mm, respectively. The measured areas of the fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles were 27 ± 11.5, and 29.5 ± 12.4 mm 2 , respectively. The femoral ACL footprint was divided into quarters of approximately equal size (mid-substance insertion sites of the AM and PL bundles, and fan-like extensions of the AM and PL bundles). For clinical relevance, to perform highly reproducible anatomical ACL reconstruction, the presence of the fan-like extension

  4. MRI, CT, and sonography in the preoperative evaluation of primary tumor extension in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layer, G.; Steudel, A.; Schild, H.H.; Schmitteckert, H.; Tuengerthal, S.; Schirren, J.; Kaick, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the imaging modalities computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thoracic sonography in the preoperative staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Results: The accuracy rates for CT were 85%, 98%, 83%, 73%, 71%, and 83%. MRI had an accuracy of 71%, 92%, 71%, 83%, 71%, and 96%, the thoracic ultrasound examinations of 76%, 63%, 51%, 60%, 71% and 89%. Conclusions: According to these results CT remains the method of choice in the preoperative assessment of T-stage of malignant pleural mesothelioma. MRI is of nearly the same value, but is not a must. Sonography may be supplementary method for operation planning. (orig./AJ) [de

  5. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  6. Intrathecal volume changes in lumbar spinal canal stenosis following extension and flexion: An experimental cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Wolfram; Schwert, Martin; Zirke, Sonja; von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; Wiese, Matthias; Lahner, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The spinal canal stenosis is a common disease in elderly. The thecal sac narrowing is considered as the anatomical cause for the disease. There is evidence that the anatomical proportions of the lumbar spinal canal are influenced by postural changes. The liquor volume shift during these postural changes is a valuable parameter to estimate the dynamic qualities of this disease. The aim of this human cadaver study was the determination of intrathecal fluid volume changes during the lumbar flexion and the extension. A special measuring device was designed and built for the study to investigate this issue under controlled conditions. The measuring apparatus fixed the lumbar spine firmly and allowed only flexion and extension. The dural sac was closed water tight. The in vitro changes of the intrathecal volumes during the motion cycle were determined according to the principle of communicating vessels. Thirteen human cadaver spines from the Institute of Anatomy were examined in a test setting with a continuous adjustment of motion. The diagnosis of the lumbar spinal stenosis was confirmed by a positive computer tomography prior testing. The volume changes during flexion and extension cycles were measured stepwise in a 2 degree distance between 18° flexion and 18° extension. Three complete series of measurements were performed for each cadaver. Two specimens were excluded because of fluid leaks from further investigation. The flexion of the lumbar spine resulted in an intrathecal volume increase. The maximum volume effects were seen in the early flexion positions of 2° and 4°. The spine reclination resulted in a volume reduction. The maximum extension effect was seen between 14° and 16°. According to our results, remarkable volume effects were seen in the early movements of the lumbar spine especially for the flexion. The results support the concept of the spinal stenosis as a dynamic disease and allow a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this

  7. Fuzzy sets as extension of probabilistic models for evaluating human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, F.

    1996-11-01

    On the base of a survey of established quantification methodologies for evaluating human reliability, a new computerized methodology was developed in which a differential consideration of user uncertainties is made. In this quantification method FURTHER (FUzzy Sets Related To Human Error Rate Prediction), user uncertainties are quantified separately from model and data uncertainties. As tools fuzzy sets are applied which, however, stay hidden to the method's user. The user in the quantification process only chooses an action pattern, performance shaping factors and natural language expressions. The acknowledged method HEART (Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique) serves as foundation of the fuzzy set approach FURTHER. By means of this method, the selection of a basic task in connection with its basic error probability, the decision how correct the basic task's selection is, the selection of a peformance shaping factor, and the decision how correct the selection and how important the performance shaping factor is, were identified as aspects of fuzzification. This fuzzification is made on the base of data collection and information from literature as well as of the estimation by competent persons. To verify the ammount of additional information to be received by the usage of fuzzy sets, a benchmark session was accomplished. In this benchmark twelve actions were assessed by five test-persons. In case of the same degree of detail in the action modelling process, the bandwidths of the interpersonal evaluations decrease in FURTHER in comparison with HEART. The uncertainties of the single results could not be reduced up to now. The benchmark sessions conducted so far showed plausible results. A further testing of the fuzzy set approach by using better confirmed fuzzy sets can only be achieved in future practical application. Adequate procedures, however, are provided. (orig.) [de

  8. Evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of extension in uterine cervical cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masaki; Okamura, Shinsuke; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu

    1990-01-01

    To prove the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in determining the invasion of uterine cervical cancer with imaging planes, we evaluated 44 patients with histologically proved cervical cancer. MRI was performed with a Signa 1.5 T (General Electric), and a T 2 -weighted image was used. In coronal planes, the accuracy was 75.0% for parametrial invasion. It was impossible to diagnose in 77.8%, 92.1% and 63.2% the invasion of the uterine body, bladder, and rectum, respectively. In axial planes, the accuracy was 76.3%, 92.1% and 78.9% for the invasion of parametrium, bladder and rectum, respectively. It was impossible to diagnose in 72.2% the invasion of the uterine body. In sagittal planes, the accuracy was 80.6%, 97.4% and 89.7% for invasion of the uterine body, bladder and rectum, respectively. In all 39 cases it was impossible to diagnose parametrial invasion. In five cases, MRI failed to detect the tumor in any of the three planes, but in three cases it was able to detect the tumor in at least one of the three. We conclude as follows: MRI is a useful method in determining the invasion of cervical cancer. Coronal planes are recommended for the determination of parametrial invasion, axial planes for the parametrium, bladder and rectum, and sagittal planes for the uterine body, bladder and rectum. All three planes are needed to determine cervical cancer. (author)

  9. ANALYSIS OF HOLLOW COIL HELICAL EXTENSION SPRING AND THE STUDY OF OPTIMIZING THE WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Naman Gupta*1, Manas purohit2 & Deepika potghan3

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the study which deals with the weight reduction for tensile extension spring by changing the solid spring to hollow one. The springs which are generally used are in solid form due to which the weight of entire body in which the spring is attached gets increased. The forces which can be act on spring may be linear push or linear pull or radial type. This spring deflect by pulling and regain its shape when pulling is neglect. The weight of tensile spring is reduced by changing ...

  10. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.

  11. An open-label extension study of the safety and efficacy of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Justine M; Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5-17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. This phase-4 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00576732).

  12. Land-Grant University Employee Perceptions of eXtension: A Baseline Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Stafne, Eric T.; Greer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    eXtension was publicly launched in 2008 as an online resource; however, adoption rates have been disappointing. The research reported here measured adoption of eXtension, willingness to participate in a Community of Practice, and adoption barriers among Oklahoma Extension employees. The adoption rate was 49%, and 43% of employees were willing to…

  13. Evaluation of long term health-related quality of life in extensive burns: a 12-year experience in a burn center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bing; Xiao, Shi-chu; Zhu, Shi-hui; Xia, Zhao-fan

    2012-05-01

    We sought to evaluate the long term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients survived severely extensive burn and identify their clinical predicting factors correlated with HRQOL. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 patients survived more than 2 years with extensive burn involving ≥70% total body surface area (TBSA) between 1997 and 2009 in a burn center in Shanghai. Short Form-36 Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36), Brief Version of Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) were used for the present evaluation. SF-36 scores were compared with a healthy Chinese population, and linear correlation analysis was performed to screen the clinical relating factors predicting physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from SF-36. HRQOL scores from SF-36 were significantly lower in the domains of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, pain, social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems compared with population norms. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that only return to work (RTW) predicted improved PCS. While age at injury, facial burns, skin grafting and length of hospital stay were correlated with MCS. Work, body image and heat sensitivity obtained the lowest BSHS-B scores in all 9 domains. Improvements of HRQOL could still be seen in BSHS-B scores in domains of simple abilities, hand function, work and affect even after a quite long interval between burns and testing. Hand function of extensive burn patients obtained relatively poor MHQ scores, especially in those without RTW. Patients with extensive burns have a poorer quality of life compared with that of general population. Relatively poor physical and psychological problems still exist even after a long period. Meanwhile, a trend of gradual improvements was noted. This information will aid clinicians in decision-making of comprehensive systematic regimens for long term rehabilitation

  14. Role of CT in evaluation of the extension of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki

    1990-01-01

    CT findings of 39 lesions from 37 cases of pancreas cancer were correlated with surgical and/or pathological findings. Each finding was recorded following 'General rules for surgical and pathological studies on cancer of the pancras' proposed by Japanese pancreatic society. CT employed in this study is Somatom II (Siemens) with scan time of 5 seconds and slice thickness of 8 mm. Contrast study with bolus injection of contrast medium is a basic procedure in all the cases. The results are as follows. T factor (size of the tumor) was underestimated in 9 lesions, no overestimation was observed. It is because that the contrast enhancement surrounding low density was not included in the size of the tumor. No positive results were observed in lymph node group of no.17, but many false positive in no.12. Results of diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was poor, the total accuracy was 65.5%. CT was very effective in the diagnosis of V factor, total accuracy was 95.5%. In S (serosal invasion) and RP (retroperitoneal infiltration) factors, the total accuracy was 81.0%, and 87.1% respectively, when the protrusions into and the disappearance of the surrounding fat plane were taken into account. CT is not effective in the diagnosis of CH (bile duct invasion) factor, because of undifferentiation between compression and invasion from the surrounding pancreas tumor. Results of CT were good in Du (duodenal invasion) factor. Finally, it was concluded that CT is effective in the staging diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a school-based diabetes education intervention, an extension of Program ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew David

    . The second questionnaire, adapted from a survey developed for the Starr County Diabetes Education Study (Garcia et al, 2001), measured general diabetes and diabetes management knowledge. A comparison group, a total of 19 students, also completed both surveys during the study period. Results: Significant increases (p<0.05) were seen in the post-intervention study group in general diabetes knowledge, diabetes management knowledge, and awareness of diabetes prevention strategies, when compared to the baseline study group and comparison group.

  16. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M; Brown, Barbara B; Tribby, Calvin P; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt

    2016-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the "displacement" measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant ( p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services.

  17. Open-label 24-week extension study of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to explore the longer-term efficacy and safety of edaravone in an active-treatment extension period following the double-blind period of the second phase III study. Patients who met all the following criteria (scores ≥2 points on all 12 items of the revised amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale [ALSFRS-R], forced vital capacity ≥80%, definite or probable ALS, and disease duration ≤2 years) were randomised to 60 mg intravenous edaravone or placebo for six cycles in the double-blind period, and then offered the opportunity to proceed to this 24-week open-label extension period. One hundred and twenty-three of 137 patients continued to the extension period: 65 edaravone-edaravone (E-E group) and 58 placebo-edaravone (P-E group). Change (mean ± standard deviation; SD) in the ALSFRS-R score from baseline in the double-blind period was -4.1 ± 3.4 and -6.9 ± 5.1 in the E-E group and P-E group, respectively, while it was -8.0 ± 5.6 in the E-E group and -10.9 ± 6.9 in the P-E group over the whole 48-week period. The ALSFRS-R score changed almost linearly throughout Cycles 1-12 in the E-E group. The most commonly reported adverse events were constipation, dysphagia, and contusion. There was no sudden deterioration in the ALSFRS-R score of the E-E group. No safety concerns related to edaravone were detected.

  18. The role of infarct transmural extent in infarct extension: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Chin-Neng; Lim, Einly; Andriyana, Andri; Al Abed, Amr; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Hayward, Christopher; Hamilton-Craig, Christian; Dokos, Socrates

    2017-02-01

    Infarct extension, a process involving progressive extension of the infarct zone (IZ) into the normally perfused border zone (BZ), leads to continuous degradation of the myocardial function and adverse remodelling. Despite carrying a high risk of mortality, detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to BZ hypoxia and infarct extension remains unexplored. In the present study, we developed a 3D truncated ellipsoidal left ventricular model incorporating realistic electromechanical properties and fibre orientation to examine the mechanical interaction among the remote, infarct and BZs in the presence of varying infarct transmural extent (TME). Localized highly abnormal systolic fibre stress was observed at the BZ, owing to the simultaneous presence of moderately increased stiffness and fibre strain at this region, caused by the mechanical tethering effect imposed by the overstretched IZ. Our simulations also demonstrated the greatest tethering effect and stress in BZ regions with fibre direction tangential to the BZ-remote zone boundary. This can be explained by the lower stiffness in the cross-fibre direction, which gave rise to a greater stretching of the IZ in this direction. The average fibre strain of the IZ, as well as the maximum stress in the sub-endocardial layer, increased steeply from 10% to 50% infarct TME, and slower thereafter. Based on our stress-strain loop analysis, we found impairment in the myocardial energy efficiency and elevated energy expenditure with increasing infarct TME, which we believe to place the BZ at further risk of hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation using HPLC Content analysis was done using HPLC Results : According to HPLC analysis, each BVA-1 contained approximately 0.36㎍ melittin, and BVA-2 contained approximately 0.54㎍ melittin. But the volume of coating was so minute, slight difference exists between each needle. Conclusion : Above results indicate that the bee venom acupuncture can complement shortcomings of syringe usage as a part of Oriental medicine treatment, but extensive researches should be done for further verification.

  20. Patented drug extension strategies on healthcare spending: a cost-evaluation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Haller, Guy; Girardin, François; Huttner, Benedikt; Combescure, Christophe; Dayer, Pierre; Muscionico, Daniel; Salomon, Jean-Luc; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Drug manufacturers have developed "evergreening" strategies to compete with generic medication after patent termination. These include marketing of slightly modified follow-on drugs. We aimed to estimate the financial impact of these drugs on overall healthcare costs and also to examine the impact of listing these drugs in hospital restrictive drug formularies (RDFs) on the healthcare system as a whole ("spillover effect"). We used hospital and community pharmacy invoice office data in the Swiss canton of Geneva to calculate utilisation of eight follow-on drugs in defined daily doses between 2000 and 2008. "Extra costs" were calculated for three different scenarios assuming replacement with the corresponding generic equivalent for prescriptions of (1) all brand (i.e., initially patented) drugs, (2) all follow-on drugs, or (3) brand and follow-on drugs. To examine the financial spillover effect we calculated a monthly follow-on drug market share in defined daily doses for medications prescribed by hospital physicians but dispensed in community pharmacies, in comparison to drugs prescribed by non-hospital physicians in the community. Estimated "extra costs" over the study period were €15.9 (95% CI 15.5; 16.2) million for scenario 1, €14.4 (95% CI 14.1; 14.7) million for scenario 2, and €30.3 (95% CI 29.8; 30.8) million for scenario 3. The impact of strictly switching all patients using proton-pump inhibitors to esomeprazole at admission resulted in a spillover "extra cost" of €330,300 (95% CI 276,100; 383,800), whereas strictly switching to generic cetirizine resulted in savings of €7,700 (95% CI 4,100; 11,100). Overall we estimated that the RDF resulted in "extra costs" of €503,600 (95% CI 444,500; 563,100). Evergreening strategies have been successful in maintaining market share in Geneva, offsetting competition by generics and cost containment policies. Hospitals may be contributing to increased overall healthcare costs by listing follow-on drugs in

  1. Patented drug extension strategies on healthcare spending: a cost-evaluation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Vernaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug manufacturers have developed "evergreening" strategies to compete with generic medication after patent termination. These include marketing of slightly modified follow-on drugs. We aimed to estimate the financial impact of these drugs on overall healthcare costs and also to examine the impact of listing these drugs in hospital restrictive drug formularies (RDFs on the healthcare system as a whole ("spillover effect". METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used hospital and community pharmacy invoice office data in the Swiss canton of Geneva to calculate utilisation of eight follow-on drugs in defined daily doses between 2000 and 2008. "Extra costs" were calculated for three different scenarios assuming replacement with the corresponding generic equivalent for prescriptions of (1 all brand (i.e., initially patented drugs, (2 all follow-on drugs, or (3 brand and follow-on drugs. To examine the financial spillover effect we calculated a monthly follow-on drug market share in defined daily doses for medications prescribed by hospital physicians but dispensed in community pharmacies, in comparison to drugs prescribed by non-hospital physicians in the community. Estimated "extra costs" over the study period were €15.9 (95% CI 15.5; 16.2 million for scenario 1, €14.4 (95% CI 14.1; 14.7 million for scenario 2, and €30.3 (95% CI 29.8; 30.8 million for scenario 3. The impact of strictly switching all patients using proton-pump inhibitors to esomeprazole at admission resulted in a spillover "extra cost" of €330,300 (95% CI 276,100; 383,800, whereas strictly switching to generic cetirizine resulted in savings of €7,700 (95% CI 4,100; 11,100. Overall we estimated that the RDF resulted in "extra costs" of €503,600 (95% CI 444,500; 563,100. CONCLUSIONS: Evergreening strategies have been successful in maintaining market share in Geneva, offsetting competition by generics and cost containment policies. Hospitals may be contributing to increased

  2. Patented Drug Extension Strategies on Healthcare Spending: A Cost-Evaluation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Haller, Guy; Girardin, François; Huttner, Benedikt; Combescure, Christophe; Dayer, Pierre; Muscionico, Daniel; Salomon, Jean-Luc; Bonnabry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug manufacturers have developed “evergreening” strategies to compete with generic medication after patent termination. These include marketing of slightly modified follow-on drugs. We aimed to estimate the financial impact of these drugs on overall healthcare costs and also to examine the impact of listing these drugs in hospital restrictive drug formularies (RDFs) on the healthcare system as a whole (“spillover effect”). Methods and Findings We used hospital and community pharmacy invoice office data in the Swiss canton of Geneva to calculate utilisation of eight follow-on drugs in defined daily doses between 2000 and 2008. “Extra costs” were calculated for three different scenarios assuming replacement with the corresponding generic equivalent for prescriptions of (1) all brand (i.e., initially patented) drugs, (2) all follow-on drugs, or (3) brand and follow-on drugs. To examine the financial spillover effect we calculated a monthly follow-on drug market share in defined daily doses for medications prescribed by hospital physicians but dispensed in community pharmacies, in comparison to drugs prescribed by non-hospital physicians in the community. Estimated “extra costs” over the study period were €15.9 (95% CI 15.5; 16.2) million for scenario 1, €14.4 (95% CI 14.1; 14.7) million for scenario 2, and €30.3 (95% CI 29.8; 30.8) million for scenario 3. The impact of strictly switching all patients using proton-pump inhibitors to esomeprazole at admission resulted in a spillover “extra cost” of €330,300 (95% CI 276,100; 383,800), whereas strictly switching to generic cetirizine resulted in savings of €7,700 (95% CI 4,100; 11,100). Overall we estimated that the RDF resulted in “extra costs” of €503,600 (95% CI 444,500; 563,100). Conclusions Evergreening strategies have been successful in maintaining market share in Geneva, offsetting competition by generics and cost containment policies. Hospitals may be contributing to

  3. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  4. Extension Trial of Qigong for Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Sawynok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This extension trial is an open-label observational trial of 20 subjects with fibromyalgia who undertook level 2 Chaoyi Fanhuan Qigong (CFQ training following an earlier controlled trial of level 1 CFQ. Subjects practiced 60 min/day for 8 weeks and continued some daily practice for 6 months. Quantitative measures, assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 4 and 6 months, were of pain, impact, sleep, physical and mental functions, and practice time. Qualitative comments also were recorded. Compared to baselines, CFQ practice led to significant improvements in pain, impact, sleep, and physical function in the 13 subjects (65% who completed the trial; changes were present at 8 weeks and were maintained for the 6-month trial duration. A highly motivated subgroup of N=5, who practiced the most, had the best outcomes in terms of end symptomology, and qualitative comments indicated health benefits in other domains as well. Qualitative comments by the remaining N=8 trial completers and N=7 withdrawals indicate different experiences with the practice. This extension trial indicates that diligent CFQ practice over time produces significant health gains in fibromyalgia in a subset of individuals. Future studies will need to address factors that might predispose to favourable outcomes.

  5. Menses cup evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, M; Kung, R; Hannah, M; Wilansky, D; Shime, J

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether the menses cup is well tolerated by menstruating women. Prospective descriptive clinical study. Normal human volunteers in an academic research environment. Fifty-one menstruating women recruited between June to December 1991. Each participant was provided with two menses cups and an instruction sheet. Baseline information, including age, occupation, martial status, parity, description of menstrual flow, and current method used to cope with menstrual flow was collected. Subjects were asked to describe their experience with the cup at 1-, 2-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. The proportion of women who found the cup acceptable. The cup was used by 51 subjects for a total of 159 cycles. Overall, 23 women (45%) found the cup an acceptable method for coping with menses. Among 29 (57%) women who used the cup for two or more cycles, 62% found it acceptable. The menses cup may be an acceptable method for some women for coping with menstrual flow.

  6. Effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force: A preliminary cross over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Mostafa, Aisha Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    This cross over study aimed to evaluate the effect of telescopic distal extension removable partial dentures on oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with complete maxillary edentulism and partially edentulous mandibles with anterior teeth only remaining were selected for this cross over study. All patients received complete maxillary dentures and mandibular partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP, control). After 3 months of adaptation, PRDP was replaced with conventional telescopic partial dentures (TPD) or telescopic partial dentures with cantilevered extensions (TCPD) in a quasi-random method. Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using OHIP-14 questionnaire and Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a bite force transducer. Measurements were performed 3 months after using each of the following prostheses; PRDP, TPD, and TCPD. TCPD showed the OHIP-14 lowest scores (i.e., the highest patient satisfaction with their OHRQoL), followed by TPD, and PRDP showed the highest OHIP-14 scores (i.e., the lowest patient satisfaction with OHRQoL). TCPD showed the highest MBF (70.7 ± 3.71), followed by TPD (57.4 ± 3.43) and the lowest MBF (40.2 ± 2.20) was noted with PRDP. WITHIN The Limitations of This Study, Mandibular Telescopic Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures with Cantilevered Extensions Were Associated with Improved Oral Health Related Quality of Life and Maximum Bite Force Compared to Telescopic or Conventional PRDP. Telescopic distal extension removable prostheses is an esthetic restoration in partially edentulous patients with free end saddle. This article describes the addition of cantilevered extensions of this prosthesis. The results showed that telescopic distal extension removable prostheses with cantilevered extensions were associated with improved oral health related quality of life and maximum bite force compared to telescopic or conventional RPDs

  7. Ownership effects in consumers' brand extension evaluations%消费者品牌延伸评价中的"拥有者效应"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符国群; 丁嘉莉

    2007-01-01

    A two levels of product similarity times two levels of brand image consistency times three levels of ownerships factorial experiment was designed to explore the ownership effects when consumers evaluate brand extensions and judge parent brand after receiving brand extension information. Evidence shows that ownership effects do exist in both extension and parent brand evaluations.Brand image consistency is the most influential factor for parent brand owners while product similarity is more important factor for non-users in attitude formation towards the extension. The owners of competitive brands favor lowimage consistency extension more than high image consistency extension.Furthermore, there is an interaction effect between brand image consistency and product similarity for brand owners, whereas this effect is non-existent for non-owners and non-users. This again shows that brand owners care much more about brand image consistency than other consumer groups do. In evaluating a parent brand, owners and non-owners differ. The authors draw the conclusion that consumers' brand extension evaluation is more like a "benefit oriented"process rather than a "pure affect transfer" process.

  8. Technological evaluation for the extension of the operation license to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C. R.; Medina A, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    At the present time one of the tendencies in the nuclear industry is the renovation of operation licenses of the nuclear power plants, with the purpose of prolonging their operation 20 years more than the time settled down in their original license, which is of 30 years for the case of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This allows the electric power generation for a major period of time and to a relatively low price, giving this way a bigger competitiveness to the power stations of nuclear power. However, to request the license extension of the nuclear power plant requires to get ready the documentation and necessary studies for: to maintain a high level of security, to optimize the operation, maintenance and service life of the structures, systems and components, to maintain an acceptable level of performance, to maximize the recovery of the investment about the service of the nuclear power plant and to preserve the sure conditions for a major operation period at the license time. This paper describes the studies conducted by the Materials Technology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) to substantiate the required documentation for obtaining the extension of operating license of the nuclear power plant. These studies are focused mainly in the reactor pressure vessels of both units, as well as in the deposit of noble metals and the influence of the sludges (crud s) in this deposit. (Author)

  9. A simple extension of contraction theory to study incremental stability properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    Contraction theory is a recent tool enabling to study the stability of nonlinear systems trajectories with respect to one another, and therefore belongs to the class of incremental stability methods. In this paper, we extend the original definition of contraction theory to incorporate...... in an explicit manner the control input of the considered system. Such an extension, called universal contraction, is quite analogous in spirit to the well-known Input-to-State Stability (ISS). It serves as a simple formulation of incremental ISS, external stability, and detectability in a differential setting....... The hierarchical combination result of contraction theory is restated in this framework, and a differential small-gain theorem is derived from results already available in Lyapunov theory....

  10. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  11. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Perry, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  12. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  13. Human resource development for a community-based health extension program: a case study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Hailay D; Teklehaimanot, Awash

    2013-08-20

    Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries most affected by high disease burden, aggravated by a shortage and imbalance of human resources, geographical distance, and socioeconomic factors. In 2004, the government introduced the Health Extension Program (HEP), a primary care delivery strategy, to address the challenges and achieve the World Health Organization Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) within a context of limited resources. The health system was reformed to create a platform for integration and institutionalization of the HEP with appropriate human capacity, infrastructure, and management structures. Human resources were developed through training of female health workers recruited from their prospective villages, designed to limit the high staff turnover and address gender, social and cultural factors in order to provide services acceptable to each community. The service delivery modalities include household, community and health facility care. Thus, the most basic health post infrastructure, designed to rapidly and cost-effectively scale up HEP, was built in each village. In line with the country's decentralized management system, the HEP service delivery is under the jurisdiction of the district authorities. The nationwide implementation of HEP progressed in line with its target goals. In all, 40 training institutions were established, and over 30,000 Health Extension Workers have been trained and deployed to approximately 15,000 villages. The potential health service coverage reached 92.1% in 2011, up from 64% in 2004. While most health indicators have improved, performance in skilled delivery and postnatal care has not been satisfactory. While HEP is considered the most important institutional framework for achieving the health MDGs in Ethiopia, quality of service, utilization rate, access and referral linkage to emergency obstetric care, management, and evaluation of the program are the key challenges that need immediate attention. This article

  14. Do the cerebellar tonsils move during flexion and extension of the neck in patients with Chiari I malformation? A radiological study with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Kirkpatrick, Christina M; Rizk, Elias; Chern, Joshua J; Oskouian, Rod J; Oakes, W Jerry

    2016-03-01

    In the past, diagnosis of the Chiari I malformation has primarily been made on midsagittal MRI. We hypothesized that based on the frequent presentation of opisthotonos in patients with hindbrain hernia (primarily Chiari II malformation but sometimes Chiari I malformation) that the hyperextension might be a compensatory technique used by such patients to bring the cerebellar tonsils up out of the cervical spine. This prospective study reviewed imaging of patients with Chiari I malformation who underwent flexion/extension MRI for evaluation of their hindbrain herniation. Age-matched controls were used for comparison. In general, there was elevation of the cerebellar tonsils with extension and increased descent with flexion of the cervical spine. In 72 % of patients, flexion of the neck resulted in descent of the cerebellar tonsils. In 64 % of patients, extension of the neck resulted in ascent of the cerebellar tonsils. In the 14 patients with an associated syrinx, 71 % were found to have caudal movement of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion, and only 43 % were observed to have any movement of the cerebellar tonsils in neck extension compared to patients without a syrinx where ascent of the tonsils was seen in only nine during neck extension. Two patients were observed to have the reverse finding of ascent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck flexion and descent of the cerebellar tonsils with neck extension. Five patients had no movement of the cerebellar tonsils in either flexion or extension of the neck, and one of these had a small syrinx. Although minimal and not in all patients, we observed elevation of the herniated cerebellar tonsils with extension of the cervical spine in patients with Chiari I malformation. This finding provides evidence as to why some patients with hindbrain herniation present with opisthotonos and supports earlier findings that CSF flow is reduced at the craniocervical junction in flexion in patients with Chiari I malformation.

  15. Anionic water pentamer and hexamer clusters: An extensive study of structures and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Aslı; Bozkaya, Uǧur

    2018-03-01

    An extensive study of structures and energetics for anionic pentamer and hexamer clusters is performed employing high level ab initio quantum chemical methods, such as the density-fitted orbital-optimized linearized coupled-cluster doubles (DF-OLCCD), coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD), and coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] methods. In this study, sixteen anionic pentamer clusters and eighteen anionic hexamer clusters are reported. Relative, binding, and vertical detachment energies (VDE) are presented at the complete basis set limit (CBS), extrapolating energies of aug4-cc-pVTZ and aug4-cc-pVQZ custom basis sets. The largest VDE values obtained at the CCSD(T)/CBS level are 9.9 and 11.2 kcal mol-1 for pentamers and hexamers, respectively, which are in very good agreement with the experimental values of 9.5 and 11.1 kcal mol-1. Our binding energy results, at the CCSD(T)/CBS level, indicate strong bindings in anionic clusters due to hydrogen bond interactions. The average binding energy per water molecules is -5.0 and -5.3 kcal mol-1 for pentamers and hexamers, respectively. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the DF-OLCCD method approaches to the CCSD(T) quality for anionic clusters. The inexpensive analytic gradients of DF-OLCCD compared to CCSD or CCSD(T) make it very attractive for high-accuracy studies.

  16. Study protocol: Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease Extension (ABCDE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of international literature points to the importance of a system approach to improve the quality of care in primary health care settings. Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI concepts and techniques provide a theoretically coherent and practical way for primary care organisations to identify, address, and overcome the barriers to improvements. The Audit and Best Practice for Chronic Disease (ABCD study, a CQI-based quality improvement project conducted in Australia's Northern Territory, has demonstrated significant improvements in primary care service systems, in the quality of clinical service delivery and in patient outcomes related to chronic illness care. The aims of the extension phase of this study are to examine factors that influence uptake and sustainability of this type of CQI activity in a variety of Indigenous primary health care organisations in Australia, and to assess the impact of collaborative CQI approaches on prevention and management of chronic illness and health outcomes in Indigenous communities. Methods/design The study will be conducted in 40–50 Indigenous community health centres from 4 States/Territories (Northern Territory, Western Australia, New South Wales and Queensland over a five year period. The project will adopt a participatory, quality improvement approach that features annual cycles of: 1 organisational system assessment and audits of clinical records; 2 feedback to and interpretation of results with participating health centre staff; 3 action planning and goal setting by health centre staff to achieve system changes; and 4 implementation of strategies for change. System assessment will be carried out using a System Assessment Tool and in-depth interviews of key informants. Clinical audit tools include two essential tools that focus on diabetes care audit and preventive service audit, and several optional tools focusing on audits of hypertension, heart disease, renal

  17. EIA and EINP. Evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lande, R.W.I. van der; De Vries, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation study on the title subjects concerns two subsidy tools in the Netherlands: the Energy Investment Rebate (EIA, abbreviated in Dutch) and the Subsidy for Energy in the non-profit sector and other special sectors (EINP, abbreviated in Dutch). The central question in the evaluation was to what extent did the EIA and EINP contribute to the original policy targets and at what costs. The evaluation has been carried out by means of a desk study, interviews, and an analysis of bottlenecks and possible solutions. [nl

  18. Linking Maize Farmers to Market: A Case Study of Private Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    This paper presents the activities of a private extension outfit along maize ... in Africa have focused on how to improve poor farmers' yield, but better yield has .... gaps and challenges, and greater agreement, at least in principle, on the future.

  19. Real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks case study for the pharmaceutical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Schapranow, Matthieu-P

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the design of real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks based on in-memory technology, presents authentication protocols for devices with low computational resources and outlines steps for implementing history-based access control.

  20. Evaluation of geophysical borehole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzen, O.; Duran, O.; Magnusson, K.Aa.

    Four studies concerning geophysical investigations and TV inspection in boreholes in connection with KBS studies at Finnsjoe, Karlshamn, Kraakemaala and Stripa and PRAV's studies at Studsvik have been evaluated. This has led to proposals concerning the choice of instruments and methods for future studies and a review of future work required. The evaluation has shown that the following borehole measurements are of primary interest in the continued work: Determinations of temperature and resistivity of the borehole liquid, resistance and resistivity measurements, SP, Sonic, Caliper and VLF. TV inspection, IP and gamma-gamma should also be included in the arsenal of available test methods.(author)

  1. Contribution of technetium pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of prostate cancer extension based on 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveux, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the results of technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy with those of the standard radiographic exploration of the skeleton in order to find out whether scintigraphic data allow an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the presence of bone metastases. The dose administered is about 10MCi per patient; the recording is made 4 hours after intraveinous injection of the tracer. The documents are obtained in two stages: - first of all a whole-body scintigraph is carried out by means of an 'omniview' system adapted to the Picker dynacamera. This instrument gives an image of the entire body by translation of the patient's bed before the detection head of the camera; - immediately after the whole-body scan a series of static views is taken, especially on abnormal or doubtful areas. These documents have a better resolution than the reduced whole-body image and supply complementary data all the more valuable as they are directed towards the zones of interest. Analysis of our observations underlines the advantages of technetium 99m pyrophosphate bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of prostate neoplasm extension. This particularly sensitive method of investigation enables bone metastases to be detected earlier and more precisely in a patient presenting a neoplasm [fr

  2. Extension joints: a tool to infer the active stress field orientation (case study from southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guidi, Giorgio; Caputo, Riccardo; Scudero, Salvatore; Perdicaro, Vincenzo

    2013-04-01

    An intense tectonic activity in eastern Sicily and southern Calabria is well documented by the differential uplift of Late Quaternary coastlines and by the record of the strong historical earthquakes. The extensional belt that crosses this area is dominated by a well established WNW-ESE-oriented extensional direction. However, this area is largely lacking of any structural analysis able to define the tectonics at a more local scale. In the attempt to fill this gap of knowledge, we carried out a systematic analysis of extension joint sets. In fact, the systematic field collection of these extensional features, coupled with an appropriate inversion technique, allows to determine the characteristic of the causative tectonic stress field. Joints are defined as outcrop-scale mechanical discontinuities showing no evidence of shear motion and being originated as purely extensional fractures. Such tectonic features are one of the most common deformational structures in every tectonic environment and particularly abundant in the study area. A particular arrangement of joints, called "fracture grid-lock system", and defined as an orthogonal joint system where mutual abutting and crosscutting relationships characterize two geologically coeval joint sets, allow to infer the direction and the magnitude of the tectonic stress field. We performed the analyses of joints only on Pleistocene deposits of Eastern Sicily and Southern Calabria. Moreover we investigated only calcarenite sediments and cemented deposits, avoiding claysh and loose matrix-supported clastic sediments where the deformation is generally accomodated in a distributed way through the relative motion between the single particles. In the selection of the sites, we also took into account the possibility to clearly observe the geometric relationships among the joints. For this reason we chose curvilinear road cuts or cliffs, wide coastal erosional surfaces and quarries. The numerical inversions show a similar stress

  3. Nutrient leaching from extensive green roofs with different substrate compositions: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Xing; Che, Wu

    2018-02-01

    To investigate nutrient leaching from extensive green roofs, green roof platforms were established to investigate the effluent quantity and quality during artificial rainfall. When the influent volume reached three times the empty bed volume, for which the cumulative rainfall was around 300 mm, the effluent TP and COD concentrations of green roof platforms filled with peat soil did not tend to stabilize. For a long-term operation, the substrate depths had little significant influence on TN, TP and COD concentrations of the green roof effluents. A normalized cumulative emission process method was proposed to discuss the difference in various pollutant leaching processes. Obvious differences in the leaching process of different contaminants for green roof platforms filled with various substrates were observed. For the green roof filled with modified substrates, the nitrogen and phosphorus pollutant leaching rates were relatively high in the initial stage of green roof operation and the phosphorus leaching rate was higher than that of nitrogen. The green roof is a sink for TN, but not for TP and COD in this study. The outcomes are critical for the selection of green roof substrates and also contribute to green roof maintenance.

  4. An Application Domain Extension to CityGML for immovable property taxation: A Turkish case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağdaş, Volkan

    2013-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that immovable property taxes are one of the main revenue sources for local government. The literature emphasizes that the administration of property taxes needs well-developed inventories or registers that provide complete and accurate records of the taxed properties and their legal-economic attributes. This requirement is generally fulfilled by Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) in which the coordinate exchange and sharing of geo-spatial data is provided by separate registers/information systems such as: cadastral systems, building and address registers. Recently, the Open Geospatial Consortium presented a core component of a 3D SDI in the form of an international domain standard for representing, storing and exchanging 3D city models. The CityGML allows the semantic and 3D geometrical representation of physical objects but does not deal with the legal and administrative aspects of the city objects which are required for the process of property taxation. This paper outlines the development of an Application Domain Extension (ADE) for the immovable property taxation domain that expands the CityGML data model with the legal and administrative concepts defined in Turkish Law. The study shows that this ADE could be a 3D national data model for municipal information systems and facilitate a more efficient taxation process, as well as providing data for urban planning, facility management and other municipal services.

  5. Results from an extensive study of the ( pi /sup -/, 2n) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalleck, B; Furic, M; Klotz, W D; Takeutchi, F; Ullrich, H

    1979-01-01

    Abstract only given, substantially as follows: An extensive study of the ( pi /sup -/,2n) reaction with stopped pi /sup -/ was completed at the CERN-SC. Target nuclei were from the 1p-shell ranging from /sup 6 /Li to /sup 16/0 and also /sup 40/Ca. Large-area neutron counters with subnanosecond time resolution were used in the kinematically complete experiment. Distributions in different variables were investigated in order to extract information on reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. Among the most important are the excitation energy of the residual nucleus showing the location of observed two-hole states as well as angular and momentum distributions giving information on the quantum state and dynamical characteristics of the nucleon pair involved in the absorption. Transitions to low excitation energies proved to be dominated by the direct quasifree reaction mechanism. In general the strongest observed two-hole strength agreed with theoretical predictions on coefficients of fractional parentage for two...

  6. Study on shelf life extension of papayas irradiated by /sup 60/Co gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.S.; Chen, M.D.; Lin, C.T.; Fu, Y.K.

    1984-11-01

    Papayas are one of the main fresh fruits in Taiwan area. Papaya fruits were treated with hot water to pasteurize peels followed by /sup 60/Co gamma-ray irradiation to extend the ripening time. The purpose of synergetic methods is to extend the shelf life of papaya fruits. This experiment was carried out by seven treatments, which were: (1) control group, (2) hot water treatment only, (3) hot water treatment with a 25 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (4) hot water treatment with a 50 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (5) hot water treatment with a 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation, (6) 75 krad ..gamma..-irradiation only, and (7) hot water treatment with a 100 krad ..gamma..-irradiation. The items of observation were: surface yellowing, surface decaying, quality of texture, and length of period lasted after irradiation for 50% marketable papayas. The results of this study showed that a shelf-life extension of six days could be obtained for papayas subjected to hot water (50 to 55/sup 0/C) treatment and a 100 krad irradiation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the simultaneous determination and stability study of four extensively used penicillin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Simon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of four extensively used penicillin derivatives (benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacilllin has been studied. Because of structural similarities, the electrophoretic behavior of these derivatives is very similar; consequently an efficient separation using the conventional capillary zone electrophoresis is hard to be achieved. Their simultaneous separation was solved by using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, the separation being based on the differential partition of the analytes between the micellar and aqueous phase. Using a buffer solution containing 25 mM sodium tetraborate and 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant, at a pH of 9.3, applying a voltage of + 25 kV at a temperature of 25 °C, we achieved the simultaneous separation of the studied penicillin derivatives in less then 5 minutes. The separation conditions were optimized and the analytical performance of the method was evaluated in terms of precision, linearity, limit of detection, and quantification. Also, a simple capillary zone electrophoresis method was applied to study the stability of the studied penicillin derivatives in water at different temperatures, using ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as internal standard. It was observed that the extent of the hydrolysis of penicillins in water is highly dependent on the time and also temperature.

  8. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: I. Ewe productivity and crossbred lamb survival and preweaning growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 3-yr study was conducted to comprehensively evaluate Columbia, Suffolk, USMARC-Composite (Composite), and Texel breeds as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system. The objective was to estimate breed-of-ram effects on ewe fertility, prolificacy, and dystocia, and sire breed effe...

  9. EVALUATION OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE INFECTION STATUS OF UDDER AND THE MICROBIOLOGICAL MILK QUALITY IN SOME EXTENSIVE GOAT HERDS OF SARDINIA - PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mulas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sub clinical mastitis may cause more losses than clinical mastitis. Farmers can take advantage of employing several tools, California Mastitis Test (CMT and Somatic Cell Count (SCC among the others, to determine the presence of a sub clinical mastitis in their herds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk produced in some extensive goat herds in Sardinia through a clinical check to determine the infection status of the udder, CMT, SCC and microbiological milk tests. CMT has been confirmed to be a useful, practical and economical tool to detect sub clinical mastitis in goats. Farmers should be encouraged to use this as a first step in order to avoid prospective losses in their herds.

  10. Tritium as tracer of groundwater pollution extension: case study of Andralanitra landfill site, Antananarivo-Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, Voahirana; Rakotomalala, Christian Ulrich; Rajaobelison, Joel; Fareze, Lahimamy Paul; Razafitsalama, Falintsoa A.; Rasolofonirina, Mamiseheno

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to understand the extension of groundwater pollution downstream of a landfill, Andralanitra-Antananarivo-Madagascar. Twenty-one samples, composed of dug well waters, spring waters, river, and lake, were measured in stable isotopes ( δ 2H, δ 18O) and tritium. Results showed that only two dug well waters, collected at the immediate vicinity of the landfill, have high tritium activities (22.82 TU and 10.43 TU), probably of artificial origin. Both upstream and further downstream of the landfill, tritium activities represent natural source, with values varying from 0.17 TU to 1.46 TU upstream and from 0.88 TU to 1.88 TU further downstream. Stable isotope data suggest that recharge occurs through infiltration of slightly evaporated rainfall. Using the radioactive decay equation, the calculated tracer ages related to two recent ground water samples collected down gradient of the landfill lay between [8-15] years and [4-7] years, taking into account the uncertainty of tritium measurements. For the calculation, a value of 2.36 TU was taken as A o. The latter was estimated based on similarity between stable isotope compositions of nearby spring and dug well waters as well as tritium activities of the local precipitation. Calculation of the tritium activities from the contaminated water point having 22.82 TU to further downstream using the calculated tracer ages showed values of one order of magnitude higher than the measured values. The absence of hydrological connection from the contaminated water point to further downstream the landfill would explain the lower tritium activities measured. Groundwater pollution seems to be limited to the closest proximity of the landfill.

  11. One Sample, One Shot - Evaluation of sample preparation protocols for the mass spectrometric proteome analysis of human bile fluid without extensive fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Padden, Juliet; Rosowski, Kristin; Uszkoreit, Julian; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Gerges, Christian; Neuhaus, Horst; Schumacher, Brigitte; Schlaak, Jörg F; Sitek, Barbara

    2017-02-10

    The proteome analysis of bile fluid represents a promising strategy to identify biomarker candidates for various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. However, to obtain substantive results in biomarker discovery studies large patient cohorts necessarily need to be analyzed. Consequently, this would lead to an unmanageable number of samples to be analyzed if sample preparation protocols with extensive fractionation methods are applied. Hence, the performance of simple workflows allowing for "one sample, one shot" experiments have been evaluated in this study. In detail, sixteen different protocols implying modifications at the stages of desalting, delipidation, deglycosylation and tryptic digestion have been examined. Each method has been individually evaluated regarding various performance criteria and comparative analyses have been conducted to uncover possible complementarities. Here, the best performance in terms of proteome coverage has been assessed for a combination of acetone precipitation with in-gel digestion. Finally, a mapping of all obtained protein identifications with putative biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) revealed several proteins easily detectable in bile fluid. These results can build the basis for future studies with large and well-defined patient cohorts in a more disease-related context. Human bile fluid is a proximal body fluid and supposed to be a potential source of disease markers. However, due to its biochemical composition, the proteome analysis of bile fluid still represents a challenging task and is therefore mostly conducted using extensive fractionation procedures. This in turn leads to a high number of mass spectrometric measurements for one biological sample. Considering the fact that in order to overcome the biological variability a high number of biological samples needs to be analyzed in biomarker discovery studies, this leads to the dilemma of an unmanageable number of

  12. When does return of voluntary finger extension occur post-stroke? A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Caroline; Kwakkel, Gert; Nijland, Rinske; Van Wegen, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Patients without voluntary finger extension early post-stroke are suggested to have a poor prognosis for regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months. Despite this poor prognosis, a number of patients do regain upper limb capacity. We aimed to determine the time window for return of

  13. A Study of Informal Learning among University of Wyoming Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabut, Stanley A.

    2013-01-01

    University of Wyoming Extension educators are often hired because of their subject matter expertise; yet, they must still develop education skills as well as learn to use various and ever-changing technologies. This research was conducted to understand what impact guided instruction on informal learning concepts and methods had on UW Extension…

  14. The variations of peroneus digiti quinti muscle and its contribution to the extension of the fifth toe. A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berin T. Demir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the origin, prevalence, and possible effects of peroneus digiti quinti muscle (PDQ on the fifth toe, to find out the variations of PDQ by determining the relationship between peroneus brevis muscle (PB and PDQ, and to reveal its importance for the applications in foot and ankle surgery. Methods: This study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey between September 2013 and June 2014. The study was a prospective dissection of cadaveric lower limbs. Twenty-five amputated lower limbs were stored in the freezer at -15°C. The legs were dissected; prevalence and variations of peroneus digiti quinti were investigated. Results: Peroneus digiti quinti muscle was found in 8 (32% of 25 dissected lower limbs. However, 2 different tendon extensions were found at 3 (37.5% of 8, and 5 (62.5% of them were determined to have a single tendon. Conclusion: The incidence, dimensions, length, and insertions of peroneus digiti quinti are important in the evaluation and treatment of functional loss of the fifth toe, lateral foot deformities, and tendon problems behind the lateral malleolus of the ankle.

  15. European Research Council supports an extensive study of the astrophysical p-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyuerky, Gy.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The astrophysical p-process, the production mechanism of the heavy proton rich isotopes (the so-called p-nuclei) is still one of the least understood processes of nucleosynthesis. The modeling of the process requires a huge network of thousands of reactions where the rates of the involved reactions represent one of the biggest uncertainty in the resulting abundances of p-nuclei. In lack of experimental data the required reaction rates are taken from statistical model calculations which proved to be inaccurate in the mass and energy range relevant for the p-process. The systematic experimental study of the relevant reactions is therefore crucial to test the calculated reaction rates, to select the best input parameters for the calculations and, consequently, to contribute to a better understanding of the astrophysical p-process. The European Research Council (ERC) has acknowledged this need for experimental data when they decided to support a project devoted to this subject. In 2007 the first call of the ERC Frontier Research Scheme (Starting Grants) has been launched within the FP7 Specific Programme 'IDEAS'. From the very high number of applications, the peer reviewers of the ERC Scientific Council has recommended for funding the proposal entitled 'Nuclear reaction studies relevant to the astrophysical p-process nucleosynthesis'. An amount of 750,000 Euro has been allocated to the project for a 5 year duration. The starting date of the project was 1st July, 2008. With the ERC support, an extensive experimental study of the p-process is being carried out. The experiments will be carried out almost exclusively with the accelerators of the ATOMKI. The financial support allows to largely improve the available experimental technique. The purchase of two large volume HPGe detectors is in progress as a result of a public procurement. The upgrade of the nuclear electronics and data acquisition system used for p-process related

  16. A finite element evaluation of mechanical function for 3 distal extension partial dental prosthesis designs with a 3-dimensional nonlinear method for modeling soft tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshinori; Kanbara, Ryo; Ochiai, Kent T; Tanaka, Yoshinobu

    2014-10-01

    The mechanical evaluation of the function of partial removable dental prostheses with 3-dimensional finite element modeling requires the accurate assessment and incorporation of soft tissue behavior. The differential behaviors of the residual ridge mucosa and periodontal ligament tissues have been shown to exhibit nonlinear displacement. The mathematic incorporation of known values simulating nonlinear soft tissue behavior has not been investigated previously via 3-dimensional finite element modeling evaluation to demonstrate the effect of prosthesis design on the supporting tissues. The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate the functional differences of 3 different partial removable dental prosthesis designs with 3-dimensional finite element analysis modeling and a simulated patient model incorporating known viscoelastic, nonlinear soft tissue properties. Three different designs of distal extension removable partial dental prostheses were analyzed. The stress distributions to the supporting abutments and soft tissue displacements of the designs tested were calculated and mechanically compared. Among the 3 dental designs evaluated, the RPI prosthesis demonstrated the lowest stress concentrations on the tissue supporting the tooth abutment and also provided wide mucosa-borne areas of support, thereby demonstrating a mechanical advantage and efficacy over the other designs evaluated. The data and results obtained from this study confirmed that the functional behavior of partial dental prostheses with supporting abutments and soft tissues are consistent with the conventional theories of design and clinical experience. The validity and usefulness of this testing method for future applications and testing protocols are shown. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hamstring Muscle Use in Females During Hip-Extension and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Daniel J; Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Al Najjar, Aiman; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-04-23

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Understanding hamstring muscle activation patterns in resistance training exercises may have implications for the design of strength training and injury prevention programs. Unfortunately, surface electromyography studies have reported conflicting results with regard to hamstring muscle activation patterns in women. Objectives To determine the spatial patterns of hamstring muscle activity during the 45º hip-extension and Nordic hamstring exercises, in females using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Six recreationally active females with no history of lower limb injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on both thighs before and immediately after 5 sets of 6 bilateral eccentric contractions of the 45º hip-extension or Nordic exercises. Using fMRI, the transverse (T2) relaxation times were measured from pre- and post- exercise scans and the percentage increase in T2 was used as an index of muscle activation. Results fMRI revealed a significantly higher biceps femoris long head (BF LongHead ) to semitendinosus ratio during the 45° hip-extension than the Nordic exercise (P = .028). The T2 increase after 45° hip-extension was greater for BF LongHead (P Nordic exercise, the T2 increase for semitendinosus was greater than that of BF ShortHead (P Nordic exercise preferentially recruits that muscle while the hip extension more evenly activates all of the biarticular hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 23 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7748.

  18. Study The Effect Extension Of Fuel Element Life Time In The Core Small Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewita, E.; Rusli, A.; Tuka, V.

    1998-01-01

    Mini power reactor is a low power nuclear reactor which mostly are designed especially to supply energy demand in the remote areas, such as for electricity generation, industries, desalination and district heating.The goal of the operation cycle extension to 3 - 5 years is to maximize the use of the fuel in order to achieve much cheaper energy generated. From the stand point of fuel element, in order to maximize the fuel life time there is a need to see all possible effects of extended life time to the fuel behavior in the core. This study has been carried out in order to obtain the understanding on all influencing factors to the fuel element behaviors at extended operation cycle whose results are expected to be useful as the input to fuel design and fabrication. The study has show that the material selection for fuel and cladding materials are the essential factor in maximizing the fuel life time. Development of cladding and fuel materials has been done, and shown that the new zirconium alloy, zircaloy, having composition of Zr-1,0 Sn-0,27 Fe-0,16 Cr-0,1 Nb-0,01 Ni has higher corrosion resistance and mechanical characteristics better than that of the standard zircaloy-4. Adding the Nb content (0,005-0,2 wt %), decreasing the Sn content until 0,5 wt %, and decreasing the ratio of Fe/Cr from 0,6 to 0,5 can increase resistance to corrosion, while decreasing the ratio of Fe and Cr from 0,3 to 0,7 wt % can increase the mechanical characteristics. To enhance the resistance to nodular corrosion in the BWR system, adding the Nb-Mo, Nb-W and Nb-V at low Sn zircaloy-2 can be done. In improving the fuel element it has been shown that adding niobium (Nb 2 O 5 -0,3 wt %) can enlarge the particle size of fuel hence improving the fuel performance

  19. Identification of the Competencies Needed to Apply Social Marketing to Extension Programming: Results of a Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Stubbs, Eric; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Huynh, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the specific competencies needed to apply social marketing, a promising approach to behavior change, to Extension programming. A modified Delphi study was used to achieve group consensus among a panel of experts on the skills, characteristics, and knowledge needed to successfully apply this behavior change…

  20. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abi Saab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abi Saab, S. Esseily, F. Saliba, M. and Aad P. 2017. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system. Lebanese Science Journal. 18(1: 73-80. The local Baladi breed is considered a common source of fresh meat in Lebanon. Due to the extensive rearing system and the scarcity of pasture, kids resulting from multiple births are not reared, though cultural preference for young meat may valorize these twin kids as an expensive delicacy. Few studies observed growth parameters, physical-chemical and sensory properties of meat in Baladi kids. Therefore, 24 male Baladi kids were fed milk ad libitum post-natally for 24 days, after which 9 were randomly selected and fed pasture grass ad libitum and goat milk (Control, and 15 were fed only milk (Capretto twice per day. Animals were slaughtered at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age and body organs compared. Feed intake was measured by weighing kids pre- and post- feeding, and body weight measured twice per week. Meat chemical properties were total ether-extracted fat, kjeldhal protein, and minerals. Meat organoleptic properties were evaluated by consumers for color, taste, odor, richness, juiciness, tenderness and overall appreciation, as cooked by housewives or professionals. Data were analyzed as a CRD using SPSS 10.0 and presented as LSMeans ± SEM. Results showed that Capretto consumed increasing levels of milk from 4 to 8 weeks, with ADG decreasing (P 0.05 between Capretto and control, although capretto showed lower (p<0.05 meat fat content than control kids. Meat organoleptic characteristics were desirable at weeks 4 and 6 for both Capretto and control kids, whereas only Capretto meat stayed desirable at week 8. To conclude, Capretto kids have similar properties to their traditional counterparts, with added desirable properties for a longer growing period, in addition to the increased health benefit of lower fat content.

  1. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  2. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  3. When Does Return of Voluntary Finger Extension Occur Post-Stroke? A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Winters

    Full Text Available Patients without voluntary finger extension early post-stroke are suggested to have a poor prognosis for regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months. Despite this poor prognosis, a number of patients do regain upper limb capacity. We aimed to determine the time window for return of voluntary finger extension during motor recovery and identify clinical characteristics of patients who, despite an initially poor prognosis, show upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke.Survival analysis was used to assess the time window for return of voluntary finger extension (Fugl-Meyer Assessment hand sub item finger extension≥1. A cut-off of ≥10 points on the Action Research Arm Test was used to define return of some upper limb capacity (i.e. ability to pick up a small object. Probabilities for regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke were determined with multivariable logistic regression analysis using patient characteristics.45 of the 100 patients without voluntary finger extension at 8 ± 4 days post-stroke achieved an Action Research Arm Test score of ≥10 points at 6 months. The median time for regaining voluntary finger extension for these recoverers was 4 weeks (lower and upper percentile respectively 2 and 8 weeks. The median time to return of VFE was not reached for the whole group (N = 100. Patients who had moderate to good lower limb function (Motricity Index leg≥35 points, no visuospatial neglect (single-letter cancellation test asymmetry between the contralesional and ipsilesional sides of <2 omissions and sufficient somatosensory function (Erasmus MC modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment≥33 points had a 0.94 probability of regaining upper limb capacity at 6 months post-stroke.We recommend weekly monitoring of voluntary finger extension within the first 4 weeks post-stroke and preferably up to 8 weeks. Patients with paresis mainly restricted to the upper limb, no visuospatial neglect and sufficient somatosensory function are

  4. Applications of Extensive Green-roof Systems in Contributing to Sustainable Development in Densely Populated Cities: a Hong Kong Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed cities such as Hong Kong are usually densely populated. Since the land is limited, high-rise buildings are constructed. When the building height becomes higher, air flow is reduced and heat is trapped among high-rise buildings. Air temperature will be greatly increased and air pollution becomes a serious problem. This creates a walled building problem. To reduce air temperature caused by the wall-effects, various methods have been developed in the previous studies. One typical method is the use of green roof systems. The application of extensive green roofs on the existing building rooftops has been recommended in Hong Kong since 2001. The advantage of this practice is that no additional floor area is required and it can also improve urban greenery. Although a green roof system has been introduced and adopted in Hong Kong since 2001, the emphasis is mainly given to the application of intensive green roofs for podium garden instead of extensive green roofs. It is considered valuable and necessary of the extensive green roofs for the buildings. This paper investigates the current practice of using extensive green roofs in Hong Kong. The constraints in applying extensive green roofs are investigated, which leads to studying the solutions for mitigating these constraints and improving the future development of the implementation.

  5. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J

    2006-01-01

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  6. Nuclear non proliferation. Challenges after the NPT extension - CERI Studies Nr 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1996-01-01

    After the decision of extension of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in May 1995, the author first discusses strengths and weaknesses of the non proliferation regime. On the one side, the five nuclear powers are tight by international commitments, the number of proliferating countries has not increased, some countries have willingly decided to give up their military nuclear programme, ex-USSR republics have joined the NPT, the Israel-PLO agreement of 1993 initiated a new era, potentially proliferating countries do not have very significant nuclear programmes, shortcomings of international controls have been identified, international cooperation has improved, and control techniques are available. On the other hand, some matters of concern remain: lessons from the Gulf War, an apparently easier access to nuclear weapons, new opportunities of regional domination, a weaker American guarantee, the North-Korean problem, new exporters of nuclear and ballistic goods and technologies. In the next part, the author discusses the conditions of the agreement for an undefined extension of the NPT, and notably outlines what made this success possible. Then, she addresses political issues related to the universal character of the NPT and to nuclear disarmament. She also discusses the responsibility of the Five nuclear powers, the role of nuclear weapons, and the implication of the extension of the Treaty for the European Union

  7. Parametric study of variable renewable energy integration in Europe: Advantages and costs of transmission grid extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaber, Katrin; Steinke, Florian; Mühlich, Pascal; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Wind and solar energy will play an important role in the decarbonization of the European electricity generation. However, high shares of these variable renewable energies (VREs) challenge the power system considerably due to their temporal fluctuations and geographical dispersion. In this paper, we systematically analyze transmission grid extensions as an integration measure for VREs in Europe. We show the effects of grid extensions for fundamental properties of the power system as a function of the penetration and mix of wind and solar energy. Backup capacity requirements and overproduction are reduced with a powerful overlay transmission grid. We determine the costs of the grid extensions in dependence of the VRE penetration and mix and find that the grid integration costs remain below 25% of the VRE investment costs for all conceivable VRE configurations. Furthermore, robust design features of future power systems in terms of grid geometry and flexibility requirements for backup technologies are identified. We apply a spatially and temporally highly resolved techno-economic model of the European power system for our analysis. - Highlights: ► Quantification of the advantages and costs of a European overlay transmission grid. ► Grid integration costs for VREs in Europe remain below 6€/MWh. ► Application of a detailed power system model to a wide parameter space.

  8. Extension of operation of nuclear plants. Synthesis of the qualitative study and of the citizen committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suteau, Regis

    2014-01-01

    The author comments the results of a survey which was based on 20 interviews with French citizens of different ages, political opinions, geographical locations and also different opinions on nuclear energy. The objective was to obtain their perception and feeling about the issue of nuclear plant service life extension, in order to assess whether they were aware of this issue, could understand it, and what was their opinion about it. Then, these citizens have been gathered three weeks later and met three experts (a representative of a NGO, a member of the ASN and a representative of EDF) who answered their questions and discussed their arguments. These citizens then made statements and recommendations. It appeared that the issue of lifetime extension is hardly known by the public, and is therefore not a topic of public debate but a modality within the important debate about nuclear energy. However, the citizen committee accepts this lifetime extension for different reasons (no known alternatives; economic aspects; safety, nuclear energy is non polluting energy; jobs will be saved) but under some conditions which depend on the opinion on nuclear energy (rather for or rather against). The opinion may change negatively in relationship with some issues: the future of radioactive wastes and dismantled installations, quality and traceability of subcontracted components. This survey is an opportunity to question the general relationship of French people with nuclear energy. In this respect, five profiles are identified: confident, resigned, realistic and reasonable, realistic and anxious, and opponent

  9. Study of Potential Extension For Improving Knowledge Society in Ngadas Village about Medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hajmia guswika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Society knowledge in Ngadas village about medicinal plants began to fade, as people do not know the plants that can be consume as a drug around them. However, the treatment by plant utilizing is a traditional medicine that has become a cultural heritage that should be conserved and has been recommended by the WHO as the effort back to nature for the maintenance of public health, prevention and treatment of disease. Wild plant that has potential as a drug in the village Ngadas big enough examples adas, ajeran, akasia duri, anting-anting, alang-alang, patikan kebo, pegagan, semanggi gunung, kersen, krisan, kecubung gunung, tempuyung, etc. The purpose of writing this article is to examine the potential of extension as a efforts on improving knowledge of society. The method used is to review literature of some journal that examines the educational efforts to improve public knowledge. Based on data obtained from reviewing the literature, extension activities proved potentially in increasing knowledge of society. Thus it is needed to do extension in an effort to provide information on the potential of medicinal plants in the Ngadas villages.

  10. Evaluating the potential roles of the Gray and Extension loci in the coat coloration of Thoroughbred racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takahiro; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Innan, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Horses have substantial variation in coat color, and the genetic loci responsible for the coat color variations have been well investigated. It has been believed that some color variations should follow a single-locus Mendelian law. Examples include the Gray locus that causes the gray phenotype and the Extension locus that specifies the chestnut phenotype. We reevaluated the roles of the Gray and Extension loci by using a large number of mating records of Thoroughbred racing horses. We showed that the data indeed fits the Mendelian law extremely well for the two loci. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Extension and Agouti loci might have an additional role in determining the degree of melanin that should distinguish bay, dark bay, and brown.

  11. Exploratory double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled extension study of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Following the first phase III study of edaravone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), this extension study was performed to evaluate longer-term efficacy and safety. Patients given edaravone in the first 24-week phase III study (Cycles 1-6) were randomised to edaravone (E-E) or placebo (E-P) in the subsequent 24-week double-blind period (Cycles 7-12). Patients given placebo in phase III were switched to edaravone (P-E). Subsequently, all patients received edaravone for 12 weeks (Cycles 13-15). Efficacy endpoints included revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) score. Analysis populations were the full analysis set (FAS) and the efficacy-expected subpopulation (EESP) defined by post-hoc analysis of the first phase III study. The least-squares mean and standard error of the intergroup difference (E-E vs. E-P) of change in the ALSFRS-R score from Cycles 7-12 was 1.16 ± 0.93 (p = 0.2176) in the FAS, and 1.85 ± 1.14 (p = 0.1127) in the EESP. The ALSFRS-R score changed almost linearly in the E-E group throughout Cycles 1-15 (60 weeks). The incidence of serious adverse events associated with ALS progression was higher in E-E than in E-P. Edaravone might have potential efficacy for up to 15 cycles when used to treat patients in the EESP with careful safety monitoring.

  12. Relationship of moderate and low isometric lumbar extension through architectural and muscular activity variables: a cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    No study relating the changes obtained in the architecture of erector spinae (ES) muscle were registered with ultrasound and different intensities of muscle contraction recorded by surface EMG (electromyography) on the ES muscle was found. The aim of this study was analyse the relationship in the response of the ES muscle during isometric moderate and light lumbar isometric extension considering architecture and functional muscle variables. Cross-sectional study. 46 subjects (52% men) with a group mean age of 30.4 (±7.78). The participants developed isometric lumbar extension while performing moderate and low isometric trunk and hip extension in a sitting position with hips flexed 90 degrees and the lumbar spine in neutral position. During these measurements, electromyography recordings and ultrasound images were taken bilaterally. Bilaterally pennation angle, muscle thickness, torque and muscle activation were measured. This study was developed at the human movement analysis laboratory of the Health Science Faculty of the University of Malaga (Spain). Strong and moderate correlations were found at moderate and low intensities contraction between the variable of the same intensity, with correlation values ranging from 0.726 (Torque Moderate – EMG Left Moderate) to 0.923 (Angle Left Light – Angle Right Light) (p < 0.001). This correlation is observed between the variables that describe the same intensity of contraction, showing a poor correlation between variables of different intensities. There is a strong relationship between architecture and function variables of ES muscle when describe an isometric lumbar extension at light or moderate intensity

  13. Extensive medical absenteeism among secondary school students : An observational study on their health condition from a biopsychosocial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots, M.C.; Feron, F.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate approach to reducing school absenteeism should focus on medical absenteeism as this is the most prevalent form of school absenteeism. The objective of this study is to explore the health condition of pre-vocational secondary students with extensive medical absenteeism from a

  14. Comparative study of human mitochondrial proteome reveals extensive protein subcellular relocalization after gene duplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yong

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene and genome duplication is the principle creative force in evolution. Recently, protein subcellular relocalization, or neolocalization was proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for the retention of duplicated genes. This hypothesis received support from the analysis of yeast genomes, but has not been tested thoroughly on animal genomes. In order to evaluate the importance of subcellular relocalizations for retention of duplicated genes in animal genomes, we systematically analyzed nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins in the human genome by reconstructing phylogenies of mitochondrial multigene families. Results The 456 human mitochondrial proteins selected for this study were clustered into 305 gene families including 92 multigene families. Among the multigene families, 59 (64% consisted of both mitochondrial and cytosolic (non-mitochondrial proteins (mt-cy families while the remaining 33 (36% were composed of mitochondrial proteins (mt-mt families. Phylogenetic analyses of mt-cy families revealed three different scenarios of their neolocalization following gene duplication: 1 relocalization from mitochondria to cytosol, 2 from cytosol to mitochondria and 3 multiple subcellular relocalizations. The neolocalizations were most commonly enabled by the gain or loss of N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals. The majority of detected subcellular relocalization events occurred early in animal evolution, preceding the evolution of tetrapods. Mt-mt protein families showed a somewhat different pattern, where gene duplication occurred more evenly in time. However, for both types of protein families, most duplication events appear to roughly coincide with two rounds of genome duplications early in vertebrate evolution. Finally, we evaluated the effects of inaccurate and incomplete annotation of mitochondrial proteins and found that our conclusion of the importance of subcellular relocalization after gene duplication on

  15. The northern slope of South China Sea: an ideal site for studying passive margin extension and breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Sun, Z.; Pang, X.; Wu, X.; Xu, H.; Qiu, N.

    2011-12-01

    With the advance of hydrocarbon exploration into deep waters of the northern SCS, structural details from continental slope to deepsea basin have been revealed. A striking feature is the dramatic change in Cenozoic extension along and across the strike as well as with the time. Along strike the slope is seperated by lithospheric faults into segments with different amount of Cenozoic extension. The breakup occurred in the no-extension eastern segment (the Chaoshan depression), the most strongly extended central segment (the Baiyun sag) but failed in the western segment of intermediate extension (the Qingdongnan basin). This pattern violates the expectation that breakup occurs at first where the extension reached the maximum. In the central segment, the style of extension varies significantly in dip direction. Differing from the belts of half grabens in the shelf, the extension is expressed as a large downwarp (the Baiyun sag) in the slope, and as irregularly shaped sags (the Liwan sag) near the continental-oceanic boundary (COB). The Baiyun sag (BYS) is the largest and deepest sag in the Pearl River Mouth basin (PRMB). Long-cable MCS revealed that at the center of the BYS the crust thinned to Mexico where thrust belts developed by gravitational sliding. Multi-staged magmatic activities have contributed to but could not fully explain the structural complexities of the LWS. Perhaps basement structures have played an important role as the sag might be developed upon the relict Mesozoic West Pacific subduction system. In addition, two horizons of deep-seated waving reflectors are identified beneath the LWS, which are suspected to be respectively a detachment surface and the intra-crustal shear zones related to lower-crust flow. A good understanding of these features may help answering the fundamental question on what controls the style, magnitude, and segmentation of passive margin extension and breakup, what is the mechanism, and what differences between marginal sea

  16. Strains Around Abutment Teeth with Different Attachments Used for Implant-Assisted Distal Extension Partial Overdentures: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELsyad, Moustafa Abdou; Omran, Abdelbaset Omar; Fouad, Mohammed Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare strain around abutment teeth with different attachments used for implant-assisted distal extension partial overdentures (IADEPODs). A mandibular Kennedy class I acrylic model (remaining teeth from first premolar to first premolar) was constructed. A conventional partial denture was constructed over the model (control, group 1). Two laboratory implants were then placed bilaterally in the first molar areas parallel to each other and perpendicular to the residual ridge. Three additional experimental partial overdentures (PODs) were constructed and connected to the implants using ball (group 2), magnetic (group 3), and Locator (group 4) attachments. Three linear strain gauges were bonded buccal, lingual, and distal to the first premolar abutment tooth at the right (loading) and the left (nonloading) sides. For each group, a universal testing device was used to apply a unilateral vertical static load (50 N) on the first molar area, and the strain was recorded using a multichannel digital strainometer. Significant differences between groups and between sites of strain gauges were detected. Strains recorded for all groups were compressive (negative) in nature. Group 1 demonstrated the highest strain, followed by group 3 and group 4; group 2 recorded the lowest strain. For group 2, the highest strain was recoded at the lingual nonloading side. For group 1, group 3, and group 4, the highest strain was recorded at the buccal loading side. Within the limitation of the present study, ball attachments used to retain IADEPODs to the implants were associated with lower strains around abutment teeth than Locator and magnetic attachments. The highest strain was recorded with conventional partial dentures. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Retroperitoneal extension via the retrocrural space of malignant thymoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Retrospective evaluation by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkawara, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Makoto; Mizutani, Yoshihide; Ohsawa, Tadashi; Fujii, Takeshi [Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 31 patients with malignant thymoma and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma in our institution. Transdiaphragmatic extension into the retroperitoneum via the retrocrural space was observed in 10% of malignant thymomas. In the same way, this spread from chest to abdomen was demonstrated in the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma. CT is especially useful in assessing extent of these tumors and determining the optimal treatment plan. (author).

  18. Retroperitoneal extension via the retrocrural space of malignant thymoma and malignant pleural mesothelioma. Retrospective evaluation by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawara, Kiyoshi; Furuse, Makoto; Mizutani, Yoshihide; Ohsawa, Tadashi; Fujii, Takeshi

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed CT findings of 31 patients with malignant thymoma and one patient with malignant pleural mesothelioma in our institution. Transdiaphragmatic extension into the retroperitoneum via the retrocrural space was observed in 10% of malignant thymomas. In the same way, this spread from chest to abdomen was demonstrated in the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma. CT is especially useful in assessing extent of these tumors and determining the optimal treatment plan. (author)

  19. On application of non—extensive statistical mechanics to studying ecological diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Xuan, Le; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2016-01-01

    The concept of Tsallis entropy provides an extension of thermodynamics and statistical physics. In the ecology, Tsallis entropy is proposed to be a new class of diversity indices S_q which covers many common diversity indices found in ecological literature. As a new statistical model for the Whittaker plots describing species abundance distribution, the truncated exponential distribution is used to calculate the diversity and evenness indices. The obtained results in new model are graphically compared with those in previous publication in the same field of interests, and shows a good agreement. A further development of a thermodynamic theory of ecological systems that is consistent with entropic approach of statistical physics is motivated. (paper)

  20. The implication of charged particle lateral distribution function for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kempa, J.; Kulikov, G.V.; Sulakov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of charged particle lateral distribution function (LDF) is of prime importance in extensive air shower (EAS) investigations. This function is necessary for the determination of the total number of particles as well as some other classification parameters. The Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) function is being actively employed by many researchers in spite of the fact that it was derived under rather crude assumptions (in so-called B Approximation of the electromagnetic cascade theory). Our paper discusses the dependence of the EAS size spectrum on the LDF form adopted and compares two LDFs: the traditional NKG-function and the scaling function suggested recently. Prominence is given to the EAS MSU data but the results of other EAS arrays (AGASA, Yakutsk and KASCADE) are also considered

  1. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atxaerandio Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks, 626 beef cattle (46 herds and 115 goats (11 herds. Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0% than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9% and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%. Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  2. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Astobiza, Ianire; Barandika, Jesús F; Hurtado, Ana; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2010-01-20

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 +/- 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 +/- 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 +/- 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence >or= 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  3. Site directed spin labeling studies of Escherichia coli dihydroorotate dehydrogenase N-terminal extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, Sheila G. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Grupo de Biofisica e Fisica Aplicada a Medicina, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, C.P. 131, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Cristina Nonato, M. [Laboratorio de Cristalografia de Proteinas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Costa-Filho, Antonio J., E-mail: ajcosta@ffclrp.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, C.P. 369, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EcDHODH is a membrane-associated enzyme and a promising target for drug design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzyme's N-terminal extension is responsible for membrane association. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal works as a molecular lid regulating access to the protein interior. -- Abstract: Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are enzymes that catalyze the fourth step of the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. In this reaction, DHODH converts dihydroorotate to orotate, using a flavine mononucleotide as a cofactor. Since the synthesis of nucleotides has different pathways in mammals as compared to parasites, DHODH has gained much attention as a promising target for drug design. Escherichia coli DHODH (EcDHODH) is a family 2 DHODH that interacts with cell membranes in order to promote catalysis. The membrane association is supposedly made via an extension found in the enzyme's N-terminal. In the present work, we used site directed spin labeling (SDSL) to specifically place a magnetic probe at positions 2, 5, 19, and 21 within the N-terminal and thus monitor, by using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), dynamics and structural changes in this region in the presence of a membrane model system. Overall, our ESR spectra show that the N-terminal indeed binds to membranes and that it experiences a somewhat high flexibility that could be related to the role of this region as a molecular lid controlling the entrance of the enzyme's active site and thus allowing the enzyme to give access to quinones that are dispersed in the membrane and that are necessary for the catalysis.

  4. STUDI KEMAMPUAN MEMBUAT MIND MAP BERBASIS PEMAHAMAN ARTIKEL THE JAKARTA POST PADA MATA KULIAH EXTENSIVE READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudiyono Pudiyono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the research were to find out (a the level of the students’ ability in making mind map based on the article of The Jakarta Post in Extensive Reading, (b the problems the students have in comprehending the article of The Jakarta Post in Extensive Reading in making mind map. The data collecting technique used was a test of reading based on comprehension. The population of the research was all students of semester 6 totaling to 161 students. While the sample was taken from all 4 classes by which each class was taken at about 25%. Therefore the total sample was 48 students. The result of data analysis showed that the average ability of the students reached only 59.02. In detail, research result showed that none of the samples (0 % could do the mind map correctly or get an A. The participants who got good achievement (B amounted to only 4 people (2.48%. The majority of the participants belonged to the level of good enough to be able to make main idea analysis in order to make the mind map. The not good enough level became the majority achievement among all amounting to 89.43%. The students’ ability which got the perfect inability level in making the mind map rose to 8.09%. The problems the students had in making the mind map was the fact that they had no idea in identifying main ideas of the content of the text. Besides that students also failed in comprehending the new vocabulary they found while they were reading the articles. Failure in comprehending the new difficult words led the to get the failure in identifying main ideas by which in turns they found themselves to have no clear map of their understanding of the articles they had read. Key word: comprehension, mind mapping, new vocabulary, authentic text, natural

  5. Excess Mortality Associated With Colistin-Tigecycline Compared With Colistin-Carbapenem Combination Therapy for Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Bacteremia: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aristine; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yang, Jia-Ling; Shen, Ni-Jiin; Wang, Jann-Tay; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-06-01

    Since few therapeutic options exist for extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging threat in ICUs worldwide, and comparative prospective studies of colistin-based combination therapies are lacking, our objective was to compare the outcomes of patients with extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia, treated with colistin-carbapenem and colistin-tigecycline combinations. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Adults with extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia were prospectively followed from 2010 to 2013 at three hospitals in Taiwan. Extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii was defined as A. baumannii (genospecies 2) nonsusceptible to all drug classes except for colistin and tigecycline, and standard combination therapy as use of parenteral colistin-carbapenem or colistin-tigecycline for at least 48 hours after onset of bacteremia. Primary outcome measure was 14-day mortality. Of the 176 episodes of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia evaluated, 55 patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 62 years (44-79 yr) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 9 (5-13) points received standard combination therapy: colistin-tigecycline in 29 patients and colistin-carbapenem in 26. Crude 14-day and in-hospital mortality rates for patients receiving colistin-tigecycline versus patients receiving colistin-carbapenem were 35% versus 15% (p=0.105) and 69% versus 50% (p=0.152), respectively. Breakthrough extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii bacteremia under steady state concentrations of combination therapy for colistin-tigecycline group was 18% and for colistin-carbapenem group was 0% (p=0.059). Eleven patients (20.0%) developed nephrotoxicity. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, initial disease severity, loading colistin dose, polymicrobial infection, and primary infection site, excess 14-day mortality was associated with the use of colistin-tigecycline in the subgroup with tigecycline

  6. Microleakage of stainless steel crowns placed on intact and extensively destroyed primary first molars: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Motahari, Pouria; Ahmadi, Rahil; Ghadimi, Sara; Mosharafian, Shahram; Mohammadi, Kaveh; Javad Kharazifard, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of residual tooth structure on the microleakage of stainless steel crowns cemented with glass ionomer on primary maxillary and mandibular first molars. Thirty extracted primary molars were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included intact teeth; and group 2 included extensively carious samples. Each tooth received standard preparation, and each crown was luted with G-CEM on its specific specimen. Teeth were loaded vertically and transferred to distilled water. After thermocycling and immersing in methylene blue solution, the teeth were sectioned and examined microscopically for microleakage. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. All specimens (intact and damaged teeth) had microleakage, although most of these presented only minimum microleakage. No statistically significant differences were found in the microleakage of sound and extensively carious teeth on either the buccal (P=.62) or lingual (P=.65) side. Buccal (P=.73) and lingual (P=.63) surfaces showed similar microleakage scores in primary maxillary and mandibular molars. There was no significant difference in the microleakage of sound or extensively carious teeth and primary maxillary or mandibular first molars.

  7. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  8. An extensive evaluation of wind resource using new methods and strategies for development and utilizing wind power in Mah-shahr station in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedaei, Mojtaba; Assareh, Ehsanolah; Biglari, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this research, results suggest that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. • The compatibility of the wind data with three methods of estimating Weibull parameters was assessed. • An extreme analysis of wind in Mah-shahr was done to determine the maximum gust wind speeds over a 50-year return period. • An extensive economic evaluation of installing a wind park was performed on RETScreen® software. - Abstract: In this study, the 10-min period measured short-term wind speed data at 10 m and 40 m heights for Mah-shahr station in Iran was statistically analyzed to determine the potential of wind power generation. In addition in this paper different distribution functions are compared to each other in order to find the best distribution in Mah-shahr which is compatible with the wind data. It is found that the Weibull distribution is the best function to model the wind data in Mah-shahr. It should also be mentioned that the different methods for calculating Weibull parameters were used and compared to each other. Moreover an extreme analysis of wind data in Mah-shahr was carried out to determine the maximum gust wind speed over a 50-year return period (Ve50). Using the method of “periodic maxima” for analysis of extreme winds, it was revealed that the 50-year wind speed at 80 m in Mah-shahr which is 39.5 m/s is lower than usual values of Ve50 limits for different wind turbines. This means that the risk of extreme wind gusts in Mah-shahr might not be a problem for installation of wind turbines. From the primary evaluation of wind data in Mah-shahr it is found the studied site has an acceptable potential of wind power for electricity generation. Energy production of different wind turbines at different heights is determined. Then a simple economic evaluation carried out to determine whether studied site is suitable for development of commercial or small and residential wind turbines. It became clear

  9. Methodological improvement and extension of scope of the guide to the radiological examination and evaluation of contaminated former mining sites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    G.E.O.S. Freiberg Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH have been requested in a letter from the Federal Radiation Protection Office dated 15 September 2006 - AG 3.1 StSch - to submit a quote on the topic of ''Methodological improvement and extension of scope of the guide to the radiological examination and evaluation of contaminated former mining sites''. In response to this request Part A of this guide is to be extended by a section on microbiology or, more specifically, on processes in tailings and sedimentation plants that could be induced by microorganisms. Up until now the guide only considered chemical and geochemical processes in the modelling and evaluation of the release of radionuclides from tailings. However, in view of the possibility of microbiological processes occurring in tailings, as for example in the presence of pyrite, one must also reckon with microbiological influences on radionuclide release. the following tasks and problems will therefore be addressed: Do the recommendations given in the guide also apply if microbiological influences are considered? Is it also necessary to consider microbiological issues in the examination and modelling of radionuclide transport via groundwater? What parameters need to be measured and assessed if decisions on rehabilitation measures for tailings must also be based on microbiological aspects? Which examination methods should be used to measure the required parameters efficiently and reliably? Is there anything particular that needs to be considered in studying the involvement of microbiological processes in the release of radionuclides from industrial sedimentation plants? The recommendations given in the guide with respect to the treatment of the water pathway should be reviewed with regard to any amendments or supplementations they might require from the microbiological viewpoint. It should also be investigated whether microbiological studies and measurements are required for the guide's further development. The

  10. Evaluation of nutritional and biochemical properties of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and its quarantine treatment and shelf-life extension using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajare, Sachin N.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Wadhawan, Surbhi; More, Varsha; Mishra, B.B.; Parte, Madan Narayan; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Combination of gamma irradiation and dip treatment on shelf life extension of two major cultivars of litchi namely, Shahi, and China was studied for improving market availability of the fruit and to overcome quarantine barrier for international trade. An extension in shelf life up to 28 days was achieved at 4 deg C, whereas, control fruits last around 10 days at 4 deg C. Physicochemical and nutritional parameters such as moisture content, acidity (pH), total soluble solid, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C content, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities, browning associated enzymatic activities, microbiological and sensory attributes were studied during the storage period. It was observed that low dose of gamma radiation did not affect significantly any of these parameters. Further, a novel combination dip treatment was developed which resulted in shelf life extension up to 60 days with complete inhibition of pericarp browning. (author)

  11. Radioactive iodine treatment of a struma ovarii with extensive peritoneal involvement: a dosimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, D.; Ricard, M.; Lamartina, L.; Hartl, D.; Lhomme, C.; Morice, P.; Lepoutre, C.; Deandreis, D.; Lumbroso, J.; Schlumberger, M.; Leboulleux, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: we report a patient with a very large and unresectable peritoneal involvement from a struma ovarii who was treated with radioactive iodine (3.7 GBq). Methods: whole body retention was measured during hospital stay (10 days), 3 times a day, using a calibrated automatic gamma counter attached to the ceiling of the room. Radiation protection for the husband was monitored with a radiation dosimeter, during one month after hospital discharge. OLINDA software was used to evaluate the absorbed dose delivered to the red marrow, assuming that radioactive iodine was concentrated mainly in the abdomen. Results: a 53-year-old woman, treated 22 years before for bilateral ovarian cysts with thyroid elements (struma ovarii) but no sign of malignancy, was explored for hyperthyroid symptoms with undetectable TSH level (0.07 mUI/ml) and elevated FT3 level (11,6 pmol/l). Thyroglobulin (Tg) level was elevated (15,200 ng/ml). Thyroid uptake was low. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed liver nodules and multiple intra-abdominal masses, the largest measuring 140, 57 and 53 mm. Coelio-scopic exploration and histologic analysis found peritoneal metastasis of a follicular carcinoma. The masses did not disclose any FDG uptake. Lesions were considered non resectable and the patient was referred for total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment. The post-therapy whole-body scan revealed an intense 131 I uptake in all abdominal masses. Dosimetric study 131 I showed a very long whole body effective half-life (7 days compared to 0.3 days in non-metastatic patients). The mean red marrow dose ranged between 100 and 200 mGy. Effective dose delivered to her husband was 225 μSv. A transient and moderate decrease in lymphocyte (1.15 G/l) and platelet (178 G/l) counts was observed 3 weeks after the 131 I administration. FT3 decreased slowly after treatment. Tumour response according to RECIST will be shown during the congress presentation. Conclusion

  12. Tests at constant extension velocity CERT for the evaluation of environmental assisted cracking; Pruebas a velocidad de extension constante CERT, para evaluar el agrietamiento asistido por el ambiente (EAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arganis J, C R [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The test at constant velocity extension (CERT) is firmly established as a technique for the study of environmentally cracking (stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement) and is widely used, mainly in mechanistic studies. In CERT test, an increasing charge is applied to a sample and the extension velocity is hold up constant to allow that corrosion interplay in the process. The type of crack and ductility measurements with the conditions for testing are compared with a cracked sample in an inert media. Required equipment: (1) A charge mechanism capable to control the elongation of test samples in a rank of 1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -7} inch/inch sec and capable to hold up constant such elongation. (2) A suitable standard (Astm standard A-370). (3) A chamber or cell for the media in which the chemical composition of the solution, the gas composition, the pressure, temperature and electrochemical potential can be controlled in order to simulate with anticipation the service conditions. The cell must allow the mechanical access of the test sample to the charge train of the machine. (Author).

  13. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  14. A case study of small hydro and grid extension for rural electrification alternatives and complementarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebicke, H.L.; Mariam, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that rural electrification in Eastern and Southern African Countries (ESAC) has so far been based largely on stand-alone diesel electric generating plant or on the extension of high-voltage transmission grids fed by large hydro and/or thermal electric generating stations. The alternative of furnishing supply at modest investment and competitive cost from a nearby small- hydro plant has rarely been considered in those countries of the sub-region that have ample hydro-power resources. All countries in the sub-region (except Angola) import petroleum and/or petroleum product supplies, as well as all hardware for electricity supply and utilization. As a result, in most countries an acute shortage of foreign exchange severely hampers implementation of rural electrification schemes. This should turn attention increasingly to strategies which are less capital-intensive and less dependent on foreign exchange, such as small-hydro plants, where the resource is located near to rural demand. Increasing the local content of small-hydro project implementation has paid off in recent years, considerably reducing costs in a number of Asian and Latin American projects. Local contributions have taken the form of resource assessment at a particular site, design, construction works, and fabrication of relatively simple components of power plant such as hydraulic equipment, low pressure penstocks and gates, as well as simpler types of turbines (e.g., the Banki type). Inadequacy of indigenous technical capacity to make similar local contributions in the ESAC has meant that the few recent small-hydro projects have relied on importing both expertise and equipment. The high costs resulting have frequently fueled arguments against pursuit of small-hydro projects

  15. In-situ metallography for damage assessment and life extension in power plants- a few case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, N.; Muralidharan, N.G.; Jayakumar, T.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection of components in power plants is necessary for damage assessment, life prediction and extension. The useful life of some of the components like pipelines are most crucial in case they are exposed to the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Periodic inservice inspection by means of non-destructive testing to obtain information on damage assessment is carried out as a routine and mandatory procedure. During these inspections, only reduction in localised and uniform wall thickness are measured. However, the microstructural degradation due to both normal and abnormal temperatures occurring conditions are not revealed by conventional non-destructive test methods during this routine inspection. For life prediction and extension programme, the information on microstructural degradation is essential and the same can be studies in an effective manner through in-situ metallography technique. (author)

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Memantine in Children with Autism: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study and Open-Label Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G; Findling, Robert L; Hardan, Antonio Y; Hendren, Robert L; Melmed, Raun D; Kehinde-Nelson, Ola; Hsu, Hai-An; Trugman, Joel M; Palmer, Robert H; Graham, Stephen M; Gage, Allyson T; Perhach, James L; Katz, Ephraim

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine (once-daily extended-release [ER]) were investigated in children with autism in a randomized, placebo-controlled, 12 week trial and a 48 week open-label extension. A total of 121 children 6-12 years of age with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined autistic disorder were randomized (1:1) to placebo or memantine ER for 12 weeks; 104 children entered the subsequent extension trial. Maximum memantine doses were determined by body weight and ranged from 3 to 15 mg/day. There was one serious adverse event (SAE) (affective disorder, with memantine) in the 12 week study and one SAE (lobar pneumonia) in the 48 week extension; both were deemed unrelated to treatment. Other AEs were considered mild or moderate and most were deemed not related to treatment. No clinically significant changes occurred in clinical laboratory values, vital signs, or electrocardiogram (ECG). There was no significant between-group difference on the primary efficacy outcome of caregiver/parent ratings on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), although an improvement over baseline at Week 12 was observed in both groups. A trend for improvement at the end of the 48 week extension was observed. No improvements in the active group were observed on any of the secondary end-points, with one communication measure showing significant worsening with memantine compared with placebo (p = 0.02) after 12 weeks. This trial did not demonstrate clinical efficacy of memantine ER in autism; however, the tolerability and safety data were reassuring. Our results could inform future trial design in this population and may facilitate the investigation of memantine ER for other clinical applications.

  17. Evaluation of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper x Rambouillet ewes mated to terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: Lamb production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe productivity (i.e., total numbers or weight of lamb weaned ÷ number of breeding ewes) is a key indicator of lamb production efficiency. This second-generation study compared various measures of ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance in an extensive rangeland production system of ewes of 3...

  18. Performance analysis and experimental study on rainfall water purification with an extensive green roof matrix layer in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiankang; Zhang, Yanting; Che, Shengquan

    2018-02-01

    Current research has validated the purification of rainwater by a substrate layer of green roofs to some extent, though the effects of the substrate layer on rainwater purification have not been adequately quantified. The present study set up nine extensive green roof experiment combinations based on the current conditions of precipitation characteristics observed in Shanghai, China. Different rain with pollutants were simulated, and the orthogonal design L9 (33) test was conducted to measure purification performance. The purification influences of the extensive green roof substrate layer were quantitatively analyzed in Shanghai to optimize the thickness, proportion of substrate, and sodium polyacrylate content. The experimental outcomes resulted in ammonium nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) removal of up to 93.87%, 98.81%, and 94.55% in the artificial rainfall, respectively, and NH 4 + -N, Pb, and Zn event mean concentration (EMC) was depressed to 0.263 mg/L, 0.002 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively, which were all well below the pollutant concentrations of artificial rainfall. With reference to the rainfall chemical characteristics of Shanghai, a combination of a 200 mm thickness, proportions of 1:1:2 of Loam: Perlite: Cocopeat and 2 g/L sodium polyacrylate content was suggested for the design of an extensive green roof substrate to purify NH 4 + -N, Pb and Zn.

  19. Long-term effects of cladribine tablets on MRI activity outcomes in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: the CLARITY Extension study

    OpenAIRE

    Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Vermersch, Patrick; Adeniji, Abidemi K.; Dangond, Fernando; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Background The CLARITY and CLARITY Extension studies demonstrated that treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with cladribine tablets (CT) results in significant clinical improvements, compared with placebo. This paper presents the key magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings from the CLARITY Extension study. Methods Patients who received a cumulative dose of either CT 3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg in CLARITY were rerandomized to either placebo or CT 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY Extension. P...

  20. Loading Variables on Implant-Supported Distal-Extension Removable Partial Dentures: An In Vitro Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Toshihito; Tomita, Akiko; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate strain on implants used for adjunctive support of distal extension removable partial dentures. An implant with strain gauges was used for testing purposes in two positions, parallel and inclined. Three loading scenarios--loading apparatus (LA), artificial teeth via cotton roll (CR), and artificial teeth (UT)--were studied and strains compared via the Kruskal-Wallis test (P=.05). Strain under CR was significantly larger than UT in parallel (P<.05). However, the opposite was observed in inclined. Strain in parallel was smallest for UT, whereas in inclined it was largest for CR.

  1. A Pilot Study of Individual Muscle Force Prediction during Elbow Flexion and Extension in the Neurorehabilitation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiateng Hou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a neuromusculoskeletal (NMS model to predict individual muscle force during elbow flexion and extension. Four male subjects were asked to do voluntary elbow flexion and extension. An inertial sensor and surface electromyography (sEMG sensors were attached to subject's forearm. Joint angle calculated by fusion of acceleration and angular rate using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and muscle activations obtained from the sEMG signals were taken as the inputs of the proposed NMS model to determine individual muscle force. The result shows that our NMS model can predict individual muscle force accurately, with the ability to reflect subject-specific joint dynamics and neural control solutions. Our method incorporates sEMG and motion data, making it possible to get a deeper understanding of neurological, physiological, and anatomical characteristics of human dynamic movement. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed NMS model for evaluating the function of upper limb movements in the field of neurorehabilitation.

  2. Creating an anthropomorphic digital MR phantom—an extensible tool for comparing and evaluating quantitative imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosca, Ryan J; Jackson, Edward F

    2016-01-01

    Assessing and mitigating the various sources of bias and variance associated with image quantification algorithms is essential to the use of such algorithms in clinical research and practice. Assessment is usually accomplished with grid-based digital reference objects (DRO) or, more recently, digital anthropomorphic phantoms based on normal human anatomy. Publicly available digital anthropomorphic phantoms can provide a basis for generating realistic model-based DROs that incorporate the heterogeneity commonly found in pathology. Using a publicly available vascular input function (VIF) and digital anthropomorphic phantom of a normal human brain, a methodology was developed to generate a DRO based on the general kinetic model (GKM) that represented realistic and heterogeneously enhancing pathology. GKM parameters were estimated from a deidentified clinical dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI exam. This clinical imaging volume was co-registered with a discrete tissue model, and model parameters estimated from clinical images were used to synthesize a DCE-MRI exam that consisted of normal brain tissues and a heterogeneously enhancing brain tumor. An example application of spatial smoothing was used to illustrate potential applications in assessing quantitative imaging algorithms. A voxel-wise Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated negligible differences between the parameters estimated with and without spatial smoothing (using a small radius Gaussian kernel). In this work, we reported an extensible methodology for generating model-based anthropomorphic DROs containing normal and pathological tissue that can be used to assess quantitative imaging algorithms. (paper)

  3. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  4. Prophylactic cranial irradiation could improve overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi [Tsinghua University, Medical Center Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Jinyu; Hu, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Jiao, Shunchang [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Beijing (China); Zhang, Yibao [Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiotherapy, Beijing (China); Zhao, Zhifei [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival (OS) in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer (ESCLC). Between April 2005 and May 2014, 204 patients with ESCLC who had any response (according to RECIST 1.1) to initial chemotherapy were reviewed. All patients had undergone appropriate imaging tests to exclude brain metastases before initial chemotherapy. PCI was performed on 45 patients (22.1 %) and the remaining patients (77.9 %) received no such treatment (control group). Primary endpoint was OS. The incidence of brain metastases, brain metastases-free survival (BMFS), and adverse effects were also evaluated. Survival data of the 204 patients were analyzed statistically. PCI significantly prolonged median OS from 12.6 to 16.5 months as compared to the control group (hazard ratio, HR, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 0.41 to 0.96; p = 0.033). PCI significantly lowered the risk of brain metastases (HR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.30 to 0.76; p = 0.001). The 1-year incidence of brain metastases was 17.1 and 55.9 % in the PCI and control group, respectively. PCI significantly correlated with the increased median BMFS (p = 0.002). Additionally, multivariate analyses demonstrated that PCI was a favorable independent predictor of OS, BMFS, and the incidence of brain metastases. Acute and chronic adverse effects were generally low grade and well tolerated in patients receiving PCI. PCI after any response to initial chemotherapy significantly improved OS of ESCLC patients analyzed in this study. (orig.) [German] Beurteilung des Effekts der prophylaktischen kranialen Bestrahlung (PCI) auf das Gesamtueberleben (OS) bei Patienten mit ausgedehntem kleinzelligem Lungenkarzinom (ESCLC). Zwischen April 2005 und Mai 2014 wurden 204 Patienten mit ESCLC nach Ansprechen auf eine initiale Chemotherapie (gemaess RECIST 1.1) untersucht. Vor der Chemotherapie wurden bei allen Patienten Untersuchungen mit entsprechenden Bildgebungsverfahren

  5. Magnetic studies over the northern extension of the Prathap ridge complex, eastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Rao, D.G.

    studies, constrainEd. by seismic results, determine the varied nature and depth to the top of the causative basement bodies. Similarities of the geophysical signatures of the ridges and their structural resemblance perhaps point to their common origin...

  6. Empirical Studies on Legitimation Strategies: A Case for International Business Research Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on legitimation and legitimation strategies applied by companies. Following the process of systematic review, we analyze empirical studies exploring legitimation and legitimation strategies from different theoretical perspectives. Using the key findings by reconnoitering and com...... and comparing the theoretical background, approaches, methodologies, and findings of these empirical studies, we outline potential directions for research in the legitimation strategies of firms engaged in international business operations....

  7. Studies on extension of shelf-life of rawa by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudha Rao, V.; Srirangarajan, A.N.; Kamat, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Semolina, a wheat product, popularly termed as rawa, was packed in 500g pouches prepared individually from high density polyethylene (HDP), biaxially oriented polypropylene : low density polyethylene laminate (BOPP/LDP), polyester : low density polyethylene laminate (PET/LDP) and irradiated using a Cobalt-60 source at dose of 0.15 to 0.50 kGy. At the end of six months' storage at room temperature, the unirradiated rawa developed infestation, whereas the irradiated samples were completely free of any infestation, thereby indicating a complete destruction of all stages of the insects due to irradiation. There was no significant difference in the moisture content and the total bacterial as well as mould counts of the irradiated and unirradiated rawa. Gamma irradiation significantly decreased the gelatinization viscosity of rawa. In sensory evaluation tests, irradiated rawa scored the same on a 9-point Hedonic scale, thereby showing that overall acceptability of the rawa was not altered due to irradiation upto 0.25 kGy. Amongst the packaging materials used, BOPP/LDP was found to be better, because of its comparatively higher resistance to penetration by insects. Gamma irradiation at 0.25 kGy could thus be recommended for effectively extending the shelf-life of rawa, prepacked in pouches made from BOPP/LDP laminate, for six months. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. An extensive apatite fission-track study throughout the Northern Apennines Nappe belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, E.; Balestrieri, M.L.; Bigazzi, G.; Ventura, B.; Zattin, M.; Zuffa, G.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper takes into consideration more than 100 apatite fission-track analyses on samples coming from an approximately west-east cross-section throughout the Northern Apennines. This collisional chain is made of structural units and nappes (Ligurian and Tuscan Nappe) accreted to the Adriatic Foreland during the Neogene, which overthrust the Miocene turbiditic successions of the Cervarola and Marnoso-arenacea Formations. Different cooling ages and degrees of annealing delineate different evolution histories for these units. Exhumation of the western outcrops of the Ligurian Nappe can be placed at 8 Ma and follows a first denudation event occurred in Eocene times. Timing of exhumation decreases eastwards. A break in this general trend is shown by the Apuan Alps, that occupy an intermediate position and yielded the youngest cooling ages. In the external part of the Marnoso-arenacea foredeep deposits this tendency could not be tested because total annealing of the apatite system has not been reached. In this case, modeling of data allows evaluating maximum burial temperatures

  9. The intracranial facial nerve as seen through different surgical windows: an extensive anatomosurgical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Antonio; Evins, Alexander I; Visca, Anna; Stieg, Phillip E

    2013-06-01

    The facial nerve has a short intracranial course but crosses critical and frequently accessed surgical structures during cranial base surgery. When performing approaches to complex intracranial regions, it is essential to understand the nerve's conventional and topographic anatomy from different surgical perspectives as well as its relationship with surrounding structures. To describe the entire intracranial course of the facial nerve as observed via different neurosurgical approaches and to provide an analytical evaluation of the degree of nerve exposure achieved with each approach. Anterior petrosectomies (middle fossa, extended middle fossa), posterior petrosectomies (translabyrinthine, retrolabyrinthine, transcochlear), a retrosigmoid, a far lateral, and anterior transfacial (extended maxillectomy, mandibular swing) approaches were performed on 10 adult cadaveric heads (20 sides). The degree of facial nerve exposure achieved per segment for each approach was assessed and graded independently by 3 surgeons. The anterior petrosal approaches offered good visualization of the nerve in the cerebellopontine angle and intracanalicular portion superiorly, whereas the posterior petrosectomies provided more direct visualization without the need for cerebellar retraction. The far lateral approach exposed part of the posterior and the entire inferior quadrants, whereas the retrosigmoid approach exposed parts of the superior and inferior quadrants and the entire posterior quadrant. Anterior and anteroinferior exposure of the facial nerve was achieved via the transfacial approaches. The surgical route used must rely on the size, nature, and general location of the lesion, as well as on the capability of the particular approach to better expose the appropriate segment of the facial nerve.

  10. A re-evaluation of the Kumta Suture in western peninsular India and its extension into Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Sheree E.; Collins, Alan S.; Payne, Justin L.; Foden, John D.; De Waele, Bert; Shaji, E.; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    It has long been recognised that Madagascar was contiguous with India until the Late Cretaceous. However, the timing and nature of the amalgamation of these two regions remain highly contentious as is the location of Madagascar against India in Gondwana. Here we address these issues with new U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon data from five metasedimentary samples from the Karwar Block of India and new Lu-Hf data from eight previously dated igneous rocks from central Madagascar and the Antongil-Masora domains of eastern Madagascar. New U-Pb data from Karwar-region detrital zircon grains yield two dominant age peaks at c. 3100 Ma and c. 2500 Ma. The c. 3100 Ma population has relatively juvenile εHf(t) values that trend toward an evolved signature at c. 2500 Ma. The c. 2500 Ma population shows a wide range of εHf(t) values reflecting mixing of an evolved source with a juvenile source at that time. These data, and the new Lu-Hf data from Madagascar, are compared with our new compilation of over 7000 U-Pb and 1000 Lu-Hf analyses from Madagascar and India. We have used multidimensional scaling to assess similarities in these data in a statistically robust way. We propose that the Karwar Block of western peninsular India is an extension of the western Dharwar Craton and not part of the Antananarivo Domain of Madagascar as has been suggested in some models. Based on εHf(t) signatures we also suggest that India (and the Antongil-Masora domains of Madagascar) were palaeogeographically isolated from central Madagascar (the Antananarivo Domain) during the Palaeoproterozoic. This supports a model where central Madagascar and India amalgamated during the Neoproterozoic along the Betsimisaraka Suture.

  11. Strategies for Evaluating a Freshman Studies Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketkar, Kusum; Bennett, Shelby D.

    1989-01-01

    The study developed an economic model for the evaluation of Seaton Hall University's freshman studies program. Two techniques used to evaluate the economic success of the program are break-even analysis and elasticity coefficient. (Author/MLW)

  12. STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association Studies (STREGA – An Extension of the STROBE Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Little

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Making sense of rapidly evolving evidence on genetic associations is crucial to making genuine advances in human genomics and the eventual integration of this information in the practice of medicine and public health. Assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of this evidence, and hence the ability to synthesize it, has been limited by inadequate reporting of results. The STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA initiative builds on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Statement and provides additions to 12 of the 22 items on the STROBE checklist. The additions concern population stratification, genotyping errors, modelling haplotype variation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, replication, selection of participants, rationale for choice of genes and variants, treatment effects in studying quantitative traits, statistical methods, relatedness, reporting of descriptive and outcome data, and the volume of data issues that are important to consider in genetic association studies. The STREGA recommendations do not prescribe or dictate how a genetic association study should be designed but seek to enhance the transparency of its reporting, regardless of choices made during design, conduct, or analysis.

  13. Interdependence and dynamics of essential services in an extensive risk context: a case study in Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword-Daniels, V. L.; Rossetto, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Sargeant, S.

    2015-05-01

    The essential services that support urban living are complex and interdependent, and their disruption in disasters directly affects society. Yet there are few empirical studies to inform our understanding of the vulnerabilities and resilience of complex infrastructure systems in disasters. This research takes a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamic behaviour of a network of essential services, in the presence and absence of volcanic ashfall hazards in Montserrat, West Indies. Adopting a case study methodology and qualitative methods to gather empirical data, we centre the study on the healthcare system and its interconnected network of essential services. We identify different types of relationship between sectors and develop a new interdependence classification system for analysis. Relationships are further categorised by hazard conditions, for use in extensive risk contexts. During heightened volcanic activity, relationships between systems transform in both number and type: connections increase across the network by 41%, and adapt to increase cooperation and information sharing. Interconnections add capacities to the network, increasing the resilience of prioritised sectors. This in-depth and context-specific approach provides a new methodology for studying the dynamics of infrastructure interdependence in an extensive risk context, and can be adapted for use in other hazard contexts.

  14. Bio-mechanical Analysis of Human Joints and Extension of the Study to Robot

    OpenAIRE

    S. Parasuraman; Ler Shiaw Pei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the bio-mechanical analysis of human joints is carried out and the study is extended to the robot manipulator. This study will first focus on the kinematics of human arm which include the movement of each joint in shoulder, wrist, elbow and finger complexes. Those analyses are then extended to the design of a human robot manipulator. A simulator is built for Direct Kinematics and Inverse Kinematics of human arm. In the simulation of Direct Kinematics, the human joint angles can...

  15. Noise study in condensed matter physics-Towards extension to surrounding fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review noise studies in condensed matter physics, such as the shot noise measurement in metals, the dynamic-coherent-volume investigation in charge-density waves, the macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconductors, and the experimental investigation of dynamic phase diagram of driven vortices in high-T c superconductors. With these examples, one finds that the noise studies have played many crucial roles in condensed matter physics. I also discuss a recent theoretical suggestion that noise measurements in Josephson junction may clarify the origin of the dark energy in the universe

  16. Legislation perspectives about social assistance programs for electricity distribution networks extensions. Considerations from ELETROPAULO case study, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Carlos Roberto Almeida; Bermann, Celio

    1999-01-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to present legislation perspectives about social assistance programs for electricity distribution networks extensions considering a Brazilian electric utility case study

  17. A Comparison Study of Second-Order Screening Designs and Their Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    H2 97 V. Nonlinear Screening Designs for Defense Testing: An Overview and Case Study 5.1 Introduction “Necessity is the Mother of Invention.” Plato is...involved concepts like design resolution, minimum aber- ration , power, the number of clear (non-confounded) effects, concepts like rotatability

  18. What reassurances do the community need regarding life extension? Evidence from studies of community attitudes and an analysis of film portrayals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mair

    2014-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that community attitudes impact on the research trajectory, entry, and reception of new biotechnologies. Yet biogerontologists have generally been dismissive of public concerns about life extension. There is some evidence that biogerontological research agendas have not been communicated effectively, with studies finding that most community members have little or no knowledge of life extension research. In the absence of knowledge, community members' attitudes may well be shaped by issues raised in popular portrayals of life extension (e.g., in movies). To investigate how popular portrayals of life extension may influence community attitudes, I conducted an analysis of 19 films depicting human life extension across different genres. I focussed on how the pursuit of life extension was depicted, how life extension was achieved, the levels of interest in life extension shown by characters in the films, and the experiences of extended life depicted both at an individual and societal level. This paper compares the results of this analysis with the literature on community attitudes to life extension and makes recommendations about the issues in which the public may require reassurance if they are to support and accept life extension technologies.

  19. Study of Scenarios Related to Design Extension Conditions of PHWR Using PSA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. Y.; Yi, S. D.; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Studies to establish the event classification framework and acceptance criteria for an event that exceeds the existing DBAs in order to enhance the safety operation of nuclear power plants in accordance with the domestic nuclear safety laws amended recently have been doing briskly in the country. In this perspective, a study of DECs for domestic PWRs has already begun, and accordingly, studies to cope with BDBAs including DECs for domestic CANDU plants also are required. In this paper, a postulated event which might be included into DECs for domestic CANDU is analyzed by CATHENA code, and Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) data needed for selecting events for DECs are drawn. In this paper, based on the assumption that all the heat sinks and power are not available, countermeasure capability against loss of safety functions such as power supply system in domestic CANDU are assessed. The results and available power and heat sink source which are the required coping facilities for mitigating the accident are presented and the available limited time also are assessed. Provided that ways of long-term core cooling are secured later, it is expected that the safety functions of a plant can be secured even in the extremely severe natural disasters.

  20. Anterior & lateral extension of optic radiation & safety of amygdalohippocampectomy through middle temporal gyrus: a cadaveric study of 11 cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, F H; Khan, A H

    2010-01-01

    This is a cadaveric anatomical study on the localization of the optic radiation within the temporal lobe and to find whether surgical intervention to the temporal lobe, especially amygdalohippocampectomy, can damage the optic radiation or not. 11 cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were used for the study. A 2 cm long antero-posterior incision was done with a sharp knife, on middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. The incision was deepened perpendicular to surface of the gyrus to reach the temporal horn. The optic radiation was dissected under operating microscope using Klinger's fiber dissection technique and measurements were taken to define the anterior and lateral extension of optic radiation. The optic radiation in each hemispehere was inspected for any incision related damage. No damage to the optic radiation was found, caused by the 2 cm long anterior-posterior incision on middle temporal gyrus 3 cm posterior to temporal pole. Most anterior 9mm (8-10mm) of the Meyer loop was completely on the roof and there was no extension over lateral wall of the temporal horn. In next posterior 17.5mm (16-20 mm) it extended over lateral wall of temporal horn with gradual progression. The most anterior extension of optic radiation was 26mm (23-31mm) posterior to temporal pole. Amygdalohippocampectomy through a 2 cm long horizontal incision on the middle temporal gyrus, starting 3 cm posterior to the temporal pole, to enter into the temporal horn through the lower aspect of the lateral wall is unlikely to cause damage to the Meyer's loop. Any entry from the superior aspect of the temporal horn and any temporal lobectomy inclusive of the superior temporal gyrus to enter the temporal horn is likely to cause Meyer's loop injury. The findings support the fact that the more inferior the surgical trajectory to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, the lover is the risk of visual field damage.

  1. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F.; Oort, F. J.; Meijer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by advancing bedtimes in the

  2. Experimental study on stabilizing range extension of diamagnetic levitation under modulated magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, T C S; Wong, P L; Liu, K P, E-mail: 50578230@student.cityu.edu.h, E-mail: meplwong@cityu.edu.h, E-mail: mekpliu@cityu.edu.h [Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management Department, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-01

    The real energy-free levitation exists with the help of diamagnetic material. Its ultra-high sensitivity to force is particularly attractive to micro/nano force sensing. A key parameter: Levitation Stabilizing Local Range, LR (allowable moving range of the floater) is critical to the load and self-rotating performance. Besides, larger LR reduces the energy loss due to the eddy current and has greater application potential. Recently, an idea of extending the LR by a modulating coil array has been validated using numerical simulation. This paper takes the next move to carry out an experimental study on the shape effect of stacked coil arrays with different currents on LR.

  3. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. J; Park, S. W.; Jung, K. S.; Cho, S. H.; Seo, H. S.

    2001-12-01

    The object of this project is to improve the stability and the economics by reducing the radiation-induced oxidation as a factor of degradation of polymer materials used under the radiation environment. In order to attain the objective of this study and to check the effect of diamond-like carbon(DLC) coating on the anti-oxidation reaction, polymer specimens such as ABS, Acryl, Polycarbonate, Polyethylene, Polypropylene, PVC coating DLC thin layer were exposed to high-level gamma radiation, and their irradiation effects were investigated. A plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method was adopted in fabricating a DLC thin film on the polymer specimens, which were irradiated with the non-DLC film deposited specimens under the gamma radiation emitted from Co-60 source from 1x10 5 to 1x10 8 rads exposure. According to the characterization of irradiated specimens from the elapsed time of minimum 4 hours to a maximum of 105 days after the irradiation, the DLC deposition on the polymer surface was revealed to contribute to the improvement on the resistance of the radiation-induced oxidation in this study

  4. Recovery from Proactive Semantic Interference and MRI Volume: A Replication and Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, David A; Curiel, Rosie E; DeKosky, Steven; Rosselli, Monica; Bauer, Russell; Grieg-Custo, Maria; Penate, Ailyn; Li, Chunfei; Lizagarra, Gabriel; Golde, Todd; Adjouadi, Malek; Duara, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    The rise in incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has led to efforts to advance early detection of the disease during its preclinical stages. To achieve this, the field needs to develop more sensitive cognitive tests that relate to biological markers of disease pathology. Failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI) is one such cognitive marker that is associated with volumetric reductions in the hippocampus, precuneus, and other AD-prone regions, and to amyloid load in the brain. The current study attempted to replicate and extend our previous findings that frPSI is a sensitive marker of early AD, and related to a unique pattern of volumetric loss in AD prone areas. Three different memory measures were examined relative to volumetric loss and cortical thickness among 45 participants with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. frPSI was uniquely associated with reduced volumes in the hippocampus (r = 0.50) precuneus (r = 0.41), and other AD prone regions, replicating previous findings. Strong associations between frPSI and lower entorhinal cortex volumes and cortical thickness (r≥0.60) and precuneus (r = 0.50) were also observed. Unique and strong associations between volumetric reductions and frPSI as observed by Loewenstein and colleagues were replicated. Together with cortical thickness findings, these results indicate that frPSI is worthy of further study as a sensitive and early cognitive marker of AD.

  5. Balance-of-plant outage availability study. Phase I. Extension report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomasson, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    After completion of the Phase 1 Refueling Outage Availability Study, Babcock and Wilcox and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a supplemental agreement to perform a balance-of-plant maintenance, inspection, and test study with the cooperation of Duke Power Company and Arkansas Power and Light Company. The objectives were (1) to expand the Phase 1 data base, including balance-of-plant activities, to reduce outage time and increase plant availability and (2) to conduct an onsite review of plant maintenance, practices to complement the utility efforts in reducing outage time and increasing on-line operational time. Data were obtained from (1) observations during the 1977 refueling outage at Oconee 3, (2) review of maintenance practices during the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1, operational cycle in 1977, and (3) selected observations of the 1978 refueling outage at ANO-1. Accumulated data were then reviewed and analyzed to produce a list of improvement recommendations for Oconee 3 and ANO-1 that can be generically applied to plants of similar design and construction.

  6. Balance-of-plant outage availability study. Phase I. Extension report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomasson, F.R.

    1978-09-01

    After completion of the Phase 1 Refueling Outage Availability Study, Babcock and Wilcox and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into a supplemental agreement to perform a balance-of-plant maintenance, inspection, and test study with the cooperation of Duke Power Company and Arkansas Power and Light Company. The objectives were (1) to expand the Phase 1 data base, including balance-of-plant activities, to reduce outage time and increase plant availability and (2) to conduct an onsite review of plant maintenance, practices to complement the utility efforts in reducing outage time and increasing on-line operational time. Data were obtained from (1) observations during the 1977 refueling outage at Oconee 3, (2) review of maintenance practices during the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit 1, operational cycle in 1977, and (3) selected observations of the 1978 refueling outage at ANO-1. Accumulated data were then reviewed and analyzed to produce a list of improvement recommendations for Oconee 3 and ANO-1 that can be generically applied to plants of similar design and construction

  7. Refining the criteria associated with institutional accreditation from the Catholic University of Cuenca, A zogues extension evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García Abad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education in Ecuador goes through a transition phase in which the institutions subscribed to the system must meet standards set by authorities governing this level of training (National Assessment and Accreditation Council ( CEAACES , Higher Education Council ( CES , Ministry of Higher Education, Science , Technology and Innovation ( SENESCYT , why the Catholi c University of Cuenca, Azogues Headquarters undertook a strategic planning process , of which became an improvement plan aimed at improving criteria and associated evaluation model variables set in this regard . The results are about the essence of this ar ticle .

  8. Determination of total galactose from dried blood spots—extensive assay evaluation of a CE-marked test-kit

    OpenAIRE

    Fingerhut, R; Torresani, T

    2013-01-01

    Most newborn screening laboratories use CE-marked or FDA-approved test-kits, like in routine clinical chemistry. National regulations require only minimal evaluation from the customer, if the test-kits are used as specified by the manufacturer. The microtiter-based kit-concept is often based on the perception, that the laboratory always processes whole microtiter plates. However, in the daily routine, this is rather a rare exception, which leads to much higher costs per newborn, compared to t...

  9. An Extensive Study on Data Anonymization Algorithms Based on K-Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Ms. M. S.; Sankara Nayaki, Mrs. K.; Sudheep Elayidom, M., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    For business and research oriented works engaging Data Analysis and Cloud services needing qualitative data, many organizations release huge microdata. It excludes an individual’s explicit identity marks like name, address and comprises of specific information like DOB, Pin-code, sex, marital status, which can be combined with other public data to recognize a person. This implication attack can be manipulated to acquire any sensitive information from social network platform, thereby putting the privacy of a person in grave danger. To prevent such attacks by modifying microdata, K-anonymization is used. With potentially increasing data, the effective method to anonymize it stands challenging. After series of trails and systematic comparison, in this paper, we propose three best algorithms along with its efficiency and effectiveness. Studies help researchers to identify the relationship between the values of k, degree of anonymization, choosing a quasi-identifier and focus on execution time.

  10. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. J.; Park, S. W.; Cho, S. H.; Hong, S. S

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve the stability and the economic profit by reducing the radiation-induced degradation rate of polymer material used under the radiation environment. So far, the resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of a polymer has been improved by the stabilizers. They can play an important role in the anti-oxidants that interrupt the radical-mediated oxidation chain reaction. The stabilization effect could be larger than that achieved in an inert-atmosphere irradiation. Stabilization is a function of stabilizer concentration up to a certain threshold, but it is not further improved above this concentration. Beyond the threshold, the rate of radiation-induced oxidation goes up to the rate that is characteristic for the unstabilized polymer. To make up for this weakness, a technique depositing a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the polymer surface was developed for protecting the radiation-induced oxidation in the air.

  11. A study on the life extension of polymer materials under radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. J.; Park, S. W.; Cho, S. H.; Hong, S. S.

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to improve the stability and the economic profit by reducing the radiation-induced degradation rate of polymer material used under the radiation environment. So far, the resistance to radiation-induced oxidation of a polymer has been improved by the stabilizers. They can play an important role in the anti-oxidants that interrupt the radical-mediated oxidation chain reaction. The stabilization effect could be larger than that achieved in an inert-atmosphere irradiation. Stabilization is a function of stabilizer concentration up to a certain threshold, but it is not further improved above this concentration. Beyond the threshold, the rate of radiation-induced oxidation goes up to the rate that is characteristic for the unstabilized polymer. To make up for this weakness, a technique depositing a thin layer of diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the polymer surface was developed for protecting the radiation-induced oxidation in the air

  12. An extensive study of Bose-Einstein condensation in liquid helium using Tsallis statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Atanu; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Realistic scenario can be represented by general canonical ensemble way better than the ideal one, with proper parameter sets involved. We study the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena of liquid helium within the framework of Tsallis statistics. With a comparatively high value of the deformation parameter q(∼ 1 . 4) , the theoretically calculated value of the critical temperature (Tc) of the phase transition of liquid helium is found to agree with the experimentally determined value (Tc = 2 . 17 K), although they differs from each other for q = 1 (undeformed scenario). This throws a light on the understanding of the phenomenon and connects temperature fluctuation(non-equilibrium conditions) with the interactions between atoms qualitatively. More interactions between atoms give rise to more non-equilibrium conditions which is as expected.

  13. An extensive study of electrochemical behavior of brimonidine and its determination at glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksić, Mara M.; Radulović, Valentina; Agbaba, Danica; Kapetanović, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrochemical behavior of BRIM was investigated by CV, DPV and SWV at GCE. • The effects of pH, scan rate and BRIM concentriation was studied. • The nature of the electrode process, and the mechanism scheme was proposed. • DPV method was developed for the estimation of BRIM in the Alphagan eye drops. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of brimonidine (BRIM), an antiglaucoma agent applied in therapy for lowering high intraocular pressure, was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The reduction of BRIM occurs as one-step quasi-reversible reaction in acid and neutral medium, reaching the full reversibility in alkaline solutions. Reduction process involves the transfer of two electrons and two protons at the pyrazine ring of quinoxaline moiety, forming a dihydro-derivative. In acid and neutral solutions, brimonidine reduction product is partly oxidized to its hydroxy-derivative. BRIM is also oxidized irreversibly with the transfer of one electron and one proton at secondary amine moiety. The effects of pH of the electrolyte solution, scan rate and BRIM concentration were monitored. The nature of the electrode process was found to be controlled by the adsorption at pH > 6 and the total surface concentration of brimonidine adsorbed onto the GCE surface at pH 7, Γ BRIM = 1.35 × 10 −10 mol cm −2 was obtained. Based on this study, differential pulse voltammetric method was developed, validated and suggested for rapid electroanalytical determination of the low concentration of brimonidine. The linearity was achieved within the concentration range from 5 × 10 −7 to 5 × 10 −6 M with LOD = 1.6 × 10 −7 M and LOQ = 5.3 × 10 −7 M. The method was applied for brimonidine determination in pharmaceutical dosage form, eye drops

  14. Study of different environmental matrices to access the extension of metal contamination along highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Sônia; Melo, Vander Freitas; Nagata, Noemi

    2018-02-01

    Metals are indicators of contamination by anthropic activities, such as road traffic. To assess the extent of the metal contamination, more comprehensive studies analyzing different environmental matrices, such as soils, dust, and plants, collected in different sites that are potential sources of these pollutants along the highways, must be prioritized. Samples of soils, dust, and plants were collected alongside the highways of Brazil at 20 sites selected in strategic locations of metal accumulation (Cr, Pb, Zn, As, and Sb) or different situations of the high ways during two rain conditions (wet and dry weeks of sampling): nearby gutters and water supplies, tolls, petrol stations, a federal road police station, and areas associated with agriculture (yearly culture planting upstream of the highway). The geoaccumulation index (metal concentration in the sample of interest/background) varied from 0 to 6, and the decreasing order of contamination by metals during the wet and dry periods were, respectively: Zn > As > Pb = Sb > Cr and Zn > As > Pb > Cr > Sb. In the soils near the highways, the highest concentrations of metals were as follows (mg kg -1 ): As = 15.6, Cr = 81.9, Pb = 39.7, Sb = 5.0, and Zn = 379.3. The highest amounts of these elements in the most superficial layer in soils indicated their addition through atmospheric emissions. The most prominent metal was Sb, whose concentration was greater than the quality limits for soils. The concentration of Sb in soils was higher in the wet week than in the dry week. The emissions from road traffic promoted the increase in metals in the dust on the track, especially Zn and Pb. The highest metal concentrations in grasses (Brachiaria) were found in the roots, except for Sb and Zn, which suggests leaf absorption of atmospheric deposition. Metal contamination was widespread in all studied matrices along the highways.

  15. Can legal research benefit from evaluation studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans L. Leeuw

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes what evaluation studies have to offer to legal research. Several cases and types of evaluations are presented, in relation to legal or semi-legal questions. Also, a short overview of the contemporary history of evaluation studies is presented. Finally, it will address the question of how to ensure that in legal research and in legal training attention is paid to theories, designs and methods of evaluation studies.

  16. Thermal Study on Extensive Green Roof Integrated Irrigation in Northwestern Arid Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selection of xerophils and drought tolerant plants is highly crucial in green roof techniques in the drought prone regions of Northwest China. In this study, the thermal performance under the natural conventional climate in summer was analyzed using a self-made simulation experimental platform through comparison of the internal surface temperature with and without green roofs. The distribution frequency of internal surface temperature was investigated by dividing internal surface temperature into several ranges. Statistical analysis showed that the frequency of internal surface temperature lower than 33 °C for green roofs was 91.8%, about 1.09 times higher than that for non-green roofs, and that the sum of internal surface temperature exceeding 35 °C was about one third of that for non-green roofs. The results proved that green roofs have a significant insulation effect. Moreover, the thermal insulation property of green roofs had a strong positive relation with outside temperature. The thermal insulation characteristic was improved as the outdoor temperature increased, additionally, it had a better insulation effect within two hours after irrigation.

  17. Improving the Agronomy of Alyssum murale for Extensive Phytomining: A Five-Year Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Aida; Echevarria, Guillaume; Sulçe, Sulejman; Morel, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Large ultramafic areas exist in Albania, which could be suitable for phytomining with native Alyssum murale. We undertook a five-year field experiment on an ultramafic Vertisol, aimed at optimizing a low-cost Ni-phytoextraction crop of A. murale which is adapted to the Balkans. The following aspects were studied on 18-m2 plots in natural conditions: the effect of (i) plant phenology and element distribution, (ii) plant nutrition and fertilization, (iii) plant cover and weed control and (iv), planting technique (natural cover vs. sown crop). The optimal harvest time was set at the mid-flowering stage when Ni concentration and biomass yield were highest. The application of N, P, and K fertilizers, and especially a split 100-kg ha(-1) N application, increased the density of A. murale against all other species. It significantly increased shoot yield, without reducing Ni concentration. In natural stands, the control of graminaceous weeds required the use of an anti-monocots herbicide. However, after the optimization of fertilization and harvest time, weed control procured little benefit. Finally, cropping sown A. murale was more efficient than enhancing native stands and gave higher biomass and phytoextraction yields; biomass yields progressively improved from 0.3 to 9.0 t ha(-1) and phytoextracted Ni increased from 1.7 to 105 kg ha(-1).

  18. Extensive theoretical study on the excited states of the PCl+ molecule including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Yufang

    2017-07-01

    The entire 23 Λ-S states of the PCl+ molecule have been studied by using the high-level relativistic MRCI+Q method with full-electron aug-cc-pCVQZ-DK basis set. The potential energy curves(PECs) and wavefunctions of the states have been calculated. From the PECs, the spectroscopic constants of the bound states are also determined, and the good agreements could be found with the experiments. The high density region of states exhibits many PECs' crossings, which lead to complicated interaction of the states. Here, the interactions arising from the dipolar interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect have been discussed in detail. Under the influence of the SOC effect, the A2Π state is perturbed by the 14Σ- state. Considering the SOC effect, total 45 Ω states are generated from the original 23 Λ-S states. The transition properties are also predicted, including the transition dipole moments, Franck-Condon factors, and radiative lifetimes. The lifetimes of the transitions A2Π1/2-X2Π1/2 and A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 are determined to be 478.9 ns and 487.0 ns(v'=0), respectively.

  19. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Extensive Bone Marrow Involvement at Diagnosis: Evaluation of Response and Hematological Toxicity Profile of PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sandip; Ranade, Rohit; Thapa, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response and hematological toxicity in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with lutetium ( 177 Lu)-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) in metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with extensive bone marrow metastasis at the initial diagnosis. A retrospective evaluation was undertaken for this purpose: Patients with NET with extensive diffuse bone marrow involvement at diagnosis who had received at least three cycles of PRRT with 177 Lu-DOTATATE were considered for the analysis. The selected patients were analyzed for the following: (i) Patient and lesional characteristics, (ii) associated metastatic burden, (iii) hematological parameters at diagnosis and during the course of therapy, (iv) response to PRRT (using a 3-parameter assessment: Symptomatic including Karnofsky/Lansky performance score, biochemical finding, and scan finding), (v) dual tracer imaging features [with somatostatin receptor imaging (SRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)]. Based on the visual grading, tracer uptake in somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive bone marrow lesions were graded by a 4-point scale into four categories (0-III) in comparison with the hepatic uptake on the scan: 0 - no uptake; I - clear focus but less than liver uptake; II - equal to liver uptake; and III - higher than liver uptake]. Hematological toxicity was evaluated using National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 score. A total of five patients (age range: 26-62 years; three males and two females) with diffuse bone marrow involvement at the diagnosis was encountered following analysis of the entire patient population of 250 patients. Based on the site of the primary, three had thoracic NET (two patients bronchial carcinoid and one pulmonary NET) and two gastroenteropancreatic NET (one in the duodenum and one patient of unknown primary with liver metastasis). Associated sites

  20. Extensive studies of host lattices and activators in lanthanide phosphors based on efficient synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yuhui; Huo, Jiansheng; Yang, Jinglian; Hu, Jing [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute for Advanced Materials, Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: qmwang@scnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Uniform and dispersive NaLa(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2-x}(WO{sub 4}){sub x} (abbreviated as NLMW): Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}(5 mol%) microspheres were successfully synthesized at low temperature (393 K). The incorporation of Bi{sup 3+} or Mn{sup 2+} into CaMoO{sub 4}: Eu{sup 3+} with tetragonal crystalline phase has also been studied. The structure, morphology, and luminescent properties of these powder samples were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (abbreviated as XRD), scanning electron microscopy (abbreviated as SEM), and fluorescent spectrophotometry, respectively. SEM images substantiated that these phosphors have uniform sphere-shaped morphologies. The samples exhibited the characteristic emission of Eu{sup 3+}({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub J})/Tb{sup 3+}({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub J}) under ultraviolet excitation. Effects of the ratio of MoO{sub 4}/WO{sub 4} on the luminescence behavior were investigated in detail. The MoO{sub 4}/WO{sub 4} ratio was optimized as 1/1. The international commission on illumination (abbreviated CIE for its French name) chromaticity coordinates of NLMW: Eu{sup 3+} and NLMW: Tb{sup 3+} indicate the emissions were located in the red and green region, which will be beneficial for the potential device fabrication. Encapsulation of Bi{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} both can effectively sensitize europium (III) ions, generating stronger red emissions ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub J}). - Highlights: • Lanthanide molybdate–tungstates have been synthesized by SMC method. • Regular microspheres have been observed. • Effects of different hosts on the luminescence were investigated.

  1. Microplastic distribution in global marine surface waters: results of an extensive citizen science study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, A.; Petersen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Plastic is a major pollutant throughout the world. The majority of the 322 million tons produced annually is used for single-use packaging. What makes plastic an attractive packaging material: cheap, light-weight and durable are also the features that help make it a common and persistent pollutant. There is a growing body of research on microplastic, particles less than 5 mm in size. Microfibers are the most common microplastic in the marine environment. Global estimates of marine microplastic surface concentrations are based on relatively small sample sizes when compared to the vast geographic scale of the ocean. Microplastic residence time and movement along the coast and sea surface outside of the gyres is still not well researched. This five-year project utilized global citizen scientists to collect 1,628 1-liter surface grab samples in every major ocean. The Artic and Southern oceans contained highest average of particles per liter of surface water. Open ocean samples (further than 12 nm from land, n = 686) contained a higher particle average (17 pieces L-1) than coastal samples (n = 723) 6 pieces L-1. Particles were predominantly 100 µm- 1.5 mm in length (77%), smaller than what has been captured in the majority of surface studies. Utilization of citizen scientists to collect data both in fairly accessible regions of the world as well as from areas hard to reach and therefore under sampled, provides us with a wider perspective of global microplastics occurrence. Our findings confirm global microplastic accumulation zone model predictions. The open ocean and poles have sequestered and trapped plastic for over half a century, and show that not only plastics, but anthropogenic fibers are polluting the environment. Continuing to fill knowledge gaps on microplastic shape, size and color in remote ocean areas will drive more accurate oceanographic models of plastic accumulation zones. Incorporation of smaller-sized particles in these models, which has previously

  2. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  3. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation (BRIE) Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive affect appeal, and an affectively neutral, cognitive appeal...

  4. THE DYNAMICS OF PROJECT-BASED LEARNING EXTENSION COURSES: THE “LABORATORY OF SOCIAL PROJECTS” CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case study we discuss the dynamics that drive a free-of-charge project-based learning extension course. We discuss the lessons learned in the course, “Laboratory of Social Projects.” The course aimed to teach project management skills to the participants. It was conducted from August to November of 2015, at Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp, Osasco Campus, Brazil. The course had 72 participants (41 community members and 31 university students. The participants worked in teams of four members (on average and developed 13 projects on behalf of eight NGOs that help people in need. In our research, we followed a mixed methods approach, using unstructured questionnaires and project reports as sources of information. We made use of system thinking analysis to reveal the dynamics that unfolded during the course. Our main findings are: 1 free-of-charge extension courses can be much more challenging to manage than traditional courses; the bureaucracy of getting the university’s approval and problems related to dropouts are issues to consider; 2 the workload of the professors involved can be substantially higher than the workload of similar regular courses; 3 the use of project-based learning techniques can be very effective; 4 the courses can provide a very rich experience to the participants, promoting intense knowledge-sharing among all involved.

  5. Crescent Evaluation : appendix B : state case study evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The state case study evaluation approach uniquely captured an understanding of the potential of such a system by documenting the experiences, issues, and opportunities of selected key state government personnel from a cross-section of involved agenci...

  6. Technical Evaluation on Ageing Management in Nuclear Power in Japan -Life Extension over 40 Years at Japanese Nuclear Power Plants-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Miyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese commercial reactors have accumulated more than 40 years operating experience since Tsuruga-1 started commercial operation in March 1970. However, the severe accident occurred at Fukushima nuclear power plants triggered by East Japan Great Earthquake on March 11 last year. The facts that all the reactors having experienced core meltdown had operated for more than 30 years and Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 had just received the approval for its 40th year Ageing Management Technical Evaluation results from the Japanese government caused increasing distrust among the public in nuclear power plants operating for a long period of time. However, investigations of the accident conducted so far have not revealed any evidence that ageing degradation accelerated the accident. In addition, the analysis of seismic accelerations of the earthquake did not show that any component function was lost due to the accident. Considering these facts, I would like to discuss the issues to be continuously pursued and to be additionally implemented as part of the plat life management activities. In addition, I will introduce the efforts made by the Japanese utilities following the accident. (author)

  7. T1 Gd-enhanced compared with CISS sequences in retinoblastoma: superiority of T1 sequences in evaluation of tumour extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Guengoer, Ali-Riza; Forsting, Michael [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Jurklies, Christine [University Hospital Essen, Department of Ophthalmology (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Background As adequate therapy for retinoblastoma in young children depends on infiltration of extra-retinal structures, diagnostic modalities play an essential role. Methods: In this widely extended study, 80 children with retinoblastoma were studied with MRI (standard fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced T1, T2 thin-slice sequences (additionally with small loop surface coil), constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence covering the orbita). The images were analysed by two blinded neuroradiologists. Histology was used as the gold standard. MRI assumed infiltration of extra-retinal structures in 13 of 80 patients of which ten were confirmed by histology. Affected extra-retinal structures were: optic nerve (five, of which two were on CISS and three on T1 with higher image resolution using the surface coil), scleral infiltration (five, of which four on CISS and T1) and ciliary body infiltration (one on CISS and T1). Another 61 enucleated patients did not have any extra-retinal infiltration in histology. The CISS sequence with multiplanar reconstruction was mainly helpful in revealing exact three-dimensional tumour extension with excellent clinical acceptance and pre-surgical planning but T1 fat-suppressed Gd-enhanced images were superior in revealing exact tumour extension. CISS sequences allow to produce excellent anatomical images and to perform multiplanar reconstruction to better demonstrate tumour extension. However, T1-weighted sequences after contrast application are more sensitive (60 versus 40%) in detecting infiltration of the optic nerve but equal in detecting scleral infiltration. (orig.)

  8. Hydrological performance of an extensive green roof: a case study from the central Europe (Bustehrad, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tománková, Klára; Sněhota, Michal; Jelínková, Vladimíra

    2016-04-01

    Extensive green roofs with a thin growing medium require minimal maintenance, and in general no irrigation. The proper functioning of such systems rests with their structural constituents, especially with the substrate used for planting. An extensive green roof with poorly developed vegetation and with a soil layer of a maximum thickness of 5 cm mixed with local stripped topsoil with crushed bricks and green waste was studied with respect to the hydrological behavior. The substrate classified as loam comprises a significant proportion of very fine particles and thus it is prone to clogging up of soil pores and forming of fissures on the surface. The green roof studied is well equipped for measuring meteorological data including air temperature, wind speed and direction, net radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall intensity. The meteorological information on the site is completed by soil temperature measurement. The 12 m long transect is equipped with eight time domain reflectometry probes (TDR) to monitor soil water content. Soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, grain size distribution) and soil hydraulic characteristics (soil water retention curve) were obtained. The numerical modeling of transient soil water movement in the green roof substrate was performed using a two-dimensional model based on the Richards' equation. Results were compared with the soil water content data acquired. Six alternative scenarios were formulated to discuss possible improvement of green roof functioning and four selected scenarios were simulated. The study helped us to improve our understanding of the flow processes through the green roof soil system under study. The alternative scenario simulations allowed hydrological assessment of roof construction amendments. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  9. Does lean management improve patient safety culture? An extensive evaluation of safety culture in a radiotherapy institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Vlayen, Annemie; Hellings, Johan; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    The importance of a safety culture to maximize safety is no longer questioned. However, achieving sustainable culture improvements are less evident. Evidence is growing for a multifaceted approach, where multiple safety interventions are combined. Lean management is such an integral approach to improve safety, quality and efficiency and therefore, could be expected to improve the safety culture. This paper presents the effects of lean management activities on the patient safety culture in a radiotherapy institute. Patient safety culture was evaluated over a three year period using triangulation of methodologies. Two surveys were distributed three times, workshops were performed twice, data from an incident reporting system (IRS) was monitored and results were explored using structured interviews with professionals. Averages, chi-square, logistical and multi-level regression were used for analysis. The workshops showed no changes in safety culture, whereas the surveys showed improvements on six out of twelve dimensions of safety climate. The intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased in accordance with the decreasing number of reports in the IRS. However, the intention to take action in order to prevent future incidents improved (factorial survey presented β: 1.19 with p: 0.01). Due to increased problem solving and improvements in equipment, the number of incidents decreased. Although the intention to report incidents not reaching patient-level decreased, employees experienced sustained safety awareness and an increased intention to structurally improve. The patient safety culture improved due to the lean activities combined with an organizational restructure, and actual patient safety outcomes might have improved as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the Evidence Base of Shared Story Reading to Promote Literacy for Students with Extensive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa E.; Test, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed published literature to determine the level of evidence for using shared story reading to promote literacy. Shared story reading was defined as a practice used to access age-appropriate literature through reader-listener interaction in which a story is read aloud and student interaction with the reader and the story is…

  11. Determinants of Perceived Learning and Satisfaction in Online Business Courses: An Extension to Evaluate Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jacqueline K.; Aviles, Maria; Hanna, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of perceived learning and satisfaction in online courses and the moderating effect of course type. For perceived learning outcomes, those students who perceive a higher level of interaction and those students who are satisfied will report higher levels of learning outcomes. There were significant differences…

  12. Interdisciplinary Professional Development Needs of Cooperative Extension Field Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondgerath, Travis

    2016-01-01

    The study discussed in this article sought to identify cross-program professional development needs of county-based Extension professionals (field educators). The study instrument was completed by 105 county-based Extension professionals. Interdisciplinary topics, such as program evaluation and volunteer management, were identified as subjects of…

  13. ThermoData Engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 9. Extensible thermodynamic constraints for pure compounds and new model developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Muzny, Chris D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-12-23

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported in this journal. The present article describes the background and implementation for new additions in latest release of TDE. Advances are in the areas of program architecture and quality improvement for automatic property evaluations, particularly for pure compounds. It is shown that selection of appropriate program architecture supports improvement of the quality of the on-demand property evaluations through application of a readily extensible collection of constraints. The basis and implementation for other enhancements to TDE are described briefly. Other enhancements include the following: (1) implementation of model-validity enforcement for specific equations that can provide unphysical results if unconstrained, (2) newly refined group-contribution parameters for estimation of enthalpies of formation for pure compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, (3) implementation of an enhanced group-contribution method (NIST-Modified UNIFAC) in TDE for improved estimation of phase-equilibrium properties for binary mixtures, (4) tools for mutual validation of ideal-gas properties derived through statistical calculations and those derived independently through combination of experimental thermodynamic results, (5) improvements in program reliability and function that stem directly from the recent redesign of the TRC-SOURCE Data Archival System for experimental property values, and (6) implementation of the Peng-Robinson equation of state for binary mixtures, which allows for critical evaluation of mixtures involving supercritical components. Planned future developments are summarized.

  14. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  15. Utility of routine evaluation of sterility of cellular therapy products with or without extensive manipulation: Best practices and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Josee; Pedrini, Olga; Capelli, Chiara; Gotti, Elisa; Borleri, Gianmaria; Magri, Mara; Vailati, Francesca; Passera, Marco; Farina, Claudio; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino

    2018-02-01

    We analyzed the results of routine sterility testing performed in our center over the last 10 years, in the context both hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and Advanced Therapeutic Medicinal Products (ATMPs). For sterility tests 14-day cultures were performed in culture media detecting aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. In this study, 22/1643 (1.3%) of apheretic products for autologous or allogeneic HSCT were contaminated, whereas 14/73 bone marrow (BM) harvests (17.8%) were positive. In 22 cases, the contaminated HSCs were infused to patients, but there was no evidence of any adverse impact of contamination on the hematologic engraftment or on infections. Indeed none of the five positive hemocultures detected in patients following infusion could be linked to the contaminated stem cell product. Our Cell Factory also generated 286 ATMPs in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions since 2007 and all final products were sterile. In three cases of mesenchymal stromal cell expansions, the starting BM harvests were contaminated, but the cell products at the end of expansion were sterile, presumably thanks to the presence of an antibiotic in the culture medium. The decreased rate of contamination of cell harvests observed with time suggests that routine sterility testing and communication of the results to the collecting centers may improve clinical practices. Furthermore, we recommend the use of antibiotics in the medium for ATMP expansion, to decrease the likelihood of expanding microorganisms within clean rooms. Finally we discuss the costs of sterility testing of ATMPs by GMP-approved external laboratories. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: VIII. Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousel, M R; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Zerby, H N; Moeller, S J; Taylor, J B; Lewis, G S

    2014-07-01

    Quality measures of lamb longissimus dorsi were evaluated in 514 crossbred wether lambs to assess sire breed differences. Wethers were produced over 3 yr from single-sire matings of 22 Columbia, 22 U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC)-Composite (Composite), 21 Suffolk, and 17 Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. Lambs were reared to weaning in an extensive western rangeland production system and finished in a feedlot on a high-energy finishing diet. One of three harvest groups were randomly assigned to each lamb, and lambs were transported to The Ohio State University abattoir when the mean BW of wethers remaining in the feedlot reached 54.4, 61.2, or 68.0 kg. After harvest, subjective lean quality scores were assigned and LM pH (immediately after and 24 h after harvest), color (quantified as Minolta L*, a*, and b*), intramuscular fat (IMF), cooking loss percentage, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) were determined. Statistical models included fixed effects of sire breed, year of birth, and harvest group and random effects of sire (nested within sire breed and year) and maternal grandsire. Year and harvest group were significant (P 0.28). At comparable numbers of days on feed, Texel-sired wethers had the greatest (more desirable; P lambs were intermediate and Columbia-sired lambs had the lowest (less desirable). Minolta L* values were greater (P lambs, although this difference is not visually discernible by humans. No significant (P > 0.05) sire breed effects were detected for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta a* and b*, IMF, percentage of cooking loss, and WBSF at comparable numbers of days on feed. At comparable chilled carcass weight, significant (P lambs had greater scores than Columbia- and Suffolk-sired lambs, but Composite-sired lambs did not differ from lambs sired by the other sire breeds. Sire breed effects were not detected (P > 0.15) for LM pH at or 24 h after harvest, Minolta L*, a*, and b*, cooking loss percentage, IMF, and WBSF at

  17. Organoleptic and physico-chemical evaluation of capretto baladi goats: a value-added meat alternative in an extensive rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Saab, S.; Saliba, M.; Esseily, F.; Aad, P.Y.

    2017-01-01

    The local Baladi breed is considered a common source of fresh meat in Lebanon.Due to the extensive rearing system and the scarcity of pasture, kids resulting from multiple births are not reared, though cultural preference for young meat may valorize these twin kids as an expensive delicacy. Few studies observed growth parameters, physical-chemical and sensory properties of meat in Baladi kids. Therefore, 24 male Baladi kids were fed milk adlibitum post-natally for 24 days, after which 9 were randomly selected and fed pasture grassad libitum and goat milk (Control), and 15 were fed only milk (Capretto) twice per day. Animals were slaughtered at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age and body organs compared. Feed intake wasmeasured by weighing kids pre- and post- feeding, and body weight measured twice per week.Meat chemical properties were total ether-extracted fat, kjeldhal protein, and minerals. Meat organoleptic properties were evaluated by consumers for color, taste, odor, richness, juiciness,tenderness and overall appreciation, as cooked by housewives or professionals. Data were analyzed as a CRD using SPSS 10.0 and presented as LSMeans ± SEM. Results showed that Capretto consumed increasing levels of milk from 4 to 8 weeks, with ADG decreasing (P<0.05) from 4 to 8 weeks. Capretto showed 5% less (P<0.05) weight than control kids. Carcass yield was higher (P< 0.05) for Capretto (44.5 ± 3.4 %) than control (36.3 ± 3.3%), with Capretto showing smaller viscera and lower hemoglobin. Both blood and meat (protein, cholesterol) composition did not differ (P>0.05) between Capretto and control, although capretto showed lower (p<0.05) meat fat content than control kids. Meat organoleptic characteristics were desirable at weeks 4 and 6 for both Capretto and control kids, whereas only Capretto meat stayed desirable at week 8. To conclude, Capretto kids have similar properties to their traditional counterparts, with added desirable properties for a longer growing period, in addition to

  18. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies; A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Sixteen essays pertaining to agricultural extension education were the basis of the 18th National Agricultural Policy Conference, held September 10-18, 1968, at Sequoyah State Park, Wagoner, Oklahoma. Individual topics of papers include leadership training, Iowa State welfare, low income area community development, an urban extension pilot…

  19. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  20. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nederhof (Esther); F. Jörg (Frederike); D. Raven (Dennis); R. Veenstra (René); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were

  1. Evaluating Evaluation Systems: Policy Levers and Strategies for Studying Implementation of Educator Evaluation. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlach, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation studies can provide feedback on implementation, support continuous improvement, and increase understanding of evaluation systems' impact on teaching and learning. Despite the importance of educator evaluation studies, states often need support to prioritize and fund them. Successful studies require expertise, time, and a shared…

  2. Urban water-quality modelling: implementing an extension to Multi-Hydro platform for real case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Bonhomme, Celine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years, the physically based and fully distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed to simulate hydrological behaviours in urban/peri-urban areas (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This hydro-dynamical platform is open-access and has a modular structure, which is designed to be easily scalable and transportable, in order to simulate the dynamics and complex interactions of the water cycle processes in urban or peri-urban environment (surface hydrology, urban groundwater infrastructures and infiltration). Each hydrological module relies on existing and widely validated open source models, such as TREX model (Velleux, 2005) for the surface module, SWMM model (Rossman, 2010) for the drainage module and VS2DT model (Lappala et al., 1987) for the soil module. In our recent studies, an extension of MH has been set up by connecting the already available water-quality computational components among different modules, to introduce a pollutant transport modelling into the hydro-dynamical platform. As for the surface module in two-dimensions, the concentration of particles in flow is expressed by sediment advection equation, the settling of suspended particles is calculated with a simplified settling velocity formula, while the pollutant wash-off from a given land-use is represented as a mass rate of particle removal from the bottom boundary over time, based on transport capacity, which is computed by a modified form of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Considering that the USLE is originally conceived to predict soil losses caused by runoff in agriculture areas, several adaptations were needed to use it for urban areas, such as the alterations of USLE parameters according to different criterions, the definition of the appropriate initial dust thickness corresponding to various land-uses, etc. Concerning the drainage module, water quality routing within pipes assumes that the conduit

  3. Women's Studies Collections: A Checklist Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Brooke A.

    2009-01-01

    A checklist evaluation on thirty-seven Women's Studies programs conducted using the individual institutions' online public access catalogs (OPACs) is presented. Although Women's Studies collections are very difficult to build, an evaluation of existing programs shows that collections, for the most part, have managed substantial coverage of the…

  4. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella.

  5. Economic modeling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.A.; Harrison, D.L.; Carlson, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives

  6. Handbook for evaluation studies in virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore; Koeffel, Christina

    2006-01-01

    of human behavior including aspects of perception, action, and task-performance. The evaluation issue calls for multi- and interdisciplinary research activities, where technical expertise is combined with humanistic knowledge and methodology. Several experts in the field of VR as well as in the field...... in evaluation studies as well as students. The aim is also to facilitate multi-disciplinary activities through the use of an evaluation handbook which would be simple and focused on VR. The applicability of this guideline has been tested in two pilot studies, which showed how this handbook could successfully...... be employed to carry out pilot (and formal) evaluations....

  7. The Type IIP SN 2005ay: An Extensive Study From UltraViolet To Near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufano, F. M.; Turatto, M.; Zampieri, L.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2006-08-01

    Several supernova types are thought to explode via the gravitational collapse of the core of massive stars at the end of their lifetimes. The great observational diversity has not been fully understood even if it clearly involves the progenitor masses and configurations at the time of explosion. These Supernovae, called Core Collapse Supernovae (CC SNe), are expected to dominate the counts of SNe observed at high redshifts and to be the only observable probe of the first generation stars (Pop III). Recently indicated as reliable distance indicators (Hamuy 02, Pastorello `03), CC SNe are objects of great interest but significantly less studied in comparison with the Termonuclear ones. With the aim to understand better the reasons of the heterogeneous behaviour , we have started an extensive study of the properties of SN II with different observational features (luminosity, velocity, etc..). Here we present the last results on our first observed target, SN2005ay, a Type IIP supernova observed in an extended way from the Ultraviolet wavelengths, provided by the GALEX , to the Optical and near-IR , obtained with IISP (Italian Intensive Supernova Program).

  8. Randomized Phase III and Extension Studies of Naldemedine in Patients With Opioid-Induced Constipation and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakami, Nobuyuki; Harada, Toshiyuki; Murata, Toru; Shinozaki, Katsunori; Tsutsumi, Masakazu; Yokota, Takaaki; Arai, Masatsugu; Tada, Yukio; Narabayashi, Masaru; Boku, Narikazu

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is a frequent and debilitating adverse effect (AE) of opioids-common analgesics for cancer pain. We investigated the efficacy and safety of a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naldemedine (S-297995), for OIC, specifically in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods This phase III trial consisted of a 2-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (COMPOSE-4) and an open-label, 12-week extension study (COMPOSE-5). In COMPOSE-4, eligible adults with OIC and cancer were randomly assigned on a 1:1 basis to receive once-daily oral naldemedine 0.2 mg or placebo. The primary end point was the proportion of spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) responders (≥ 3 SBMs/week and an increase of ≥ 1 SBM/week from baseline). The primary end point of COMPOSE-5 was safety. Results In COMPOSE-4, 193 eligible patients were randomly assigned to naldemedine (n = 97) or placebo (n = 96). The proportion of SBM responders in COMPOSE-4 was significantly greater with naldemedine than with placebo (71.1% [69 of 97 patients] v 34.4% [33 of 96 patients]; P opioid withdrawal and had no notable impact on opioid-mediated analgesia. Conclusion Once-daily oral naldemedine 0.2 mg effectively treated OIC and was generally well tolerated in patients with OIC and cancer.

  9. Study on team evaluation. Team process model for team evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)

  10. Sustained weight loss in patients treated with mifepristone for Cushing's syndrome: a follow-up analysis of the SEISMIC study and long-term extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Henry G; Vaughan, T Brooks; Kushner, Harvey; Cram, David; Nguyen, Dat

    2015-10-27

    Overweight and obesity are common among patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and may persist in some patients even after ostensibly curative surgery, contributing to cardiometabolic dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Mifepristone, a selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, was effective in controlling hyperglycemia in a 24-week trial of adults (N = 50) with endogenous CS and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired glucose tolerance or hypertension who had failed or were not candidates for surgery (SEISMIC, Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Mifepristone in the Treatment of Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome). This analysis examines long-term weight change among patients who received mifepristone in SEISMIC and enrolled in a long-term safety extension (LTE) study. Patients completing the 24-week SEISMIC study and subsequent 6-week off-drug safety evaluation were invited to enroll in the LTE study. Mifepristone doses at the end of SEISMIC were the LTE starting doses. Body weight measures were reviewed at baseline and week 24 of SEISMIC and at LTE month 6, 12, 18, 24, and final visit (last observation collected during the LTE study). Of the 30 patients enrolled in the LTE, evaluable weight data were available for 29 (20/29 female; mean age of 44.7 ± 11.2 years). These patients received mifepristone for a median of 29.2 months (range 8.4-41.9). Mean ± SD weight from SEISMIC baseline to LTE final visit decreased by 10.3 ± 16.3 kg (mean 105.4 ± 34.3 kg to 95.1 ± 32.9 kg), a 9.3 % decrease from baseline weight (P = 0.0008). Of the 29 LTE patients, 18 (62.1 %) lost ≥ 5 % of body weight by the end of the initial 24-week treatment period; this ≥5 % weight loss persisted in 83.3 % (15/18) at LTE final visit. Ten patients (34.5 %) lost ≥ 10 % of initial body weight by week 24 of SEISMIC, which persisted in 80 % at LTE final visit. No new safety signals were detected with long-term mifepristone use. Clinically meaningful weight loss achieved during

  11. Knowledge and performance of the Ethiopian health extension workers on antenatal and delivery care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhanyie Araya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54% of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88% had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10% were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82% were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their

  12. Pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Dalgas, Ulrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2015-09-01

    During movement tasks, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use compensatory strategies to minimise the joint load of the affected leg. Movement strategies of the knees and trunk have been investigated, but less is known about movement strategies of the pelvis during advancing functional tasks, and how these strategies are associated with leg extension power. The aim of the study was to investigate pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis compared with controls. 57 patients (mean age 65.6 years) scheduled for medial uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty, and 29 age and gender matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Leg extension power was tested with the Nottingham Leg Extension Power-Rig. Pelvic range of motion was derived from an inertia-based measurement unit placed over the sacrum bone during walking, stair climbing and stepping. Patients had lower leg extension power than controls (20-39 %, P 0.06). Furthermore, an inverse association (coefficient: -0.03 to -0.04; R (2) = 13-22 %) between leg extension power and pelvic range of motion during stair and step descending was found in the patients. Compared to controls, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use greater pelvic movements during advanced functional performance tests, particularly when these involve descending tasks. Further studies should investigate if it is possible to alter these movement strategies by an intervention aimed at increasing strength and power for the patients.

  13. Mean-Eddy-Turbulence Interaction through Canonical Transfer Analysis: Theory and Application to the Kuroshio Extension Energetics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X. S.

    2016-02-01

    Central at the processes of mean-eddy-turbulence interaction, e.g., mesoscale eddy shedding, relaminarization, etc., is the transfer of energy among different scales. The existing classical transfers, however, do not take into account the issue of energy conservation and, therefore, are not faithful representations of the real interaction processes, which are fundamentally a redistribution of energy among scales. Based on a new analysis machinery, namely, multiscale window transform (Liang and Anderson, 2007), we were able to obtain a formula for this important processes, with the property of energy conservation a naturally embedded property. This formula has a form reminiscent of the Poisson bracket in Hamiltonian dynamics. It has been validated with many benchmark processes, and, particularly, has been applied with success to control the eddy shedding behind a bluff body. Presented here will be an application study of the instabilities and mean-eddy interactions in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region. Generally, it is found that the unstable KE jet fuels the mesoscale eddies, but in the offshore eddy decaying region, the cause-effect relation reverses: it is the latter that drive the former. On the whole the eddies act to decelerate the jet in the upstream, whereas accelerating it downstream.

  14. A pilot study for the analysis of dream reports using Maslow's need categories: an extension to the emotional selection hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The emotional selection hypothesis describes a cyclical process that uses dreams to modify and test select mental schemas. An extension is proposed that further characterizes these schemas as facilitators of human need satisfaction. A pilot study was conducted in which this hypothesis was tested by assigning 100 dream reports (10 randomly selected from 10 dream logs at an online web site) to one or more categories within Maslow's hierarchy of needs. A "match" was declared when at least two of three judges agreed both for category and for whether the identified need was satisfied or thwarted in the dream narrative. The interjudge reliability of the judged needs was good (92% of the reports contained at least one match). The number of needs judged as thwarted did not differ significantly from the number judged as satisfied (48 vs. 52%, respectively). The six "higher" needs (belongingness, esteem, cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and transcendence) were scored significantly more frequently (81%) than were the two lowest or "basic" needs (physiological and safety, 19%). Basic needs were also more likely to be judged as thwarted, while higher needs were more likely to be judged as satisfied. These findings are discussed in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework for investigating theories of dream function, including the emotional selection hypothesis and other contemporary dream theories.

  15. Optimizing Usability Studies by Complementary Evaluation Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin; Bach, Cedric; Scapin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic

  16. Using the Chinese herb Scutellaria barbata against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Shiuan; Hsu, Chun-Ru; Chang, Chiu-Ming; Chang, I-Wei; Lin, Li-Wei; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Wang, Jiun-Ling

    2018-03-20

    No animal model studies have been conducted in which the efficacy of herbal compounds has been tested against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Very few antibiotics are available for the treatment of pulmonary infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB). To find alternative treatments, traditional Chinese herbs were screened for their antimicrobial potential. The present study screened 30 herbs that are traditionally used in Taiwan and that are commonly prescribed for heat clearing and detoxification. The herbs with antibacterial activities were analysed by disc diffusion assays, time-kill assays and a murine lung infection model. Of the 30 herbs tested, only Scutellaria barbata demonstrated 100% in vitro activity against XDRAB. Furthermore, we compared the antibacterial effect of the S. barbata extract with that of colistin, and the S. barbata extract showed better antibacterial effect. In the XDRAB pneumonia murine model, we compared the antimicrobial effects of the orally administered S. barbata extract (200 mg/kg, every 24 h), the intratracheally administered colistin (75,000 U/kg, every 12 h), and the control group. The bacterial load in the lungs of the treatment group that received the oral S. barbata extract showed a significant decrease in comparison to that in the lungs of the control group. In addition, histopathological examinations also revealed better resolution of perivascular, peribronchial, and alveolar inflammation in the oral S. barbata extract-treated group. Our in vitro and in vivo data from the animal model support the use of S. barbata as an alternate drug to treat XDRAB pulmonary infections. However, detailed animal studies and clinical trials are necessary to establish the clinical utility of S. barbata in treating XDRAB pulmonary infections.

  17. The comparison of the farmers' fertilizer application with the suggestions of extension organization in the indeterminate tomatoes farming. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizilaslan, N.; Akca, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, whether farmers' fertilizer application is in harmony with fertilizer application suggested by farmers education and extension unit (FEEU) has been investigated. In addition, situation of contact of indeterminate tomatoes growers with extension staff has been examined. It has been determined that farmers have harmonized the suggestions of FEEU related to time of fertilization and application of fertilizer but not harmonized related to amount of fertilizer to be used. According to chi-square test, the relationship between educational level of farmers and the level of fertilizer use is not statistically significant. In addition, indeterminate tomatoes farmers have not had enough contact with extension staff. To use resources efficiently extension services should be directed to farmers more actively. Refs. 8 (author)

  18. AN OPEN-LABEL EXTENSION STUDY OF PARATHYROID HORMONE RHPTH(1-84) IN ADULTS WITH HYPOPARATHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter; Bajnok, Laszlo; Lagast, Hjalmar; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna

    2016-05-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by inadequate parathyroid hormone (PTH), resulting in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and bone abnormalities. Adults with hypoparathyroidism treated with recombinant human PTH, rhPTH(1-84), in the 24-week, phase III REPLACE study maintained serum calcium despite reductions in oral calcium and active vitamin D. This study assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of rhPTH(1-84) for hypoparathyroidism. This was a 24-week, open-label, flexible-dose extension study of REPLACE (REPEAT) conducted in 3 outpatient centers in Hungary. Patients who previously completed or enrolled in REPLACE received 50 μg/day rhPTH(1-84), escalated to 75 and then to 100 μg/day, if needed, to reduce active vitamin D and oral calcium. The primary endpoint was ≥50% reduction in oral calcium (or ≤500 mg/day) and active vitamin D (or calcitriol ≤0.25 μg/day or alfacalcidol ≤0.50 μg/day) with normocalcemia. Twenty-four patients (n = 16 previously treated with rhPTH[1-84]; n = 8 rhPTH[1-84]-naïve) were enrolled and completed the study. At Week 24, 75% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.3-90.2%) achieved the study endpoint; 58% eliminated oral calcium and active vitamin D. Urinary calcium, serum phosphate, and calcium × phosphate (Ca × P) product decreased by Week 24. Mean serum bone turnover markers increased with rhPTH(1-84). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were reported by 92% of patients. No serious adverse events (AEs) occurred. This study used a simplified treatment algorithm intended to better mimic typical clinical practice and demonstrated the extended efficacy and safety of rhPTH(1-84) in patients with hypoparathyroidism and confirmed the REPLACE findings. Sustained rhPTH(1-84) efficacy up to 48 weeks was observed despite treatment interruption between studies.

  19. EXTENSION EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM: reinventing extension as a resource--what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, M A; Bewley, J M; Blue, J; Amaral-Phillips, D M; Corriher, V A; Whittet, K M; Arthur, N; Patterson, D J

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Cooperative Extension Service, as a component of the land-grant university system, is to disseminate new knowledge and to foster its application and use. Opportunities and challenges facing animal agriculture in the United States have changed dramatically over the past few decades and require the use of new approaches and emerging technologies that are available to extension professionals. Increased federal competitive grant funding for extension, the creation of eXtension, the development of smartphone and related electronic technologies, and the rapidly increasing popularity of social media created new opportunities for extension educators to disseminate knowledge to a variety of audiences and engage these audiences in electronic discussions. Competitive grant funding opportunities for extension efforts to advance animal agriculture became available from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and have increased dramatically in recent years. The majority of NIFA funding opportunities require extension efforts to be integrated with research, and NIFA encourages the use of eXtension and other cutting-edge approaches to extend research to traditional clientele and nontraditional audiences. A case study is presented to illustrate how research and extension were integrated to improve the adoption of AI by beef producers. Those in agriculture are increasingly resorting to the use of social media venues such as Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, and Twitter to access information required to support their enterprises. Use of these various approaches by extension educators requires appreciation of the technology and an understanding of how the target audiences access information available on social media. Technology to deliver information is changing rapidly, and Cooperative Extension Service professionals will need to continuously evaluate digital technology and social media tools to appropriately integrate them into learning and

  20. Behaviour of concrete under high confinement: study in triaxial compression and in triaxial extension at the mesoscopic scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupray, F.

    2008-12-01

    This Ph.D. thesis aims at characterising and modeling the mechanical behaviour of concrete under high confinement at the mesoscopic scale. This scale corresponds to that of the large aggregates and the cementitious matrix. The more general scope of this study is the understanding of concrete behaviour under dynamic loading. A dynamic impact can generate mean pressures around 1 GPa. But the characterisation of a material response, in an homogeneous state of stress, can only be achieved through quasi-static tests. The experimentations led in 3S-R Laboratory have underlined the importance of the aggregates in the triaxial response of concrete. Modeling concrete at the mesoscopic level, as a composite of an aggregates phase and a mortar phase, permits a representation of the aggregates effect. An experimental study of the behaviour of mortar phase is performed. Usual tests and hydrostatic and triaxial high confinement tests are realised. The parameters of a constitutive model that couples plasticity with a damage law are identified from these tests. This model is able to reproduce the nonlinear compaction of mortar, the damage behaviour under uniaxial tension or compression, and plasticity under high confinement. The biphasic model uses the finite element method with a cubic and regular mesh. A Monte-Carlo method is used to place quasi-spherical aggregates that respect the given particle size of a reference concrete. Each element is identified by belonging either to the mortar or to the aggregate phase. Numerical simulations are compared with the experimental tests on this concrete. The parameters for these simulations are only identified on the mortar. The simulations reproduce the different phases observed in hydrostatic compression. The evolution of axial moduli under growing confinement is shown, as is the good reproduction of the limit-states experimentally observed under high confinement. The fracture aspect of numerical simulations is comparable with that of

  1. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P free survival in multivariate models, as were seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and Gleason score, and preoperative PSA. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the assay can be readily introduced at first diagnosis in a cost effective manner analogous to the use of FISH for analysis of HER2/neu status in breast cancer. Combined with published research beginning 17 years ago, both the data and tools now exist to implement a PTEN assay in the clinic. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beals, D.M.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks

  3. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beals, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-07-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks.

  4. Stress intensity evaluation for surface crack with use of boundary element method and influence function method and the surface crack extension analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuuki, R.; Ejima, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, three-dimensional boundary element elastostatic analysis is carried out on various surface crack problems. The present BEM uses a Mindlin's solution as well as a Kelvin's solution as a fundamental solution. So we can obtain accurate solutions for a surface crack just before or after a penetration. The obtained solutions for various shapes of surface cracks are stored as the data base, based on the influence function method. We develop the surface crack extension analysis system using the stress intensity factor data base and also the fatigue crack growth law. Our system seems to be useful especially for the analysis of the surface crack just before or after the penetration and also under the residual stresses

  5. Evaluating effectiveness and constraints of private sector agricultural extension services of the Green River Project in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyinyechi I. Ogbonna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oil exploration operations decreased the cultivable lands of rural people in the study area, leading to the establishment of the Green River Project (GRP. This study assessed the effectiveness and constraints of private sector extension services of GRP in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria. Objectives: To analyse the roles and effectiveness of, as well as constraints to, the GRP in the area. Method: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, chi square and t-test were used to analyse the data. Results: Roles of GRP in farming technologies dissemination included training of farmers on fish pond construction technique and maintenance of good pH levels. There was significant improvement in standard of living (X2 = 15.7; p ≤ 0.05 and size of production (t = 6.398; p ≤ 0.05 of the respondents after participation. In terms of the effectiveness of private sector deliveries on public policies, the programme had effect on beneficiaries’ access to credit, education of wards and poverty reduction. But it is worthy to note that the observed changes may not have been solely caused by the GRP, given that there could be many other factors affecting fish farming, either positively or negatively. Serious implementation constraints to effective performance of GRP included organisational, input and sustainability constraints. Conclusion: It was recommended that there should be timely provision of sufficient inputs to farmers and measures to improve organisation of private sector extension services in the area in order to enhance development.

  6. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members to champion nutrition

  7. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kadiyala

    Full Text Available Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members

  8. Study and proposals related to extensive flooding in the Siret River area during the summer of 2008 in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Victor; Stefan, Sabina; Irimescu, Anisoara

    2010-05-01

    Extensive flooding due to overflowing of the Siret River and associated runoff in smaller rivers in northeastern Romania at the end of July 2008 are discussed, taking into account the meteorological and hydrological contexts. The flooding events in Romania claimed human deaths and population displacement, large-scale destruction of housing and infrastructure. Although the Siret river is quite shallow, and several dams and reservoirs restrict and control its flow, the area along the river remains prone to periodic flooding, mainly in spring and summer. Several observations are made on the viability of settlements close to Siret riverbed in Romania, related to the repeatability of situations such as that during the summer of 2008. Generally, the relative shallowness of the river Siret may cause flash floods, when its level increases rapidly due to abundant precipitation. As such, the horizontal extent of the flooding due to runoff is a factor seemingly more important than the short-lived increases in depth, combined with the speed of the flow. As a direct result of the flooding, crops and buildings were damaged. The probability that similar meteorological contexts can cause flooding with the extent of that in 2008 will be discussed. Also, some possible means to improve the reaction of authorities and delivery of relief by them to the affected population will be proposed. Regarding the meteorological context, a presentation of the cyclonic system that has brought heavy and/or continuous rain in northern and northeastern Romania will be made. As proposal for improving the delivery of resources toward the affected area and population, a software system designed to shorten the process of conveying relevant information to decisional factors, and to increase the speed of information between interesed parties will be discussed. The possible outcome of this specific case study will be the improvement of the decisional flux required in times of natural disasters, flooding

  9. Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies. A Group Study of Four Topics in the Field of Extension Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    The publication contains thirteen reports from the Twentieth National Agricultural Policy Conference held September 22-25, 1970, at Pokagon State Park, Angola, Indiana. The conference was designed to assist extension workers by broadening their perspective, understanding, and handling of the methodology of public affairs education. Four topics in…

  10. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  11. Oral fingolimod (FTY720) in multiple sclerosis: two-year results of a phase II extension study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, P; Comi, G; Montalban, X

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a 24-month extension of a phase II trial assessing the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the once-daily oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator, fingolimod (FTY720), in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: In the randomized, double-blind, pla...

  12. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the Single Source Delivery of Educational Resources by Print and Online: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to Extensible Markup Language (XML) by looking at its use in a single source publishing approach to the provision of teaching resources in both hardcopy and online. Using the development of the International Baccalaureate Organisation's online Economics Subject Guide as a practical example, this…

  13. Learning to learn with farmers : a case study of an adult learning extension project conducted in Queensland, Australia 1990 - 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the relationship between the use of participatory processes in the development and use of information and knowledge and their impact on change is described and explored. This research utilises a major extension project carried out with respect to fallow management in

  14. Hand function evaluation: a factor analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarus, T; Poremba, R

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hand function evaluations. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to assess the fundamental characteristics of the items included in the Jebsen Hand Function Test and the Smith Hand Function Evaluation. The study sample consisted of 144 subjects without disabilities and 22 subjects with Colles fracture. Results suggest a four factor solution: Factor I--pinch movement; Factor II--grasp; Factor III--target accuracy; and Factor IV--activities of daily living. These categories differentiated the subjects without Colles fracture from the subjects with Colles fracture. A hand function evaluation consisting of these four factors would be useful. Such an evaluation that can be used for current clinical purposes is provided.

  15. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  16. Extension's Online Presence: Are Land-Grant Universities Promoting the Tripartite Mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Shannon; Hill, Alexandra; Bailey, Nikki; Meyers, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Land-grant universities were established with a tripartite mission: education, research, and outreach through the Cooperative Extension Service. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate the online presence and technological adoptions of Extension on land-grant university, college of agriculture, and state Extension websites. Almost…

  17. Atomoxetine and Parent Training for Children With Autism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A 24-Week Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Aman, Michael G; Arnold, L Eugene; Silverman, Laura B; Lecavalier, Luc; Hollway, Jill; Tumuluru, Rameshwari; Hyman, Susan L; Buchan-Page, Kristin A; Hellings, Jessica; Rice, Robert R; Brown, Nicole V; Pan, Xueliang; Handen, Benjamin L

    2016-10-01

    The authors previously reported on a 2-by-2 randomized clinical trial of individual and combined treatment with atomoxetine (ATX) and parent training (PT) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and behavioral noncompliance in 128 5- to 14-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. In the present report, they describe a 24-week extension of treatment responders and nonresponders. One-hundred seventeen participants from the acute trial (91%) entered the extension; 84 of these were in 2 subgroups: "treatment responders" (n = 43) from all 4 groups in the acute trial, seen monthly for 24 weeks, and "placebo nonresponders" (n = 41), treated with open-label ATX for 10 weeks. Participants originally assigned to PT continued PT during the extension; the remainder served as controls. Primary outcome measurements were the parent-rated Swanson, Nolan and Pelham ADHD scale and the Home Situations Questionnaire. Sixty percent (26 of 43) of treatment responders in the acute trial, including 68% of responders originally assigned to ATX, still met the response criteria at the end of the extension. The response rate of placebo nonresponders treated with 10-week open-label ATX was 37% (15 of 41), similar to the acute trial. Children receiving open-label ATX + PT were significantly more likely to be ADHD responders (53% versus 23%) and noncompliance responders (58% versus 14%) than those receiving open-label ATX alone. Most ATX responders maintained their responses during the extension. PT combined with ATX in the open-label trial appeared to improve ADHD and noncompliance outcomes more than ATX alone. Clinical trial registration information-Atomoxetine, Placebo and Parent Management Training in Autism (Strattera); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00844753. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The evaluator effect in usability studies: Problem detection and severity judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.

    1998-01-01

    Usability studies are commonly used in industry and applied in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. Though usability studies have been studied extensively, one potential threat to their reliability has been left virtually untouched: the evaluator effect. In this study......, four evaluators individually analyzed four videotaped usability test sessions. Only 20% of the 93 detected problems were detected by all evaluators, and 46% were detected by only a single evaluator. From the total set of 93 problems the evaluators individually selected the ten problems they considered...... most severe. None of the selected severe problems appeared on all four evaluators’ top-10 lists, and 4 of the 11 problems that were considered severe by more than one evaluator were only detected by one or two evaluators. Thus, both detection of usability problems and selection of the most severe...

  19. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery....... Evaluating MRI, all grade-3 meniscal lesions were considered able to cause a mechanical block as well as acute partial or total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptures. ACL-ruptures with an old appearance were not considered able to cause locking. Assuming that arthroscopy was the gold standard...

  20. Organizational evaluation of an interprofessional study unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Didde Cramer; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Draborg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from an organizational evaluation of an interprofessional clinical study unit (ICS) in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test whether the ICS was based on a durable organizational concept and to identify the prerequisites for the unit to be successful...

  1. PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR CLUMSY CHILDREN - AN EVALUATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOEMAKER, MM; HIJLKEMA, MGJ; KALVERBOER, AF

    This study reports the findings of an effect-evaluation study of physiotherapy for clumsy children. 18 children were identified by school doctors as having poor motor co-ordination. They were followed for three months in order to exclude spontaneous improvement of motor problems; none spontaneously

  2. Long-term effects of cladribine tablets on MRI activity outcomes in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: the CLARITY Extension study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Vermersch, Patrick; Adeniji, Abidemi K.; Dangond, Fernando; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Background The CLARITY and CLARITY Extension studies demonstrated that treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with cladribine tablets (CT) results in significant clinical improvements, compared with placebo. This paper presents the key magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings from the CLARITY Extension study. Methods Patients who received a cumulative dose of either CT 3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg in CLARITY were rerandomized to either placebo or CT 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY Extension. Patients from the arm that received placebo in CLARITY were assigned to CT 3.5 mg/kg. MRI assessments were carried out when patients entered CLARITY Extension and after Weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96, and in a supplemental follow-up period. Results At CLARITY Extension baseline, patients who received placebo during CLARITY had more T1 gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesions than patients who received CT during CLARITY. These patients, who were then exposed to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg during the extension, experienced a 90.4% relative reduction (median difference −0.33, 97.5% confidence interval −0.33–0.00; p MRI activity, and this was associated with a prolonged treatment gap between CLARITY and CLARITY Extension. Conclusion A 2-year treatment with CT 3.5 mg/kg has a durable effect on MRI outcomes in the majority of patients, an effect that was sustained in patients who were not retreated in the subsequent 2 years after initial treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00641537 PMID:29399054

  3. Long-term effects of cladribine tablets on MRI activity outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: the CLARITY Extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Vermersch, Patrick; Adeniji, Abidemi K; Dangond, Fernando; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    The CLARITY and CLARITY Extension studies demonstrated that treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with cladribine tablets (CT) results in significant clinical improvements, compared with placebo. This paper presents the key magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings from the CLARITY Extension study. Patients who received a cumulative dose of either CT 3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg in CLARITY were rerandomized to either placebo or CT 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY Extension. Patients from the arm that received placebo in CLARITY were assigned to CT 3.5 mg/kg. MRI assessments were carried out when patients entered CLARITY Extension and after Weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96, and in a supplemental follow-up period. At CLARITY Extension baseline, patients who received placebo during CLARITY had more T1 gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesions than patients who received CT during CLARITY. These patients, who were then exposed to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg during the extension, experienced a 90.4% relative reduction (median difference -0.33, 97.5% confidence interval -0.33-0.00; p MRI activity, and this was associated with a prolonged treatment gap between CLARITY and CLARITY Extension. A 2-year treatment with CT 3.5 mg/kg has a durable effect on MRI outcomes in the majority of patients, an effect that was sustained in patients who were not retreated in the subsequent 2 years after initial treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00641537 .

  4. Process, paper policy and practice : a case study of the introduction of a formal extension policy in Queensland, Australia 1987 - 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutts, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This study explores the policy element of public sector agricultural extension. It was contended that this policy element lacked an adequate framework. Without such a framework, there was a risk that major policy - or operational - issues would be neglected in policy formulation. The study

  5. Longterm Safety and Efficacy of Subcutaneous Tocilizumab Monotherapy: Results from the 2-year Open-label Extension of the MUSASHI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Atsushi; Amano, Koichi; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Inoo, Masayuki; Ishii, Tomonori; Kasama, Tsuyoshi; Kawai, Shinichi; Kawakami, Atsushi; Koike, Tatsuya; Miyahara, Hisaaki; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Murasawa, Akira; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Ojima, Tomohiro; Sano, Hajime; Shi, Kenrin; Shono, Eisuke; Suematsu, Eiichi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Nomura, Akira

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the longterm safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) as monotherapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of 346 patients who received 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with either TCZ-SC monotherapy, 162 mg every 2 weeks (q2w); or intravenous TCZ (TCZ-IV) monotherapy, 8 mg/kg every 4 weeks; 319 patients continued to receive TCZ-SC q2w in the 84-week open-label extension (OLE) of the MUSASHI study (JAPICCTI-101117). Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity were evaluated for all patients treated with TCZ during 108 weeks. The proportions of patients who achieved American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 responses, low disease activity [28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) ≤ 3.2], or remission (DAS28 < 2.6) at Week 24 were maintained until Week 108. The incidences of adverse events and serious adverse events were 498.3 and 16.9 per 100 patient-years (PY), respectively. The overall safety of TCZ-SC monotherapy was similar to that of TCZ-IV monotherapy. Rates of injection site reactions (ISR) through 108 weeks remained similar to rates through 24 weeks. ISR were mild and did not cause any patient withdrawals. No serious hypersensitivity events (including anaphylactic reactions) occurred. Anti-TCZ antibodies were present in 2.1% of patients treated with TCZ-SC monotherapy. TCZ-SC monotherapy maintained a favorable safety profile and consistent efficacy throughout the 108-week study. Like TCZ-IV, TCZ-SC could provide an additional treatment option for patients with RA.

  6. Comparative analysis between grid extension and decentralized solutions for rural electrification. Case study: Sofala Province in Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Jakob; Le Fol, Yoann; Donnay, Adrian; Chatzipoulidis, Ioannis; Mozumder, M. Zahangir; Zampouki, Maria; Carlson, Anna; Boje Blarke, Morten [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Development and Planning

    2011-07-01

    A special early excerpt of the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2010 focusing on energy poverty indicates that 1.4 billion people don't have access to electricity, 85% of which live in rural areas. The social, economic and local environmental benefits from having access to electricity are well-known, including less indoor pollution, less spending on fuel, less stress on the local eco-system, expansion of the productive and social hours of the day, cooling for food and medicine, and enabling education in the evening hours. This study examines options for rural electrification in Mozambique, where 89% of the population doesn't have access to electricity. Conventional and alternative options are compared with respect to energy, environmental, and economic consequences. The research methodology follows a knowledge-based approach, which allows for a comprehensive and holistic evaluation of how different rural electrification options affect the society in general, and the economy in particular. The paper presents an innovative techno-economic model for Mozambique that evaluates how different stakeholders and economic sectors are influenced by conventional and alternative options for rural electrification. The study offers new qualitative and quantitative empirical data, which support a significantly better understanding of how different rural electrification strategies are impacting society. (orig.)

  7. An Extensive Study on Dynamical aspects of Dust Storm over the United Arab Emirates during 18-20 March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Ghouse; Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    On 18 March 2012, a super dust storm event occurred over Middle East (ME) and lasted for several hours. Following to this, another dust storm occurred on early morning of 20 March 2012 with almost higher intensity. Both these storms reduced the horizontal visibility to few hundreds of meters and represented as one of the most intense and long duration dust storms over United Arab Emirates (UAE) in recent times. These storms also reduced the air quality in most parts of the ME implying the shutdown of Airports, schools and hundreds of people were hospitalized with respirational problems. In the context of the above, we have made a detailed study on the dynamical processes leading to triggering of dust storm over UAE and neighboring regions. We have also analyzed its impact on surface, and vertical profiles of background parameters and aerosols during the dust storm period by using ground-based, space borne, dust forecasting model, and reanalysis data sets. The synoptic and dynamic conditions responsible for the occurrence of the dust storm are discussed extensively by using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA interim reanalysis data sets. The Impact of dust storm on surface and upper air radiosonde measurements and aerosol optical properties are also investigated before, during and after the dust storm event. During the dust storm, surface temperature decreased by 15oC when compared to before and after the event. PM10 values significantly increased maximum of about 1600µg/m3. Spatial variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index (AI) exhibited very high values during the event and source region can be identified of dust transport to our region with this figure. The total attenuated backscatter at 550nm from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite shows the vertical extent of dust up to 8km. The dynamics of this event is

  8. Psychometric properties of the Patient Dignity Inventory in an acute psychiatric ward: an extension study of the preliminary validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Paola Ferri,2 Carlotta Biffarella,2 Giulio Cabri,3 Eleonora Carretti,4 Gabriella Pollutri,5 Ludovica Spattini,5 Cinzia Del Giovane,6 Harvey Max Chochinov7 1Psychiatric Intensive Treatment Facility, Mental Health Department, Azienda USL, Modena, Italy; 2Department of Diagnostic, Clinical and Public Health Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 3Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Mental Health Department, Azienda USL, Modena, Italy; 4School of Nursing, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; 5School of Specialization in Pscyhiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; 6Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Primary Care (BIHAM, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 7Department of Psychiatry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Background: During the last decades, dignity has been an emerging issue in mental health since its ethical and therapeutic implications became known. This study is an extension of the preliminary validation of the Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI in a psychiatric setting, originally designed for assessing perceived dignity in terminal cancer patients. Methods: From October 21, 2015 to December 31, 2016, we administered the Italian PDI to all patients hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward, who provided their consent and completed it at discharge (n=165. We performed Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and principal factor analysis. We administered other scales concomitantly to analyze the concurrent validity of PDI. We applied stepwise multiple linear regression to identify the patients’ demographic and clinical variables related to the PDI score. Results: Our response rate was 93%, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient=0.94. The factorial analysis showed three factors with eigenvalue >1, which explained >80% of total variance: 1 “loss of self-identity and anxiety for the future”, 2

  9. Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Rieckmann, Peter; Comi, Giancarlo; Dangond, Fernando; Adeniji, Abidemi K; Vermersch, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    In the 2-year CLARITY study, cladribine tablets significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (vs placebo) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the safety and efficacy of cladribine treatment in a 2-year Extension study. In this 2-year Extension study, placebo recipients from CLARITY received cladribine 3.5 mg/kg; cladribine recipients were re-randomized 2:1 to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg or placebo, with blind maintained. A total of 806 patients were assigned to treatment. Adverse event rates were generally similar between groups, but lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 rates were higher with cladribine than placebo (Grade 4 lymphopenia occurred infrequently). In patients receiving cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY and experiencing lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 in the Extension, >90% of those treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg and all treated with placebo in the Extension, recovered to Grade 0-1 by study end. Cladribine treatment in CLARITY produced efficacy improvements that were maintained in patients treated with placebo in the Extension; in patients treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY, approximately 75% remained relapse-free when given placebo during the Extension. Cladribine tablets treatment for 2 years followed by 2 years' placebo treatment produced durable clinical benefits similar to 4 years of cladribine treatment with a low risk of severe lymphopenia or clinical worsening. No clinical improvement in efficacy was apparent following further treatment with cladribine tablets after the initial 2-year treatment period in this trial setting.

  10. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma - study of the tumor extension and vascularization through computerized tomography (CT) scan and angiography and the patient's age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara

    1997-01-01

    The juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumor that affects male adolescents. It is a fibro-vascular tumor with an exuberant intra tumor blood flow and irrigated by several arteries. It originates from the lateral and posterior region of the nasal cavity and, due to its characteristic multidirectional growth, widely affects the paranasal sinuses and skull base, sometimes invading the cranial fossa or the cheek. The determinant factors of its growth and vascularisation are unknown. Attempting to clarify them, 33 patients from the University of Sao Paulo Medicine were studied from 1983 to 1995, with complete history and radiological documentation (CT scan and angiography), as well as with histological confirmation of the diagnosis. In order to take only tumors with natural evolution, patients with recidivant tumor and those already submitted to any previous treatment were excluded. The parameters evaluate were: patient age and tumor extension (by classification, degree of invasion and number of compromised sites in CT scan) and vascularisation (by number and degree of participation of bilateral arteries in angiography). The se data were tabled and correlated one with each other. (author)

  11. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of three tenodesis techniques for the treatment of scapholunate instability: flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Rasgado, Teresa; Zhang, Qing-Hang; Jimenez-Cruz, David; Bailey, Colin; Pinder, Elizabeth; Mandaleson, Avanthi; Talwalkar, Sumedh

    2017-11-25

    Chronic scapholunate ligament (SL) injuries are difficult to treat and can lead to wrist dysfunction. Whilst several tendon reconstruction techniques have been employed in the management of SL instability, SL gap reappearance after surgery has been reported. Using a finite element model and cadaveric study data, we investigated the performance of the Corella, scapholunate axis (SLAM) and modified Brunelli tenodesis (MBT) techniques. Scapholunate dorsal and volar gap and angle were obtained following virtual surgery undertaken using each of the three reconstruction methods with the wrist positioned in flexion, extension, ulnar deviation and radial deviation, in addition to the ulnar-deviated clenched fist and neutral positions. From the study, it was found that, following simulated scapholunate interosseous ligament rupture, the Corella technique was better able to restore the SL gap and angle close to the intact ligament for all wrist positions investigated, followed by SLAM and MBT. The results suggest that for the tendon reconstruction techniques, the use of multiple junction points between scaphoid and lunate may be of benefit. Graphical abstract The use of multiple junction points between scaphoid and lunate may be of benefit for tendon reconstruction techniques.

  13. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  14. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...... minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized.Main outcome measures: Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments...

  15. Evaluation of an Online Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryjmachuk, Steven; Gill, Anita; Wood, Patricia; Olleveant, Nicola; Keeley, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of an online study skills course unit designed, using evidence-based principles, to support undergraduate students. A mixed-methods approach was employed to establish the extent to which the unit was (a) fit for purpose and (b) effective. Data were obtained from an online survey (n = 63) conducted on entry to…

  16. A study of fish behaviour in the extension of a demersal trawl using a multi-compartment separator frame and SIT camera system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Madsen, Niels; Karlsen, Junita

    2009-01-01

    A rigid separator frame with three vertically stacked codends was used to study fish behaviour in the extension piece of a demersal trawl. A video camera recorded fish as they encountered the separator frame. Ten hauls were conducted in a mixed species fishery in the northern North Sea. Fish...

  17. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy -with reference to the strategy on the NPT extension and analysis of nuclear liability-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Yeong Myeong; Ham, Chol Hoon; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Byeong Uk; Lee, Jae Seong; Choi, Yeong Rok; Ko, Han Seok

    1994-01-01

    The overall objectives of this study are to analyze the international nuclear export control system and the international non-proliferation circumstance, to establish national strategies for the NPT extension, to suggest revisions of the IAEA Statute Article VI giving Korea permanent membership on the IAEA board of Governors, and to analyze and establish counter measurements for nuclear liability in verious fields. (Author)

  18. Quotient semigroups and extension semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Abelian groups and semigroups play an important role in the classification of C. ∗. -algebras and their extensions. ... -algebra extension theory and K K-theory, it is crucial to study the theory of quotient semigroups from the ...

  19. A Clinical Retrospective Study of Distal Extension Removable Partial Denture with Implant Surveyed Bridge or Stud Type Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Seong-Jong; Choi, Jae-Won; Jeon, Young-Chan; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Yun, Mi-Jung; Lee, So-Hyoun

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to make comparative analysis of the clinical findings between the two different types of the implant-assisted removable partial dentures: removable partial dentures using implant surveyed bridge as an abutment (ISBRPD) and overdenture type of removable partial denture using implant attachment (IARPD). Implant cumulative survival rate, marginal bone resorption, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, and complications were evaluated on 24 patients who were treated with implants in conjunction with removable partial denture and have used them for at least 1 year (ISCRPD: n = 12; IARPD: n = 12). There was no failed implant and all implants were functioning without clinical mobility. Marginal bone loss of ISCRPD (1.44 ± 0.57 mm) was significantly lower than that of IARPD (p 0.05), while the calculus was significantly more observed in ISCRPD group than in IARPD group (p < 0.05). The retention loss of IARPD was the most common complication. Within the limits of the present study, it was found that well-planned ISBRPD was clinically appropriate. Longitudinal and systematic clinical studies are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:28497062

  20. A Clinical Retrospective Study of Distal Extension Removable Partial Denture with Implant Surveyed Bridge or Stud Type Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Bin Bae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to make comparative analysis of the clinical findings between the two different types of the implant-assisted removable partial dentures: removable partial dentures using implant surveyed bridge as an abutment (ISBRPD and overdenture type of removable partial denture using implant attachment (IARPD. Implant cumulative survival rate, marginal bone resorption, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, and complications were evaluated on 24 patients who were treated with implants in conjunction with removable partial denture and have used them for at least 1 year (ISCRPD: n=12; IARPD: n=12. There was no failed implant and all implants were functioning without clinical mobility. Marginal bone loss of ISCRPD (1.44 ± 0.57 mm was significantly lower than that of IARPD (p0.05, while the calculus was significantly more observed in ISCRPD group than in IARPD group (p<0.05. The retention loss of IARPD was the most common complication. Within the limits of the present study, it was found that well-planned ISBRPD was clinically appropriate. Longitudinal and systematic clinical studies are necessary to confirm these results.

  1. Evaluation of ruminal fluid in buffaloes produced extensively in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duarte Cerqueira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of the ruminal fluid has great importance in the diagnosis of microbial and biochemical alterations of reticulum and rumen. In the state of Pará buffaloes are produced extensively, mainly in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha. The physiologic parameters of the ruminal content in buffaloes in this condition had not been determined. The objective of this study was to establish normal values for reticulum-ruminal fluid examination in buffaloes in pastures of B. brizantha. Twenty buffaloes of the Murrah breed were used. Samples of ruminal fluid were obtained during 4 days, twice a day, at 7:00am and 5:00pm. The aspect, color, smell, and the sedimentation and fluctuation period (TSF of the fluid were analyzed macroscopically. Physico-chemical analysis included pH, glucose fermentation, methilene blue reduction (RAM and total acidity. All animal had a green-olive ruminal fluid with viscous consistency, and aromatic smell. The pH varied from 6.95 to 7.03. The RAM test varied from 126.74 to 291.83 seconds and the TSF from 266.7 to 298.89 seconds. Glucose fermentation produced 0.69 to 0.78 ml of gas per hour. Total acidity was 18.11 to 18.32 UC. In the microbiologic examination the number of protozoa was 551,377.31 to 518,860.72 with predominance of Gram negative bacteria.

  2. Economic modelling for life extension decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.A.; Harrison, D.L.; Carlson, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the economic and financial analysis of nuclear plant life extension under uncertainty and demonstrates its use in a case analysis. While the economic and financial evaluation of life extension does not require new analytical tools, such studies should be based on the following three premises. First, the methodology should examine effects at the level of the company or utility system, because the most important economic implications of life extension relate to the altered generation system expansion plan. Second, it should focus on the implications of uncertainty in order to understand the factors that most affect life extension benefits and identify risk management efforts. Third, the methodology should address multiple objectives, at a minimum, both economic and financial objectives. An analysis of the role of life extension for Virginia Power's generating system was performed using the MIDAS model, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. MIDAS is particularly well suited to this type of study because of its decision analysis framework. The model incorporates modules for load analysis, capacity expansion, production costing, financial analysis, and rates. The decision tree structure facilitates the multiple-scenario analysis of uncertainty. The model's output includes many economic and financial measures, including capital expenditures, fuel and purchases power costs, revenue requirements, average rates, external financing requirements, and coverage ratio. Based on findings for Virginia Power's Surry 1 plant, nuclear plant life extension has economic benefits for a utility's customers and financial benefits for the utility's investors. These benefits depend on a number of economic, technical and regulatory factors. The economic analysis presented in this paper identifies many of the key factors and issues relevant to life extension planning

  3. An open-label extension long-term study of the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole for irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hironobu; Hiratani, Michio; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Tsujii, Noa; Oshimo, Takashi; Ono, Hiroaki; Tadori, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in treating irritability in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with autistic disorder (AD) in Japan. In this open-label extension study, patients who had completed a previous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week study were enrolled and were flexibly dosed with aripiprazole (1-15 mg/day) until the new indication of irritability in pediatric autism spectrum disorder was approved in Japan. Seventy (81%) out of 86 enrolled patients completed week-48 assessments. The mean duration of treatment was 694.9 days. The mean daily dose of aripiprazole over the treatment period was 7.2 mg and the mean of the final dose was 8.5 mg. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE; ≥20%) included nasopharyngitis, somnolence, influenza, and increased weight. The majority of these TEAE were mild or moderate in severity, and there were no deaths, and no clinically relevant findings in laboratory values except prolactin decrease, vital signs, height, or ECG parameters. At week 48 (observed case), the mean change from baseline in the Irritability subscale score for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese Version was -6.3 in prior placebo patients and -2.6 in prior aripiprazole patients. Aripiprazole was generally safe, well tolerated, and effective in the long-term treatment of irritability associated with AD in Japanese pediatric patients. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology (114), Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.) With 11 figs., 20 refs.

  5. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.)

  6. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  7. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.

  8. Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a Functional Capacity Evaluation test using free style, stoop, and squat lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; van Oostrom, S.H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level - using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic para...

  9. Tolerability and safety of Souvenaid in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: results of multi-center, 24-week, open-label extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verhey, Frans R; Blesa, Rafael; von Arnim, Christine A F; Bongers, Anke; Harrison, John; Sijben, John; Scarpini, Elio; Vandewoude, Maurits F J; Vellas, Bruno; Witkamp, Renger; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H; Scheltens, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The medical food Souvenaid, containing the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect, is designed to improve synapse formation and function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Two double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCT) with Souvenaid of 12 and 24 week duration (Souvenir I and Souvenir II) showed that memory performance was improved in drug-naïve mild AD patients, whereas no effects on cognition were observed in a 24-week RCT (S-Connect) in mild to moderate AD patients using AD medication. Souvenaid was well-tolerated in all RCTs. In this 24-week open-label extension (OLE) study to the 24-week Souvenir II RCT, long-term safety and intake adherence of the medical food Souvenaid was evaluated. Patients with mild AD (n = 201) received Souvenaid once-daily during the OLE. Main outcome parameters were safety and product intake adherence. The memory domain z-score from a revised neuropsychological test battery was continued as exploratory parameter. Compared to the RCT, a similar (low) incidence and type of adverse events was observed, being mainly (68.3%) of mild intensity. Pooled data (RCT and OLE) showed that 48-week use of Souvenaid was well tolerated with high intake adherence (96.1%). Furthermore, a significant increase in the exploratory memory outcome was observed in both the active-active and control-active groups during Souvenaid intervention. Souvenaid use for up to 48-weeks was well tolerated with a favorable safety profile and high intake adherence. The findings in this OLE study warrant further investigation toward the long-term safety and efficacy of Souvenaid in a well-controlled, double-blind RCT.

  10. Analysis of lung function and survival in RECAP: An open-label extension study of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabel, Ulrich; Albera, Carlo; Bradford, Williamson Z; Hormel, Phil; King, Talmadge E; Noble, Paul W; Sahn, Steven A; Valeyre, Dominique; du Bois, Roland M

    2014-10-20

    RECAP is an open-label extension study evaluating pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) who completed the Phase 3 CAPACITY program. We examined the effect of pirfenidone on lung function and survival in patients who were previously randomised to the placebo group in one of the two CAPACITY studies and received pirfenidone for the first time in RECAP. Eligible patients received oral pirfenidone 2403 mg/day. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured at baseline and at weeks 12, 36, and 60. To facilitate comparison with CAPACITY outcomes, analyses were based on patients newly treated with pirfenidone in RECAP who had baseline FVC and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) values that met CAPACITY entry criteria. A total of 178 patients were included in the analysis. Among these, 16.3% experienced an FVC decline ≥10% at week 60, compared with 16.8% and 24.8%, respectively, in the CAPACITY pirfenidone (n=345) and placebo (n=347) groups. The mean change from baseline to week 60 in %FVC was -5.9%, compared with -7.0% and -9.4% in the CAPACITY pirfenidone and placebo groups. Overall survival was similar to that of pirfenidone treated patients in CAPACITY. Treatment was safe and generally well tolerated; the type and frequency of adverse events were consistent with previous clinical experience. FVC and survival outcomes in IPF patients newly treated with pirfenidone in RECAP were similar to those in the CAPACITY pirfenidone group. These data provide further evidence to support the use of pirfenidone in patients with IPF.

  11. Correlation between extension-block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Kim, Y H; Moon, K H; Choy, W S

    2018-02-01

    Extension-block pinning represents a simple and reliable surgical technique. Although this procedure is commonly performed successfully, some patients develop postoperative extension loss. To date, the relationship between extension-block Kirschner wire (K-wire) insertion angle and postoperative extension loss in mallet finger fracture remains unclear. We aimed to clarify this relationship and further evaluate how various operative and non-operative factors affect postoperative extension loss after extension-block pinning for mallet finger fracture. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate a relationship between extension block K-wire insertion angle and postoperative extension loss. The inclusion criteria were: (1) a dorsal intra-articular fracture fragment involving 30% of the base of the distal phalanx with or without volar subluxation of the distal phalanx; and (2) block K-wire insertion angle and fixation angle of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were assessed using lateral radiograph at immediate postoperative time. Postoperative extension loss was assessed by using lateral radiograph at latest follow-up. Extension-block K-wire insertion angle was defined as the acute angle between extension block K-wire and longitudinal axis of middle phalangeal head. DIP joint fixation angle was defined as the acute angle between the distal phalanx and middle phalanx longitudinal axes. Seventy-five patients were included. The correlation analysis revealed that extension-block K-wire insertion angle had a negative correlation with postoperative extension loss, whereas fracture size and time to operation had a positive correlation (correlation coefficient for extension block K-wire angle: -0.66, facture size: +0.67, time to operation: +0.60). When stratifying patients in terms of negative and positive fixation angle of the DIP joint, the independent t-test showed that mean postoperative extension loss is -3.67° and +4.54° (DIP joint fixation angles of block

  12. Replication and extension of the dual pathway model of disordered eating: The role of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Toni M; Zhou, Wanni; Dowling, Jessica; Vander Wal, Jillon S

    2016-12-01

    The dual pathway model, a theoretical model of eating disorder development, suggests that thin ideal internalization leads to body dissatisfaction which leads to disordered eating via the dual pathways of negative affect and dietary restraint. While the dual pathway model has been a valuable guide for eating disorder prevention, greater knowledge of characteristics that predict thin ideal internalization is needed. The present study replicated and extended the dual pathway model by considering the addition of fear of negative evaluation, suggestibility, rumination, and self-compassion in a sample of community women and female university students. Results showed that fear of negative evaluation and suggestibility predicted thin ideal internalization whereas rumination and self-compassion (inversely) predicted body dissatisfaction. Negative affect was predicted by fear of negative evaluation, rumination, and self-compassion (inversely). The extended model fit the data well in both samples. Analogue and longitudinal study of these constructs is warranted in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enabling the development of Community Extensions to GI-cat - the SIB-ESS-C case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, L.; Meier, N.; Boldrini, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2009-04-01

    GI-cat is a Java software package that implements discovery and access services for disparate geospatial resources. An instance of GI-cat provides a single point of service for querying and accessing remote, as well as local, heterogeneous sources of geospatial information, either through standard interfaces, or taking advantage of GI-cat advanced features, such as incremental responses, query feedback, etc. GI-cat supports a number of de-iure and de-facto standards, but can also be extended to additional community catalog/inventory services, by defining appropriate mediation components. The GI-cat and the SIB-ESS-C development teams collaborated in the development of a mediator to the Siberian Earth Science System Cluster (SIB-ESS-C), a web-based infrastructure to support the communities of environmental and Earth System research in Siberia. This activity resulted in the identification of appropriate technologies and internal mechanisms supporting the development of GI-cat extensions, that are the object of this work. GI-cat is actually built up of a modular framework of SOA components, that can be variously arranged to fit the needs of a community of users. For example, a particular GI-cat instance may be configured to provide discovery functionalities onto an OGC WMS; or to adapt a THREDDS catalog to the standard OGC CSW interface; or to merge a number of CDI repositories into a single, more efficient catalog. The flexibility of GI-cat framework is achieved thanks to its design, that follows the Tree of Responsibility (ToR) pattern and the Uniform Pipe and Filter architectural style. This approach allows the building of software blocks that can be flexibly reused and composed in multiple ways. In fact, the components that make up any GI-cat configuration all implement two common interfaces (i.e. IChainNode and ICatalogService), that support chaining one component to another . Hence, it would suffice to implement those interfaces (plus an appropriate factory

  14. Extensive disordering in long-range-ordered Cu3Au induced by severe plastic deformation studied by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline materials can be made by severe plastic deformation. In L1 2 long-range-ordered alloys, this leads to extensive disordering which influences the highly improved properties of these nanocrystalline alloys. Transmission electron microscopy methods were applied to Cu 3 Au; both diffraction contrast images and diffraction patterns reveal that disordering takes place locally. It is concluded that in addition to disordering by the refinement of the grown-in antiphase boundary domains, the formation of antiphase boundary tubes is a prominent process of disordering. The latter is facilitated by the fact that, unlike dislocations, antiphase boundary tubes can be stored at a very high density without causing long-range stresses. The local disordering indicates that the nanocrystalline structure nucleates inhomogeneously in the highly strained disordered regions

  15. Comparative Study of the Use of Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL in Projects for the Supervision of Banking Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Berríos Pagan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to make a comparative analysis of the use of Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL in the projects undertaken for the mandatory filing of banks’ financial information in the United States and the European Union. The agencies overseeing these filing requirements are the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC and the Committee of European Banking Supervisors (CEBS in the United States and the European Union, respectively. This comparative analysis is made for the following five dimensions: 1 project definition and scope; 2 planned project activities and responsibilities of stakeholders; 3 project management methodology and process; 4 progress monitoring, deadlines, and milestones; and 5 outcomes in terms of project goals and objectives.

  16. Operations planning simulation model extension study. Volume 1: Long duration exposure facility ST-01-A automated payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, D. A.; Gendiellee, R. E.; Kelly, T. M.; Giovannello, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Ground processing and operation activities for selected automated and sortie payloads are evaluated. Functional flow activities are expanded to identify payload launch site facility and support requirements. Payload definitions are analyzed from the launch site ground processing viewpoint and then processed through the expanded functional flow activities. The requirements generated from the evaluation are compared with those contained in the data sheets. The following payloads were included in the evaluation: Long Duration Exposure Facility; Life Sciences Shuttle Laboratory; Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite; Dedicated Solar Sortie Mission; Magnetic Spectrometer; and Mariner Jupiter Orbiter. The expanded functional flow activities and descriptions for the automated and sortie payloads at the launch site are presented.

  17. A Proposal for Public and Private Partnership in Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, Rayda K; Fisher, Marc L; Steffey, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    Public funding for Extension in the United States has been decreasing for many years, but farmers' need for robust information on which to make management decisions has not diminished. The current Extension funding challenges provide motivation to explore a different model for developing and delivering extension. The private sector has partnered with the public sector to fund and conduct agricultural research, but partnering on extension delivery has occurred far less frequently. The fundamental academic strength and established Extension network of the public sector combined with the ability of the private sector to encourage and deliver practical, implementable solutions has the potential to provide measurable benefits to farmers. This paper describes the current Extension climate, presents data from a survey about Extension and industry relationships, presents case studies of successful public- and private-sector extension partnerships, and proposes a framework for evaluating the state of effective partnerships. Synergistic public-private extension efforts could ensure that farmers receive the most current and balanced information available to help with their management decisions.

  18. Risk-adapted monitoring is not inferior to extensive on-site monitoring: Results of the ADAMON cluster-randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosteanu, Oana; Schwarz, Gabriele; Houben, Peggy; Paulus, Ursula; Strenge-Hesse, Anke; Zettelmeyer, Ulrike; Schneider, Anja; Hasenclever, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Background According to Good Clinical Practice, clinical trials must protect rights and safety of patients and make sure that the trial results are valid and interpretable. Monitoring on-site has an important role in achieving these objectives; it controls trial conduct at trial sites and informs the sponsor on systematic problems. In the past, extensive on-site monitoring with a particular focus on formal source data verification often lost sight of systematic problems in study procedures that endanger Good Clinical Practice objectives. ADAMON is a prospective, stratified, cluster-randomised, controlled study comparing extensive on-site monitoring with risk-adapted monitoring according to a previously published approach. Methods In all, 213 sites from 11 academic trials were cluster-randomised between extensive on-site monitoring (104) and risk-adapted monitoring (109). Independent post-trial audits using structured manuals were performed to determine the frequency of major Good Clinical Practice findings at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of audited patients with at least one major audit finding. Analysis relies on logistic regression incorporating trial and monitoring arm as fixed effects and site as random effect. The hypothesis was that risk-adapted monitoring is non-inferior to extensive on-site monitoring with a non-inferiority margin of 0.60 (logit scale). Results Average number of monitoring visits and time spent on-site was 2.1 and 2.7 times higher in extensive on-site monitoring than in risk-adapted monitoring, respectively. A total of 156 (extensive on-site monitoring: 76; risk-adapted monitoring: 80) sites were audited. In 996 of 1618 audited patients, a total of 2456 major audit findings were documented. Depending on the trial, findings were identified in 18%-99% of the audited patients, with no marked monitoring effect in any of the trials. The estimated monitoring effect is -0.04 on the logit scale with two-sided 95

  19. Evaluation of roentgenologic study of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung So

    1972-01-01

    In order to achieve more correct diagnosis of gastric lesion, further progress in the technique of diagnosis is much desired. And so, in pursuing the more ideal study, about 7,500 cases of U. G. I. studies taken in Severance Hospital in the past 29 months from May 1969 to September 1971, have been reviewed to evaluate how the following factors will affect the demonstrability of gastric lesion in upper G. I. series. (1) Introduction of air into the stomach by nasogastric tube. (2) Kinds and concentration of barium. (3) Demonstrability according to the position of the patient. (4) Use of antispasmodics. The results may be briefly summarized as follows: 1. The intubation of nasogastric tube gives discomfort temporarily to the patient: however, it has an advantage that the amount of air required for ideal insufflation of the stomach can be controlled under the fluoroscopy. 2. About concentration and type of barium. a) Mikabarium in 90% seems to give the best result in filling study, mucosal relief study and double contrast study. b) Mikabarium in higher concentration adheres to the mucosa better, thus resulting in good double contrast: however, it tends to coagulate each other in the high concentration. c) Micropaque powder of 110% solution produces good double contrast, but it has the disadvantage of making air bubbles. d) When water is given prior to barium ingestion, the anterior wall of stomach is better demonstrated with mucosal relief study. e) To get better result in contrast study, the selection of barium is important as well as rapid and proper positioning of the patient and abdominal respiratory movement. 3. Demonstrability of the stomach lesion according to the position. a) The small lesion either in pylorus or in antrum can be best demonstrated by compression technique of double contrast method in supine position. b) The mucosal relief study in prone by adequate air insufflation was proper to demonstrate the lesion of anterior wall. c) In the lesion of the

  20. Properties study of LiNbO3 lateral field excited device working on thickness extension mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Tian, Zhang; Ting-Feng, Ma; Chao, Zhang; Wen-Yan, Wang; Yan, Liu; Guan-Ping, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of thickness extension mode excited by lateral electric field on LiNbO 3 by using the extended Christoffel–Bechmann method. It finds that the lateral field excitation coupling factor for a-mode (quasi-extensional mode) reaches its maximum value of 28% on X-cut LiNbO 3 . The characteristics of a lateral field excitation device made of X-cut LiNbO 3 have been investigated and the lateral field excitation device is used for the design of a high frequency ultrasonic transducer. The time and frequency domain pulse/echo response of the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer is analysed with the modified Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model and tested using traditional pulse/echo method. A LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer with the centre frequency of 33.44 MHz and the −6 dB bandwidth of 33.8% is acquired, which is in good agreement with the results of the Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model. Further analysis suggests that the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation device has great potential in the design of broadband high frequency ultrasonic transducers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Simulation studies of the information content of muon arrival time observations of high energy extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.; Duma, M.; Badea, A. F.; Aiftimiei, C.; Rebel, M. H.; Oehlschlaeger, J.

    2001-01-01

    By extensive Monte Carlo calculations, using the air shower simulation code CORSIKA, EAS muon arrival time distributions and EAS time profiles up to 320 m distances from the shower centre have been generated, for proton, oxygen and iron induced showers using different hadronic interaction models as Monte Carlo generators. The model dependence and mass discriminating features have been scrutinized for three energy ranges, (1-1.7783) 10 15 eV, (1.-1.78) 10 16 eV and (1.78-3.16) 10 16 eV, by use of non-parametric statistical inference method applied to multidimensional distributions, correlating the EAS time quantities with different other EAS observables. The correlations of local muon arrival times with the local muon density and the shower age indicate a good mass separation quality at larger shower distances. The best discrimination was obtained by adding the correlation with N μ tr quantity. The comparison between 'local times', with reference to the first registered muon and 'global times' with reference to the arrival time of the shower core, indicates a slightly better mass discrimination in the case of muon 'global' time distributions. (authors)

  2. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants

  3. Extensive BMI Gain in Puberty is Associated with Lower Increments in Bone Mineral Density in Estonian Boys with Overweight and Obesity: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Eva; Tillmann, Vallo; Remmel, Liina; Kool, Pille; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this 3-year prospective study was to examine changes in bone mineral characteristics during pubertal maturation in boys with different BMI values at the beginning of puberty and with different BMI increments during puberty. 26 boys with overweight and obesity (OWB) and 29 normal weight boys (NWB) were studied yearly for 3 years from the age of 11 years to measure the changes in different bone mineral characteristics. The OWB group was further divided into two subgroups according to extensive or non-extensive BMI increment during 3-year period. OWB had higher (P BMC), TB BMC for height, lumbar spine (LS) BMD, and LS BMC compared to NWB. Throughout the study period, OWB gained more TB BMD (P = 0.0001), TB BMC (P = 0.0048), TB BMC for height (P = 0.0124), LS BMD (P = 0.0029), and LS BMC (P = 0.0022) compared to NWB. Also during the study period, TB BMD (P = 0.0065), TB BMC (P = 0.0141), TB BMC for height (P = 0.0199), LS BMD (P = 0.0066), LS apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (P = 0.0075), and LS BMC (P = 0.017) increased significantly less in those OWB whose BMI increased more extensively. Extensive BMI gain is associated with lower increments in bone mineral characteristics in boys with overweight and obesity. Unfavorable increment in total body fat mass and percentage during pubertal years could be one reason for that.

  4. Evaluation of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper × Rambouillet ewes mated to terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: Lamb production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, D R; Mousel, M R; Lewis, G S; Leymaster, K A; Taylor, J B

    2017-09-01

    Ewe productivity (i.e., total number or weight of lambs weaned per breeding ewe) is a key indicator of lamb production efficiency. This study compared various measures of ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance among ewes of 3 breed types mated to rams of 4 terminal-sire breed types in an extensive rangeland production system. Purebred Rambouillet ( = 212), purebred Polypay ( = 236), and crossbred Romanov-White Dorper × Rambouillet (RW-RA; = 231) ewes were produced from locally adapted Polypay and Rambouillet ewes and then annually mated to Columbia, Suffolk, Columbia × Suffolk, or Suffolk × Columbia sires for up to 4 yr, beginning at 1 yr of age. The cumulative number and weight of lambs weaned through 4 yr were greater for RW-RA (5.9 lambs and 153 kg, respectively) and Polypay ewes (4.9 lambs and 123 kg, respectively) than for Rambouillet ewes (2.9 lambs and 99 kg, respectively) and also were greater for RW-RA ewes than for Polypay ewes (all ewes, compared with Rambouillet ewes, was driven by greater lambing rates (ewes lambing per ewe exposed) as ewe lambs (87 and 77 vs. 31%, respectively; ewe lambs (1.3, 1.3, and 1.0, respectively) and adult ewes (2.1, 2.0, and 1.6, respectively). The RW-RA ewes also had greater longevity ( ewes. Lamb BW at birth and weaning in adult ewes favored less-prolific Rambouillet ewes ( ewe breed types were small and not significant ( = 0.08). Effects of sire breed type on measures of cumulative ewe productivity were not significant ( > 0.74), but Suffolk-sired lambs had the heaviest adjusted birth weights ( = 0.01) and Columbia-sired lambs tended to have the lightest adjusted weaning weights ( = 0.12). Combined effects of heterosis and additive breed effects were associated with greater lambing rates in ewe lambs, larger litters at all ages, and substantially greater number and weight of lambs weaned for Polypay and RW-RA ewes than for Rambouillet ewes.

  5. Treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis with PTH(1-84) for 36 months: treatment extension study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchetta, J.R.; Bogado, C.E.; Cisari, C.; Aslanidis, S.; Greisen, H.; Fox, J.; Lems, W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of full-length parathyroid hormone, PTH(184), treatment for up to 36 months by evaluating bone mineral density (BMD) changes, bone histomorphometric indices, and clinical fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Background: The TOP

  6. Solutions to Burnout and Retention as Perceived by County Extension Agents of the Colorado State University Extension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Benge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored solutions to the issue of burnout and retention of Extension agents. Extension agents experience burnout for reasons such as long hours, stress, and organizational factors. As Extension administration addresses job satisfaction and performance of Extension employees, burnout and retention issues identified in this study can facilitate efforts to enhance the effectiveness of a statewide Extension program. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory was the theoretical framework for this study. Researchers used the constant-comparative method of analysis to identify recurring themes from the open-ended items of an online-administered survey. Twelve primary themes emerged, including (a compensation, (b hiring practices, (c promotion and advancement within Extension, (d organizational support regarding agent development, (e organizational support regarding administration, (f organizational support regarding colleagues, (g reporting, (h recognition, (i resources, (j personnel and staffing, (k evaluation of administration and specialists, and (l workload. Results suggest that Extension administration should focus on the maintenance factors of compensation, workload, and internal promotion and advancement, as well as motivating factors, to improve retention of Extension agents.

  7. Plant life extension of nuclear power plants. No thank you? A scientific study on the influence of media and communication on the public opinion concerning nuclear power; Laufzeitverlaengerung von Atomkraftwerken. Nein, Danke.? Eine kommunikationswissenschaftliche Studie zum Einfluss medialer Kommunikation auf Einstellung gegenueber Atomkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlt, Dorothee

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of the individual use of media on attitudes towards nuclear power with focus in the run-time extension of German nuclear power plants, planned by the German government in the year 2010. The theoretical framework for explaining media effects on attitudes based on opinion research as well as on the second-level agenda setting. This approach assumes that highlighting attributes about attitude objects in the media makes them cognitively more accessible for recipients, so that these attributes are used to evaluate attitude object. In this study, arguments for and against the run-time extension were defined as attributes. For the investigation of individual media effects, this study was carried out in a two-method design to combine survey data and content analysis data on an individual level. From 16.08.2010 to 05.09.2010 the data on attitudes towards the planned run-time extension, nuclear power, energy, policy as well as individual media usage was collected in a representative telephone survey of n=551 people in Thuringia. In a quantitative content analysis the pro and contra arguments about the planned run-time extension in n=480 articles and news items, published during six months before the political decision, were analyzed. The findings of the content analysis showed that the media reported from 08.03.2010 to 05.09.2010 overall positively about the planned run-time extension and that the coverage intensity increased significantly shortly before the political decision. The main focus was on arguments regarding the efficiency and security of supply. By combining the content analysis data with the media usage data, new variables (sum and average value indices) for the specific individual media input of arguments about the run-time extension were formed. With these variables medium- and long-term media effects on attitudes towards nuclear power were tested. The results of the regression analyses showed that the individual media

  8. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in neuromyelitis optica: a prospective study of 13 Caucasian patients and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălaşa, Rodica; Maier, Smaranda; Bajko, Zoltan; Motataianu, Anca; Crişan, Alexandra; Bălaşa, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a homogenous disease that can be diagnosed by an association of clinical, neuroimaging and serological aspects. We analysed our 4 years NMO series with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) during the disease course. We included consecutive adult Caucasian patients who were diagnosed with definite NMO, or cases of NMO-IgG seropositive LETM considered as limited forms of NMO. Patients included were negative for other diseases (autoimmune, infectious, etc.). We report the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain and spine MRI, CSF, NMO-IgG, treatment, motor and visual outcome. Thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean follow-up period was 3.74 ± 1.8 years. The initial motor deficit was severe with the mean value of motor functional parameter of 4.46 ± 1 and improved at discharge to 2.53 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). With treatment, the outcome after LETM attack was good in 10 patients, with a significant improvement of the EDSS mainly upon motor deficit, while visual function had a very slight amelioration. The CSF analysis was normal in 8 cases; spinal MRI showed evidence of LETM in all patients while brain MRI was normal in 7. NMO-IgG is a biomarker for NMO that is of diagnostic value in cases of isolated LETM. LETM has a better outcome than ON in NMO Caucasians. Spinal MRI is essential for NMO diagnosis in the presence of LETM and the absence of multiple brain MRI lesions. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy reduces the frequency of attacks.

  9. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  10. Evaluation of Chitosan/Fructose Model as an Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent for Shelf Life Extension of Beef Meat During Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Mohmed S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of chitosan/fructose Maillard reaction products (CF-MRPs as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents was evaluated and applied on minced beef meat during frozen storage. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan-fructose complexes were tested. Anti-oxidant properties were measured by the DPPH, β-carotene and ABTS methods. These three methods showed the same profile of antioxidant activity. Chitosan with 4% fructose autoclaved for 45 min (CF9 showed to have the most effective antioxidant activity. It was demonstrated that the browning product exhibited antioxidant activity. For antimicrobial activity, most chitosan-fructose complexes were less effective than chitosan. Thus, MRPs derived from chitosan-sugar model system can be promoted as a novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in minced beef. Chitosan-sugar complex could be a potential alternative natural product for synthetic food additive replacement that would additionally meet consumer safety requirement.

  11. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  12. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  13. Soft real-time EPICS extensions for fast control: A case study applied to a TCV equilibrium algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Romero, J.A.; Vega, J.; Nieto, J.; Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D.; Barrera, E.; De Arcas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of a soft real-time control system based on EPICS technology. • High data throughput system control implementation. • GPU technology applied to fast control. • EPICS fast control based solution. • Fast control and data acquisition in Linux. - Abstract: For new control systems development, ITER distributes CODAC Core System that is a software package based on Linux RedHat, and includes EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as software control system solution. EPICS technology is being widely used for implementing control systems in research experiments and it is a very well tested technology, but presents important lacks to meet fast control requirements. To manage and process massive amounts of acquired data, EPICS requires additional functions such as: data block oriented transmissions, links with speed-optimized data buffers and synchronization mechanisms not based on system interruptions. This EPICS limitation turned out clearly during the development of the Fast Plant System Controller Prototype for ITER based on PXIe platform. In this work, we present a solution that, on the one hand, is completely compatible and based on EPCIS technology, and on the other hand, extends EPICS technology for implementing high performance fast control systems with soft-real time characteristics. This development includes components such as: data acquisition, processing, monitoring, data archiving, and data streaming (via network and shared memory). Additionally, it is important to remark that this system is compatible with multiple Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and is able to integrate MatLab code through MatLab engine connections. It preserves EPICS modularity, enabling system modification or extension with a simple change of configuration, and finally it enables parallelization based on data distribution to different processing components. With the objective of illustrating the presented solution in an actual

  14. Avaliação da ação extensionista em universidades católicas e comunitárias Evaluation of extension activities in catholic and communitarian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marques Pereira Bartnik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo compreender e analisar como as Universidades Católicas e Comunitárias estudadas realizam a avaliação de suas ações extensionistas. Entendemos que a avaliação do compromisso social da Ação Extensionista constitui um avanço na medida em que propicia a valorização e institucionalização da Extensão. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que em sua maioria, a avaliação da Ação Extensionista nestas Instituições é realizada de maneira informal e não concebida como um instrumento pedagógico que deveria avaliar os efeitos concretos dessas ações que se estendem à sociedade. Apesar disso, observa-se uma Extensão transformando-se em prática acadêmica interligada ao ensino e à pesquisa e significadas de aspectos que caracterizam as Instituições enquanto Católica e Comunitária.The purpose of the present article is to understand and analyze how the Catholic and Communitarian Universities perform the evaluation of their extension activities. The authors believe that the evaluation of the social commitment of these activities constitutes an advance since it values and institutionalizes Extension. The results obtained show that, in the majority of the institutions, the evaluation of the extension activities is performed informally and is not conceived as a pedagogical instrument that should evaluate the effects of these actions upon society. Nevertheless, one can observe that the Extension activities are being transformed into an academic practice in connection with education and research, with aspects that characterize the institutions as catholic and communitarian.

  15. Purdue Extension: Employee Engagement and Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Angela R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the Purdue Extension county directors' level of engagement and leadership style and to examine the relationship between these two variables. The study aimed to inform a professional development training program for all Purdue Extension county extension directors. Survey data were collected from…

  16. Trunk and hip muscle recruitment patterns during the prone leg extension following a lateral ankle sprain: A prospective case study pre and post injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Gregory J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and case presentation The prone leg extension (PLE is commonly used to identify dysfunction of muscle recruitment patterns. The prone leg extension is theorized to identify proximal muscle disturbances which are a result of distal injury or dysfunction (i.e. an ankle sprain. This case study compares the trunk and hip muscle (bilateral lower erector spine, ipsilateral hamstring and ipsilateral gluteus maximus timing during a PLE of a 27 year old female runner during a healthy state (pre ankle sprain and 2 and 8 weeks post ankle sprain. Results and discussion The gluteus maximus muscle onsets at 8 weeks post injury appeared to occur earlier compared with 2 weeks post injury. The Right Erector Spinae at 8 weeks post injury was also active earlier compared with the participant's non-injured state. A large degree of variability can be noted within trials on the same day for all muscle groups. Conclusion An acute ankle injury did not result in a delay in gluteus maximus muscle activation. The utility of the prone leg extension as a clinical and functional test is questionable due to the normal variability seen during the test and our current inability to determine what is normal and what is dysfunctional.

  17. Handling time in economic evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permsuwan, Unchalee; Guntawongwan, Kansinee; Buddhawongsa, Piyaluk

    2014-05-01

    The discount rates and time horizons used in a health technology assessment (HTA) can have a significant impact on the results, and thus the prioritization of technologies. Therefore, it is important that clear guidance be provided on the appropriate discount rates for cost and health effect and appropriate time horizons. In this paper we conduct a review of relevant case studies and guidelines and provide guidance for all researchers conducting economic evaluations of health technologies in the Thai context. A uniform discount rate of 3% is recommended for both costs and health effects in base case analyses. A sensitivity analysis should also be conducted, with a discount range of 0-6%. For technologies where the effects are likely to sustain for at least 30y ears, a rate of 4% for costs and 2% for health effects is recommended. The time horizon should be long enough to capture the full costs and effects of the programs.

  18. Avisalmvac: evaluation studies of stability and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Botus,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Pasteur Institute laboratories there was developed AVISALMVAC, a vaccine against avian Salmonella, a biological product that contains S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium bacterin, with oil adjuvant. This paper presents the results of the studies regarding the stability and toxicity evaluation of this vaccine stored under conditions recommended by the manufacturer (2-80C at the end of the period of validity. The vaccine stability was assessed by serological and histopathological analysis of samples from SPF chickens vaccinated with the product at the end of the period of validity. The study of Avisalmvac toxicity was carried out by inoculation of the product or its components on Vero cell monolayer, and the effects were microscopically recorded or by MTT test, applied at 6 days post-inoculation. Antibody titers recorded at 2 and 3 weeks post vaccination demonstrated the vaccine ability (used after an year since manufacture to induce synthesis of specific antibodies and therefore, the product stability was proven. Histopathological examinations carried out on samples taken at 18 days post vaccinationfrom the vaccination site (skeletal muscle and skin and spleen, did not show any lesions associated to vaccination with Avisalmvac. The cytotoxicity analysis made by inoculating the vaccine or its components on Vero cell monolayer and the microscopic examination did not record visible cytopathic effects for any vaccine dilutions or vaccine components. The cell metabolism evaluation by MTT assay made at 6 days after vaccine/vaccine components inoculation on Vero monolayer, shown the ability of the vaccine and oil adjuvant to stimulate cell metabolism, and a certain degree of toxicity / inhibition of dehydrogenase metabolism associated to one of emulsifier but at dilutions higher than those used in the vaccine formula.

  19. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  20. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  1. Investigating Heuristic Evaluation: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kate Haley; Bendoly, Laura

    When museum professionals speak of evaluating a web site, they primarily mean formative evaluation, and by that they primarily mean testing the usability of the site. In the for-profit world, usability testing is a multi-million dollar industry, while non-profits often rely on far too few dollars to do too much. Hence, heuristic evaluation is one…

  2. Evaluation of outcome prediction and disease extension by quantitative 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose with positron emission tomography in patients with small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, N.; Tuncel, M.; Kuzhan, O.; Alagoz, E.; Budakoglu, B.; Ozet, A.; Ozguven, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose with positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and quantitative PET parameters can predict outcome and differentiate patients with limited disease (LD) from extensive disease (ED) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We retrospectively evaluated data from 25 patients who underwent either initial staging (Group A, n 12) or restaging (Group B, n 13) by conventional imaging methods and FDG-PET according to the simplified staging scheme developed by the Veterans Administration Lung Cancer Study Group-2. FDG-PET images were both visually and quantitatively evaluated with standardized uptake value (SUV) max , SUV ave , total metabolic tumor volume (with SUV max >%50 and SUV max >2.5), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) (with SUV max >%50 and SUV max >2.5). The correlation between quantitative PET parameters, disease stages and survival were analyzed. By conventional methods 14 of 25 (56%) patients were reported to have LD and 11 of 25 (44%) had ED. FDG-PET scan upstaged 9 out of 25 (36%) and downstaged 2 out of 25 (%8) patients. Among the quantitative PET parameters, TLGs were the only PET parameters that differentiated between Group A and Group B patients. FDG-PET staging (p=0.019) could predict significant survival difference between stages on contrary to conventional staging (p=0.055). Moreover, TLG [SUV max >%50] was the only quantitative PET parameter that could predict survival (p=0.027). FDG-PET imaging is a valuable tool in the management of patients with SCLC for a more accurate staging. The use of quantitative PET parameters may have a role in prediction of stage and survival. (author)

  3. Bottom pressure, vertical acoustic round-trip travel time, and near-bottom currents data collected by Current-and-Pressure-recording Inverted Echo Sounders (CPIES), as part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS), from 26 April 2004 to 25 June 2006 in the Kuroshio Extension east of Japan (NODC Accession 0073269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains Current and Pressure recording Inverted Echo Sounder (CPIES) measurements collected during the Kuroshio Extension System Study (KESS) under...

  4. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  5. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  6. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  7. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  8. A model for assessing habitat fragmentation caused by new infrastructures in extensive territories - evaluation of the impact of the Spanish strategic infrastructure and transport plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo Quintana, S; Martín Ramos, B; Casermeiro Martínez, M A; Otero Pastor, I

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a model for evaluating the impact of planned infrastructures on species survival at the territorial scale by calculating a connectivity index. The method developed involves determining the effective distance of displacement between patches of the same habitat, simplifying earlier models so that there is no dependence on specific variables for each species. A case study is presented in which the model was used to assess the impact of the forthcoming roads and railways included in the Spanish Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan (PEIT, in its Spanish initials). This study took into account the habitats of peninsular Spain, which occupies an area of some 500,000 km(2). In this territory, the areas deemed to provide natural habitats are defined by Directive 92/43/EEC. The impact of new infrastructures on connectivity was assessed by comparing two scenarios, with and without the plan, for the major new road and railway networks. The calculation of the connectivity index (CI) requires the use of a raster methodology based on the Arc/Info geographical information system (GIS). The actual calculation was performed using a program written in Arc/Info Macro Language (AML); this program is available in FragtULs (Mancebo Quintana, 2007), a set of tools for calculating indicators of fragmentation caused by transport infrastructure (http://topografia.montes.upm.es/fragtuls.html). The indicator of connectivity proposed allows the estimation of the connectivity between all the patches of a territory, with no artificial (non-ecologically based) boundaries imposed. The model proposed appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of fragmentation caused by plans for large territories. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effective, Efficient Online Training in Cooperative Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Chin Young

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep pace with media and communications trends in education, Cooperative Extension (CE faces the need to shift from traditional face-to-face delivery to online alternatives. This exploratory study focused on evaluating the effectiveness of on-demand, interactive online training compared to its face-to-face counterpart. Targeted for CE staff and volunteers whose work impacts youth, families and communities, the design centered on the university’s cost-effective in-house technology tools. The study results make the case for online delivery as effective and efficient. Strategies for developing a process for online delivery in CE are also offered.

  10. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bartoli, Claudia; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav) has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions) and contributing factors (Pav). Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD).

  11. HRCT evaluation of microtia: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna R Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained. Results: The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied

  12. HRCT evaluation of microtia: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Aruna R; Bhalla, Ashu; Gupta, Pankaj; Goyal, Deepali; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Ramavat, Anurag; Sharma, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    To determine external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone in patients with microtia and to predict anatomic external and middle ear anomalies as well as the degree of functional hearing impairment based on clinical grades of microtia. It was a retrospective study conducted on Indian population. Fifty-two patients with microtia were evaluated for external, middle, and inner ear anomalies on HRCT of temporal bone. Clinical grading of microtia was done based on criteria proposed by Weerda et al. in 37 patients and degree of hearing loss was assessed using pure tone audiometry or brainstem-evoked response in 32 patients. Independent statistical correlations of clinical grades of micotia with both external and middle ear anomalies detected on HRCT and the degree of hearing loss were finally obtained. The external, middle, and inner ear anomalies were present in 93.1%, 74.5%, and 2.7% patients, respectively. Combined cartilaginous and bony external auditory canal atresia (EAC) was the most common anatomic abnormality in our group of microtia patients. Hypoplastic mesotympanum represented the commonest middle ear anomaly. The incidence of combined ossicular dysplasia and facial canal anomalies was lower as compared to other population groups; however, we recorded a greater incidence of cholesteatoma. Both these factors can have a substantial impact on outcome of patients planned for surgery. We found no significant association between grades of microtia and external or middle ear anomalies. Similarly, no significant association was found between lower grades of microtia (grade I and II) and degree of hearing loss. However, association between grade III microtia and degree of hearing loss was significant. A significant association between congenital cholesteatoma and degree of pneumatization of atretic plate and mastoid process not previously studied was also recorded in our study

  13. Analysis of shelf-life extension of Asiatic red spot emperor (Lethrinus lentjan) using low dose of gamma rays and evaluation of biomolecular alterations during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunith Shine, S.R.; Godwin Wesley, S.; Satheesh, S.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation, in combination with good refrigeration and handling practices, provides means to increase fish product shelf-life. Irradiation is effective in reducing microorganisms is known as a good method for inactivating pathogens in food materials. The present work focuses on the effect of the gamma radiation in aspect of finding microbiological, biochemical and sensory attribute over a period of 0 to 60 days of the storage. Variations in pH, FFA, TVBN, TMAN and TBA were observed throughout the storage period, present observation provide a possibility of irradiation treatment up to 6 kGy as a prerequisite for shelf life extension and by the SDS analysis most intense proteins were retained at the end of the cold storage

  14. Extensive genomic plasticity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed by identification and distribution studies of novel genes among clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kai; Sayeed, Sameera; Antalis, Patricia; Gladitz, John; Ahmed, Azad; Dice, Bethany; Janto, Benjamin; Dopico, Richard; Keefe, Randy; Hayes, Jay; Johnson, Sandra; Yu, Sujun; Ehrlich, Nathan; Jocz, Jennifer; Kropp, Laura; Wong, Ray; Wadowsky, Robert M; Slifkin, Malcolm; Preston, Robert A; Erdos, Geza; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z

    2006-09-01

    The distributed genome hypothesis (DGH) states that each strain within a bacterial species receives a unique distribution of genes from a population-based supragenome that is many times larger than the genome of any given strain. The observations that natural infecting populations are often polyclonal and that most chronic bacterial pathogens have highly developed mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer suggested the DGH and provided the means and the mechanisms to explain how chronic infections persist in the face of a mammalian host's adaptive defense mechanisms. Having previously established the validity of the DGH for obligate pathogens, we wished to evaluate its applicability to an opportunistic bacterial pathogen. This was accomplished by construction and analysis of a highly redundant pooled genomic library containing approximately 216,000 functional clones that was constructed from 12 low-passage clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 otorrheic isolates and 6 from other body sites. Sequence analysis of 3,214 randomly picked clones (mean insert size, approximately 1.4 kb) from this library demonstrated that 348 (10.8%) of the clones were unique with respect to all genomic sequences of the P. aeruginosa prototype strain, PAO1. Hypothetical translations of the open reading frames within these unique sequences demonstrated protein homologies to a number of bacterial virulence factors and other proteins not previously identified in P. aeruginosa. PCR and reverse transcription-PCR-based assays were performed to analyze the distribution and expression patterns of a 70-open reading frame subset of these sequences among 11 of the clinical strains. These sequences were unevenly distributed among the clinical isolates, with nearly half (34/70) of the novel sequences being present in only one or two of the individual strains. Expression profiling revealed that a vast majority of these sequences are expressed, strongly suggesting they encode functional proteins.

  15. Explanation and Elaboration Document for the STROBE-Vet Statement: Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Veterinary Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, A M; Sargeant, J M; Dohoo, I R

    2016-01-01

    The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement was first published in 2007 and again in 2014. The purpose of the original STROBE was to provide guidance for authors, reviewers and editors to improve the comprehensiveness of reporting; however, STROBE h...

  16. Empirical Testing of a Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model: An Exploratory Study of Educational Wikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun

    2010-01-01

    This study extended the technology acceptance model and empirically tested the new model with wikis, a new type of educational technology. Based on social cognitive theory and the theory of planned behavior, three new variables, wiki self-efficacy, online posting anxiety, and perceived behavioral control, were added to the original technology…

  17. Extensive Field Survey, Laboratory and Greenhouse Studies Reveal Complex Nature of Pseudomonas syringae-Associated Hazelnut Decline in Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Ram Lamichhane

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas avellanae (Pav has been reported as the causal agent of bacterial decline and bacterial canker of hazelnut in Italy and Greece, respectively. Both hazelnut diseases were reported to be similar in terms of symptoms, severity and persistence. In this study, we found that both symptomatic and asymptomatic trees in the field were colonized by Pav. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST analysis showed that Pav strains isolated during this study in Italy belong to the P. syringae phylogroup 1 and they are closely related to Pav strains previously isolated in Greece from hazelnut bacterial canker. On the other hand, strains isolated in earlier studies from hazelnut decline in Italy belong to both phylogroup 1 and 2 of P. syringae. Both phylogroup 1 strains of P. syringae from Greece and Italy are different than strains isolated in this study in terms of their capacity to excrete fluorescent pigments on different media. Despite the same plant genotype and cropping practices adopted, the incidence of hazelnut decline ranged from nearly 0 to 91% across our study sites. No disease developed on plants inoculated with Pav through wounding while leaf scar inoculations produced only mild disease symptoms. Based on our results and the previously reported correlation between pedo-climatic conditions and hazelnut decline, we conclude that hazelnut decline in central Italy could be incited by a combination of predisposing (adverse pedo-climatic conditions and contributing factors (Pav. Because this is a true decline different from "bacterial canker" described in Greece, we refer to it as hazelnut decline (HD.

  18. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  19. User contributions and public extension delivery modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high recurrent costs faced by the public extension service constraint the number of visits farmers receive. This study examined a number of extension communication channels through which farmers received farm management services/information from the public extension agent. The idea was, first, to find out the ...

  20. Economic evaluation of CISM : a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogt, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment......air traffic controllers, critical incident stress management, CISM, critical incidents, critical incident stress, cost-benefit-analysis, economic evaluation, efficiency, return on investment...

  1. Long-term tolerability and maintenance of therapeutic response to sodium oxybate in an open-label extension study in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Alegre, Cayetano; Perrot, Serge; Wang, Youyu; Guinta, Diane R; Alvarez-Horine, Sarah; Russell, Irwin

    2013-11-11

    The long-term safety and therapeutic response of sodium oxybate (SXB) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) patients were assessed for a combined period of up to 1 year in a prospective, multicenter, open-label, extension study in patients completing 1 of 2 phase 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled, 14-week trials that examined the efficacy and safety of SXB 4.5 g, SXB 6 g, and placebo for treatment of FM. This extension study comprised an additional 38 weeks of treatment and was carried out at 130 clinical sites in 7 countries. Initial entry criteria for the previous 2 double-blind clinical trials required that patients aged ≥ 18 years met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM, had a body mass index (BMI) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total scores, and other measures. Responder analyses showed that 68.8% of patients achieved ≥ 30% reduction in pain VAS and 69.7% achieved ≥ 30% reduction in FIQ total score at study endpoint. The long-term safety profile of SXB in FM patients was similar to that in the previously reported controlled clinical trials. Improvement in pain and other FM clinical domains was maintained during long-term use. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00423605.

  2. Long-term tolerability and maintenance of therapeutic response to sodium oxybate in an open-label extension study in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The long-term safety and therapeutic response of sodium oxybate (SXB) in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) patients were assessed for a combined period of up to 1 year in a prospective, multicenter, open-label, extension study in patients completing 1 of 2 phase 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled, 14-week trials that examined the efficacy and safety of SXB 4.5 g, SXB 6 g, and placebo for treatment of FM. Methods This extension study comprised an additional 38 weeks of treatment and was carried out at 130 clinical sites in 7 countries. Initial entry criteria for the previous 2 double-blind clinical trials required that patients aged ≥ 18 years met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for FM, had a body mass index (BMI) Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) total scores, and other measures. Responder analyses showed that 68.8% of patients achieved ≥ 30% reduction in pain VAS and 69.7% achieved ≥ 30% reduction in FIQ total score at study endpoint. Conclusions The long-term safety profile of SXB in FM patients was similar to that in the previously reported controlled clinical trials. Improvement in pain and other FM clinical domains was maintained during long-term use. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00423605. PMID:24286114

  3. Studies of an extensively axisymmetric rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Richard W.; Escher, William J. D.; Robinson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The present comparative performance study has established that rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems, when incorporated by essentially axisymmetric SSTO launch vehicle configurations whose conical forebody maximizes both capture-area ratio and total capture area, are capable of furnishing payload-delivery capabilities superior to those of most multistage, all-rocket launchers. Airbreathing thrust augmentation in the rocket-ejector mode of an RBCC powerplant is noted to make a major contribution to final payload capability, by comparison to nonair-augmented rocket engine propulsion systems.

  4. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...... is important for understanding the mechanism of activation and for the stability and activity of the pharmaceutical product. However, crystal structures of FVIIa in complex with TF and of truncated free FVIIa reveal different overall conformations while previous small-angle scattering studies suggest FVIIa...... causing resistance to activation, thereby emphasizing the connection between the distribution of different conformations of FVII and the mechanism of activation....

  5. Studies on sprout inhibition of potatoes and onions and shelf-life extensions of dates in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Small scale experiments were carried out with onions and potatoes to examine the effect of gamma irradiation on sprout inhibition under different storage conditions. Doses of 15 to 20 krad caused some physical damage to potatoes stored in an incubator at 4 to 10 0 C and 40 to 70% relative humidity. This damage was also observed when potatoes have been stored at room temperature. Sprouting appeared after 30 to 60 days storage. The best results were obtained when a dose of 10 to 12 krad was used. Studies on onions irradiated and stored at room temperature for ten months showed that 6 to 9 krad gave the best results, extending the storage for 10 months. No sprouting could be detected throughout the storage period. Shelf-life and organoleptic study was done on four varieties of Iraqi dates at different stages of development. The results showed that the eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation up to 270 krad and the duration of softening process (after-ripening) of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10 to 90 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. (author)

  6. Mothers in methadone treatment and their involvement with the child protection system: a replication and extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephanie; Mattick, Richard P

    2013-08-01

    Although a high level of involvement with the child protection system has been identified in families where parental substance use is a feature, not all such parents abuse or neglect their children or have contact with the child protection system. Identifying parents with substance-use histories who are able to care for their children without intervention by the child protection system, and being able to target interventions to the families who need them the most is important. This study interviewed a relatively large sample of mothers about their histories, their children and their involvement with the child protection system. We hypothesized that mothers in opioid pharmacological treatment who are involved with child protection services are different in characteristics to those mothers who are not involved. One hundred and seventy-one women, with at least one child aged under 16 years, were interviewed at nine treatment clinics providing pharmacological treatment for opioid dependence across Sydney, Australia. Just over one-third of the women were involved with child protection services at the time of interview, mostly with children in out-of-home care. Logistic regression analyses revealed that factors which significantly increased the likelihood of the mother being involved with the child protection system were: (1) having a greater number of children, (2) being on psychiatric medication, and (3) having less than daily contact with her own parents. This study replicates and extends the work of Grella, Hser, and Huang (2006) and the limited literature published to date examining the factors which contribute to some substance-using mothers becoming involved with the child protection system while others do not. The finding that mental health problems and parental supports (along with the number of children) were significantly associated with child protection system involvement in this study, indicates a need for improved interventions and the provision of

  7. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  8. Study on Extension of Standard Meteorological Data for Cities in South Korea Using ISO 15927-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeweon Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate standard meteorological data sets for each city are essential elements to assess and analyze high-performance buildings quantitatively in order to ensure that they comply with energy saving policies of the nation. ECO2, which is an assessment program of building energy in Korea, has employed meteorological data of the closest city to the target location from 13 urban meteorological data references; the employment of this program has demonstrated the ability to reflect climatic differences between cities. The present study expanded urban meteorological data to ISO TRY (International Organization for Standard Test Reference Year, an international standard methodology that can calculate the data in a relatively simple manner using observed data in Korea, as much as possible in order to reflect meteorological data, including the air temperature relevant for heating and cooling energy as well as solar radiation (cooling/heating energy for each city, that affected the assessment of building energy the most. In the present study, existing data is expanded to a show the standard meteorological data of 66 cities that can be put into the Korean assessment program (ECO2. This data considered valid meteorological data (minimum statistical period, air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and solar radiation, etc. among manned and unmanned observational data obtained from 479 locations from 2001 to 2010. For cities other than the 66 aforementioned cities, zoning was conducted to separate cities that had and did not have the standard meteorological data using a cumulative temperature density graph. In this way, meteorological data can be available in all cities, which will enable more accurate simulation assessments on building energy.

  9. Extensive innate immune gene activation accompanies brain aging, increasing vulnerability to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration: a microarray study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This study undertakes a systematic and comprehensive analysis of brain gene expression profiles of immune/inflammation-related genes in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods In a well-powered microarray study of young (20 to 59 years), aged (60 to 99 years), and AD (74 to 95 years) cases, gene responses were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and post-central gyrus. Results Several novel concepts emerge. First, immune/inflammation-related genes showed major changes in gene expression over the course of cognitively normal aging, with the extent of gene response far greater in aging than in AD. Of the 759 immune-related probesets interrogated on the microarray, approximately 40% were significantly altered in the SFG, PCG and HC with increasing age, with the majority upregulated (64 to 86%). In contrast, far fewer immune/inflammation genes were significantly changed in the transition to AD (approximately 6% of immune-related probesets), with gene responses primarily restricted to the SFG and HC. Second, relatively few significant changes in immune/inflammation genes were detected in the EC either in aging or AD, although many genes in the EC showed similar trends in responses as in the other brain regions. Third, immune/inflammation genes undergo gender-specific patterns of response in aging and AD, with the most pronounced differences emerging in aging. Finally, there was widespread upregulation of genes reflecting activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages in the aging brain, coupled with a downregulation of select factors (TOLLIP, fractalkine) that when present curtail microglial/macrophage activation. Notably, essentially all pathways of the innate immune system were upregulated in aging, including numerous complement components, genes involved in toll-like receptor signaling and inflammasome signaling, as well as genes coding for immunoglobulin (Fc) receptors and human leukocyte antigens I

  10. Extensive innate immune gene activation accompanies brain aging, increasing vulnerability to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration: a microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribbs David H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study undertakes a systematic and comprehensive analysis of brain gene expression profiles of immune/inflammation-related genes in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods In a well-powered microarray study of young (20 to 59 years, aged (60 to 99 years, and AD (74 to 95 years cases, gene responses were assessed in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and post-central gyrus. Results Several novel concepts emerge. First, immune/inflammation-related genes showed major changes in gene expression over the course of cognitively normal aging, with the extent of gene response far greater in aging than in AD. Of the 759 immune-related probesets interrogated on the microarray, approximately 40% were significantly altered in the SFG, PCG and HC with increasing age, with the majority upregulated (64 to 86%. In contrast, far fewer immune/inflammation genes were significantly changed in the transition to AD (approximately 6% of immune-related probesets, with gene responses primarily restricted to the SFG and HC. Second, relatively few significant changes in immune/inflammation genes were detected in the EC either in aging or AD, although many genes in the EC showed similar trends in responses as in the other brain regions. Third, immune/inflammation genes undergo gender-specific patterns of response in aging and AD, with the most pronounced differences emerging in aging. Finally, there was widespread upregulation of genes reflecting activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages in the aging brain, coupled with a downregulation of select factors (TOLLIP, fractalkine that when present curtail microglial/macrophage activation. Notably, essentially all pathways of the innate immune system were upregulated in aging, including numerous complement components, genes involved in toll-like receptor signaling and inflammasome signaling, as well as genes coding for immunoglobulin (Fc receptors and human

  11. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, as monotherapy or with background methotrexate, in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an open-label, long-term extension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hisashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Naonobu; Yuasa, Hirotoshi; Toyoizumi, Shigeyuki; Morishima, Yosuke; Hirose, Tomohiro; Zwillich, Samuel

    2016-01-28

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Here, tofacitinib safety and efficacy data from a long-term extension study in Japanese patients are presented. Study A3921041 was a multi-centre, open-label, long-term extension study that included Japanese patients who had participated in a prior Phase 2 or Phase 3 study of tofacitinib as monotherapy or with background methotrexate. Patients received tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily (BID) or tofacitinib 10 mg BID. Dose adjustment of tofacitinib during treatment period, and concomitant usage of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including methotrexate after week 12 were permitted. Primary endpoints were adverse events, laboratory parameters and vital signs. Secondary efficacy endpoints included American College of Rheumatology (ACR)20/50/70 response rates, Disease Activity Score (DAS)28-4(erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR))tofacitinib-treated patients, the incidence rate (patients with events per 100 patient-years) was 10.7 for serious adverse events, 3.3 for serious infections, 7.4 for herpes zoster (serious and non-serious) and 1.2 for malignancies (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer). Mean changes from baseline (start of the index study) in laboratory parameters were consistent with those seen in previously reported studies of tofacitinib. ACR20/50/70 response rates, DAS-defined remission rates and HAQ-DI scores were sustained through to study completion. Tofacitinib (with or without background methotrexate) demonstrated a stable safety profile and sustained efficacy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. The risk of herpes zoster appears to be higher in Japanese patients treated with tofacitinib than in the global population. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00661661 . Registered 7 February 2008.

  12. Extensive Evaluation of the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents Method in Predicting Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Ionic Liquids with Molecular Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil

    2018-04-12

    A conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is nowadays one of the most popular and commonly applied tools for the estimation of thermodynamic properties of complex fluids. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of the performance of this approach in calculating liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) phase diagrams in ternary systems composed of ionic liquid and two molecular compounds belonging to diverse families of chemicals (alkanes, aromatics, S/N-compounds, alcohols, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acid, esters, and water). The predictions are presented for extensive experimental database, including 930 LLE data sets and more than 9000 data points (LLE tie lines) reported for 779 unique ternary mixtures. An impact of the type of molecular binary subsystem on the accuracy of predictions is demonstrated and discussed on the basis of representative examples. The model's capability of capturing qualitative trends in the LLE distribution ratio and selectivity is also checked for a number of structural effects. Comparative analysis of two levels of quantum chemical theory (BP-TZVP-COSMO vs BP-TZVPD-FINE) for the input molecular data for COSMO-RS is presented. Finally, some general recommendations for the applicability of the model are indicated based on the analysis of the global performance as well as on the results obtained for systems relevant from the point of view of important separation problems.

  13. Delirium in the Emergency Department and Its Extension into Hospitalization (DELINEATE) Study: Effect on 6-month Function and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin H; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Liu, Xulei; Schnelle, John F; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-06-01

    The natural course and clinical significance of delirium in the emergency department (ED) is unclear. We sought to (1) describe the extent to which delirium in the ED persists into hospitalization (ED delirium duration) and (2) determine how ED delirium duration is associated with 6-month functional status and cognition. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary care, academic medical center. ED patients ≥65 years old who were admitted to the hospital. The modified Brief Confusion Assessment Method was used to ascertain delirium in the ED and hospital. Premorbid and 6-month function were determined using the Older American Resources and Services Activities of Daily Living (OARS ADL) questionnaire which ranged from 0 (completely dependent) to 28 (completely dependent). Premorbid and 6-month cognition were determined using the short form Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) which ranged from 1 to 5 (severe dementia). Multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ED delirium duration was associated with 6-month function and cognition adjusted for baseline OARS ADL and IQCODE, and other confounders. A total of 228 older ED patients were enrolled. Of the 105 patients who were delirious in the ED, 81 (77.1%) patients' delirium persisted into hospitalization. For every ED delirium duration day, the 6-month OARS ADL decreased by 0.63 points (95% CI: -1.01 to -0.24), indicating poorer function. For every ED delirium duration day, the 6-month IQCODE increased 0.06 points (95% CI: 0.01-0.10) indicating poorer cognition. Delirium in the ED is not a transient event and frequently persists into hospitalization. Longer ED delirium duration is associated with an incremental worsening of 6-month functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  15. Experimental study of the helicopter-mobile radioelectrical channel and possible extension to the satellite-mobile channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchetiere-Ciarletti, V.; Sylvain, M.; Lemenn, P.

    1994-07-01

    The use of satellite seems to be an answer to the radioelectrical covering problem for the mobile communications, particularly in the low populated areas. Frequency bands at 1.5 and 2.5 GHz have been dedicated to these future services. Satellite-mobile links will be much more affected by propagation phenomena than the existing links between satellites and fixed stations. The reasons for that are twofold: The probable use of LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit) satellites instead of GEO; such satellites will have to be received at relatively low elevation to limit their number; the use of mobile communication terminals with small and non directive antennas that must work in various environments instead of terrestrian stations located at carefully chosen places and equipped with large diameter paraboloids. These propagation phenomena mainly consist in the fading of the signal level (shadowing of the link), and a frequency selective fading due to multipath propagation. The experience run by C.R.P.E. is aimed at a better understanding of the satellite-mobile propagation channel at fixed frequency as well as on a large band. In this paper, we discuss preliminary results from a series of propagation measurements performed (by lack of any experimental satellite) on an experimental radio link at 1.45 GHz on a of 20 MHz bandwidth between a helicopter flying at a height of 2 km and a mobile receiver. The whole experiment has been run in a rural environment in Brittany (France). In a first part, we illustrate the quality of the data collected during the experiment on a typical case study and give a possible physical interpretation of the observed phenomena. Then we present statistical results concerning the various characteristics (attenuation and delay spreads) of the propagation channel. Finally, we discuss the problem of using a helicopter (flying at a height of 2 km) as a substitute for a satellite at about 1000 km and try to estimate to what extent it is possible to use the data

  16. Why do we need an extensive evaluation study of the daytime running lights DRL-regulation in the Netherlands ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeijer, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Daytime running lights will be introduced in the Netherlands in November 1990. Regulations will require drivers to switch on low beam headlights during the day. In traditional physiological research, visual perception is conceived as a passive static process. according to this, increase in

  17. Spacetime extensions Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of the existence of local extensions of spacetime is considered. It is shown that for a spacetime including an incomplete inextendible non-coiling causal geodesic curve there exists a particular C k (resp. C k- ) local extension provided that the curvature and its covariant derivatives are well behaved up to order k + 1 (resp. k) along a family of causal geodetics (around the chosen one). (R.P.) 15 refs

  18. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  19. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    -up by hospital data files, general practitioner, death certificate, and autopsy report. Revision of histopathology by a single pathologist. Main outcome measures: Survival and relapse by clinical data, stage, and type of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of AGCT was 1.37 per year per 100,000 women (95% CI: 1.08, 1.......68). The median follow-up time was 15 years and for the 79 surviving women 22 years. Stage I was found in 94% of cases. Relapse occurred in 24% of women in stage I and 100% of the other stages. Survival in stage I was 95%, 89% and 84% after 5, 10 and 20 years respectively. Increased survival of stage I......: The survival of women was better in AGCT than in epithelial ovarian tumor. Age and type of surgery, besides stage, influenced survival. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment with advancing age. At younger age less extensive surgery was associated...

  20. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Outpatient. Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, sleep/night. Non-pharmacological sleep extension. Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fasting glucose, insulin and lipids. Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; Psleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; Pattention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings have implications for the design and conduct of clinical research. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  1. Assessment of training needs of extension staff of agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified strong training needs for Edo State extension agents on communication skills (X= 4.60), planning demonstration (X=4.60), evaluation of trials (X= 4.57) and farmers training (X=4.56). The correlation analysis showed that education had significant relationship many areas of the respondents' training ...

  2. The influence of decentralization on effectiveness of extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against the background of frequent organisational changes and restructuring, often based on impulsive decisions rather than structured feasibility studies or evaluations, this article examines the influence of decentralization on the performance of an extension organization. Based on a survey of 353 respondents from ...

  3. Lesões extensas do manguito rotador: avaliação dos resultados do reparo artroscópico Extensive rotator cuff injuries: an evaluation of arthroscopic repair outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o resultado do tratamento cirúrgico das lesões extensas do manguito rotador por via de acesso artroscópica. MÉTODOS: Entre junho de 1998 e outubro de 2006 foram reavaliados 61 pacientes com lesões extensas do manguito rotador submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico por técnica artroscópica pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo do Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os pacientes com acometimento de pelo menos dois tendões ou com retração de pelo menos dois tendões até a borda da cavidade glenoidal e com no mínimo 12 meses de seguimento. RESULTADOS: Pelos critérios de avaliação da UCLA, 54 (89% pacientes tiveram resultados excelentes e bons; nenhum, regular; e sete (11%, ruins. Verificou-se índice de satisfação de 92% dos pacientes. A mobilidade articular no período pós-operatório dos pacientes passou da média de elevação de 93º para 141º, a média da rotação lateral foi de 32º para 48º e a média da rotação medial, de L1 para T10. Essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significantes. CONCLUSÃO: O reparo artroscópico das lesões extensas do manguito rotador traz resultados satisfatórios na maioria dos pacientes, com alto grau de satisfação.OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of the surgical treatment of extensive rotator cuff injuries through arthroscopy. METHODS: Between June 1998 and October 2006, 61 patients with extensive rotator cuff injuries and submitted to surgical arthroscopy technique by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Medical School were reassessed. The study included all patients with at least two tendons affected or with retraction at least on two tendons up to the glenoidal cavity edge and with at least 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: According to UCLA's evaluation criteria, 54 (89% patients

  4. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nederhof Esther

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1 easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS, a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (preadolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56, 50.8% girls, with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60, 52.3% girls were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP, intelligence (IQ, education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005

  5. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhof, Esther; Jörg, Frederike; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2012-07-02

    Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). First, extensive recruitment effort at the first

  6. Benefits of extensive recruitment effort persist during follow-ups and are consistent across age group and survey method. The TRAILS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive recruitment effort at baseline increases representativeness of study populations by decreasing non-response and associated bias. First, it is not known to what extent increased attrition occurs during subsequent measurement waves among subjects who were hard-to-recruit at baseline and what characteristics the hard-to-recruit dropouts have compared to the hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, it is unknown whether characteristics of hard-to-recruit responders in a prospective population based cohort study are similar across age group and survey method. Methods First, we compared first wave (T1) easy-to-recruit with hard-to-recruit responders of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a prospective population based cohort study of Dutch (pre)adolescents (at first wave: n = 2230, mean age = 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls), with regard to response rates at subsequent measurement waves. Second, easy-to-recruit and hard-to-recruit participants at the fourth TRAILS measurement wave (n = 1881, mean age = 19.1 (SD 0.60), 52.3% girls) were compared with fourth wave non-responders and earlier stage drop-outs on family composition, socioeconomic position (SEP), intelligence (IQ), education, sociometric status, substance use, and psychopathology. Results First, over 60% of the hard-to-recruit responders at the first wave were retained in the sample eight years later at the fourth measurement wave. Hard-to-recruit dropouts did not differ from hard-to-recruit retainers. Second, extensive recruitment efforts for the web based survey convinced a population of nineteen year olds with similar characteristics as the hard-to-recruit eleven year olds that were persuaded to participate in a school-based survey. Some characteristics associated with being hard-to-recruit (as compared to being easy-to-recruit) were more pronounced among non-responders, resembling the baseline situation (De Winter et al.2005). Conclusions First, extensive

  7. Is boundary extension emotionally selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions.

  8. Comprehensive Benefit Evaluation of the Power Distribution Network Planning Project Based on Improved IAHP and Multi-Level Extension Assessment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Chenyang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Reasonable distribution network planning is an essential prerequisite of the economics and security of the future power grid. The comprehensive benefit evaluation of a distribution network planning project can make significant contributions towards guiding decisions during the planning scheme, the optimization of the distribution network structure, and the rational use of resources. In this paper, in light of the characteristics of the power distribution network, the comprehensive benefit eva...

  9. WMC Database Evaluation. Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palounek, Andrea P. T [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.

  10. Appraisal of family doctors: an evaluation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.I.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appraisal has evolved to become a key component of workforce management. However, it is not clear from existing proposals for appraisal of doctors whether employers, health authorities or primary care organisations should take responsibility for appraisal processes. AIMS: To evaluate the

  11. An Evaluative Study of Clinical Preceptorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Nayer; Stillwell, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    A training institute to prepare nurses to serve as preceptors of undergraduate clinical experience was evaluated by focus groups of 6 preceptors, 13 students, and 2 nurse managers. Formal preceptorship training enhanced student learning and promoted positive relationships between nurse educators and practitioners. (SK)

  12. Evaluation of multi-outcome longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of intervention effects on multiple outcomes is a common scenario in clinical studies. In longitudinal studies, such evaluation is a challenge if one wishes to adequately capture simultaneous data behavior. In this situation, a common approach is to analyze each outcome separately...... conservative conclusions. We propose an alternative approach for multiplicity adjustment that incorporates dependence between outcomes, resulting in an appreciably less conservative evaluation. The ability of the proposed method to control the familywise error rate is evaluated in a simulation study...

  13. Management of remanent lifetime. Short-term benefits of the maintenance evaluation and improvement programme; Gestion de la vida remanente de instalaciones industriales. Extension de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainero Garcia, J [Empresarios Agrupados, Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    Remanent Lifetime Management, which is scientifically based on knowing the degradatory phenomena associated with aging, today allows us to optimize plant life through a long-term maintenance strategy combining preventive maintenance and condition monitoring programmes. Within a project for Remanent Lifetime Management (RLM), the determination of methods of control and mitigation of degradations due to aging depends on the programme of Maintenance Evaluation and Improvement (MEI). This programme, underpinned by the analysis of degradatory phenomena to which plant components are subjected, evaluates current maintenance practices and defines the complementary actions which would facilitate establishment of a long-term strategy to control aging. Together with this main objective of the RLM project, the MEI programme achieves short-term benefits since, right from the beginning, it offers solutions to mitigate and guard against degradations in crucial plant components, and generally sets out a programme to control aging. The MEI programme further serves as a tool to reach the final objectives of the new 10CFR50.65 rule, 'Requirements for Maintenance Programs for NPPs'. The MEI always offers the option should the Utility Owner decide to extend plant life. (author)

  14. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  15. Life extension economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithling, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Life extension economic analyses of fossil fueled power plants need the development of consistent methods which consider the capital costs associated with component replacement or repair and estimates of normal station capital expenditures over the units remaining life. In order to link capital and production costs, Niagra Mohawk Power Corp. develops most and worst cases. A most case includes capital components that would definitely need replacement or modification for life extension. The worst case scenario contains must case capital costs plus various components which may need replacement or modification. In addition, two forecasted conditions are used, base case capacity and low capacity

  16. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan; Limberis, Jason D; Pietersen, Elize; Phelan, Jody; Esmail, Aliasgar; Lesosky, Maia; Fennelly, Kevin P; te Riele, Julian; Mastrapa, Barbara; Streicher, Elizabeth M; Dolby, Tania; Abdallah, Abdallah; Ben Rached, Fathia; Simpson, John; Smith, Liezel; Gumbo, Tawanda; van Helden, Paul; Sirgel, Frederick A; McNerney, Ruth; Theron, Grant; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G; Warren, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  17. Outcomes, infectiousness, and transmission dynamics of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and home-discharged patients with programmatically incurable tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study

    KAUST Repository

    Dheda, Keertan

    2017-01-19

    Background: The emergence of programmatically incurable tuberculosis threatens to destabilise control efforts. The aim of this study was to collect prospective patient-level data to inform treatment and containment strategies. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 273 South African patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, or resistance beyond extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, were followed up over a period of 6 years. Transmission dynamics, infectiousness, and drug susceptibility were analysed in a subset of patients from the Western Cape using whole-genome sequencing (WGS; n=149), a cough aerosol sampling system (CASS; n=26), and phenotypic testing for 18 drugs (n=179). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2008, and Oct 31, 2012, we enrolled and followed up 273 patients for a median of 20·3 months (IQR 9·6-27·8). 203 (74%) had programmatically incurable tuberculosis and unfavourable outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, default, or death despite treatment with a regimen based on capreomycin, aminosalicylic acid, or both). 172 (63%) patients were discharged home, of whom 104 (60%) had an unfavourable outcome. 54 (31%) home-discharged patients had failed treatment, with a median time to death after discharge of 9·9 months (IQR 4·2-17·4). 35 (20%) home-discharged cases were smear-positive at discharge. Using CASS, six (23%) of 26 home-discharged cases with data available expectorated infectious culture-positive cough aerosols in the respirable range (<5 μm), and most reported inter-person contact with suboptimal protective mask usage. WGS identified 17 (19%) of the 90 patients (with available sequence data) that were discharged home before the diagnosis of 20 downstream cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis with almost identical sequencing profiles suggestive of community-based transmission (five or fewer single nucleotide polymorphisms different and with identical resistance-encoding mutations for 14 drugs). 11 (55%) of these downstream

  18. Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of compassion. One research question and one ...

  19. Barriers and bottlenecks : a case study of the implementation of extension policy for enabling sustainable natural resource management in Queensland, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, extension has been a support instrument used by governments and commercial interests for improving agricultural production for hundreds, if not thousands of years. The application of extension theory and practice for natural resource management (NRM) is a more recent undertaking.

  20. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  1. Scintigraphic characteristics of experimental myocardial infarct extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Wooten, N.E.; Friesinger, G.C.; Page, D.L.; Higgins, S.B.; Collins, J.C.; O'Connor, J.L.; Price, R.R.; Brill, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate scintiphotos were evaluated for diagnosing and quantitating myocardial infarct (MI) extension in sedated dogs. Infarction and extension were produced by serial left anterior descending coronary artery ligations at 0 and 48 hours. We compared serial scintiphoto data with regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) (microsphere technique) and infarct histopathology. In eight control dogs, the scintigraphic MI area was stable at 24, 48, and 72 hours. In each of 11 dogs undergoing extension, the MI area increased after the 48-hour occlusion, averaging a 48.9% increase (p < 0.001). Grossly, most extensions were mixtures of confluent necrosis and moderate (patchy) necrosis. MBF to confluent infarct tissue decreased significantly, allowing the documentation of extension by totaling the grams of newly flow-deprived tissue, but patchy infarct tissue had little flow deprivation, making it difficult to quantitate this type of extension accurately by flow criteria alone. Rarely, extension could be diagnosed using conventional histologic criteria. We concluded that the scintiphoto MI area was related quantitatively to infarct weight in both control and extension. However, it was not possible to determine that an increase in the MI scintiphoto area was an accurate predictor of the degree of extension using independent flow or pathologic criteria

  2. Analysis of haematological changes in tofacitinib-treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis across phase 3 and long-term extension studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Strand, Vibeke; Nduaka, Chudy; DeMasi, Ryan; Wallenstein, Gene; Kwok, Kenneth; Wang, Lisy

    2017-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. The aim of this analysis was to characterize changes in haematological parameters following tofacitinib treatment, and to compare changes in haemoglobin with markers of disease activity, fatigue and vitality. Changes in neutrophil counts, lymphocyte counts and haemoglobin levels were analysed in patients with RA from six phase 3 randomized controlled trials (n = 4271) of tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg bd, placebo or active comparators of up to 24 months' duration, and two long-term extension (LTE) studies (n = 4858) of tofacitinib of up to 84 months' duration. Disease activity markers included CRP and ESR. Fatigue and vitality were assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and Short Form Health Survey-36 vitality domain scores. In phase 3 studies, mean neutrophil and lymphocyte counts decreased and mean haemoglobin levels increased in all tofacitinib treatment groups. Haemoglobin levels and neutrophil counts stabilized in the LTE studies, while lymphocyte count decreases stabilized at approximately month 48. Increased haemoglobin was associated with decreased ESR and CRP levels. Clinically meaningful reductions in haemoglobin levels (⩾3 g/dl from baseline or haemoglobin ⩽7 g/dl) occurred in tofacitinib treatment, which stabilized over time in the LTE studies. Changes in haemoglobin levels, although associated with changes in ESR and CRP, were not associated with fatigue or vitality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  3. Maximum Acceptable Weight of Lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a Functional Capacity Evaluation test using free style, stoop, and squat lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; van Oostrom, S.H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting

  4. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; van Oostrom, S. H.; Duijzer, K.; van Dieën, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques - free style, stoop and squat lifting

  5. One Sample, One Shot - Evaluation of sample preparation protocols for the mass spectrometric proteome analysis of human bile fluid without extensive fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megger, D.A.; Padden, J.; Rosowski, K.; Uszkoreit, J.; Bracht, T.; Eisenacher, M.; Gerges, C.; Neuhaus, H.; Schumacher, B.; Schlaak, J.F.; Sitek, B.

    2017-01-01

    The proteome analysis of bile fluid represents a promising strategy to identify biomarker candidates for various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. However, to obtain substantive results in biomarker discovery studies large patient cohorts necessarily need to be analyzed. Consequently, this would

  6. Looking back 2005. Eleven studies evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between December 2000 and June 2002 the Netherlands Court of Audit ('Algemene Rekenkamer') carried out a study on the title subject, focusing on the effect of energy saving measures on the energy consumption per product unit in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands for the period 1994-2000, including the effect of the energy conservation policy for the period 1997-1999. In this retrospective the Court of Audit looks back at the results of eleven studies, among which the fore-mentioned study, in order to assess if and how the ministeries involved followed and implemented the recommendations of the Court of Audit [nl

  7. Long-Term Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Drisapersen in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Results from an Open-Label Extension Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M Goemans

    Full Text Available Drisapersen induces exon 51 skipping during dystrophin pre-mRNA splicing and allows synthesis of partially functional dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients with amenable mutations.This 188-week open-label extension of the dose-escalation study assessed the long-term efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of drisapersen (PRO051/GSK2402968, 6 mg/kg subcutaneously, in 12 DMD subjects. Dosing was once weekly for 72 weeks. All subjects had a planned treatment interruption (weeks 73-80, followed by intermittent dosing (weeks 81-188.Subjects received a median (range total dose of 5.93 (5.10 to 6.02 mg/kg drisapersen. After 177 weeks (last efficacy assessment, median (mean [SD] six-minute walk distance (6MWD improved by 8 (-24.5 [161] meters for the 10 subjects able to complete the 6MWD at baseline (mean age [SD]: 9.5 [1.9] years. These statistics include 2 subjects unable to complete the test at later visits and who scored "zero". When only the 8 ambulant subjects at week 177 were taken into account, a median (mean [SD] increase of 64 (33 [121] meters in 6MWD was observed. Of 7 subjects walking ≥330 m at extension baseline, 5 walked farther at week 177. Of 3 subjects walking <330 m, 2 lost ambulation, while 1 declined overall but walked farther at some visits. Over the 188 weeks, the most common adverse events were injection-site reactions, raised urinary α1-microglobulin and proteinuria. Dystrophin expression was detected in all muscle biopsies obtained at week 68 or 72.Drisapersen was generally well tolerated over 188 weeks. Possible renal effects, thrombocytopenia and injection-site reactions warrant continued monitoring. Improvements in the 6MWD at 12 weeks were sustained after 3.4 years of dosing for most patients. For a small, uncontrolled study, the outcomes are encouraging, as natural history studies would anticipate a decline of over 100 meters over a 3-year period in a comparable cohort.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01910649.

  8. QUALITY OF AN ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMME - EVALUATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of an academic study programme is evaluated by many: employees (internal evaluation and by external evaluators: experts, agencies and organisations. Internal and external evaluation of an academic programme follow written structure that resembles on one of the quality models. We believe the quality models (mostly derived from EFQM excellence model don’t fit very well into non-profit activities, policies and programmes, because they are much more complex than environment, from which quality models derive from (for example assembly line. Quality of an academic study programme is very complex and understood differently by various stakeholders, so we present dimensional evaluation in the article. Dimensional evaluation, as opposed to component and holistic evaluation, is a form of analytical evaluation in which the quality of value of the evaluand is determined by looking at its performance on multiple dimensions of merit or evaluation criteria. First stakeholders of a study programme and their views, expectations and interests are presented, followed by evaluation criteria. They are both joined into the evaluation model revealing which evaluation criteria can and should be evaluated by which stakeholder. Main research questions are posed and research method for each dimension listed.

  9. Student Evaluation of Teaching: A Case Study from School of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This paper presents a case study of an academic department's experience with evaluation. The purpose is to review the impact of student evaluation of teaching. The paper also introduces a new evaluation scoring method: the University of Zambia Staff Appraisal System (UNZASAS) method. Method: Anonymous ...

  10. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  11. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  12. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2012-02-23

    My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  13. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  14. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  15. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study ($20,575 extension)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent Peyton; Rajesh Sani

    2006-01-01

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: (1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant DE-FG03-01ER63270, and (2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 (micro)M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly

  16. Trend of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and the remaining therapeutic options: a multicenter study in Tehran, Iran over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemi, S; Douraghi, M; Adibhesami, H; Zeraati, H; Rahbar, M; Boroumand, M A; Aliramezani, A; Ghourchian, S; Mohammadzadeh, M

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive data on drug-resistant patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in developing countries is limited. We conducted a multihospital study to assess the rate and trend of drug-resistant phenotypes in Ac. baumannii using standardized definitions and to determine the remaining therapeutic options against resistant phenotypes. The 401 nonduplicate isolates were collected from six hospitals which are geographically distributed across Tehran, Iran over a 3-year period. Following PCR of bla OXA -51-like gene, susceptibility testing was performed against nine antimicrobial agent categories. Three hundred and ninety (97%) isolates were resistant to least two carbapenems; carbapenem-resistant Ac. baumannii. The majority of isolates (366, 91·3%) were extensively drug resistant (XDR) and the rest of the isolates were classified as multidrug resistant (26, 6·8%) and susceptible (9, 2·2%). The rate of XDR-AB slightly decreased from 93·8% in 2011 to 89·8% in 2013. A considerable decrease in resistance to doxycycline, minocycline and tigecycline was demonstrated. The XDR-AB isolates showed susceptibility to gentamicin (10·4%), tobramycin (23%), ampicilin-sulbactam (30·1%), minocycline (32·8%), tigecycline (10·7%), doxycycline (21·6%), colistin (100%) and polymixin B (100%). We demonstrated the rising trend of resistance to all antibiotic categories except tetracyclines and folate pathway inhibitors. We found that the treatment options against XDR-AB are extremely limited and each treatment alternative including even old, but safe, antibiotics might be considered. The high frequency of drug-resistant phenotypes including carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, multidrug-resistant, and extensively resistant has been demonstrated in Ac. baumannii isolates tested here. As the antibiotic resistance pattern of isolates varies in different geographical regions, this study can provide comprehensive information about the antibiotic resistance profile of Ac

  17. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  18. Bias During the Evaluation of Animal Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Knight

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available My recent book entitled The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments seeks to answer a key question within animal ethics, namely: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable? Or, more precisely, is it justifiable within the utilitarian cost:benefit framework that fundamentally underpins most regulations governing animal experimentation? To answer this question I reviewed more than 500 scientific publications describing animal studies, animal welfare impacts, and alternative research, toxicity testing and educational methodologies. To minimise bias I focused primarily on large-scale systematic reviews that had examined the human clinical and toxicological utility of animal studies. Despite this, Dr. Susanne Prankel recently reviewed my book in this journal, essentially accusing me of bias. However, she failed to provide any substantive evidence to refute my conclusions, let alone evidence of similar weight to that on which they are based. Those conclusions are, in fact, firmly based on utilitarian ethical reasoning, informed by scientific evidence of considerable strength, and I believe they are robust.

  19. The First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.: Proboscis Extension Reflex (PER Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. De Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of the learning process suitable for studies of conditioning using the proboscis extension reflex (PER in honey bees when bees are exposed to agrochemicals. Although procedural variations exist in the way laboratories use the PER paradigm, proboscis conditioning is widely used to investigate the influence of pesticides and repellents on honey bee learning. Despite the availability of several mathematical models of the learning process, no attempts have been made to apply a mathematical model to the learning curve in honey bees exposed to agrochemicals. Our model is based on the standard transfer function in the form Y=B3 e-B2 (X-1 +B4(1-e-B2 (X-1 where X is the trial number, Y is the proportion of correct responses, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is readiness to learn, and B4 is ability to learn. We reanalyze previously published data on the effect of several classes of agrochemicals including: (1 those that are considered harmless to bees (e.g., pymetrozine, essential oils, dicofol; (2 sublethal exposure to pesticides known to harm honey bees (e.g., coumaphos, cyfluthrin, fluvalinate, permethrin; and (3 putative repellents of honey bees (e.g., butyric acid, citronella. The model revealed additional effects not detected with standard statistical tests of significance.

  20. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  1. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  2. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  3. U.S. National and regional impacts nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovick, L.; Fletcher, T.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impacts of nuclear plant life extension on a national and regional level. Nuclear generating capacity is expected to reach 104 Gigawatts (119 units) in the 1994-1995 period. Nuclear units of the 1970 to 1980 vintage are expected to account for 96% of nuclear capacity. As operating licenses expire, a precipitous decline in nuclear capacity results, with an average of 5 gigawatts of capacity lost each year from 2010 to 2030. Without life extension, 95% of all nuclear capacity is retired between the years 2010 and 2030. Even with historically slow growth in electric demand and extensive fossil plant life extension, the need for new generating capacity in the 2010-2030 time period is eight times greater than installed nuclear capacity. Nuclear plant life extension costs and benefits were quantified under numerous scenarios using the DRI Electricity Market Model. Under a wide range of economic assumptions and investment requirements, nuclear plant life extension resulted in a net benefit to electricity consumers. The major source of net benefits from nuclear plant life extension results from the displacement of fossil-fired generating sources. In the most likely case, nuclear plant life extension provides a dollar 200 billion net savings through the year 2030. Regions with a large nuclear capacity share, newer nuclear units and relatively higher costs of alternative fuels benefit the most from life extension. This paper also discusses the importance of regulatory policies on nuclear plant life extension

  4. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  5. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

  6. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  7. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs

  8. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  9. Simulation studies for the evaluation of health information technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner; Binzer, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    It is essential for new health information technologies (IT) to undergo rigorous evaluations to ensure they are effective and safe for use in real-world situations. However, evaluation of new health IT is challenging, as field studies are often not feasible when the technology being evaluated...... is not sufficiently mature. Laboratory-based evaluations have also been shown to have insufficient external validity. Simulation studies seem to be a way to bridge this gap. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a simulation methodology, the impact of a new prototype of an electronic medication management...... system on the appropriateness of prescriptions and drugrelated activities, including laboratory test ordering or medication changes. This article presents the results of a controlled simulation study with 50 simulation runs, including ten doctors and five simulation patients, and discusses experiences...

  10. Suggesting a new paradigm for agricultural extension policy: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of approaches and functions, the study found that public sector extension in West Africa is undergoing transformation including decentralization and outsourcing extension services in the context of adopting a pluralistic system of extension delivery. While up to six models of extension are a commonly applied in the ...

  11. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb Nath, S.K.; Deb Nath, S.K.; Wong, C.H.; Deb Nath, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoro polyethers (PFPEs) are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds) are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenon affects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multi dented functional lubricants such as Ar-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  12. Study of the Thermal Decomposition of PFPEs Lubricants on a Thin DLC Film Using Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic Potential Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Deb Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs are widely used as hard disk lubricants for protecting carbon overcoat reducing friction between the hard disk interface and the head during the movement of head during reading and writing data in the hard disk. Due to temperature rise of PFPE Zdol lubricant molecules on a DLC surface, how polar end groups are detached from lubricant molecules during coating is described considering the effect of temperatures on the bond/break density of PFPE Zdol using the coarse-grained bead spring model based on finitely extensible nonlinear elastic potential. As PFPE Z contains no polar end groups, effects of temperature on the bond/break density (number of broken bonds/total number of bonds are not so significant like PFPE Zdol. Effects of temperature on the bond/break density of PFPE Z on DLC surface are also discussed with the help of graphical results. How bond/break phenomenonaffects the end bead density of PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol on DLC surface is discussed elaborately. How the overall bond length of PFPE Zdol increases with the increase of temperature which is responsible for its decomposition is discussed with the help of graphical results. At HAMR condition, as PFPE Z and PFPE Zdol are not suitable lubricant on a hard disk surface, it needs more investigations to obtain suitable lubricant. We study the effect of breaking of bonds of nonfunctional lubricant PFPE Z, functional lubricants such as PFPE Zdol and PFPE Ztetrao, and multidented functional lubricants such as ARJ-DS, ARJ-DD, and OHJ-DS on a DLC substrate with the increase of temperature when heating of all of the lubricants on a DLC substrate is carried out isothermally using the coarse-grained bead spring model by molecular dynamics simulations and suitable lubricant is selected which is suitable on a DLC substrate at high temperature.

  13. Efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, in Finnish infants up to 3 years of age: the Finnish Extension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Karvonen, Aino; Ferrante, Shannon Allen; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-11-01

    Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial (REST) enrolled nearly 70,000 infants, of whom more than 23,000 were from Finland. REST determined the efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and emergency department (ED) visits in the first year after vaccination. Finnish infants initially in REST transitioned into the Finnish Extension Study (FES), where they were followed for rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits through their second year of life and beyond. FES identified 150 (31%) additional rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases beyond those identified in REST in the Finnish participants. Overall, RV5 reduced RVGE hospitalisations and ED visits, regardless of the rotavirus serotype, by 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.8-95.9%) for up to 3.1 years following the last vaccine dose. Vaccine efficacy against combined hospitalisations and ED visits between ages 4 months to 11 months, 12 months to 23 months, and 24 months to 35 months was 93.9% (95% CI: 89.1-96.9%), 94.4% (95% CI: 90.2-97.0%), and 85.9% (95% CI: 51.6-97.2%), respectively. The reduction of hospitalisations and ED visits due to any acute gastroenteritis, rotavirus or not, was 62.4% (95% CI: 57.6-66.6%) over the entire follow-up period. The results from FES confirm that RV5 induces high and sustained protection against rotavirus-related hospitalisations and ED visits, and has a very substantial impact on all gastroenteritis-related hospitalisations and ED visits into the third year of life in Finnish children.

  14. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A.; Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  15. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  16. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  17. Evaluating the Evaluators: Comparative Study of High School Newspaper Critique Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nancy

    High school publication staffs depend on national critique services as a major means of evaluation and recognition, but most have no measure of how one critique service compares to the others, because they can afford the entry fee for only one evaluation. Thus, a study was conducted to test the validity of three major national critique…

  18. Study of the dissolution velocity of dispersed solid particles. Development of a calculation method for analyzing the kinetic curves. Extension to the study of composed kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    The dissolution of a solid in an aqueous phase is studied, the solid consisting of dispersed particles. A continuous colorimetric analysis method is developed to study the dissolution process and a two-parameter optimization method is established to investigate the kinetic curves obtained. This method is based on the differential equation dx/dt=K(1-x)sup(n). (n being the decrease in the dissolution velocity when the dissolved part increases and K a velocity parameter). The dissolution of SO 4 Cu and MnO 4 K in water and UO 3 in SO 4 H 2 is discussed. It is shown that the dissolution velocity of UO 3 is proportional to the concentration of the H + ions in the solution as far as this one is not higher than 0.25N. The study of the temperature dependence of the UO 3 dissolution reaction shows that a transition phase takes place from 25 to 65 0 C between a phase in which the dissolution is controlled by the diffusion of the H + ions and the chemical reaction at the interface and a phase in which the kinetics is only controlled by the diffusion [fr

  19. PRISMA-Children (C) and PRISMA-Protocol for Children (P-C) Extensions: a study protocol for the development of guidelines for the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of newborn and child health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Mufiza Z; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2016-04-18

    Paediatric systematic reviews differ from adult systematic reviews in several key aspects such as considerations of child tailored interventions, justifiable comparators, valid outcomes and child sensitive search strategies. Available guidelines, including PRISMA-P (2015) and PRISMA (2009), do not cover all the complexities associated with reporting systematic reviews in the paediatric population. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary structure, we aim to develop evidence-based and consensus-based PRISMA-P-C (Protocol for Children) and PRISMA-C (Children) Extensions to guide paediatric systematic review protocol and completed review reporting. This project's methodology follows published recommendations for developing reporting guidelines and involves the following six phases; (1) establishment of a steering committee representing key stakeholder groups; (2) a scoping review to identify potential Extension items; (3) three types of consensus activities including meetings of the steering committee to achieve high-level decisions on the content and methodology of the Extensions, a survey of key stakeholders to generate a list of possible items to include in the Extensions and a formal consensus meeting to select the reporting items to add to, or modify for, the Extension; (4) the preliminary checklist items generated in phase III will be evaluated against the existing evidence and reporting practices in paediatric systematic reviews; (5) extension statements and explanation and elaboration documents will provide detailed advice for each item and examples of good reporting; (6) development and implementation of effective knowledge translation of the extension checklist, and an evaluation of the Extensions by key stakeholders. This protocol was considered a quality improvement project by the Hospital for Sick Children's Ethics Committee and did not require ethical review. The resultant checklists, jointly developed with all relevant stakeholders, will be

  20. Evaluation of management information systems: A study at a further education and training college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Herselman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Management information systems (MIS are pivotal in the efficient and effective running of Further Education and Training (FET colleges. Therefore, the evaluation of MIS success is an essential spoke in the wheel of FET college success. Based on an extensive literature review it was concluded that no MIS success evaluation model for FET colleges in South Africa exists. Objectives:The main objective was to propose a MIS evaluation model and evaluation tool (questionnaire, and verify the model empirically by evaluating the MIS at a selected FET college. The supporting objectives were firstly, to identify the most appropriate MIS evaluation models from literature. Secondly, to propose a MIS evaluation model for FET colleges based on the literature. Thirdly, to develop the evaluation tool (questionnaire based on these models. Fourthly, to capture and analyse data from one FET college, in order to evaluate the performance of the MIS at the college. The final supporting objective was to evaluate the proposed model by triangulating the findings from the survey with the findings from the interviews.Method:The proposed MIS evaluation model is based on the integration of three existing MIS evaluation models. The evaluation tool was developed by combining four empirically tested questionnaires that capture the constructs in the underlying models. A survey and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection methods. The statistical tests for consistency, scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha and unidimensionality (Principal Component Analysis were applied to explore the constructs in the model.Results:Results from the empirical testing of the newly designed evaluation tool were used to refine the initial model. The qualitative data capturing and analysis added value in explaining and contextualising the quantitative findings.Conclusion: The main contribution is the SA-FETMIS success model and evaluation tool which managers can use to