Bipolarons in one-dimensional extended Peierls-Hubbard models
Sous, John; Chakraborty, Monodeep; Krems, Roman; Berciu, Mona
2017-04-01
We study two particles in an infinite chain and coupled to phonons by interactions that modulate their hopping as described by the Peierls/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. In the case of hard-core bare particles, we show that exchange of phonons generates effective nearest-neighbor repulsion between particles and also gives rise to interactions that move the pair as a whole. The two-polaron phase diagram exhibits two sharp transitions, leading to light dimers at strong coupling and the flattening of the dimer dispersion at some critical values of the parameters. This dimer (quasi)self-trapping occurs at coupling strengths where single polarons are mobile. On the other hand, in the case of soft-core particles/ spinfull fermions, we show that phonon-mediated interactions are attractive and result in strongly bound and mobile bipolarons in a wide region of parameter space. This illustrates that, depending on the strength of the phonon-mediated interactions and statistics of bare particles, the coupling to phonons may completely suppress or strongly enhance quantum transport of correlated particles. This work was supported by NSERC of Canada and the Stewart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute.
Sous, J; Chakraborty, M; Adolphs, C P J; Krems, R V; Berciu, M
2017-04-26
We study two identical fermions, or two hard-core bosons, in an infinite chain and coupled to phonons by interactions that modulate their hopping as described by the Peierls/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that exchange of phonons generates effective nearest-neighbor repulsion between particles and also gives rise to interactions that move the pair as a whole. The two-polaron phase diagram exhibits two sharp transitions, leading to light dimers at strong coupling and the flattening of the dimer dispersion at some critical values of the parameters. This dimer (quasi)self-trapping occurs at coupling strengths where single polarons are mobile. This illustrates that, depending on the strength of the phonon-mediated interactions, the coupling to phonons may completely suppress or strongly enhance quantum transport of correlated particles.
Optical Response of Polarons and Solitons in One-Dimensional Peierls--Hubbard Model
Maeshima, Nobuya; Moriya, Kosuke; Hino, Ken-ichi
2012-10-01
We investigate optical properties of polarons and solitons in one-dimensional (1D) Peierls--Hubbard model by using the density matrix renormalization group method combined with the adiabatic approximation for lattice distortion. Obtained numerical results demonstrate that there appear novel midgap peaks in optical response spectra of polarons and charged-solitons for large on-site Coulomb interaction U. The origins of these novel peaks are understood in terms of charge-transfer excitations within clusters for each states: a dimer in polarons and a pentamer in charged-solitons, both of which are located around the center of the relaxed lattice distortion.
Sous, John; Chakraborty, Monodeep; Krems, Roman; Berciu, Mona
2017-04-01
We develop a method to compute the Green's function for two particles in an infinite chain and coupled to phonons by interactions that modulate their hopping as described by the Peierls/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. The method is based on a variational approximation to the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy and is shown to agree with exact digaonalization calculations. We show that the properties of bipolarons arising in such models is qualitatively different from those of the well-studied Holstein bipolarons. In particular, we show that depending on the particle statistics, strongly bound bipolarons may or may not form. In the case of hard-core bosons, we demonstrate novel effects for dimers such as sharp transitions and self-trapping. In the case of soft-core particles/ spinfull fermions, we show that the mediated interactions lead to overscreeing of the bare Hubbard U repulsion resulting in the formation of strongly bound bipolarons. This work was supported by NSERC of Canada and the Stewart Blusson Quantum Matter Institute.
Extending reference assembly models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz
2015-01-01
The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....
Extended Fundamental Model of Resonance
Breiter, Sławomir
2003-03-01
Fundamental models are the simplest, one degree of freedom Hamiltonians that serve as a tool to understand the qualitative effects of various resonances. A new, extended fundamental model (EFM) is proposed in order to improve the classical, Andoyer type, second fundamental model (SFM). The EFM Hamiltonian differs from the SFM by the addition of a term with the third power of momentum; it depends on two free parameters. The new model is studied for the case of a first-order resonance, where up to five critical points can be present. Similarly, to the respective SFM, it admits only the saddle-node bifurcations of critical points, but its advantage lies in the capability of generating the separatrix bifurcations, known also as saddle connections. The reduction of parameters for the EFM has been performed in a way that allows the use of the model in the case of the so-called abnormal resonance.
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2017-02-14
This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.
Modeling survival data extending the cox model
Therneau, Terry M
2000-01-01
Extending the Cox Model is aimed at researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who have some exposure to traditional methods of survival analysis The emphasis is on semiparametric methods based on the proportional hazards model The inclusion of examples with SAS and S-PLUS code will make the book accessible to most working statisticians
Modeling extended lactations of dairy cows.
Vargas, B; Koops, W J; Herrero, M; Van Arendonk, J A
2000-06-01
Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17 mo), and calving to conception interval (1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 mo). Of the nine models, the diphasic model and lactation persistency model resulted in the best goodness of fit as measured by adjusted coefficient of determination, residual standard deviation, and Durbin-Watson coefficient. All other models showed less accuracy and positively correlated residuals. In extended lactations, models were also fitted using only test-day records before 305 d, which resulted in a different ranking. The diphasic model showed the best prediction of milk yield in standard and extended lactations. We concluded that the diphasic model provided accurate estimates of milk yield for standard and extended lactations. Interpretation of parameters deserves further attention because of the large variation observed. As expected, the calving to conception interval was found to have a negative effect on milk yield for cows with a standard lactation length. In extended lactations, these negative effects of pregnancy on milk yield were not observed.
Modeling the Extended Warranty: A Managerial Focus
Myung, Noah; Eger, Robert J.
2015-01-01
We provide a model of an extended warranty. To maximize profit, a producer always wants to sell with some type of warranty as opposed to selling with no warranty. The extended warranty is more likely to be provided as the consumer becomes more patient, as the producer becomes impatient, or if the likelihood of product failure does not increase too much in the extended period. We show that there is a separating equilibrium in which the high quality producers sell with warranties and the low qu...
Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2015-07-15
Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.
Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows
Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
2000-01-01
Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17
Extended Higgs sectors in radiative neutrino models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Antipin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Testable Higgs partners may be sought within the extensions of the SM Higgs sector aimed at generating neutrino masses at the loop level. We study a viability of extended Higgs sectors for two selected models of radiative neutrino masses: a one-loop mass model, providing the Higgs partner within a real triplet scalar representation, and a three-loop mass model, providing it within its two-Higgs-doublet sector. The Higgs sector in the one-loop model may remain stable and perturbative up to the Planck scale, whereas the three-loop model calls for a UV completion around 106 GeV. Additional vector-like lepton and exotic scalar fields, which are required to close one- and three-loop neutrino-mass diagrams, play a decisive role for the testability of the respective models. We constrain the parameter space of these models using LHC bounds on diboson resonances.
Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.
Zhang, G; Song, Z
2015-10-23
We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.
Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad
2013-01-01
Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....
Extended model for Richtmyer-Meshkov mix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikaelian, K O
2009-11-18
We examine four Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) experiments on shock-generated turbulent mix and find them to be in good agreement with our earlier simple model in which the growth rate h of the mixing layer following a shock or reshock is constant and given by 2{alpha}A{Delta}v, independent of initial conditions h{sub 0}. Here A is the Atwood number ({rho}{sub B}-{rho}{sub A})/({rho}{sub B} + {rho}{sub A}), {rho}{sub A,B} are the densities of the two fluids, {Delta}V is the jump in velocity induced by the shock or reshock, and {alpha} is the constant measured in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments: {alpha}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.05-0.07, {alpha}{sup spike} {approx} (1.8-2.5){alpha}{sup bubble} for A {approx} 0.7-1.0. In the extended model the growth rate beings to day after a time t*, when h = h*, slowing down from h = h{sub 0} + 2{alpha}A{Delta}vt to h {approx} t{sup {theta}} behavior, with {theta}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.25 and {theta}{sup spike} {approx} 0.36 for A {approx} 0.7. They ascribe this change-over to loss of memory of the direction of the shock or reshock, signaling transition from highly directional to isotropic turbulence. In the simplest extension of the model h*/h{sub 0} is independent of {Delta}v and depends only on A. They find that h*/h{sub 0} {approx} 2.5-3.5 for A {approx} 0.7-1.0.
Lens-focused transducer modeling using an extended KLM model.
Maréchal, Pierre; Levassort, Franck; Tran-Huu-Hue, Louis-Pascal; Lethiecq, Marc
2007-05-01
The goal of this work was to develop an extended ultrasound transducer model that would optimize the trade-off between accuracy of the calculation and computational time. The derivations are presented for a generalized transducer model, that is center frequency, pulse duration and physical dimensions are all normalized. The paper presents a computationally efficient model for lens-focused, circular (axisymmetric) single element piezoelectric ultrasound transducer. Specifically, the goal of the model is to determine the lens effect on the electro-acoustic response, both on focusing and on matching acoustic properties. The effective focal distance depends on the lens geometry and refraction index, but also on the near field limit, i.e. wavelength and source radius, and on the spectrum bandwidth of the ultrasound source. The broadband (80%) source generated by the transducer was therefore considered in this work. A new model based on a longitudinal-wave assumption is presented and the error introduced by this assumption is discussed in terms of its maximum value (16%) and mean value (5.9%). The simplified model was based on an extension of the classical KLM model for transducer structures and on the related assumptions. The validity of the implemented extended KLM model was evaluated by comparison with finite element modeling, itself previously validated analytically for the one-dimensional planar geometry considered. The pressure field was then propagated using the adequate formulation of the Rayleigh integral for both the extended KLM and finite element results. The simplified approach based on the KLM model delivered the focused response with good accuracy, and hundred-fold lower calculation time in comparison with a mode comprehensive FEM method. The trade-off between precision and time thus becomes compatible with an iterative procedure, used here for the optimization of the acoustic impedance of the lens for the chosen configuration. An experimental comparison
Extending models for two-dimensional constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren
2009-01-01
for models of two-dimensional constraints and as examples we apply it to the hard-square constraint and the no isolated bits (n.i.b) constraint. The iterative scaling can ensure that the entropy of the extension is optimized and that the entropy is increased compared to the initial model defined on 2 times 2...... elements. Application to a simple stationary model with hidden states is also outlined. For the n.i.b constraint, the initial model is based on elements defined by blocks of (1 times 2) binary symbols....
Micro dosimetry model. An extended version
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vroegindewey, C.
1994-07-01
In an earlier study a relative simple mathematical model has been constructed to simulate the energy transfer on a cellular scale and thus gain insight in the fundamental processes of BNCT. Based on this work, a more realistic micro dosimetry model is developed. The new facets of the model are: the treatment of proton recoil, the calculation of the distribution of energy depositions, and the determination of the number of particles crossing the target nucleus subdivided in place of origin. Besides these extensions, new stopping power tables for the emitted particles are generated and biased Monte Carlo techniques are used to reduce computer time. (orig.).
A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Sun
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.
Extending the prevalent consumer loyalty modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Ana Alina; Brunsø, Karen
2013-01-01
Purpose: This study addresses the role of habit strength in explaining loyalty behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses 2063 consumers’ data from a survey in Denmark and Spain, and multigroup structural equation modelling to analyse the data. The paper describes an approach employing...... the psychological meanings of the habit construct, such as automaticity, lack of awareness or very little conscious deliberation. Findings: The findings suggest that when habits start to develop and gain strength, less planning is involved, and that the loyalty behaviour sequence mainly occurs guided...... by automaticity and inertia. A new model with habit strength as a mediator between satisfaction and loyalty behaviour provides a substantial increase in explained variance in loyalty behaviour over the traditional model with intention as a mediator. Originality/value: This study contributes to the existent...
Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quinonero, Joaquin
2002-01-01
on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....
Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour
Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion
2011-01-01
A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…
Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný
2013-01-01
. Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM......Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...
Developing and Extending a Cyberinfrastructure Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Rosio
2007-11-13
Increasingly, research and education institutions are realizing the strategic value and challenge of deploying and supporting institutional cyberinfrastructure (CI). Cyberinfrastructure is composed of high performance computing systems, massive storage systems, visualization systems, and advanced networks to interconnect the components within and across institutions and research communities. CI also includes the professionals with expertise in scientific application and algorithm development and parallel systems operation. Unlike ?regular? IT infrastructure, the manner in which the components are configured and skills to do so are highly specific and specialized. Planning and coordinating these assets is a fundamental step toward enhancing an institution?s research competitiveness and return on personnel, technology, and facilities investments. Coordinated deployment of CI assets has implications across the institution. Consider the VC for Research whose new faculty in the Life Sciences are now asking for simulation systems rather than wet labs, or the Provost who lost another faculty candidate to a peer institution that offered computational support for research, or the VC for Administration who has seen a spike in power and cooling demands from many of the labs and office spaces being converted to house systems. These are just some of the issues that research institutions are wrestling with as research becomes increasingly computational, data-intensive and interdisciplinary. This bulletin will discuss these issues and will present an approach for developing a cyberinfrastructure model that was successfully developed at one institution and then deployed across institutions.
Extended models for nosocomial infection: parameter estimation and model selection.
Thomas, Alun; Khader, Karim; Redd, Andrew; Leecaster, Molly; Zhang, Yue; Jones, Makoto; Greene, Tom; Samore, Matthew
2017-10-12
We consider extensions to previous models for patient level nosocomial infection in several ways, provide a specification of the likelihoods for these new models, specify new update steps required for stochastic integration, and provide programs that implement these methods to obtain parameter estimates and model choice statistics. Previous susceptible-infected models are extended to allow for a latent period between initial exposure to the pathogen and the patient becoming themselves infectious, and the possibility of decolonization. We allow for multiple facilities, such as acute care hospitals or long-term care facilities and nursing homes, and for multiple units or wards within a facility. Patient transfers between units and facilities are tracked and accounted for in the models so that direct importation of a colonized individual from one facility or unit to another might be inferred. We allow for constant transmission rates, rates that depend on the number of colonized individuals in a unit or facility, or rates that depend on the proportion of colonized individuals. Statistical analysis is done in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to obtain a sample of parameter values from their joint posterior distribution. Cross validation, deviance information criterion and widely applicable information criterion approaches to model choice fit very naturally into this framework and we have implemented all three. We illustrate our methods by considering model selection issues and parameter estimation for data on methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance tests over 1 year at a Veterans Administration hospital comprising seven wards. © The authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Building and testing models with extended Higgs sectors
Ivanov, Igor P.
2017-07-01
Models with non-minimal Higgs sectors represent a mainstream direction in theoretical exploration of physics opportunities beyond the Standard Model. Extended scalar sectors help alleviate difficulties of the Standard Model and lead to a rich spectrum of characteristic collider signatures and astroparticle consequences. In this review, we introduce the reader to the world of extended Higgs sectors. Not pretending to exhaustively cover the entire body of literature, we walk through a selection of the most popular examples: the two- and multi-Higgs-doublet models, as well as singlet and triplet extensions. We will show how one typically builds models with extended Higgs sectors, describe the main goals and the challenges which arise on the way, and mention some methods to overcome them. We will also describe how such models can be tested, what are the key observables one focuses on, and illustrate the general strategy with a subjective selection of results.
Statistical model of stress corrosion cracking based on extended ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been discussed for decades. Here I propose a model of SCC reflecting the feature of fracture in brittle manner based on the variational principle under approximately supposed thermal equilibrium. In that model the functionals are expressed with extended forms of ...
Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juergensen, Ole
2015-06-05
In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.
Disordered Supersolids in the Extended Bose-Hubbard Model.
Lin, Fei; Maier, T A; Scarola, V W
2017-10-06
The extended Bose-Hubbard model captures the essential properties of a wide variety of physical systems including ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices, Josephson junction arrays, and certain narrow band superconductors. It exhibits a rich phase diagram including a supersolid phase where a lattice solid coexists with a superfluid. We use quantum Monte Carlo to study the supersolid part of the phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model on the simple cubic lattice. We add disorder to the extended Bose-Hubbard model and find that the maximum critical temperature for the supersolid phase tends to be suppressed by disorder. But we also find a narrow parameter window in which the supersolid critical temperature is enhanced by disorder. Our results show that supersolids survive a moderate amount of spatial disorder and thermal fluctuations in the simple cubic lattice.
Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan
1998-01-01
of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise......The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project...
Monte Carlo modelling of an extended DXA technique
Michael, G. J.; Henderson, C. J.
1998-09-01
The precision achieved in measuring bone mineral density (BMD) by commercial dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines is typically better than 1%, but accuracy is considerably worse. Errors, due to inhomogeneous distributions of fat, of up to 10% have been reported. These errors arise because the DXA technique assumes a two-component model for the human body, i.e. bone mineral and soft tissue. This paper describes an extended DXA technique that uses a three-component model of human tissue and significantly reduces errors due to inhomogeneous fat distribution. In addition to two x-ray transmission measurements, a measurement of the path length of the x-ray beam within the patient is required. This provides a third equation, i.e. where T, , and are the total, lean soft tissue, bone mineral and fatty tissue thicknesses respectively. Monte Carlo modelling was undertaken to make a comparison of the standard and extended DXA techniques in the presence of inhomogeneous fat distribution. Two geometries of varying complexity were simulated. In each case the extended DXA technique produced BMD measurements that were independent of soft tissue composition whereas the standard technique produced BMD measurements that were strongly dependent on soft tissue composition. For example, in one case, the gradients of the plots of BMD versus fractional fat content were for standard DXA and for extended DXA . In all cases the extended DXA method produced more accurate but less precise results than the standard DXA technique.
Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time
Beedle, Michael
2005-04-01
Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.
Extended period simulation (EPS) modelling of urban water ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Water distribution network was constructed, calibrated and validated for extended period simulation studies using the network's physical, operational, calibration and validation data. The model was then applied to evaluate: (i) effects of fluctuating water demand on system storage over 24 hour period and (ii) level of service ...
The one-dimensional extended Bose–Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
We use the finite-size, density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) ... excitations; other topics in quantum fluids and solids; liquid and solid helium. ..... 3. Conclusions. In conclusion, then, we have studied the complete phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended Bose–Hubbard model for mean boson density ρ= 1 by ...
The Extended Parallel Process Model: Illuminating the Gaps in Research
Popova, Lucy
2012-01-01
This article examines constructs, propositions, and assumptions of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Review of the EPPM literature reveals that its theoretical concepts are thoroughly developed, but the theory lacks consistency in operational definitions of some of its constructs. Out of the 12 propositions of the EPPM, a few have not…
Constructing Multidatabase Collections Using Extended ODMG Object Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Skehill Mark Roantree
1999-11-01
Full Text Available Collections are an important feature in database systems. They provide us with the ability to group objects of interest together, and then to manipulate them in the required fashion. The OASIS project is focused on the construction a multidatabase prototype which uses the ODMG model and a canonical model. As part of this work we have extended the base model to provide a more powerful collection mechanism, and to permit the construction of a federated collection, a collection of heterogenous objects taken from distributed data sources
Extended Cann Model for Behavioral Modeling of Envelope Tracking Power Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Larsen, Torben
2013-01-01
extending the well-known Cann model. The Cann model is extended including the modulated supply voltage Venv as a new independent variable, enhancing the AM/AM model so that it can mimic PA memory effects and defining a dynamic nonlinear AM/PM function that can model the phase distortions introduced...
General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2016-01-01
contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid......-ideally plastic material, and secondly, to extend the solution by the influence of material strain hardening. This corresponds to adding a new variable and, therefore, a new axis to the general friction model. The resulting model is presented in a combined function suitable for e.g. finite element modeling...... of friction in metal forming, where the material generally strain hardens. The extension of the model to cover strain hardening materials is validated by comparison to previously published experimental data....
Extended cox regression model: The choice of timefunction
Isik, Hatice; Tutkun, Nihal Ata; Karasoy, Durdu
2017-07-01
Cox regression model (CRM), which takes into account the effect of censored observations, is one the most applicative and usedmodels in survival analysis to evaluate the effects of covariates. Proportional hazard (PH), requires a constant hazard ratio over time, is the assumptionofCRM. Using extended CRM provides the test of including a time dependent covariate to assess the PH assumption or an alternative model in case of nonproportional hazards. In this study, the different types of real data sets are used to choose the time function and the differences between time functions are analyzed and discussed.
Phenomenological comparison of models with extended Higgs sectors
Mühlleitner, Margarete; Sampaio, Marco O. P.; Santos, Rui; Wittbrodt, Jonas
2017-08-01
Beyond the Standard Model (SM) extensions usually include extended Higgs sectors. Models with singlet or doublet fields are the simplest ones that are compatible with the ρ parameter constraint. The discovery of new non-SM Higgs bosons and the identification of the underlying model requires dedicated Higgs properties analyses. In this paper, we compare several Higgs sectors featuring 3 CP-even neutral Higgs bosons that are also motivated by their simplicity and their ability to solve some of the flaws of the SM. They are: the SM extended by a complex singlet field (CxSM), the singlet extension of the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (N2HDM), and the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric SM extension (NMSSM). In addition, we analyse the CP-violating 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (C2HDM), which provides 3 neutral Higgs bosons with a pseudoscalar admixture. This allows us to compare the effects of singlet and pseudoscalar admixtures. Through dedicated scans of the allowed parameter space of the models, we analyse the phenomenologically viable scenarios from the view point of the SM-like Higgs boson and of the signal rates of the non-SM-like Higgs bosons to be found. In particular, we analyse the effect of singlet/pseudoscalar admixture, and the potential to differentiate these models in the near future. This is supported by a study of couplings sums of the Higgs bosons to massive gauge bosons and to fermions, where we identify features that allow us to distinguish the models, in particular when only part of the Higgs spectrum is discovered. Our results can be taken as guidelines for future LHC data analyses, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, to identify specific benchmark points aimed at revealing the underlying model.
Phenomenological comparison of models with extended Higgs sectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muehlleitner, Margarete [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Sampaio, Marco O.P. [Aveiro Univ. e CIDMA (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica; Santos, Rui [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa (Portugal). ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Centro de Fisica Teorica e Computacional; Univ. do Minho, Braga (Portugal). LIP, Dept. de Fisica; Wittbrodt, Jonas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2017-03-22
Beyond the Standard Model (SM) extensions usually include extended Higgs sectors. Models with singlet or doublet fields are the simplest ones that are compatible with the ρ parameter constraint. The discovery of new non-SM Higgs bosons and the identification of the underlying model requires dedicated Higgs properties analyses. In this paper, we compare several Higgs sectors featuring 3 CP-even neutral Higgs bosons that are also motivated by their simplicity and their capability to solve some of the flaws of the SM. They are: the SM extended by a complex singlet field (C x SM), the singlet extension of the 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (N2HDM), and the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric SM extension (NMSSM). In addition, we analyse the CP-violating 2-Higgs-Doublet Model (C2HDM), which provides 3 neutral Higgs bosons with a pseudoscalar admixture. This allows us to compare the effects of singlet and pseudoscalar admixtures. Through dedicated scans of the allowed parameter space of the models, we analyse the phenomenologically viable scenarios from the view point of the SM-like Higgs boson and of the signal rates of the non-SM-like Higgs bosons to be found. In particular, we analyse the effect of singlet/pseudoscalar admixture, and the potential to differentiate these models in the near future. This is supported by a study of couplings sums of the Higgs bosons to massive gauge bosons and to fermions, where we identify features that allow us to distinguish the models, in particular when only part of the Higgs spectrum is discovered. Our results can be taken as guidelines for future LHC data analyses, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, to identify specific benchmark points aimed at revealing the underlying model.
Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borghero, F., E-mail: borghero@unica.it [Dip. Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy); Demontis, F., E-mail: fdemontis@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Pennisi, S., E-mail: spennisi@unica.it [Dip. Matematica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari (Italy)
2013-11-15
Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.
Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens
-liquid equilibria from data on binary mixtures, composed of structurally simple molecules with a single functional group. More complex is the situation with mixtures composed of structurally more complicated molecules or molecules with more than one functional group. The UNIFAC method is extended to handle...... on ideas applied to modelling of pure component properties. Chapter 2 describes the conceptual background of the approach. Three extensions of the present first-order UNIFAC model are formulated in chapter 3. These obey the Gibbs-Duhem restriction, and satisfy other traditional consistency requirements....... In chapter 4 parameters are estimated for the first-order UNIFAC model, based on which parameters are estimated for one of the second-order models described in chapter 3. The parameter estimation is based on measured binary data on around 4000 systems, covering 11 C-, H- and O-containing functional groups...
OSeMOSYS Energy Modeling Using an Extended UTOPIA Model
Lavigne, Denis
2017-01-01
The OSeMOSYS project offers open-access energy modeling to a wide audience. Its relative simplicity makes it appealing for academic research and governmental organizations to study the impacts of policy decisions on an energy system in the context of possibly severe greenhouse gases emissions limitations. OSeMOSYS is a tool that enhances the…
Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling
Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.
2016-01-01
The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioral flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of “internalist neuroscience.” A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allow us to show how (1) the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2) the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioral patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3) these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling with the world. We
Extending Primitive Spatial Data Models to Include Semantics
Reitsma, F.; Batcheller, J.
2009-04-01
Our traditional geospatial data model involves associating some measurable quality, such as temperature, or observable feature, such as a tree, with a point or region in space and time. When capturing data we implicitly subscribe to some kind of conceptualisation. If we can make this explicit in an ontology and associate it with the captured data, we can leverage formal semantics to reason with the concepts represented in our spatial data sets. To do so, we extend our fundamental representation of geospatial data in a data model by including a URI in our basic data model that links it to our ontology defining our conceptualisation, We thus extend Goodchild et al's geo-atom [1] with the addition of a URI: (x, Z, z(x), URI) . This provides us with pixel or feature level knowledge and the ability to create layers of data from a set of pixels or features that might be drawn from a database based on their semantics. Using open source tools, we present a prototype that involves simple reasoning as a proof of concept. References [1] M.F. Goodchild, M. Yuan, and T.J. Cova. Towards a general theory of geographic representation in gis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(3):239-260, 2007.
Extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Model vs QCD Sum Rules
Yamawaki, Koichi; Zakharov, V.I.
1994-01-01
We argue that the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of hadrons can be be probed and constrained in a nontrivial way via QCD sum rules. While there arise rather restrictive bounds on the strength of the effective four-fermion interaction in the vector channel, introduction of the four-fermion interaction in the pseudoscalar channel could resolve a long standing puzzle of QCD sum rules. We speculate also on possible connection between effective four-quark interactions describing the low-energy ...
An extended lattice model accounting for traffic jerk
Redhu, Poonam; Siwach, Vikash
2018-02-01
In this paper, a flux difference lattice hydrodynamics model is extended by considering the traffic jerk effect which comes due to vehicular motion of non-motor automobiles. The effect of traffic jerk has been examined through linear stability analysis and shown that it can significantly enlarge the unstable region on the phase diagram. To describe the phase transition of traffic flow, mKdV equation near the critical point is derived through nonlinear stability analysis. The theoretical findings have been verified using numerical simulation which confirms that the jerk parameter plays an important role in stabilizing the traffic jam efficiently in sensing the flux difference of leading sites.
Extending the transdiagnostic model of attachment and psychopathology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsachi eEin-Dor
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Research has suggested that high levels of attachment insecurities that are formed through interactions with significant others are associated with a general vulnerability to mental disorders. In the present paper, we extend Ein-Dor and Doron's (2015 transdiagnostic model linking attachment orientations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, to include thought disorder spectrum symptoms. Specifically, we speculate on the processes that mediate the linkage between attachment insecurities and psychosis and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD symptoms, and indicate the different contexts that might set a trajectory of one individual to one set of symptoms while another individual to a different set of symptoms.
Extending the Modelling Framework for Gas-Particle Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup
An extended Lagrangian particle tracking and combustion model for non-conventional solid fuels such as chopped straw has been developed. Based on an extension of the existing tracking techniques, shapes are based on a superelliptic equation capable of assuming forms ranging from spheres...... to cylinders, through simple parameter variation. Using a concept of aerodynamical similarity, a drag coefficient accounting for orientability as well as shape variations has been defined. The model has been applied to two isothermal testcases, where different types of particles are injected into swirling flow...... configurations. In both cases, the model performs efficiently, and indicates a pronounced difference in terms of the aerodynamic properties of the different particle shapes. For validation purposes, terminal velocity predictions of different shapes have been carried out, and compared to experimental data...
An extended differentiated optical services model for WDM optical networks
Ouyang, Yong; Zeng, Qingji; Wei, Wei
2004-04-01
The need to provide QoS-guaranteed services in the WDM optical networks is becoming increasingly important because of a variety of candidate client networks (e.g., IP, ATM, SONET/SDH) and the requirement for QoS-delivery within the transport layers. This article addresses the QoS problem and presents a framework of QoS provisioning in the WDM optical network. We first characterize the QoS problem in the WDM optical network by comparing with that in the traditional networks. Then we propose a QoS service model in the optical domain called extended differentiated optical services (E-DoS) model based on a set of optical parameters that captures the quality, the reliability and the priority of an optical connection. Each component of the E-DoS model has been analyzed in detail in this article.
Extended Nonnegative Tensor Factorisation Models for Musical Sound Source Separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derry FitzGerald
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, shift-invariant tensor factorisation algorithms have been proposed for the purposes of sound source separation of pitched musical instruments. However, in practice, existing algorithms require the use of log-frequency spectrograms to allow shift invariance in frequency which causes problems when attempting to resynthesise the separated sources. Further, it is difficult to impose harmonicity constraints on the recovered basis functions. This paper proposes a new additive synthesis-based approach which allows the use of linear-frequency spectrograms as well as imposing strict harmonic constraints, resulting in an improved model. Further, these additional constraints allow the addition of a source filter model to the factorisation framework, and an extended model which is capable of separating mixtures of pitched and percussive instruments simultaneously.
Experimental validation of the multiphase extended Leblond's model
Weisz-Patrault, Daniel
2017-10-01
Transformation induced plasticity is a crucial contribution of the simulation of several forming processes involving phase transitions under mechanical loads, resulting in large irreversible strain even though the applied stress is under the yield stress. One of the most elegant and widely used models is based on analytic homogenization procedures and has been proposed by Leblond et al. [1-4]. Very recently, a simple extension of the Leblond's model has been developed by Weisz-Patrault [8]. Several product phases are taken into account and several assumptions are relaxed in order to extend the applicability of the model. The present contribution compares experimental tests with numerical computations, in order to discuss the validity of the developed theory. Thus, experimental results extracted from the existing literature are analyzed. Results show a good agreement between measurements and theoretical computations.
Extending the cascading gravity model to lower dimensions
Hao, Peng; Stojkovic, Dejan
2014-07-01
The cascading gravity model was proposed to eliminate instabilities of the original Dvali, Gabadadze, Porrati model by embedding our 4D (where D refers to the number of space-time dimensions) Universe into a 5D brane, which is itself embedded in a 6D bulk. Thus gravity cascades from 6D down to 4D as we decrease the length scales. We show that it is possible to extend this setup to lower dimensions as well, i.e. there is a self-consistent embedding of a 3D brane into a 4D brane, which is itself embedded in a 5D bulk and so on. This extension fits well into the "vanishing dimensions" framework in which dimensions open up as we increase the length scales.
Analysis of the phase structure in extended Higgs models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seniuch, M.
2006-07-07
We study the generation of the baryon asymmetry in the context of electroweak baryogenesis in two different extensions of the Standard Model. First, we consider an effective theory, in which the Standard Model is augmented by an additional dimension-six Higgs operator. The effects of new physics beyond a cut-off scale are parameterized by this operator. The second model is the two-Higgs-doublet model, whose particle spectrum is extended by two further neutral and two charged heavy Higgs bosons. In both cases we focus on the properties of the electroweak phase transition, especially on its strength and the profile of the nucleating bubbles. After reviewing some general aspects of the electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis we derive the respective thermal effective potentials to one-loop order. We systematically study the parameter spaces, using numerical methods, and compute the strength of the phase transition and the wall thickness as a function of the Higgs masses. We find a strong first order transition for a light Higgs state with a mass up to about 200 GeV. In case of the dimension-six model the cut-off scale has to stay between 500 and 850 GeV, in the two-Higgs-doublet model one needs at least one heavy Higgs mass of 300 GeV. The wall thickness varies for both theories in the range roughly from two to fifteen, in units of the inverse critical temperature. We also estimate the size of the electron and neutron electric dipole moments, since new sources of CP violation give rise to them. In wide ranges of the parameter space we are not in conflict with the experimental bounds. Finally the baryon asymmetry, which is predicted by these models, is related to the Higgs mass and the other appropriate input parameters. In both models the measured baryon asymmetry can be achieved for natural values of the model parameters. (orig.)
Extended nonlinear feedback model for describing episodes of high inflation
Szybisz, Martín A.; Szybisz, Leszek
2017-01-01
An extension of the nonlinear feedback (NLF) formalism to describe regimes of hyper- and high-inflation in economy is proposed in the present work. In the NLF model the consumer price index (CPI) exhibits a finite time singularity of the type 1 /(tc - t) (1 - β) / β, with β > 0, predicting a blow up of the economy at a critical time tc. However, this model fails in determining tc in the case of weak hyperinflation regimes like, e.g., that occurred in Israel. To overcome this trouble, the NLF model is extended by introducing a parameter γ, which multiplies all terms with past growth rate index (GRI). In this novel approach the solution for CPI is also analytic being proportional to the Gaussian hypergeometric function 2F1(1 / β , 1 / β , 1 + 1 / β ; z) , where z is a function of β, γ, and tc. For z → 1 this hypergeometric function diverges leading to a finite time singularity, from which a value of tc can be determined. This singularity is also present in GRI. It is shown that the interplay between parameters β and γ may produce phenomena of multiple equilibria. An analysis of the severe hyperinflation occurred in Hungary proves that the novel model is robust. When this model is used for examining data of Israel a reasonable tc is got. High-inflation regimes in Mexico and Iceland, which exhibit weaker inflations than that of Israel, are also successfully described.
Neutrino Oscillations in Extended Anti-GUT Model
Froggatt, C.D.; Takanishi, Y.
2000-01-01
What we call the Anti-GUT model is extended a bit to include also right-handed neutrinos and thus make use of the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses. This model consists in assigning gauge quantum numbers to the known Weyl fermions and the three see-saw right-handed neutrinos. Each family (generation) is given its own Standard Model gauge fields and a gauge field coupled to the $B-L$ quantum number for that family alone. Further we assign a rather limited number of Higgs fields, so as to break these gauge groups down to the Standard Model gauge group and to fit, w.r.t. order of magnitude, the spectra and mixing angles of the quarks and leptons. We find a rather good fit, which for neutrino oscillations favours the small mixing angle MSW solution, although the mixing angle predicted is closest to the upper side of the uncertainty range for the measured solar neutrino mixing angle. An idea for making a ``finetuning''-principle to ``explain'' the large ratios found empirically in physics, and answer such ques...
A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-08
We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.
Phase diagram of the triangular extended Hubbard model.
Tocchio, Luca F; Gros, Claudius; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Eggert, Sebastian
2014-12-12
We study the extended Hubbard model on the triangular lattice as a function of filling and interaction strength. The complex interplay of kinetic frustration and strong interactions on the triangular lattice leads to exotic phases where long-range charge order, antiferromagnetic order, and metallic conductivity can coexist. Variational Monte Carlo simulations show that three kinds of ordered metallic states are stable as a function of nearest neighbor interaction and filling. The coexistence of conductivity and order is explained by a separation into two functional classes of particles: part of them contributes to the stable order, while the other part forms a partially filled band on the remaining substructure. The relation to charge ordering in charge transfer salts is discussed.
Extending 3D city models with legal information
Frank, A. U.; Fuhrmann, T.; Navratil, G.
2012-10-01
3D city models represent existing physical objects and their topological and functional relations. In everyday life the rights and responsibilities connected to these objects, primarily legally defined rights and obligations but also other socially and culturally established rights, are of importance. The rights and obligations are defined in various laws and it is often difficult to identify the rules applicable for a certain case. The existing 2D cadastres show civil law rights and obligations and plans to extend them to provide information about public law restrictions for land use are in several countries under way. It is tempting to design extensions to the 3D city models to provide information about legal rights in 3D. The paper analyses the different types of information that are needed to reduce conflicts and to facilitate decisions about land use. We identify the role 3D city models augmented with planning information in 3D can play, but do not advocate a general conversion from 2D to 3D for the legal cadastre. Space is not anisotropic and the up/down dimension is practically very different from the two dimensional plane - this difference must be respected when designing spatial information systems. The conclusions are: (1) continue the current regime for ownership of apartments, which is not ownership of a 3D volume, but co-ownership of a building with exclusive use of some rooms; such exclusive use rights could be shown in a 3D city model; (2) ownership of 3D volumes for complex and unusual building situations can be reported in a 3D city model, but are not required everywhere; (3) indicate restrictions for land use and building in 3D city models, with links to the legal sources.
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
Doublon dynamics in the extended Fermi-Hubbard model
Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael
2012-05-01
Two fermions occupying the same site of a lattice model with strongly repulsive Hubbard-type interaction U form a doublon, a long-living excitation, the decay of which is suppressed because of energy conservation. By means of an exact-diagonalization approach based on the Krylov-space technique, we study the dynamics of a single doublon, of two doublons, and of a doublon in the presence of two additional fermions prepared locally in the initial state of the extended Hubbard model. The time dependence of the expectation value of the double occupancy at the different sites of a large one-dimensional lattice is analyzed by perturbative arguments. In this way the spatiotemporal evolution of the doublon can be understood. The initial decay takes place on a short time scale 1/U, and the long-time average of the decayed fraction of the total double occupancy scales as 1/U2. We demonstrate how the dynamics of a doublon in the initial state is related to the spectrum of two-fermion excitations obtained from linear-response theory, we work out the difference between doublons composed of fermions vs doublons composed of bosons, and we show that despite the increase of phase space for inelastic decay processes, the stability of a doublon is enhanced by the presence of additional fermions on an intermediate time scale.
One-dimensional extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit.
Mancini, F; Mancini, F P
2008-06-01
We present the exact solution of the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit within the Green's function and equations of motion formalism. We provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the model by considering all the relevant response and correlation functions as well as thermodynamic quantities in the whole parameters space. At zero temperature we identify four phases in the plane (U,n) ( U is the on-site potential and n is the filling) and relative phase transitions as well as different types of charge ordering. These features are endorsed by investigating at T=0 the chemical potential and pertinent local correlators, the particle and double occupancy correlation functions, the entropy, and by studying the behavior in the limit T-->0 of the charge and spin susceptibilities. A detailed study of the thermodynamic quantities is also presented at finite temperature. This study evidences that a finite-range order persists for a wide range of the temperature, as shown by the behavior of the correlation functions and by the two-peak structure exhibited by the charge susceptibility and by the entropy. Moreover, the equations of motion formalism, together with the use of composite operators, allows us to exactly determine the set of elementary excitations. As a result, the density of states can be determined and a detailed analysis of the specific heat allows for identifying the excitations and for ascribing its two-peak structure to a redistribution of the charge density.
Dielectric response of modified Hubbard models with neutral-ionic and Peierls transitions.
Soos, Zoltan G; Bewick, Sharon A; Peri, Andrea; Painelli, Anna
2004-04-08
The dipole P(F) of systems with periodic boundary conditions in a static electric field F is applied to one-dimensional Peierls-Hubbard models for organic charge-transfer (CT) salts. Exact results for P(F) are obtained for finite systems of N=14 and 16 sites that are almost converged to infinite chains in deformable lattices subject to a Peierls transition. The electronic polarizability per site, alpha(el)=(partial differential P/partial differential F)0, of rigid stacks with alternating transfer integrals t(1+/-delta) diverges at the neutral-ionic transition for delta=0 but remains finite for delta>0 in dimerized chains. The Peierls or dimerization mode couples to charge fluctuations along the stack and results in large vibrational contributions alpha(vib) that are related to partial differential P/ partial differential delta and that peak sharply at the Peierls transition. The extension of P(F) to correlated electronic states yields the dielectric response kappa of models with neutral-ionic or Peierls transitions, where kappa peaks >100 are found with parameters used previously for variable ionicity rho and vibrational spectra of CT salts. The calculated kappa accounts for the dielectric response of CT salts based on substituted TTF's (tetrathiafulvalene) and substituted CA's (chloranil). The role of lattice stiffness appears clearly in models: soft systems have a Peierls instability at small rho and continuous crossover to large rho, while stiff stacks such as TTF-CA have a first-order transition with discontinuous rho that is both a neutral-ionic and Peierls transition. The transitions are associated with tuning the electronic ground state of insulators via temperature or pressure in experiments, or via model parameters in calculations. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics
Extended Hubbard model on a C{sub 20} molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin Fei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Soerensen, Erik S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kallin, Catherine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Berlinsky, A John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)
2007-11-14
The electronic correlations on a C{sub 20} molecule, as described by an extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction of strength V, are studied using quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization methods. For electron-doped C{sub 20}, it is known that pair binding arising from a purely electronic mechanism is absent within the standard Hubbard model (V = 0). Here we show that this is also the case for hole doping for 0
An Extended Production and Inspection Model with Nonrigid Demand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neng-Hui Shih
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper extends a previous production and inspection (PI model in relation to market demand that is nonrigid to consider an imperfect process that has a general hazard rate instead of a constant failure rate. Products are produced by an imperfect process that may shift randomly from the IN state to the OUT state. When the process is in the OUT state, it has a higher probability of producing a nonconforming product than when it is in the IN state. To achieve the zero defects policy, all products before delivery to the market should be inspected and the inspection order follows their production sequence. Furthermore, the inspection information from all previous products is used to decide either that the next candidate product should be inspected or that the inspection procedure for the current production lot should be terminated. When the inspection procedure is terminated, the remaining unmet demand is regarded as a shortage. An algorithm is developed to determine an optimal PI policy that minimizes the expected total cost, which includes the cost of inspection, of shortage, and of production.
Tam, Ka-Ming; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Campbell, David K.
2014-01-01
The search for realistic one-dimensional (1D) models that exhibit dominant superconducting (SC) fluctuations effects has a long history. In these 1D systems, the effects of commensurate band fillings—strongest at half-filling—and electronic repulsions typically lead to a finite charge gap and the favoring of insulating density wave ordering over superconductivity. Accordingly, recent proposals suggesting a gapless metallic state in the Holstein-Hubbard (HH) model, possibly superconducting, have generated considerable interest and controversy, with the most recent work demonstrating that the putative dominant superconducting state likely does not exist. In this paper we study a model with nonlocal electron-phonon interactions, in addition to electron-electron interactions. This model unambiguously possesses dominant superconducting fluctuations at half filling in a large region of parameter space. Using both the numerical multi-scale functional renormalization group (MFRG) for the full model and an analytic conventional renormalization group for a bosonized version of the model, we demonstrate the existence of these dominant SC fluctuations and show that they arise because the spin-charge coupling at high energies is weakened by the nonlocal electron-phonon interaction and the charge gap is destroyed by the resultant suppression of the Umklapp process. The existence of the dominant SC pairing instability in this half-filled 1D system suggests that nonlocal boson-mediated interactions may be important in the superconductivity observed in the organic superconductors.
Modeling of heavy metal salt solubility using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iliuta, Maria Cornelia; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter
2002-01-01
Solid-liquid equilibria in complex aqueous systems involving a heavy metal cation (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+) and one or more ions for which Extended UNIQUAC parameters have been published previously are modeled using the Extended UNIQUAC model. Model parameters are determined on the ...... on the basis of a data bank with more than 4, 000 experimental data points for binary and ternary aqueous systems. The parameters are generally valid in the temperature range from the freezing point to the boiling point of the respective solutions....
Thermodynamic modelling of acid gas removal from natural gas using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj
2017-01-01
Thermodynamics of natural gas sweetening process needs to be known for proper design of natural gas treating plants. Absorption with aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine is currently the most commonly used process for removal of acid gas (CO2 and H2S) impurities from natural gas. Model parameters...... for the Extended UNIQUAC model have already been determined by the same authors to calculate single acid gas solubility in aqueous MDEA. In this study, the model is further extended to estimate solubility of CO2 and H2S and their mixture in aqueous MDEA at high pressures with methane as a makeup gas....
Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Ju Han
2014-01-01
Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models.
An extended rational thermodynamics model for surface excess fluxes
Sagis, L.M.C.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we derive constitutive equations for the surface excess fluxes in multiphase systems, in the context of an extended rational thermodynamics formalism. This formalism allows us to derive Maxwell–Cattaneo type constitutive laws for the surface extra stress tensor, the surface thermal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Peter Løchte
Extended Nelson-Siegel models are widely used by e.g. practitioners and central banks to estimate current term structures of riskless zero-coupon interest rates, whereas other models such as the extended Vasicek model (a.k.a. the Hull-White model) are popular for pricing interest rate derivatives....... This paper establishes theoretical consistency between these two types of models by showing how to specify the extended Vasicek model such that its implied initial term structure curve precisely matches a given extended Nelson-Siegel specification. That is, we show how to reconcile the two classes of models...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj
2015-01-01
Aqueous MDEA is the most commonly used solvent for H2S removal from natural gas. A reliable thermodynamic model is required for the proper design of natural gas sweetening processes. In this study, a rigorous thermodynamic model is developed to represent properties of the H2S-MDEA-H2O ternary...... system. The Extended UNIQUAC model is used to represent the system behavior. The model is created based on models for the constituent binary subsystems. The developed model provides accurate representation of VLE and heat of absorption for the studied system and subsystem in the temperature range of 0...
The importance of extended high viremics in models of HIV spread in South Africa.
Armbruster, Benjamin; Beck, Ekkehard C; Waheed, Mustafa
2014-06-01
Recent studies found a substantial fraction of 'extended high viremics' among HIV-1 subtype C, the most common subtype in southern Africa. Extended high viremics are HIV infected individuals who maintain a high viral load for a longer time period than usual after the initial infection. They are more infectious during this period, and their infection progresses to full-blown AIDS and death much faster than usual. This study investigates the impact of extended high viremics on the spread of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. We develop a simple deterministic compartmental model for HIV infection that includes extended high viremics. As the available data on extended high viremics are limited, we parameterize this model using only the fraction of extended high viremics among new infections and the reduced life-span of extended high viremics. We find that without extended high viremics, the HIV prevalence in South Africa would have remained close to its 1990 level, instead of increasing to the current epidemic levels. We also find that the greater the fraction of extended high viremics among susceptibles, the greater the steady-state HIV prevalence and the more sensitive the steady-state prevalence is to the HIV transmission probability. These results suggest that extended high viremics have an impact on the HIV epidemic in South Africa; justify the need for comprehensive epidemiological studies since the current data is limited; and suggest that future models of HIV for southern Africa should explicitly model extended high viremics.
Semi-nonparametric estimation of extended ordered probit models
Mark Stewart
2002-01-01
This paper presents a semi-nonparametric estimator for a series of generalized models that nest the ordered probit model and thereby relax the distributional assumption in that model. It describes a new Stata command for fitting such models and presents an illustration of the approach. Copyright 2004 by StataCorp LP.
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
Extending Isobar Model for Kaon Photoproduction up to 16 GeV
Mart, T
2003-01-01
We extend the isobar model for kaon photoproduction to consider higher energy data by combining the model with a Regge approach. The extended model works nicely between threshold and 16 GeV. It is shown that model with crossing symmetric Born terms leads to a better description of experimental data. We use the model to calculate contributions of kaon channels to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule up to 16 GeV.
Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements
Engelsman, W.; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.
The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling
A cosmological dust model with extended f({chi}) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carranza, D.A.; Mendoza, S.; Torres, L.A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Astronomia, AP 70-264, Distrito Federal (Mexico)
2013-01-15
Introducing a fundamental constant of nature with dimensions of acceleration into the theory of gravity makes it possible to extend gravity in a very consistent manner. At the non-relativistic level a MOND-like theory with a modification in the force sector is obtained, which is the limit of a very general metric relativistic theory of gravity. Since the mass and length scales involved in the dynamics of the whole universe require small accelerations of the order of Milgrom's acceleration constant a{sub 0}, it turns out that the relativistic theory of gravity can be used to explain the expansion of the universe. In this work it is explained how to use that relativistic theory of gravity in such a way that the overall large-scale dynamics of the universe can be treated in a pure metric approach without the need to introduce dark matter and/or dark energy components. (orig.)
Extending enterprise architecture modelling with business goals and requirements
Engelsman, Wilco; Quartel, Dick; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten
2011-02-01
The methods for enterprise architecture (EA), such as The Open Group Architecture Framework, acknowledge the importance of requirements modelling in the development of EAs. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. The current modelling techniques for EA focus on the products, services, processes and applications of an enterprise. In addition, techniques may be provided to describe structured requirements lists and use cases. Little support is available however for modelling the underlying motivation of EAs in terms of stakeholder concerns and the high-level goals that address these concerns. This article describes a language that supports the modelling of this motivation. The definition of the language is based on existing work on high-level goal and requirements modelling and is aligned with an existing standard for enterprise modelling: the ArchiMate language. Furthermore, the article illustrates how EA can benefit from analysis techniques from the requirements engineering domain.
Faculty's Acceptance of Computer Based Technology: Cross-Validation of an Extended Model
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
2010-01-01
The first aim of the present study is to validate an extended technology acceptance model (TAME) on the data derived from the faculty members of a university in an ongoing, computer mediated work setting. The study extended the original TAM model by including an intrinsic motivation component--computer self efficacy. In so doing, the study…
Students Working Online for Group Projects: A Test of an Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour Model
Cheng, Eddie W. L.
2017-01-01
This study examined an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model that specified factors affecting students' intentions to collaborate online for group work. Past behaviour, past experience and actual behavioural control were incorporated in the extended TPB model. The mediating roles of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural…
Extending Growth Mixture Models Using Continuous Non-Elliptical Distributions
Wei, Yuhong; Tang, Yang; Shireman, Emilie; McNicholas, Paul D.; Steinley, Douglas L.
2017-01-01
Growth mixture models (GMMs) incorporate both conventional random effects growth modeling and latent trajectory classes as in finite mixture modeling; therefore, they offer a way to handle the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in their development. GMMs with Gaussian random effects dominate the literature. When the data are asymmetric and/or have heavier tails, more than one latent class is required to capture the observed variable distribution. Therefore, a GMM with continuous non-el...
Symbolic LTL Compilation for Model Checking: Extended Abstract
Rozier, Kristin Y.; Vardi, Moshe Y.
2007-01-01
In Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) model checking, we check LTL formulas representing desired behaviors against a formal model of the system designed to exhibit these behaviors. To accomplish this task, the LTL formulas must be translated into automata [21]. We focus on LTL compilation by investigating LTL satisfiability checking via a reduction to model checking. Having shown that symbolic LTL compilation algorithms are superior to explicit automata construction algorithms for this task [16], we concentrate here on seeking a better symbolic algorithm.We present experimental data comparing algorithmic variations such as normal forms, encoding methods, and variable ordering and examine their effects on performance metrics including processing time and scalability. Safety critical systems, such as air traffic control, life support systems, hazardous environment controls, and automotive control systems, pervade our daily lives, yet testing and simulation alone cannot adequately verify their reliability [3]. Model checking is a promising approach to formal verification for safety critical systems which involves creating a formal mathematical model of the system and translating desired safety properties into a formal specification for this model. The complement of the specification is then checked against the system model. When the model does not satisfy the specification, model-checking tools accompany this negative answer with a counterexample, which points to an inconsistency between the system and the desired behaviors and aids debugging efforts.
Extending a configuration model to find communities in complex networks
Jin, Di; He, Dongxiao; Hu, Qinghua; Baquero, Carlos; Yang, Bo
2013-09-01
Discovery of communities in complex networks is a fundamental data analysis task in various domains. Generative models are a promising class of techniques for identifying modular properties from networks, which has been actively discussed recently. However, most of them cannot preserve the degree sequence of networks, which will distort the community detection results. Rather than using a blockmodel as most current works do, here we generalize a configuration model, namely, a null model of modularity, to solve this problem. Towards decomposing and combining sub-graphs according to the soft community memberships, our model incorporates the ability to describe community structures, something the original model does not have. Also, it has the property, as with the original model, that it fixes the expected degree sequence to be the same as that of the observed network. We combine both the community property and degree sequence preserving into a single unified model, which gives better community results compared with other models. Thereafter, we learn the model using a technique of nonnegative matrix factorization and determine the number of communities by applying consensus clustering. We test this approach both on synthetic benchmarks and on real-world networks, and compare it with two similar methods. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method over competing methods in detecting both disjoint and overlapping communities.
Hazard identification by extended multilevel flow modelling with function roles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jing; Zhang, Laibin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2014-01-01
HAZOP studies are widely accepted in chemical and petroleum industries as the method for conducting process hazard analysis related to design, maintenance and operation of th e systems. In this paper, a HAZOP reasoning method based on function-oriented modelling, multilevel flow modelling (MFM...
Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions
Roth, G.; Caswell, H.
2016-01-01
1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two
Statistical model of stress corrosion cracking based on extended ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-12-01
Dec 1, 2013 ... Abstract. The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been discussed for decades. Here I propose a model of SCC reflecting the feature of fracture in brittle manner based on the vari- ational principle under approximately supposed thermal equilibrium. In that model the functionals are expressed ...
Generative probabilistic models extend the scope of inferential structure determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsson, Simon; Boomsma, Wouter; Frellsen, Jes
2011-01-01
demonstrate that the use of generative probabilistic models instead of physical forcefields in the Bayesian formalism is not only conceptually attractive, but also improves precision and efficiency. Our results open new vistas for the use of sophisticated probabilistic models of biomolecular structure...
Extended Poisson process modelling and analysis of grouped binary data.
Faddy, Malcolm J; Smith, David M
2012-05-01
A simple extension of the Poisson process results in binomially distributed counts of events in a time interval. A further extension generalises this to probability distributions under- or over-dispersed relative to the binomial distribution. Substantial levels of under-dispersion are possible with this modelling, but only modest levels of over-dispersion - up to Poisson-like variation. Although simple analytical expressions for the moments of these probability distributions are not available, approximate expressions for the mean and variance are derived, and used to re-parameterise the models. The modelling is applied in the analysis of two published data sets, one showing under-dispersion and the other over-dispersion. More appropriate assessment of the precision of estimated parameters and reliable model checking diagnostics follow from this more general modelling of these data sets. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Extended Rasch Modeling: The eRm Package for the Application of IRT Models in R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Mair
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Item response theory models (IRT are increasingly becoming established in social science research, particularly in the analysis of performance or attitudinal data in psychology, education, medicine, marketing and other fields where testing is relevant. We propose the R package eRm (extended Rasch modeling for computing Rasch models and several extensions. A main characteristic of some IRT models, the Rasch model being the most prominent, concerns the separation of two kinds of parameters, one that describes qualities of the subject under investigation, and the other relates to qualities of the situation under which the response of a subject is observed. Using conditional maximum likelihood (CML estimation both types of parameters may be estimated independently from each other. IRT models are well suited to cope with dichotomous and polytomous responses, where the response categories may be unordered as well as ordered. The incorporation of linear structures allows for modeling the effects of covariates and enables the analysis of repeated categorical measurements. The eRm package fits the following models: the Rasch model, the rating scale model (RSM, and the partial credit model (PCM as well as linear reparameterizations through covariate structures like the linear logistic test model (LLTM, the linear rating scale model (LRSM, and the linear partial credit model (LPCM. We use an unitary, efficient CML approach to estimate the item parameters and their standard errors. Graphical and numeric tools for assessing goodness-of-fit are provided.
Standard State Space Models of Unawareness (Extended Abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Fritz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The impossibility theorem of Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini has been thought to demonstrate that standard state-space models cannot be used to represent unawareness. We first show that Dekel, Lipman and Rustichini do not establish this claim. We then distinguish three notions of awareness, and argue that although one of them may not be adequately modeled using standard state spaces, there is no reason to think that standard state spaces cannot provide models of the other two notions. In fact, standard space models of these forms of awareness are attractively simple. They allow us to prove completeness and decidability results with ease, to carry over standard techniques from decision theory, and to add propositional quantifiers straightforwardly.
Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2017-01-01
This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.
A Proof Theory for Model Checking: An Extended Abstract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quentin Heath
2017-01-01
Full Text Available While model checking has often been considered as a practical alternative to building formal proofs, we argue here that the theory of sequent calculus proofs can be used to provide an appealing foundation for model checking. Since the emphasis of model checking is on establishing the truth of a property in a model, we rely on the proof theoretic notion of additive inference rules, since such rules allow provability to directly describe truth conditions. Unfortunately, the additive treatment of quantifiers requires inference rules to have infinite sets of premises and the additive treatment of model descriptions provides no natural notion of state exploration. By employing a focused proof system, it is possible to construct large scale, synthetic rules that also qualify as additive but contain elements of multiplicative inference. These additive synthetic rules—essentially rules built from the description of a model—allow a direct treatment of state exploration. This proof theoretic framework provides a natural treatment of reachability and non-reachability problems, as well as tabled deduction, bisimulation, and winning strategies.
Extending the LCDM model through shear-free anisotropies
Pereira, Thiago S
2016-01-01
If the spacetime metric has anisotropic spatial curvature, one can afford to expand the universe isotropically, provided that the energy-momentum tensor satisfy a certain con- straint. This leads to the so-called shear-free metrics, which have the interesting property of violating the cosmological principle while still preserving the isotropy of the cosmic mi- crowave background (CMB) radiation. In this work we show that shear-free cosmologies correspond to an attractor solution in the space of models with anisotropic spatial curva- ture. Through a rigorous definition of linear perturbation theory in these spacetimes, we show that shear-free models represent a viable alternative to describe the large-scale evo- lution of the universe, leading, in particular, to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Alternatively, we discuss some specific signatures that shear-free models would imprint on the temperature spectrum of CMB.
Extending the dimensionality of flatland with attribute view probabilistic models
Neufeld, Eric; Bickis, Mikelis; Grant, Kevin
2008-01-01
In much of Bertin's Semiology of Graphics, marks representing individuals are arranged on paper according to their various attributes (components). Paper and computer monitors can conveniently map two attributes to width and height, and can map other attributes into nonspatial dimensions such as texture, or colour. Good visualizations exploit the human perceptual apparatus so that key relationships are quickly detected as interesting patterns. Graphical models take a somewhat dual approach with respect to the original information. Components, rather than individuals, are represented as marks. Links between marks represent conceptually simple, easily computable, and typically probabilistic relationships of possibly varying strength, and the viewer studies the diagram to discover deeper relationships. Although visually annotated graphical models have been around for almost a century, they have not been widely used. We argue that they have the potential to represent multivariate data as generically as pie charts represent univariate data. The present work suggests a semiology for graphical models, and discusses the consequences for information visualization.
Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model
Hwang, Jaekwang
2017-01-01
Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.
Extending MBI Model using ITIL and COBIT Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sona Karkoskova
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Most organizations today operate in a highly complex and competitive business environment and need to be able to react to rapidly changing market conditions. IT management frameworks are widely used to provide effective support for business objectives through aligning IT with business and optimizing the use of IT resources. In this paper we analyze three IT management frameworks (ITIL, COBIT and MBI with the objective to identify the relationships between these frameworks, and mapping ITIL and COBIT processes to MBI tasks. As a result of this analysis we propose extensions to the MBI model to incorporate IT Performance Management and a Capability Maturity Model.
Experimental validation of extended NO and soot model for advanced HD diesel engine combustion
Seykens, X.L.J.; Baert, R.S.G.; Somers, L.M.T.; Willems, F.P.T.
2009-01-01
A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50%), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at
Charged excitons in doped extended Hubbard model systems
van den Brink, J.; Eder, R; Sawatzky, G.A
1997-01-01
We show that the charge transfer excitons in a Hubbard model system including nearest-neighbor Coulomb interactions effectively attain some charge in doped systems and become visible in photoelectron and inverse photoelectron spectroscopies. This shows that the description of a doped system by an
An extended topological model for binary phosphate glasses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hermansen, Christian; Rodrigues, B.P.; Wondraczek, L.
2014-01-01
the model reduces to classical constraint counting. The constraints on the modifying cations are linear constraints to first neighbor NBOs, and all angular constraints are broken as expected for ionic bonding. For small modifying cations, such as Li+, the linear constraints are almost fully intact...
Extended Langmuir model fitting to the filter column adsorption data ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Leachate samples collected at different depths of WQD column were analyzed for concentrations of zinc and copper ions using atomic absorption spectrometer. The removal efficiency was around 94% and 92% for zinc and copper respectively using column depth of 1 M at a flow rate of 12 ml/min. The adsorption model ...
Searches for Neutral Higgs Bosons in Extended Models
Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M
2004-01-01
Searches for neutral Higgs bosons produced at LEP in association with Z bosons, in pairs and in the Yukawa process are presented in this paper. Higgs boson decays into b quarks, tau leptons, or other Higgs bosons are considered, giving rise to four-b, four-b+jets, six-b and four-tau final states, as well as mixed modes with b quarks and tau leptons. The whole mass domain kinematically accessible at LEP in these topologies is searched. The analysed data set covers both the LEP1 and LEP2 energy ranges and exploits most of the luminosity recorded by the DELPHI experiment. No convincing evidence for a signal is found, and results are presented in the form of mass-dependent upper bounds on coupling factors (in units of model-independent reference cross-sections) for all processes, allowing interpretation of the data in a large class of models.
Aerodynamic model of transport airplane in extended envelope for simulation of upset recovery
Abramov, Nikolay; Goman, M.; Khrabrov, A. N. (Alexander N.); E. N. Kolesnikov; Sidoryuk, M. E. (Maria E.); Soemarwoto, B.; Smaili, H.
2012-01-01
The paper presents the aerodynamic model in extended flight envelope for a generic airliner with under wing engines and conventional tail developed within the EU Framework Programme (FP7) research project Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation (SUPRA) (www.supra.aero). The SUPRA aerodynamic model is covering angles of attack beyond stall and speeds from take-off to cruise flight. The aerodynamic model in extended flight envelope developed for piloted simulation of upset prevention and recov...
Jones, Valerie M.; Rensink, Arend; Brinksma, Hendrik
2005-01-01
Mobile health systems can extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a model-driven design and development methodology for the development of the m-health components in such extended enterprise computing systems. The methodology applies a model-driven design and development approach augmented with formal validation and verification to address quality and correctness and to support model transformation...
Jones, Valerie M.; Rensink, Arend; Brinksma, Hendrik
2005-01-01
Mobile health systems can extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a model-driven design and development methodology for the development of the m-health components in such extended enterprise computing
Extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field for bidirectional pedestrian flow
Jiang, Yan-Qun; Chen, Bo-Kui; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wong, Weng-Fai; Cao, Bing-Yang
2017-10-01
An extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field is proposed to study bidirectional pedestrian movement. The dynamic navigation field is introduced to describe the desired direction of pedestrian motion resulting from the decision-making processes of pedestrians. The macroscopic fundamental diagrams obtained using the extended model are validated against camera-based observations. Numerical results show that this extended model can reproduce collective phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as dynamic multilane flow and stable separate-lane flow. Pedestrians' path choice behavior significantly affects the probability of congestion and the number of self-organized lanes.
Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens
Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...... of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor-liquid...
Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens
Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...... of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor...
Extended Group Contribution Model for Polyfunctional Phase Equilibria
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abildskov, Jens
of physical separation processes. In a thermodynamic sense, design requires detailed knowledge of activity coefficients in the phases at equilibrium. The prediction of these quantities from a minimum of experimental data is the broad scope of this thesis. Adequate equations exist for predicting vapor-liquid......Material and energy balances and equilibrium data form the basis of most design calculations. While material and energy balances may be stated without much difficulty, the design engineer is left with a choice between a wide variety of models for describing phase equilibria in the design...
Floquet topological semimetal phases of an extended kicked Harper model
Bomantara, Raditya Weda; Raghava, Gudapati Naresh; Zhou, Longwen; Gong, Jiangbin
2016-02-01
Recent discoveries on topological characterization of gapless systems have attracted interest in both theoretical studies and experimental realizations. Examples of such gapless topological phases are Weyl semimetals, which exhibit three-dimensional (3D) Dirac cones (Weyl points), and nodal line semimetals, which are characterized by line nodes (two bands touching along a line). Inspired by our previous discoveries that the kicked Harper model exhibits many fascinating features of Floquet topological phases, in this paper we consider a generalization of the model, where two additional periodic system parameters are introduced into the Hamiltonian to serve as artificial dimensions, so as to simulate a 3 D periodically driven system. We observe that by increasing the hopping strength and the kicking strength of the system, many new Floquet band touching points at Floquet quasienergies 0 and π will start to appear. Some of them are Weyl points, while the others form line nodes in the parameter space. By taking open boundary conditions along the physical dimension, edge states analogous to Fermi arcs in static Weyl semimetal systems are observed. Finally, by designing an adiabatic pumping scheme, the chirality of the Floquet-band Weyl points and the π Berry phase around Floquet-band line nodes can be manifested.
EXTENDE MODEL OF COMPETITIVITY THROUG APPLICATION OF NEW APPROACH DIRECTIVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Slavko Arsovski
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The basic subject of this work is the model of new approach impact on quality and safety products, and competency of our companies. This work represents real hypothesis on the basis of expert's experiences, in regard to that the infrastructure with using new approach directives wasn't examined until now, it isn't known which product or industry of Serbia is related to directives of the new approach and CE mark, and it is not known which are effects of the use of the CE mark. This work should indicate existing quality reserves and product's safety, the level of possible competency improvement and increasing the profit by discharging new approach directive requires.
Extended Mixed-Efects Item Response Models with the MH-RM Algorithm
Chalmers, R. Philip
2015-01-01
A mixed-effects item response theory (IRT) model is presented as a logical extension of the generalized linear mixed-effects modeling approach to formulating explanatory IRT models. Fixed and random coefficients in the extended model are estimated using a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) stochastic imputation algorithm to accommodate for…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Estimation of aerodynamic models for the control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with an extended Kalman...
The Extended Perturbation Method: New Insights on the New Keynesian Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Kronborg, Anders Farver
This paper introduces the extended perturbation method, which improves upon standard perturbation by removing approximation errors under perfect foresight. For the New Keynesian model, we show that standard perturbation generates explosive sample paths because it does not account for the upper...... bound on inflation as implied by Calvo pricing. In contrast, extended perturbation generates stable dynamics as it enforces this bound. Extended perturbation also adds to existing evidence on downward nominal wage rigidities in the New Keynesian model, as we only find support for this friction when...
Extended ARMA models for estimating price developments on day-ahead electricity markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swider, Derk J. [Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, University of Stuttgart, Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, Christoph [University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr. 12, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2007-04-15
In this paper extended models for estimating price developments on electricity markets are presented. The models consider deviations from the normality hypothesis of the prices. Based on an ARMA model combination with GARCH, Gaussian-mixture and switching-regime approaches are comparatively discussed. The comparison is based on historic electricity prices of the spot and two reserve markets in Germany. It is shown that the proposed extended models lead to significantly improved representations of the considered stochastic price processes. It is inferred that these models may be preferred for estimating price developments on electricity markets. (author)
Model-based safety analysis of a control system using Simulink and Simscape extended models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shao Nian
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aircraft or system safety assessment process is an integral part of the overall aircraft development cycle. It is usually characterized by a very high timely and financial effort and can become a critical design driver in certain cases. Therefore, an increasing demand of effective methods to assist the safety assessment process arises within the aerospace community. One approach is the utilization of model-based technology, which is already well-established in the system development, for safety assessment purposes. This paper mainly describes a new tool for Model-Based Safety Analysis. A formal model for an example system is generated and enriched with extended models. Then, system safety analyses are performed on the model with the assistance of automation tools and compared to the results of a manual analysis. The objective of this paper is to improve the increasingly complex aircraft systems development process. This paper develops a new model-based analysis tool in Simulink/Simscape environment.
The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to simulate ozone, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Modeled processes were examined and enhanced to suitably represent the extended space and timesca...
A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making.
Fard, Pouyan R; Park, Hame; Warkentin, Andrej; Kiebel, Stefan J; Bitzer, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs). Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM). Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM) for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments.
A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making
Fard, Pouyan R.; Park, Hame; Warkentin, Andrej; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Bitzer, Sebastian
2017-01-01
Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs). Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM). Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM) for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments. PMID:28553219
A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pouyan R. Fard
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs. Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM. Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Tang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available With increasing penetration of wind power into the power system, wind power participation in frequency regulation is regarded as a beneficial strategy to improve the dynamic frequency response characteristics of power systems. The traditional power system frequency response (SFR model, which only includes synchronous generators, is no longer suitable for power systems with high penetrated wind power. An extended SFR model, based on the reduced-order model of wind turbine generator (WTG and the traditional SFR model, is presented in this paper. In the extended SFR model, the reduced-order model of WTG with combined frequency control is deduced by employing small signal analysis theory. Afterwards, the stability analysis of a closed-loop control system for the extended SFR model is carried out. Time-domain simulations using a test system are performed to validate the effectiveness of the extended SFR model; this model can provide a simpler, clearer and faster way to analyze the dynamic frequency response characteristic for a high-wind integrated power systems. The impact of additional frequency control parameters and wind speed disturbances on the system dynamic frequency response characteristics are investigated.
Extending the Langevin model to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence
Bakosi, J
2011-01-01
We extend the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, to variable-density (VD) pressure-gradient-driven flows. VD effects due to non-uniform mass concentrations (e.g. mixing of different species) are considered. In the extended model large density fluctuations leading to large differential fluid accelerations are accounted for. This is an essential ingredient to represent the strong coupling between the density and velocity fields in VD hydrodynamics driven by active scalar mixing. The small scale anisotropy, a fundamentally "non-Kolmogorovian" feature of pressure-gradient-driven flows, is captured by a tensorial stochastic diffusion term. The extension is so constructed that it reduces to the original Langevin model in the limit of constant density. We show that coupling a Lagrangian mass-density particle model to the proposed extended velocity equation results in a statistical representation of VD turbulence tha...
Extending the Real-Time Maude Semantics of Ptolemy to Hierarchical DE Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Csaba Ölveczky
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This paper extends our Real-Time Maude formalization of the semantics of flat Ptolemy II discrete-event (DE models to hierarchical models, including modal models. This is a challenging task that requires combining synchronous fixed-point computations with hierarchical structure. The synthesis of a Real-Time Maude verification model from a Ptolemy II DE model, and the formal verification of the synthesized model in Real-Time Maude, have been integrated into Ptolemy II, enabling a model-engineering process that combines the convenience of Ptolemy II DE modeling and simulation with formal verification in Real-Time Maude.
Klein, Daniel; Zezula, Ivan
The extended growth curve model is discussed in this paper. There are two versions of the model studied in the literature, which differ in the way how the column spaces of the design matrices are nested. The nesting is applied either to the between-individual or to the within-individual design
3D Printed Molecules and Extended Solid Models for Teaching Symmetry and Point Groups
Scalfani, Vincent F.; Vaid, Thomas P.
2014-01-01
Tangible models help students and researchers visualize chemical structures in three dimensions (3D). 3D printing offers a unique and straightforward approach to fabricate plastic 3D models of molecules and extended solids. In this article, we prepared a series of digital 3D design files of molecular structures that will be useful for teaching…
2D Modeling and Classification of Extended Objects in a Network of HRR Radars
Fasoula, A.
2011-01-01
In this thesis, the modeling of extended objects with low-dimensional representations of their 2D geometry is addressed. The ultimate objective is the classification of the objects using libraries of such compact 2D object models that are much smaller than in the state-of-the-art classification
Characteristics of the Frontier Extended Stay Clinic: a new facility model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosyland Frazier
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose. In 2004, 5 remote clinics – 4 in rural frontier communities in Alaska and 1 in Washington – were funded to pilot and examine the effectiveness and appropriateness of a new facility model. Transporting patients from these locations to higher levels of care is not always possible requiring these facilities to expand their scope of services and provide care for extended periods. The Frontier Extended Stay Clinic (FESC model is staffed and equipped to provide the combined services usually found in the separate settings of an outpatient primary-care clinic, inpatient acute care hospital and emergency room. This is a descriptive study of the characteristics of these pilot facilities and an analysis of patient utilization and outcomes. Methods . The 5 clinics collected outcome data for 2,226 extended-stay encounters of 4 hours or longer from 15 September 2005 to 14 September 2010. Data from these extended-stay encounters were summarized, and descriptive statistics were used to describe: number and duration of encounters, when the encounters started, chief compliant, discharge diagnoses, transfer destination, Medicare and Medicaid eligibility, and type of encounter. Findings . From 2005 to 2010, the mean duration of an extended-stay encounter was 9.1 hours. All of the clinics experienced many extended-stay encounters that were initiated or continued after normal business hours. The 5 most frequent diagnoses at discharge for extended encounters were cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, injury, substance abuse and pneumonia/bronchitis. Almost half, 47.6%, of extended-stay encounters resulted in discharge of the patient without a need for either non-urgent follow-up referral or transport. Extended-stay encounters that ended in a patient being transported to another medical facility were 43.7% of the total. More than a quarter (26.9% of extended-stay encounters were eligible for Medicare payment. Conclusion . While many of communities can support
Fermion Masses and Mixing in SUSY Grand Unified Gauge Models with Extended Gut Gauge Groups
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chih-Lung
2005-04-05
The authors discuss a class of supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unified gauge (GUT) models based on the GUT symmetry G x G or G x G x G, where G denotes the GUT group that has the Standard Model symmetry (SU(3){sub c} x SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y}) embedded as a subgroup. As motivated from string theory, these models are constructed without introducing any Higgs field of rani two or higher. Thus all the Higgs fields are in the fundamental representations of the extended GUT symmetry or, when G = SO(10), in the spinorial representation. These Higgs fields, when acquiring their vacuum expectation values, would break the extended GUT symmetry down to the Standard Model symmetry. In this dissertation, they argue that the features required of unified models, such as the Higgs doublet-triplet splitting, proton stability, and the hierarchy of fermion masses and mixing angles, could have natural explanations in the framework of the extended SUSY GUTs. Furthermore, they argue that the frameworks used previously to construct SO(10) GUT models using adjoint Higgs fields can naturally arise from the SO(10) x SO(10) and SO(10) x SO(10) x SO(10) models by integrating out heavy fermions. This observation thus suggests that the traditional SUSY GUT SO(10) theories can be viewed as the low energy effective theories generated by breaking the extended GUT symmetry down to the SO(10) symmetry.
Dynamical properties of photogenerated polarons in one-dimensional dimerized Mott Insulators
Moriya, K.; Maeshima, N.; Hino, K. I.
2012-10-01
We study physical properties of photogenerated electron-lattice coupled states, polarons, in one-dimensional (1D) Peierls-Hubbard model with classical lattice distortion by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. The numerical results show novel midgap peaks in optical response spectra of polarons for large on-site Coulomb interaction U. These midgap peaks originate from charge-transfer excitations within the dimer in polarons.
Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D
2008-08-01
Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.
Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee
We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach,
Testing Different Types of Genotype-Environment Correlation: An Extended Children-of Twins Model
Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul
2008-01-01
This study presents an extended children-of-twins model, which allowed the authors to test the direction of the association between parenting and child adjustment. Three mechanisms were examined: direct phenotypic influence of parenting on child behavior (controlling for both parental and child genotype), passive genotype-environment correlation,…
A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and education
de Boer, S.J.; Ji-zehn, Q.
2004-01-01
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE (ISSN 1009-3095, Monthly) 2004 Vol. 5 No. 3 p.358-364 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------A novel model for extending international co-operation in science and educationDE BOER Sirp J.1, QIU Ji-zhen 2(1International
Tribimaximal mixing in a viable family symmetry unified model with an extended seesaw mechanism
Bazzocchi, F.; Varzielas, I.D.
2009-01-01
We present a grand unified model based on SO(10) with a Δ(27) family symmetry. Fermion masses and mixings are fitted and agree well with experimental values. An extended seesaw mechanism plays a key role in the generation of the leptonic mixing, which is approximately tribimaximal. © 2009 The
Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group
Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari
2011-01-01
In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmad Neirameh
2018-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we propose a new algorithm to find exact solitary wave solutions of nonlinear time- fractional order of extended biological population model. The new algorithm basically illustrates how two powerful algorithms, conformable fractional derivative and the homogeneous balance method can be combined and used to get exact solutions of fractional partial differential equations.
Stall Recovery in a Centrifuge-Based Flight Simulator With an Extended Aerodynamic Model
Ledegang, W.D.; Groen, E.L.
2015-01-01
We investigated the performance of 12 airline pilots in recovering from an asymmetrical stall in a flight simulator featuring an extended aerodynamic model of a transport-category aircraft, and a centrifuge-based motion platform capable of generating enhanced buffet motion and g-cueing. All pilots
Perrault, Evan K.; Clark, Scott K.
2018-01-01
Purpose: A planet that can no longer sustain life is a frightening thought--and one that is often present in mass media messages. Therefore, this study aims to test the components of a classic fear appeal theory, the extended parallel process model (EPPM) and to determine how well its constructs predict sustainability behavioral intentions. This…
Modeling of VSC-Based Power Systems in The Extended Harmonic Domain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esparza, Miguel; Segundo-Ramirez, Juan; Kwon, Jun Bum
2017-01-01
Averaged modeling is a commonly used approach used to obtain mathematical representations of VSC-based systems. However, essential characteristics mainly related to the modulation process and the harmonic distortion of the signals are not able to be accurately captured and analyzed. The extended ...
Van Stee, Stephanie K; Yang, Qinghua
2017-10-30
This study applied the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS) to online cancer information and extended the model by incorporating an exogenous variable: interest in online health information exchange with health providers. A nationally representative sample from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 4 was analyzed to examine the extended CMIS in predicting online cancer information seeking. Findings from a structural equation model supported most of the hypotheses derived from the CMIS, as well as the extension of the model related to interest in online health information exchange. In particular, socioeconomic status, beliefs, and interest in online health information exchange predicted utility. Utility, in turn, predicted online cancer information seeking, as did information-carrier characteristics. An unexpected but important finding from the study was the significant, direct relationship between cancer worry and online cancer information seeking. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Extended Holography: Double-Trace Deformation and Brane-Induced Gravity Models
Barvinsky, A. O.
2017-03-01
We put forward a conjecture that for a special class of models - models of the double-trace deformation and brane-induced gravity types - the principle of holographic dualitiy can be extended beyond conformal invariance and anti-de Sitter (AdS) isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on the boundary.
Long-Range Charge Order in the Extended Holstein-Hubbard Model
Miyao, Tadahiro
2016-10-01
This study investigated the extended Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling as a model for describing the interplay of electron-electron and electron-phonon couplings. When the electron-phonon and nearest-neighbor electron-electron interactions are strong, we prove the existence of long-range charge order in three or more dimensions at a sufficiently low temperature. As a result, we rigorously justify the phase competition between the antiferromagnetism and charge orders.
A Local Search Modeling for Constrained Optimum Paths Problems (Extended Abstract
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Quang Dung Pham
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Constrained Optimum Path (COP problems appear in many real-life applications, especially on communication networks. Some of these problems have been considered and solved by specific techniques which are usually difficult to extend. In this paper, we introduce a novel local search modeling for solving some COPs by local search. The modeling features the compositionality, modularity, reuse and strengthens the benefits of Constrained-Based Local Search. We also apply the modeling to the edge-disjoint paths problem (EDP. We show that side constraints can easily be added in the model. Computational results show the significance of the approach.
Energy parameters and novel algorithms for an extended nearest neighbor energy model of RNA.
Dotu, Ivan; Mechery, Vinodh; Clote, Peter
2014-01-01
We describe the first algorithm and software, RNAenn, to compute the partition function and minimum free energy secondary structure for RNA with respect to an extended nearest neighbor energy model. Our next-nearest-neighbor triplet energy model appears to lead to somewhat more cooperative folding than does the nearest neighbor energy model, as judged by melting curves computed with RNAenn and with two popular software implementations for the nearest-neighbor energy model. A web server is available at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAenn/.
An extended continuum model considering optimal velocity change with memory and numerical tests
Qingtao, Zhai; Hongxia, Ge; Rongjun, Cheng
2018-01-01
In this paper, an extended continuum model of traffic flow is proposed with the consideration of optimal velocity changes with memory. The new model's stability condition and KdV-Burgers equation considering the optimal velocities change with memory are deduced through linear stability theory and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the extended continuum model, which explores how optimal velocity changes with memory affected velocity, density and energy consumption. Numerical results show that when considering the effects of optimal velocity changes with memory, the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently. Both the memory step and sensitivity parameters of optimal velocity changes with memory will enhance the stability of traffic flow efficiently. Furthermore, numerical results demonstrates that the effect of optimal velocity changes with memory can avoid the disadvantage of historical information, which increases the stability of traffic flow on road, and so it improve the traffic flow stability and minimize cars' energy consumptions.
Modeling and Extended State Observer Based Dynamic Surface Control for Cold Rolling Mill System
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Xu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The modeling and control problems are investigated for cold rolling mill system. Firstly, we establish a monitor automatic gauge control (MAGC model for a practical cold rolling mill system. The new model is with mismatched uncertainties. Then, an extended state observer (ESO is developed to estimate uncertainties. In the general high-order systems, the ESO is also used to estimate states. By dynamic surface control method, we design the controller to guarantee stabilization of the cold rolling mill system. Furthermore, we extend proposed method to general high-order systems, in which we analyze the difference from cold rolling mill system. Finally, simulation results for MAGC system are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Conflict Detection for Edits on Extended Feature Models using Symbolic Graph Transformation
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Frederik Deckwerth
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Feature models are used to specify variability of user-configurable systems as appearing, e.g., in software product lines. Software product lines are supposed to be long-living and, therefore, have to continuously evolve over time to meet ever-changing requirements. Evolution imposes changes to feature models in terms of edit operations. Ensuring consistency of concurrent edits requires appropriate conflict detection techniques. However, recent approaches fail to handle crucial subtleties of extended feature models, namely constraints mixing feature-tree patterns with first-order logic formulas over non-Boolean feature attributes with potentially infinite value domains. In this paper, we propose a novel conflict detection approach based on symbolic graph transformation to facilitate concurrent edits on extended feature models. We describe extended feature models formally with symbolic graphs and edit operations with symbolic graph transformation rules combining graph patterns with first-order logic formulas. The approach is implemented by combining eMoflon with an SMT solver, and evaluated with respect to applicability.
Marriage of Electromagnetism and Gravity in an Extended Space Model and Astrophysical Phenomena
Andreev, V. A.; Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.
2013-09-01
The generalization of Einstein's special theory of relativity (SRT) is proposed. In this model the possibility of unification of scalar gravity and electromagnetism into a single unified field is considered. Formally, the generalization of the SRT is that instead of (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space the (1+4)-dimensional extension G is considered. As a fifth additional coordinate the interval S is used. This value is saved under the usual Lorentz transformations in Minkowski space M, but it changes when the transformations in the extended space G are used. We call this model the extended space model (ESM). From a physical point of view our expansion means that processes in which the rest mass of the particles changes are acceptable now. If the rest mass of a particle does not change and the physical quantities do not depend on an additional variable S, then the electromagnetic and gravitational fields exist independently of each other. But if the rest mass is variable and there is a dependence on S, then these two fields are combined into a single unified field. In the extended space model a photon can have a nonzero mass and this mass can be either positive or negative. The gravitational effects such as the speed of escape, gravitational red shift and detection of light can be analyzed in the frame of the extended space model. In this model all these gravitational effects can be found algebraically by the rotations in the (1+4) dimensional space. Now it becomes possible to predict some future results of visible size of supermassive objects in our Universe due to new stage of experimental astronomy development in the RadioAstron Project and analyze phenomena is an explosion of the star V838 Mon.
Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter
Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.
2016-01-01
This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.
Extending the 4I Organizational Learning Model: Information Sources, Foraging Processes and Tools
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Tracy A. Jenkin
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The continued importance of organizational learning has recently led to several calls for further developing the theory. This article addresses these calls by extending Crossan, Lane and White’s (1999 4I model to include a fifth process, information foraging, and a fourth level, the tool. The resulting 5I organizational learning model can be generalized to a number of learning contexts, especially those that involve understanding and making sense of data and information. Given the need for organizations to both innovate and increase productivity, and the volumes of data and information that are available to support both, the 5I model addresses an important organizational issue.
Murthy, D N Prabhakar
2014-01-01
Serving to unify the existing literature on extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, this book also presents a unique perspective on the topic focussed on cost analysis and decision-making from the perspectives of the parties involved. Using a game theoretic approach together with mathematical modelling, results are presented in an integrated manner with key topics that require further research highlighted in order to serve as a starting point for researchers (engineers and statisticians) who are interested in doing further work in these areas. Designed to assist practitioners (managers, engineers, applied statisticians) who are involved with extended warranties, maintenance service contracts and lease contracts, the book provides them with the models and techniques needed for proper cost analysis and effective decision-making. The book is also suitable for use as a reference text in industrial engineering, applied statistics, operations research and management.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Grobler, Inus
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Extended Conducted Electromagnetic Interference in Densely Packed DC- DC Converter I Grobler1 and MN Gitau2 Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, South Africa. igrobler@csir.co.za1, mgitau.... This will improve the overall design efficiency and shorten the crucial time to market period [1]. It is of utmost importance to try and model the electromagnetic compatibility concurrent with the power processor design stage. The marketplace is in need...
Juarez Collazo, N. A.; Wu, X.; Elen, J.; G. Clarebout
2014-01-01
This study adopts the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and extends it to study the effects of different variables on tool use. The influence of perceptions on tool use was studied in two different conditions: with and without explanation of the tool functionality. As an external variable, self-efficacy was entered in the TAM and the main research question thus focused on the mediating effects of perceptions (perceived tool functionality and perceived tool usability) between self-efficacy on ...
Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV; Hamid KHAKZAD
2014-01-01
In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM) in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents e...
Extended Holstein small polaron model for charge transfer in dry DNA.
Wang, Yi; Fu, Liang; Wang, Ke-Lin
2006-01-20
In this paper, the charge transfer problem in dry DNA was investigated by employing an extended Holstein small polaron model with external potential traps being involved in consideration. The ground state energy and the probability amplitude of polaron in various DNA chains with different external trap potentials were obtained by variational method with the trial function being taken in coherent state form. The stability of transfered charges in various circumstances was discussed accordingly.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2017-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling the influence of Hall and electron inertial physics on laser-plasma interactions. By formulating the extended-MHD equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of extended-MHD phenomena (Hall and electron inertial physics) without the need to resolve the smallest electron time scales, which would otherwise be computationally prohibitive in HED plasma simulations. We first consider a laser-produced plasma plume pinched by an applied magnetic field parallel to the laser axis in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry, forming a conical shock structure and a jet above the flow convergence. The Hall term produces low-density outer plasma, a helical field structure, flow rotation, and field-aligned current, rendering the shock structure dispersive. We then model a laser-foil interaction by explicitly driving the oscillating laser fields, and examine the essential physics governing the interaction. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhao, Shunli [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Wu, Guangxin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Zhang, Jieyu, E-mail: zjy6162@staff.shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China); Yang, Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shanghai Engineering Technology Research Center of Special Casting, Shanghai 201605 (China)
2016-05-25
We have extended the dendritic growth model first proposed by Boettinger, Coriell and Trivedi (here termed EBCT) for microstructure simulations of rapidly solidified non-dilute alloys. The temperature-dependent distribution coefficient, obtained from calculations of phase equilibria, and the continuous growth model (CGM) were adopted in the present EBCT model to describe the solute trapping behaviors. The temperature dependence of the physical properties, which were not used in previous dendritic growth models, were also considered in the present EBCT model. These extensions allow the present EBCT model to be used for microstructure simulations of non-dilute alloys. The comparison of the present EBCT model with the BCT model proves that the considerations of the distribution coefficient and physical properties are necessary for microstructure simulations, especially for small particles with high undercoolings. Finally, the EBCT model was incorporated into the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model to simulate microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 high speed steel particles that were then compared with experimental results. Both the simulated and experimental results reveal that a columnar dendritic microstructure preferentially forms in small particles and an equiaxed microstructure forms otherwise. The applications of the present EBCT model provide a convenient way to predict the microstructure of non-dilute alloys. - Highlights: • A dendritic growth model was developed considering non-equilibrium distribution coefficient. • The physical properties with temperature dependence were considered in the extended model. • The extended model can be used to non-dilute alloys and the extensions are necessary in small particles. • Microstructure of ASP30 steel was investigated using the present model and verified by experiment.
Yang, Shan-Shan; Pang, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Xiao-Yin; Wu, Zhong-Yang; Ren, Nan-Qi; Zhao, Zhi-Qing
2017-05-01
This paper presents the results of an extended ASM2 model for the modeling and calibration of the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in phosphorus (P) removal in an anaerobic-aerobic process. In this extended ASM2 model, two new components, the bound EPS (XEPS) and the soluble EPS (SEPS), are introduced. Compared with the ASM2, 7.71, 8.53, and 9.28% decreases in polyphosphate (polyP) were observed in the extended ASM2 in three sequencing batch reactors feeding with different COD/P ratios, indicating that 7.71-9.28% of P in the liquid was adsorbed by EPS. Sensitive analysis indicated that, five parameters were the significant influential parameters and had been chosen for further model calibration by using the least square method to simulate by MATLAB. This extended ASM2 has been successfully established to simulate the output variables and provides a useful reference for the mathematic simulations of the role of EPS in biological phosphorus removal process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Teo, Timothy
2016-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…
Multipartite quantum correlations in the extended J1-J2 Heisenberg model
Batle, J.; Tarawneh, O.; Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao; Abdalla, S.; Farouk, Ahmed
2017-11-01
Multipartite entanglement and the maximum violation of Bell inequalities are studied in finite clusters of spins in an extended J1-J2 Heisenberg model at zero temperature. The ensuing highly frustrated states will unveil a rich structure for different values of the corresponding spin-spin interaction strengths. The interplay between nearest-neighbors, next-nearest neighbors and further couplings will be explored using multipartite correlations. The model is relevant to certain quantum annealing computation architectures where an all-to-all connectivity is considered.
Doping driven metal-insulator transitions and charge orderings in the extended Hubbard model
Kapcia, K J; Capone, M; Amaricci, A
2016-01-01
We perform a thorough study of an extended Hubbard model featuring local and nearest-neighbor Coulomb repulsion. Using dynamical mean-field theory we investigated the zero temperature phase-diagram of this model as a function of the chemical doping. The interplay between local and non-local interaction drives a variety of phase-transitions connecting two distinct charge-ordered insulators, i.e., half-filled and quarter-filled, a charge-ordered metal and a Mott insulating phase. We characterize these transitions and the relative stability of the solutions and we show that the two interactions conspire to stabilize the quarter-filled charge ordered phase.
Luminosity variation in the extended one-zone RR Lyrae model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pricopi D.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The Stellingwerf one-zone stellar model is extended by assuming, a slow and uniform rotation that leads to a very small oblateness of the star. The matter in the core-surrounding shell is supposed to consists of a mixture of ideal gas and radiation. This one-zone stellar pulsation model is proposed as a tool to investigate the factors affecting luminosity variations of pulsating stars. Linear and nonlinear analyses of the resulting equations are described. The results are in very good agreement with the observed RR Lyrae light curves. .
Momentum Distribution Functions in a One-Dimensional Extended Periodic Anderson Model
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I. Hagymási
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study the momentum distribution of the electrons in an extended periodic Anderson model, where the interaction, Ucf, between itinerant and localized electrons is taken into account. In the symmetric half-filled model, due to the increase of the interorbital interaction, the f electrons become more and more delocalized, while the itinerancy of conduction electrons decreases. Above a certain value of Ucf the f electrons become again localized together with the conduction electrons. In the less than half-filled case, we observe that Ucf causes strong correlations between the f electrons in the mixed valence regime.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinya Ito
Full Text Available Transfer entropy (TE is an information-theoretic measure which has received recent attention in neuroscience for its potential to identify effective connectivity between neurons. Calculating TE for large ensembles of spiking neurons is computationally intensive, and has caused most investigators to probe neural interactions at only a single time delay and at a message length of only a single time bin. This is problematic, as synaptic delays between cortical neurons, for example, range from one to tens of milliseconds. In addition, neurons produce bursts of spikes spanning multiple time bins. To address these issues, here we introduce a free software package that allows TE to be measured at multiple delays and message lengths. To assess performance, we applied these extensions of TE to a spiking cortical network model (Izhikevich, 2006 with known connectivity and a range of synaptic delays. For comparison, we also investigated single-delay TE, at a message length of one bin (D1TE, and cross-correlation (CC methods. We found that D1TE could identify 36% of true connections when evaluated at a false positive rate of 1%. For extended versions of TE, this dramatically improved to 73% of true connections. In addition, the connections correctly identified by extended versions of TE accounted for 85% of the total synaptic weight in the network. Cross correlation methods generally performed more poorly than extended TE, but were useful when data length was short. A computational performance analysis demonstrated that the algorithm for extended TE, when used on currently available desktop computers, could extract effective connectivity from 1 hr recordings containing 200 neurons in ∼5 min. We conclude that extending TE to multiple delays and message lengths improves its ability to assess effective connectivity between spiking neurons. These extensions to TE soon could become practical tools for experimentalists who record hundreds of spiking neurons.
Ito, Shinya; Hansen, Michael E; Heiland, Randy; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Litke, Alan M; Beggs, John M
2011-01-01
Transfer entropy (TE) is an information-theoretic measure which has received recent attention in neuroscience for its potential to identify effective connectivity between neurons. Calculating TE for large ensembles of spiking neurons is computationally intensive, and has caused most investigators to probe neural interactions at only a single time delay and at a message length of only a single time bin. This is problematic, as synaptic delays between cortical neurons, for example, range from one to tens of milliseconds. In addition, neurons produce bursts of spikes spanning multiple time bins. To address these issues, here we introduce a free software package that allows TE to be measured at multiple delays and message lengths. To assess performance, we applied these extensions of TE to a spiking cortical network model (Izhikevich, 2006) with known connectivity and a range of synaptic delays. For comparison, we also investigated single-delay TE, at a message length of one bin (D1TE), and cross-correlation (CC) methods. We found that D1TE could identify 36% of true connections when evaluated at a false positive rate of 1%. For extended versions of TE, this dramatically improved to 73% of true connections. In addition, the connections correctly identified by extended versions of TE accounted for 85% of the total synaptic weight in the network. Cross correlation methods generally performed more poorly than extended TE, but were useful when data length was short. A computational performance analysis demonstrated that the algorithm for extended TE, when used on currently available desktop computers, could extract effective connectivity from 1 hr recordings containing 200 neurons in ∼5 min. We conclude that extending TE to multiple delays and message lengths improves its ability to assess effective connectivity between spiking neurons. These extensions to TE soon could become practical tools for experimentalists who record hundreds of spiking neurons.
Validating and extending the three process model of alertness in airline operations.
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Michael Ingre
Full Text Available Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS. The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM, on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C, with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications.
Validating and Extending the Three Process Model of Alertness in Airline Operations
Ingre, Michael; Van Leeuwen, Wessel; Klemets, Tomas; Ullvetter, Christer; Hough, Stephen; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, David; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
2014-01-01
Sleepiness and fatigue are important risk factors in the transport sector and bio-mathematical sleepiness, sleep and fatigue modeling is increasingly becoming a valuable tool for assessing safety of work schedules and rosters in Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS). The present study sought to validate the inner workings of one such model, Three Process Model (TPM), on aircrews and extend the model with functions to model jetlag and to directly assess the risk of any sleepiness level in any shift schedule or roster with and without knowledge of sleep timings. We collected sleep and sleepiness data from 136 aircrews in a real life situation by means of an application running on a handheld touch screen computer device (iPhone, iPod or iPad) and used the TPM to predict sleepiness with varying level of complexity of model equations and data. The results based on multilevel linear and non-linear mixed effects models showed that the TPM predictions correlated with observed ratings of sleepiness, but explorative analyses suggest that the default model can be improved and reduced to include only two-processes (S+C), with adjusted phases of the circadian process based on a single question of circadian type. We also extended the model with a function to model jetlag acclimatization and with estimates of individual differences including reference limits accounting for 50%, 75% and 90% of the population as well as functions for predicting the probability of any level of sleepiness for ecological assessment of absolute and relative risk of sleepiness in shift systems for safety applications. PMID:25329575
Pairwise-interaction extended point-particle model for particle-laden flows
Akiki, G.; Moore, W. C.; Balachandar, S.
2017-12-01
In this work we consider the pairwise interaction extended point-particle (PIEP) model for Euler-Lagrange simulations of particle-laden flows. By accounting for the precise location of neighbors the PIEP model goes beyond local particle volume fraction, and distinguishes the influence of upstream, downstream and laterally located neighbors. The two main ingredients of the PIEP model are (i) the undisturbed flow at any particle is evaluated as a superposition of the macroscale flow and a microscale flow that is approximated as a pairwise superposition of perturbation fields induced by each of the neighboring particles, and (ii) the forces and torque on the particle are then calculated from the undisturbed flow using the Faxén form of the force relation. The computational efficiency of the standard Euler-Lagrange approach is retained, since the microscale perturbation fields induced by a neighbor are pre-computed and stored as PIEP maps. Here we extend the PIEP force model of Akiki et al. [3] with a corresponding torque model to systematically include the effect of perturbation fields induced by the neighbors in evaluating the net torque. Also, we use DNS results from a uniform flow over two stationary spheres to further improve the PIEP force and torque models. We then test the PIEP model in three different sedimentation problems and compare the results against corresponding DNS to assess the accuracy of the PIEP model and improvement over the standard point-particle approach. In the case of two sedimenting spheres in a quiescent ambient the PIEP model is shown to capture the drafting-kissing-tumbling process. In cases of 5 and 80 sedimenting spheres a good agreement is obtained between the PIEP simulation and the DNS. For all three simulations, the DEM-PIEP was able to recreate, to a good extent, the results from the DNS, while requiring only a negligible fraction of the numerical resources required by the fully-resolved DNS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glinsky, M.E.; Amendt, P.A.; Bailey, D.S.; London, R.A.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Strauss, M. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev
1997-03-04
The validity of an extended Rayleigh model for laser generated bubbles in soft tissue is examined. This model includes surface tension, viscosity, a realistic water equation of state, material strength and failure, stress wave emission, and linear growth of interface instabilities. It is compared to dynamic simulations using LATIS, which include stress wave propagation, water equation of state, material strength and failure, and viscosity. The model and the simulations are compared using 1-D spherical geometry with bubble in center and a 2-D cylindrical geometry of a laser fiber in water with a bubble formed at the end of the fiber. The model executes over 300x faster on computer than the dynamic simulations.
Double beta decay nuclear matrix elements in extended shell model spaces
Horoi, Mihai
2017-09-01
In a recent publication we concluded that the shell model double beta decay nuclear matrix elements may be affected to certain degrees by the lack of pairing correlations with orbitals outside the typical shell model spaces. Here we report results of calculations for 48Ca that includes 21 spherical orbitals for both protons and neutrons. We are using a realistic Hamiltonian inside the fp model space, thus maintaining a good description of the nuclear structure properties of the nuclei of interest. We are only allowing pairing interactions between the fp orbitals and the remaining 17 orbitals, and up to two particle excitations in and out of the fp model space. This approach could be also extended to the case of 82Se. Support from U.S. NSF Grant PHY-1404442 and DOE Grants DE-SC0008529 and DE-SC0015376 is acknowledged.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjun Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mechanical extending limit in horizontal drilling means the maximum horizontal extending length of a horizontal well under certain ground and down-hole mechanical constraint conditions. Around this concept, the constrained optimization model of mechanical extending limits is built and simplified analytical results for pick-up and slack-off operations are deduced. The horizontal extending limits for kinds of tubular strings under different drilling parameters are calculated and drawn. To improve extending limits, an optimal design model of drill strings is built and applied to a case study. The results indicate that horizontal extending limits are underestimated a lot when the effects of friction force on critical helical buckling loads are neglected. Horizontal extending limits firstly increase and tend to stable values with vertical depths. Horizontal extending limits increase faster but finally become smaller with the increase of horizontal pushing forces for tubular strings of smaller modulus-weight ratio. Sliding slack-off is the main limit operation and high axial friction is the main constraint factor constraining horizontal extending limits. A sophisticated installation of multiple tubular strings can greatly inhibit helical buckling and increase horizontal extending limits. The optimal design model is called only once to obtain design results, which greatly increases the calculation efficiency.
Low-dose rapamycin extends lifespan in a mouse model of mtDNA depletion syndrome.
Siegmund, Stephanie E; Yang, Hua; Sharma, Rohit; Javors, Martin; Skinner, Owen; Mootha, Vamsi; Hirano, Michio; Schon, Eric A
2017-12-01
Mitochondrial disorders affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) are caused by mutations in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. One promising candidate for treatment is the drug rapamycin, which has been shown to extend lifespan in multiple animal models, and which was previously shown to ameliorate mitochondrial disease in a knock-out mouse model lacking a nuclear-encoded gene specifying an OxPhos structural subunit (Ndufs4). In that model, relatively high-dose intraperitoneal rapamycin extended lifespan and improved markers of neurological disease, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we administered low-dose oral rapamycin to a knock-in (KI) mouse model of authentic mtDNA disease, specifically, progressive mtDNA depletion syndrome, resulting from a mutation in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2). Importantly, low-dose oral rapamycin was sufficient to extend Tk2KI/KI mouse lifespan significantly, and did so in the absence of detectable improvements in mitochondrial dysfunction. We found no evidence that rapamycin increased survival by acting through canonical pathways, including mitochondrial autophagy. However, transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses uncovered systemic metabolic changes pointing to a potential 'rapamycin metabolic signature.' These changes also implied that rapamycin may have enabled the Tk2KI/KI mice to utilize alternative energy reserves, and possibly triggered indirect signaling events that modified mortality through developmental reprogramming. From a therapeutic standpoint, our results support the possibility that low-dose rapamycin, while not targeting the underlying mtDNA defect, could represent a crucial therapy for the treatment of mtDNA-driven, and some nuclear DNA-driven, mitochondrial diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadare Oluwaseun Gbenga
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This paper examines various constructs of an extended TAM, Technology Acceptance Model, that are theoretically influencing the adoption and acceptability of mobile learning among 3G enabled mobile users. Mobile learning activity- based, used for this study were drawn from behaviourist and “learning and teaching support” educational paradigms. An online and manual survey instruments were used to gather data. The structural equation modelling techniques were then employed to explain the adoption processes of hypothesized research model. A theoretical model ETAM is developed based on TAM. Our result proved that psychometric constructs of TAM can be extended and that ETAM is well suited, and of good pedagogical tool in understanding mobile learning among 3G enabled handheld devices in southwest part of Nigeria. Cognitive constructs, attitude toward m-learning, self-efficacy play significant roles in influencing behavioural intention for mobile learning, of which self-efficacy is the most importance construct. Implications of results and directions for future research are discussed.
Building Models for Extended Radio Sources: Implications for Epoch of Reionisation Science
Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.
2017-11-01
We test the hypothesis that limitations in the sky model used to calibrate an interferometric radio telescope, where the model contains extended radio sources, will generate bias in the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum. The information contained in a calibration model about the spatial and spectral structure of an extended source is incomplete because a radio telescope cannot sample all Fourier components. Application of an incomplete sky model to calibration of Epoch of Reionisation data will imprint residual error in the data, which propagates forward to the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum. This limited information is studied in the context of current and future planned instruments and surveys at Epoch of Reionisation frequencies, such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1-Low). For the MWA Epoch of Reionisation experiment, we find that both the additional short baseline uv-coverage of the compact Epoch of Reionisation array, and the additional long baselines provided by TGSS and planned MWA expansions, are required to obtain sufficient information on all relevant scales. For SKA1-Low, arrays with maximum baselines of 49 km and 65 km yield comparable performance at 50 MHz and 150 MHz, while 39 km, 14 km, and 4 km arrays yield degraded performance.
Extended MHD modeling of nonlinear instabilities in fusion and space plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
2017-11-15
A number of different sub-projects where pursued within this DOE early career project. The primary focus was on using fully nonlinear, curvilinear, extended MHD simulations of instabilities with applications to fusion and space plasmas. In particular, we performed comprehensive studies of the dynamics of the double tearing mode in different regimes and confi gurations, using Cartesian and cyclindrical geometry and investigating both linear and non-linear dynamics. In addition to traditional extended MHD involving Hall term and electron pressure gradient, we also employed a new multi-fluid moment model, which shows great promise to incorporate kinetic effects, in particular off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, in a fluid model, which is naturally computationally much cheaper than fully kinetic particle or Vlasov simulations. We used our Vlasov code for detailed studies of how weak collisions effect plasma echos. In addition, we have played an important supporting role working with the PPPL theory group around Will Fox and Amitava Bhattacharjee on providing simulation support for HED plasma experiments performed at high-powered laser facilities like OMEGA-EP in Rochester, NY. This project has support a great number of computational advances in our fluid and kinetic plasma models, and has been crucial to winning multiple INCITE computer time awards that supported our computational modeling.
Renormalization group running of fermion observables in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meloni, Davide [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Roma Tre,Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Ohlsson, Tommy; Riad, Stella [Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences,KTH Royal Institute of Technology - AlbaNova University Center,Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-03-08
We investigate the renormalization group evolution of fermion masses, mixings and quartic scalar Higgs self-couplings in an extended non-supersymmetric SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector contains the 10{sub H}, 120{sub H}, and 126{sub H} representations. The group SO(10) is spontaneously broken at the GUT scale to the Pati-Salam group and subsequently to the Standard Model (SM) at an intermediate scale M{sub I}. We explicitly take into account the effects of the change of gauge groups in the evolution. In particular, we derive the renormalization group equations for the different Yukawa couplings. We find that the computed physical fermion observables can be successfully matched to the experimental measured values at the electroweak scale. Using the same Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale, the measured values of the fermion observables cannot be reproduced with a SM-like evolution, leading to differences in the numerical values up to around 80%. Furthermore, a similar evolution can be performed for a minimal SO(10) model, where the Higgs sector consists of the 10{sub H} and 126{sub H} representations only, showing an equally good potential to describe the low-energy fermion observables. Finally, for both the extended and the minimal SO(10) models, we present predictions for the three Dirac and Majorana CP-violating phases as well as three effective neutrino mass parameters.
Low-lying Photoexcited States of a One-Dimensional Ionic Extended Hubbard Model
Yokoi, Kota; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi
2017-10-01
We investigate the properties of low-lying photoexcited states of a one-dimensional (1D) ionic extended Hubbard model at half-filling. Numerical analysis by using the full and Lanczos diagonalization methods shows that, in the ionic phase, there exist low-lying photoexcited states below the charge transfer gap. As a result of comparison with numerical data for the 1D antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg model, it was found that, for a small alternating potential Δ, these low-lying photoexcited states are spin excitations, which is consistent with a previous analytical study [Katsura et al., https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.177402" xlink:type="simple">Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 177402 (2009)]. As Δ increases, the spectral intensity of the 1D ionic extended Hubbard model rapidly deviates from that of the 1D AF Heisenberg model and it is clarified that this deviation is due to the neutral-ionic domain wall, an elementary excitation near the neutral-ionic transition point.
Ion gyroradius effects on zonal flows in extended Hasegawa-Mima models
Gallagher, Stephen; Hnat, Bogdan; Connaughton, Colm; Nazarenko, Sergey
2012-10-01
Zonal flows are important in fusion plasma where they regulate drift wave turbulence and improve plasma confinement. Two mechanisms can lead to the creation of zonal flows: an inverse cascade of energy, similar to that observed for 2D turbulence, and a coupling between wave modes known as the modulational instability. This work focused on the modulational instability; a four mode truncation of the extended Hasegawa-Mima system was derived to model this. The extended Hasegawa-Mima model is more appropriate for tokamaks than its predecessors as it decouples global flows from the flux surface averaged potential of the system. In addition to this truncated model a linearised set of equations for the system has been derived and used to produce a dispersion relation. Finite difference simulations of the whole system have been used to check these models. Previous work, which has largely considered the case where the ion gyroradius has been taken to its limits, has been expanded upon to show how the ion gyroradius can effect the behaviour of drift waves. It has been shown that the ion gyroradius can be used to change the strength of the nonlinearity of the system leading to changes in behaviour that have previously been demonstrated by altering the initial amplitude of the drift wave.
A 3-Factor Model Relating Communication to Risk Mitigation of Extended Information System Failover
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasios Podaras
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the relation between timely and effective communication and risk mitigation of late recovery after an unexpected information system outage in enterprises. An unforeseen information system failure in modern enterprise units, may result to significant operational and financial damage. In such a critical incident, effective communication between the team leaders and the recovery team involved, can minimize or even eliminate this negative impact. An extended information system outage can be perceived as a time deviation from the Maximum Accepted Outage (ΜΑΟ timeframe, proposed by the business continuity management, according to the value of which dependent business functions may be interrupted without any serious effects to the company. The paper examines the relation between 3 basic factors and the efficient communication between team members. The factors are: timely information distribution, staff availability and network availability. Through the current paper, the author proposes a risk analysis model, based on the Composite Risk Index theory of Risk Management, which can significantly diminish the possibility of an extended information system outage, as well as calculate the extended time required to recover a system when the aforementioned factors emerge in their worst form. The precise calculation of recovery time can be achieved via the execution of business continuity tests which include scenarios, according to which an unexpected system outage coexists with delayed information distribution as well as low staff and network availability.
Kuilman, Maartje; Karlsson, Bodil; Benze, Susanne; Megner, Linda
2017-11-01
Ice particles in the summer mesosphere - such as those connected to noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes - have since their discovery contributed to the uncovering of atmospheric processes on various scales ranging from interactions on molecular levels to global scale circulation patterns. While there are numerous model studies on mesospheric ice microphysics and how the clouds relate to the background atmosphere, there are at this point few studies using comprehensive global climate models to investigate observed variability and climatology of noctilucent clouds. In this study it is explored to what extent the large-scale inter-annual characteristics of noctilucent clouds are captured in a 30-year run - extending from 1979 to 2009 - of the nudged and extended version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM30). To construct and investigate zonal mean inter-seasonal variability in noctilucent cloud occurrence frequency and ice mass density in both hemispheres, a simple cloud model is applied in which it is assumed that the ice content is solely controlled by the local temperature and water vapor volume mixing ratio. The model results are compared to satellite observations, each having an instrument-specific sensitivity when it comes to detecting noctilucent clouds. It is found that the model is able to capture the onset dates of the NLC seasons in both hemispheres as well as the hemispheric differences in NLCs, such as weaker NLCs in the SH than in the NH and differences in cloud height. We conclude that the observed cloud climatology and zonal mean variability are well captured by the model.
Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia
2018-02-01
The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.
Crossover from reptation to Rouse dynamics in the extended Rubinstein-Duke model.
Drzewiński, Andrzej; van Leeuwen, J M J
2008-03-01
The competition between reptation and Rouse dynamics is incorporated in the Rubinstein-Duke model for polymer motion by extending it with sideways motions, which cross barriers and create or annihilate hernias. Using the density-matrix renormalization-group method as a solver of the master equation, the renewal time and the diffusion coefficient are calculated as functions of the length of the chain and the strength of the sideways motion. These types of moves have a strong and delicate influence on the asymptotic behavior of long polymers. The effects are analyzed as functions of the chain length in terms of effective exponents and crossover scaling functions.
White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.
1991-01-01
The purpose of NASA's Extended Duration Orbiter program is a gradual extension of the capabilities of the Space Shuttle Orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration, as warranted by deepening understanding of the long-term physiological effects of weightlessness. Attention is being given to the cardiovascular problem of orthostatic tolerance loss due to its adverse effects on crew performance and health during reentry and initial readaptation to earth gravity. An account is given of the results of the application of proven mathematical models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems under microgravity conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fort, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2013-08-15
The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.
The extended clearance model and its use for the interpretation of hepatobiliary elimination data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gian Camenisch
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Hepatic elimination is a function of the interplay between different processes such as sinusoidal uptake, intracellular metabolism, canalicular (biliary secretion, and sinusoidal efflux. In this review, we outline how drugs can be classified according to their in vitro determined clearance mechanisms using the extended clearance model as a reference. The approach enables the determination of the rate-determining hepatic clearance step. Some successful applications will be highlighted, together with a discussion on the major consequences for the pharmacokinetics and the drug-drug interaction potential of drugs. Special emphasize is put on the role of passive permeability and active transport processes in hepatic elimination.
EXTENDING THE DEEP PACKET INSPECTION MODEL TO THE GCC/MENA REGION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfred H. Miller
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This study seeks to explore extending the technology acceptance model (DPAM from a 2011 quantitative study—Modeling Intention to Use Deep Packet Inspection Technology in the United Arab Emirates, to the cyber security practitioner community of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and greater Middle East North Africa (MENA Region. Analysis of regression between independent variable model factors of computer self efficacy, attitude toward ICT, perceived usefulness of ecommerce, intention to use ecommerce, societal trust and Internet filtration toward the dependent variable intention to use deep packet inspection, to determine parsimony, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, multinomial regression to assess correlation of independent and dependent variables, and assessment of the cross-suitability of DPAM across the MENA/GCC states through a MANOVA assessment. A qualitative component of the instrument enables collection of data about specific hardware and software deployed for deep packet inspection and cyber security systems.
Extended soft wall model with background related to features of QCD thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zoellner, R.; Kaempfer, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Dresden (Germany)
2017-06-15
The soft wall model is extended to accommodate at the same time i) approximately linear ρ meson Regge trajectories at zero temperature T, ii) various options for the thermodynamics with reference to QCD (cross-over or second-order transition or first-order transition at T{sub c}), and iii) the appearance of vector meson states at T
Liu, Kai; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
We perform a series of Euler-Lagrange direct numerical simulations (DNS) for multiphase jets and sedimenting particles. The forces the flow exerts on the particles in these two-way coupled simulations are computed using the Basset-Bousinesq-Oseen (BBO) equations. These forces do not explicitly account for particle-particle interactions, even though such pairwise interactions induced by the perturbations from neighboring particles may be important especially when the particle volume fraction is high. Such effects have been largely unaddressed in the literature. Here, we implement the Pairwise Interaction Extended Point-Particle (PIEP) model to simulate the effect of neighboring particle pairs. A simple collision model is also applied to avoid unphysical overlapping of solid spherical particles. The simulation results indicate that the PIEP model provides a more elaborative and complicated movement of the dispersed phase (droplets and particles). Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) project N00014-16-1-2617.
Extended Parker-Sochacki method for Michaelis-Menten enzymatic reaction model.
Abdelrazik, Ismail M; Elkaranshawy, Hesham A
2016-03-01
In this article, a new approach--namely, the extended Parker-Sochacki method (EPSM)--is presented for solving the Michaelis-Menten nonlinear enzymatic reaction model. The Parker-Sochacki method (PSM) is combined with a new resummation method called the Sumudu-Padé resummation method to obtain approximate analytical solutions for the model. The obtained solutions by the proposed approach are compared with the solutions of PSM and the Runge-Kutta numerical method (RKM). The comparison proves the practicality, efficiency, and correctness of the presented approach. It serves as a basis for solving other nonlinear biochemical reaction models in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In vitro 3-D model based on extending time of culture for studying chronological epidermis aging.
Dos Santos, Morgan; Metral, Elodie; Boher, Aurélie; Rousselle, Patricia; Thepot, Amélie; Damour, Odile
2015-09-01
Skin aging is a complex phenomenon in which several mechanisms operate simultaneously. Among them, intrinsic aging is a time-dependent process, which leads to gradual skin changes affecting its structure and function such as thinning down of both epidermal and dermal compartments and a flattening and fragility of the dermo-epidermal junction. Today, several approaches have been proposed for the generation of aged skin in vitro, including skin explants from aged donors and three-dimensional skin equivalent treated by aging-inducing chemical compounds or engineered with human cells isolated from aged donors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in vitro model of aging based on skin equivalent demonstrating the same phenotypic changes that were observed in chronological aging. By using prolonged culture as a proxy for cellular aging, we extended to 120 days the culture time of a skin equivalent model based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan porous polymer and engineered with human skin cells from photo-protected sites of young donors. Morphological, immunohistological and ultrastructural analysis at different time points of the culture allowed characterizing the phenotypic changes observed in our model in comparison to samples of non photo-exposed normal human skin from different ages. We firstly confirmed that long-term cultured skin equivalents are still morphologically consistent and functionally active even after 120 days of culture. However, similar to in vivo chronological skin aging a significant decrease of the epidermis thickness as well as the number of keratinocyte expressing proliferation marker Ki67 are observed in extended culture time skin equivalent. Epidermal differentiation markers loricrin, filaggrin, involucrin and transglutaminase, also strongly decreased. Ultrastructural analysis of basement membrane showed typical features of aged skin such as duplication of lamina densa and alterations of hemidesmosomes. Moreover, the
An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhipeng Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.
Hund, S J; Antaki, J F
2011-01-01
Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124
Online Parameter Identification of Ultracapacitor Models Using the Extended Kalman Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Zhang
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Ultracapacitors (UCs are the focus of increasing attention in electric vehicle and renewable energy system applications due to their excellent performance in terms of power density, efficiency, and lifespan. Modeling and parameterization of UCs play an important role in model-based regulation and management for a reliable and safe operation. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model template composed of a bulk capacitor, a second-order capacitance-resistance network, and a series resistance, is employed to represent the dynamics of UCs. The extended Kalman Filter is then used to recursively estimate the model parameters in the Dynamic Stress Test (DST on a specially established test rig. The DST loading profile is able to emulate the practical power sinking and sourcing of UCs in electric vehicles. In order to examine the accuracy of the identified model, a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization test is carried out. The validation result demonstrates that the recursively calibrated model can precisely delineate the dynamic voltage behavior of UCs under the discrepant loading condition, and the online identification approach is thus capable of extracting the model parameters in a credible and robust manner.
Ramos-Méndez, J.; Perl, J.; Schümann, J.; Shin, J.; Paganetti, H.; Faddegon, B.
2015-07-01
The aim of this work was to develop a framework for modeling organ effects within TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation), a wrapper of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit that facilitates particle therapy simulation. The DICOM interface for TOPAS was extended to permit contour input, used to assign voxels to organs. The following dose response models were implemented: The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model, the critical element model, the population based critical volume model, the parallel-serial model, a sigmoid-based model of Niemierko for normal tissue complication probability and tumor control probability (TCP), and a Poisson-based model for TCP. The framework allows easy manipulation of the parameters of these models and the implementation of other models. As part of the verification, results for the parallel-serial and Poisson model for x-ray irradiation of a water phantom were compared to data from the AAPM Task Group 166. When using the task group dose-volume histograms (DVHs), results were found to be sensitive to the number of points in the DVH, with differences up to 2.4%, some of which are attributable to differences between the implemented models. New results are given with the point spacing specified. When using Monte Carlo calculations with TOPAS, despite the relatively good match to the published DVH’s, differences up to 9% were found for the parallel-serial model (for a maximum DVH difference of 2%) and up to 0.5% for the Poisson model (for a maximum DVH difference of 0.5%). However, differences of 74.5% (in Rectangle1), 34.8% (in PTV) and 52.1% (in Triangle) for the critical element, critical volume and the sigmoid-based models were found respectively. We propose a new benchmark for verification of organ effect models in proton therapy. The benchmark consists of customized structures in the spread out Bragg peak plateau, normal tissue, tumor, penumbra and in the distal region. The DVH’s, DVH point spacing, and results of the organ effect models are provided
White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Srinivasan, R. Srini; Charles, John B.
The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program aims to extend the capability of the Shuttle orbiter beyond its current 7-10 day limit on mission duration. This goal is to be accomplished in steps, partly due to our limited knowledge of the physiological changes resulting from long-term exposure to weightlessness and their likely influence on critical mission operations involved in EDO flights. Answers to questions related to physiologic adaptation to weightlessness are being actively sought at the present time to help implement the EDO program. In the cardiovascular area, the loss of orthostatic tolerance is a medical concern because of its potential adverse effects on crew performance and safety during reentry and following return to earth. Flight and ground-based physiologic studies are being planned to understand the mechanism and time course of spaceflight-induced orthostatic intolerance and to develop effective countermeasures for improving post-flight cardiovascular performance. Where feasible, these studies are aided by theoretical analyses using mathematical modeling and computer simulation of physiological systems. This paper is concerned with the application of proven models of circulatory and cardiovascular systems in the analysis of chronic cardiovascular changes under weightless conditions.
Akman, Ibrahim; Turhan, Cigdem
2017-01-01
This study aims to explore the users' behaviour and acceptance of social media for learning in higher educational institutions with the help of the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM has been extended to investigate how ethical and security awareness of users affect the actual usage of social learning applications. For this purpose, a…
Sittig, D F
1999-01-01
Experts disagree on the parameters to use to identify the "best" serials within a scientific field. The author set out to develop an extension to Dhawan's journal selection model for ranking serials in any scientific field. Comparison of three different instantiations of Dhawan's model were used to rank thirty-four biomedical informatics serials. The first instantiation of Dhawan's model identified seven serials and divided them into two groups. The second instantiation of Dhawan's model identified twelve serials and separated them into two groups. Using fuzzy set theory the new extended model produced a rank ordered list of the top twelve biomedical informatics serials. Use of fuzzy set theory to assign set membership and combine data in Dhawan's journal selection model allows one to: (1) eliminate the need to determine arbitrary cutoff points for inclusion of serials within each of Dhawan's evaluation criteria categories, (2) combine data from disparate sources, and (3) obtain a rank-ordered list of the biomedical informatics serials rather than simply identifying a set of the "top" serials. Such a ranked list provides librarians and researchers alike with the information necessary to help them make their biomedical informatics serial selection decisions based on objective, quantifiable data.
Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-08-15
Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Top quark rare decays via loop-induced FCNC interactions in extended mirror fermion model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Q. Hung
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Flavor changing neutral current (FCNC interactions for a top quark t decays into Xq with X represents a neutral gauge or Higgs boson, and q a up- or charm-quark are highly suppressed in the Standard Model (SM due to the Glashow–Iliopoulos–Miami mechanism. Whilst current limits on the branching ratios of these processes have been established at the order of 10−4 from the Large Hadron Collider experiments, SM predictions are at least nine orders of magnitude below. In this work, we study some of these FCNC processes in the context of an extended mirror fermion model, originally proposed to implement the electroweak scale seesaw mechanism for non-sterile right-handed neutrinos. We show that one can probe the process t→Zc for a wide range of parameter space with branching ratios varying from 10−6 to 10−8, comparable with various new physics models including the general two Higgs doublet model with or without flavor violations at tree level, minimal supersymmetric standard model with or without R-parity, and extra dimension model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Hsing
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Extending the open-economy loanable funds model, this paper finds that more government deficit as a percentage of GDP does not lead to a higher government bond yield. In addition, a higher real Treasury bill rate, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher EU government bond yield, or an expected depreciation of the euro against the U.S. dollar would increase Slovenia’s long-term interest rate. The negative coefficient of the percentage change in real GDP is insignificant at the10% level. Applying the standard closed-economy or open-economy loanable funds model without including the world interest rate and the expected exchange rate, we find similar conclusions except that the positive coefficient of the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP has a wrong sign and is insignificant at the 10% level.
Extended versus standard Holstein model: Results in two and three dimensions
Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, F.
2014-09-01
We present numerically exact solutions to the problem of a single electron interacting through an extended interaction with optical phonons in two and three dimensions. Comparisons are made with results for the standard Holstein model and with perturbative approaches from both the weak coupling and strong coupling sides. We find, in agreement with earlier work, that the polaron effective mass increases (decreases) in the weak (strong) coupling regime, respectively. However, in two dimensions, the decrease in effective mass still results in too large an effective mass to be relevant in realistic models of normal metals. In three dimensions the decrease can be more relevant but exists only over a very limited range of coupling strengths.
Extending Lattice Discrete Particle Model of Concrete for Non-circular Aggregates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kamza
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, Lattice-Discrete Particle Model (LDPM of concrete has been extended in 2-D to account for the effect of non-circular aggregates. To this end, the flexible equation of super-ellipse is employed for generating aggregates in order to add the simulation possibility of a greater spectrum of aggregate samples in 2-D to lattice-Discrete particle Model. Alongside this extention, required procedures for the generation of aggregates, their packing in space, the determination of influencing region of each particle, the definition of interacting surfaces and computational points and the definition of strains are outlined. Finally, the effects of aggregates geometry on macro-scale compressive strength and softening curve and also cracking pattern of concrete under uniaxial compression are discussed.
Study on queueing behavior in pedestrian evacuation by extended cellular automata model
Hu, Jun; You, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Wei, Juan; Guo, Yangyong
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a pedestrian evacuation model for effective simulation of evacuation efficiency based on extended cellular automata. In the model, pedestrians' momentary transition probability to a target position is defined in terms of the floor field and queueing time, and the critical time is defined as the waiting time threshold in a queue. Queueing time and critical time are derived using Fractal Brownian Motion through analysis of pedestrian arrival characteristics. Simulations using the platform and actual evacuations were conducted to study the relationships among system evacuation time, average system velocity, pedestrian density, flow rate, and critical time. The results demonstrate that at low pedestrian density, evacuation efficiency can be improved through adoption of the shortest route strategy, and critical time has an inverse relationship with average system velocity. Conversely, at higher pedestrian densities, it is better to adopt the shortest queueing time strategy, and critical time is inversely related to flow rate.
Extended hidden Markov model for optimized segmentation of breast thermography images
Mahmoudzadeh, E.; Montazeri, M. A.; Zekri, M.; Sadri, S.
2015-09-01
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in women. Thermography has been shown to provide an efficient screening modality for detecting breast cancer as it is able to detect small tumors and hence can lead to earlier diagnosis. This paper presents a novel extended hidden Markov model (EHMM), for optimized segmentation of breast thermogram for more effective image interpretation and easier analysis of Infrared (IR) thermal patterns. Competitive advantage of EHMM method refers to handling random sampling of the breast IR images with re-estimation of the model parameters. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by applying EHMM segmentation method on the images of IUT_OPTIC database and compared with previously related methods. Simulation results indicate the remarkable capabilities of the proposed approach. It is worth noting that the presented algorithm is able to map semi hot regions into distinct areas and extract the regions of breast thermal images significantly, while the execution time is reduced.
An extended car-following model with consideration of speed guidance at intersections
Zhao, Jing; Li, Peng
2016-11-01
The main motivation of this paper is to analyze the influences of speed guidance strategies on the driving behaviors under four different traffic signalized conditions and to investigate an extended car-following model to explore how the speed guidance affects two different vehicle types that are intelligent vehicles and traditional vehicles during the phase-change periods. The numerical results show that the proposed model can qualitatively describe the impacts of the speed guidance strategies on vehicle's movement trail including the acceleration strategy, smooth braking strategy, and deceleration strategy. Moreover, the benefits of the speed guidance could be enhanced by lengthening the guiding space range, expanding permitted guiding speed range, and increasing the percentage of the intelligent vehicles.
The water-induced linear reduction gas diffusivity model extended to three pore regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chamindu, Deepagoda; De Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken
2015-01-01
gas diffusivity from moist to dry conditions across differently structured porous media, including narrow soil size fractions, perforated plastic blocks, fractured limestone, peaty soils, aggregated volcanic ash soils, and particulate substrates for Earth- or space-based applications. The new Cip......An existing gas diffusivity model developed originally for sieved, repacked soils was extended to characterize gas diffusion in differently structured soils and functional pore networks. A gas diffusivity-derived pore connectivity index was used as a measure of soil structure development....... Characterization of soil functional pore structure is an essential prerequisite to understand key gas transport processes in variably saturated soils in relation to soil ecosystems, climate, and environmental services. In this study, the water-induced linear reduction (WLR) soil gas diffusivity model originally...
Excited scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the extended linear sigma model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parganlija, Denis [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Giacosa, Francesco [Jan Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2017-07-15
We present an in-depth study of masses and decays of excited scalar and pseudoscalar anti qq states in the Extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM). The model also contains ground-state scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. The main objective is to study the consequences of the hypothesis that the f{sub 0}(1790) resonance, observed a decade ago by the BES Collaboration and recently by LHCb, represents an excited scalar quarkonium. In addition we also analyse the possibility that the new a{sub 0}(1950) resonance, observed recently by BABAR, may also be an excited scalar state. Both hypotheses receive justification in our approach although there appears to be some tension between the simultaneous interpretation of f{sub 0}(1790)/a{sub 0}(1950) and pseudoscalar mesons η(1295), π(1300), η(1440) and K(1460) as excited anti qq states. (orig.)
Decays of open charmed mesons in the extended Linear Sigma Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eshraim Walaa I.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We enlarge the so-called extended linear Sigma model (eLSM by including the charm quark according to the global U(4r × U(4l chiral symmetry. In the eLSM, besides scalar and pseudoscalar mesons, also vector and axial-vector mesons are present. Almost all the parameters of the model were fixed in a previous study of mesons below 2 GeV. In the extension to the four-flavor case, only three additional parameters (all of them related to the bare mass of the charm quark appear.We compute the (OZI dominant strong decays of open charmed mesons. The results are compatible with the experimental data, although the theoretical uncertainties are still large.
Kuang, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xing-Li; Lo, Siu-Ming
2017-04-01
In this paper, an extended car-following model is proposed to simulate traffic flow by considering average headway of preceding vehicles group in intelligent transportation systems environment. The stability condition of this model is obtained by using the linear stability analysis. The phase diagram can be divided into three regions classified as the stable, the metastable and the unstable ones. The theoretical result shows that the average headway plays an important role in improving the stabilization of traffic system. The mKdV equation near the critical point is derived to describe the evolution properties of traffic density waves by applying the reductive perturbation method. Furthermore, through the simulation of space-time evolution of the vehicle headway, it is shown that the traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently with taking into account the average headway effect, and the analytical result is consistent with the simulation one.
Parametric study of extended end-plate connection using finite element modeling
Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana
2017-07-01
End-plate connections with preloaded high strength bolts represent a convenient, fast and accurate solution for beam-to-column joints. The behavior of framework joints build up with this type of connection are sensitive dependent on geometrical and material characteristics of the elements connected. This paper presents results of parametric analyses on the behavior of a bolted extended end-plate connection using finite element modeling program Abaqus. This connection was experimentally tested in the Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca and the results are briefly reviewed in this paper. The numerical model of the studied connection was described in detail in [1] and provides data for this parametric study.
Modeling thermal responses in human subjects following extended exposure to radiofrequency energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Foster Kenneth R
2004-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the use of a simple thermoregulatory model for the human body exposed to extended (45 minute exposures to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW energy at different frequencies (100, 450, 2450 MHz and under different environmental conditions. The exposure levels were comparable to or above present limits for human exposure to RF energy. Methods We adapted a compartmental model for the human thermoregulatory system developed by Hardy and Stolwijk, adding power to the torso skin, fat, and muscle compartments to simulate exposure to RF energy. The model uses values for parameters for "standard man" that were originally determined by Hardy and Stolwijk, with no additional adjustment. The model predicts changes in core and skin temperatures, sweat rate, and changes in skin blood flow as a result of RF energy exposure. Results The model yielded remarkably good quantitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin and core temperatures, and qualitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin blood flow. The model considerably underpredicted the measured sweat rates. Conclusions The model, with previously determined parameter values, was successful in predicting major aspects of human thermoregulatory response to RF energy exposure over a wide frequency range, and at different environmental temperatures. The model was most successful in predicting changes in skin temperature, and it provides insights into the mechanisms by which the heat added to body by RF energy is dissipated to the environment. Several factors are discussed that may have contributed to the failure to account properly for sweat rate. Some features of the data, in particular heating of the legs and ankles during exposure at 100 MHz, would require a more complex model than that considered here.
A Predictive Model for Extended Postanesthesia Care Unit Length of Stay in Outpatient Surgeries.
Gabriel, Rodney A; Waterman, Ruth S; Kim, Jihoon; Ohno-Machado, Lucila
2017-05-01
A predictive model that can identify patients who are at an increased risk for prolonged postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay could help optimize resource utilization and case sequencing. Although previous studies identified some predictors, there is not a model that only utilizes various patients demographic and comorbidities, that are already known preoperatively, and that may affect PACU length of stay for outpatient procedures requiring the care of an anesthesiologist. We collected data from 4151 patients at a single institution from 2014 to 2015. The data set was split into a training set (cases before 2015) and a test set (cases during 2015). Bootstrap samples were chosen (R = 1000 replicates) and a logistic regression model was built on the samples using a combined method of forward selection and backward elimination based on the Akaike Information Criterion. The trained model was applied to the test set. Model performance was evaluated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) Curve (AUC) for discrimination and the Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test for goodness-of-fit. The final model had 5 predictor variables for prolonged PACU length of stay, which included the following: morbid obesity, hypertension, surgical specialty, primary anesthesia type, and scheduled case duration. The model had an AUC value of 0.754 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.774) on the training set and 0.722 (95% confidence interval 0.698-0.747) on the test set, with no difference between the 2 ROC curves (P = .06). The model had good calibration for the data in both the training and test data set indicated by nonsignificant P values from the HL test (P = .211 and .719 for the training and test set, respectively). We developed a predictive model with excellent discrimination and goodness-of-fit that can help identify those at higher odds for extended PACU length of stay. This information may help optimize case-sequencing methodologies.
Extending rule-based methods to model molecular geometry and 3D model resolution.
Hoard, Brittany; Jacobson, Bruna; Manavi, Kasra; Tapia, Lydia
2016-08-01
Computational modeling is an important tool for the study of complex biochemical processes associated with cell signaling networks. However, it is challenging to simulate processes that involve hundreds of large molecules due to the high computational cost of such simulations. Rule-based modeling is a method that can be used to simulate these processes with reasonably low computational cost, but traditional rule-based modeling approaches do not include details of molecular geometry. The incorporation of geometry into biochemical models can more accurately capture details of these processes, and may lead to insights into how geometry affects the products that form. Furthermore, geometric rule-based modeling can be used to complement other computational methods that explicitly represent molecular geometry in order to quantify binding site accessibility and steric effects. We propose a novel implementation of rule-based modeling that encodes details of molecular geometry into the rules and binding rates. We demonstrate how rules are constructed according to the molecular curvature. We then perform a study of antigen-antibody aggregation using our proposed method. We simulate the binding of antibody complexes to binding regions of the shrimp allergen Pen a 1 using a previously developed 3D rigid-body Monte Carlo simulation, and we analyze the aggregate sizes. Then, using our novel approach, we optimize a rule-based model according to the geometry of the Pen a 1 molecule and the data from the Monte Carlo simulation. We use the distances between the binding regions of Pen a 1 to optimize the rules and binding rates. We perform this procedure for multiple conformations of Pen a 1 and analyze the impact of conformation and resolution on the optimal rule-based model. We find that the optimized rule-based models provide information about the average steric hindrance between binding regions and the probability that antibodies will bind to these regions. These optimized models
Dissecting jets and missing energy searches using n-body extended simplified models
Cohen, Timothy; Dolan, Matthew J.; El Hedri, Sonia; Hirschauer, James; Tran, Nhan; Whitbeck, Andrew
2016-08-01
Simplified Models are a useful way to characterize new physics scenarios for the LHC. Particle decays are often represented using non-renormalizable operators that involve the minimal number of fields required by symmetries. Generalizing to a wider class of decay operators allows one to model a variety of final states. This approach, which we dub the n-body extension of Simplified Models, provides a unifying treatment of the signal phase space resulting from a variety of signals. In this paper, we present the first application of this framework in the context of multijet plus missing energy searches. The main result of this work is a global performance study with the goal of identifying which set of observables yields the best discriminating power against the largest Standard Model backgrounds for a wide range of signal jet multiplicities. Our analysis compares combinations of one, two and three variables, placing emphasis on the enhanced sensitivity gain resulting from non-trivial correlations. Utilizing boosted decision trees, we compare and classify the performance of missing energy, energy scale and energy structure observables. We demonstrate that including an observable from each of these three classes is required to achieve optimal performance. This work additionally serves to establish the utility of n-body extended Simplified Models as a diagnostic for unpacking the relative merits of different search strategies, thereby motivating their application to new physics signatures beyond jets and missing energy.
Epistemic beliefs as predictors of epistemic emotions: Extending a theoretical model.
Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin
2017-09-21
The cognitive incongruity model of epistemic beliefs and emotions states that if students' beliefs about the nature of knowledge (e.g., knowledge as simple and absolute) are incompatible with the epistemic nature of learning materials (e.g., complex and contradictory), cognitive incongruity arises. This, in turn, entails negative emotional consequences. The epistemic nature of contradictory learning materials might be perceived differently depending on whether individuals resolve the contradictions or not. Therefore, extending the cognitive incongruity model, the present paper argues that cognitive (in)congruity also depends on how individuals act on the learning materials. We expect that only if students resolve contradictory scientific claims (e.g., by identifying moderators), more advanced epistemic beliefs (e.g., evaluativism) have positive emotional effects and vice versa. A field-experimental study with N = 86 undergraduate psychology students was conducted. Using a multiple-texts approach, participants were first presented controversial evidence on gender stereotyping from 18 different (fictional) studies. In contrast to similar multiple-texts approaches, all contradictions could be resolved by identifying the contextual factors that a certain type of stereotype discrimination occurs in ('resolvable controversies'). After reading, the experimental group was asked to resolve the contradictions, whereas two control groups read the same texts, but were not required to resolve the controversies. Results revealed that absolute beliefs positively and evaluativistic beliefs negatively predict negative emotions, but only if students were instructed to resolve the contradictions. Our results suggest that extending the cognitive incongruity model by how students deal with controversial learning materials might be worthwhile. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Stuparu, Dana; Bachmann, Daniel; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Verkade, Jan; de Bruijn, Karin; de Leeuw, Annemargreet
2017-04-01
Flood forecasts, warning and emergency response are important components in flood risk management. Most flood forecasting systems use models to translate weather predictions to forecasted discharges or water levels. However, this information is often not sufficient for real time decisions. A sound understanding of the reliability of embankments and flood dynamics is needed to react timely and reduce the negative effects of the flood. Where are the weak points in the dike system? When, how much and where the water will flow? When and where is the greatest impact expected? Model-based flood impact forecasting tries to answer these questions by adding new dimensions to the existing forecasting systems by providing forecasted information about: (a) the dike strength during the event (reliability), (b) the flood extent in case of an overflow or a dike failure (flood spread) and (c) the assets at risk (impacts). This work presents three study-cases in which such a set-up is applied. Special features are highlighted. Forecasting of dike strength. The first study-case focusses on the forecast of dike strength in the Netherlands for the river Rhine branches Waal, Nederrijn and IJssel. A so-called reliability transformation is used to translate the predicted water levels at selected dike sections into failure probabilities during a flood event. The reliability of a dike section is defined by fragility curves - a summary of the dike strength conditional to the water level. The reliability information enhances the emergency management and inspections of embankments. Ensemble forecasting. The second study-case shows the setup of a flood impact forecasting system in Dumfries, Scotland. The existing forecasting system is extended with a 2D flood spreading model in combination with the Delft-FIAT impact model. Ensemble forecasts are used to make use of the uncertainty in the precipitation forecasts, which is useful to quantify the certainty of a forecasted flood event. From global
Mass of a lattice polaron from an extended Holstein model using the Yukawa potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yavidov, B.Ya., E-mail: yavidov@inp.u [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214 Ulughbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djumanov, Sh.S.; Dzhumanov, S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 100214 Ulughbek, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)
2010-06-14
Renormalization of the mass of an electron is studied within the framework of the Extended Holstein model at strong coupling regime and nonadiabatic limit. In order to take into account an effect of screening of an electron-phonon interaction on a polaron it is assumed that the electron-phonon interaction potential has the Yukawa form and screening of the electron-phonon interaction is due to the presence of other electrons in a lattice. The forces are derived from the Yukawa type electron-phonon interaction potential. It is emphasized that the early considered screened force of (Kornilovitch (1998), Spencer et al. (2005), Hague et al. (2006), Hague and Kornilovitch (2009)) Refs. is a particular case of the force deduced from the Yukawa potential and is approximately valid at large screening radiuses compared to the distances under consideration. The Extended Holstein polaron with the Yukawa type potential is found to be a more mobile than polaron studied in early works at the same screening regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Laboratory; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-03-01
The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup cooling water to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. The RCIC system operates independently of AC power, service air, or external cooling water systems. The only required external energy source is from the battery to maintain the logic circuits to control the opening and/or closure of valves in the RCIC systems in order to control the RPV water level by shutting down the RCIC pump to avoid overfilling the RPV and flooding the steam line to the RCIC turbine. It is generally considered in almost all the existing station black-out accidents (SBO) analyses that loss of the DC power would result in overfilling the steam line and allowing liquid water to flow into the RCIC turbine, where it is assumed that the turbine would then be disabled. This behavior, however, was not observed in the Fukushima Daiichi accidents, where the Unit 2 RCIC functioned without DC power for nearly three days. Therefore, more detailed mechanistic models for RCIC system components are needed to understand the extended SBO for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the next generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, we have developed a strongly coupled RCIC system model, which consists of a turbine model, a pump model, a check valve model, a wet well model, and their coupling models. Unlike the traditional SBO simulations where mass flow rates are typically given in the input file through time dependent functions, the real mass flow rates through the turbine and the pump loops in our model are dynamically calculated according to conservation laws and turbine/pump operation curves. A simplified SBO demonstration RELAP-7 model with this RCIC model has been successfully developed. The demonstration model includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety
Modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by aqueous ammonia solutions using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; van Well, Willy J. M.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2010-01-01
ranges, enthalpy change from partial evaporation measurements, speciation data, heat capacity, enthalpy of solution and enthalpy of dilution data have been used to refit 43 model parameters and standard state properties. Henry’s law constant correlations have been used for extrapolating standard state...
Nonlinear reduced order models for fluids systems using extended dynamic mode decomposition
Dawson, Scott; Rowley, Clarence
2015-11-01
The development of techniques that can extract simple, accurate, and computationally tractable models from fluids data is of importance for enhanced prediction, control, and fundamental understanding of such systems. Modeling approaches can take the form of identifying modes upon which to project the governing equations (e.g., Galerkin projection onto a set of POD modes), or in determining (or calibrating) the temporal dynamics from data, such as in dynamic mode decomposition (DMD), or various modifications to Galerkin projection. Here, we demonstrate that choosing appropriate observables (such as linear and quadratic monomials of POD coefficients) can allow for nonlinear behavior to be accurately captured using the recently proposed extended DMD algorithm. For cylinder wake data spanning the transient and vortex shedding limit cycle regimes, the identified nonlinear models show significant improvement in accuracy and robustness over standard DMD and Galerkin projection. Compared to traditional DMD, this approach should also allow for a better global approximation of the Koopman operator for the dynamical system. We make connections with other related model identification algorithms, and additionally investigate the performance of the method upon spatially sparse and noisy data. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.
Examining Mechanisms Underlying Fear-Control in the Extended Parallel Process Model.
Quick, Brian L; LaVoie, Nicole R; Reynolds-Tylus, Tobias; Martinez-Gonzalez, Andrea; Skurka, Chris
2017-01-17
This investigation sought to advance the extended parallel process model in important ways by testing associations among the strengths of efficacy and threat appeals with fear as well as two outcomes of fear-control processing, psychological reactance and message minimization. Within the context of print ads admonishing against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and the fictitious Trepidosis virus, partial support was found for the additive model with no support for the multiplicative model. High efficacy appeals mitigated freedom threat perceptions across both contexts. Fear was positively associated with both freedom threat perceptions within the NIHL context and favorable attitudes for both NIHL and Trepidosis virus contexts. In line with psychological reactance theory, a freedom threat was positively associated with psychological reactance. Reactance, in turn, was positively associated with message minimization. The models supported reactance preceding message minimization across both message contexts. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed with an emphasis on future research opportunities within the fear-appeal literature.
Modelling waste stabilisation ponds with an extended version of ASM3.
Gehring, T; Silva, J D; Kehl, O; Castilhos, A B; Costa, R H R; Uhlenhut, F; Alex, J; Horn, H; Wichern, M
2010-01-01
In this paper an extended version of IWA's Activated Sludge Model No 3 (ASM3) was developed to simulate processes in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). The model modifications included the integration of algae biomass and gas transfer processes for oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia depending on wind velocity and a simple ionic equilibrium. The model was applied to a pilot-scale WSP system operated in the city of Florianópolis (Brazil). The system was used to treat leachate from a municipal waste landfill. Mean influent concentrations to the facultative pond of 1,456 g(COD)/m(3) and 505 g(NH4-N)/m(3) were measured. Experimental results indicated an ammonia nitrogen removal of 89.5% with negligible rates of nitrification but intensive ammonia stripping to the atmosphere. Measured data was used in the simulations to consider the impact of wind velocity on oxygen input of 11.1 to 14.4 g(O2)/(m(2) d) and sun radiation on photosynthesis. Good results for pH and ammonia removal were achieved with mean stripping rates of 18.2 and 4.5 g(N)/(m(2) d) for the facultative and maturation pond respectively. Based on measured chlorophyll a concentrations and depending on light intensity and TSS concentration it was possible to model algae concentrations.
Higgs-Yukawa model with higher dimension operators via extended mean field theory
Akerlund, Oscar
2016-01-01
Using Extended Mean Field Theory (EMFT) on the lattice, we study properties of the Higgs-Yukawa model as an approximation of the Standard Model Higgs sector, and the effect of higher dimension operators. We note that the discussion of vacuum stability is completely modified in the presence of a $\\phi^6$ term, and that the Higgs mass no longer appears fine tuned. We also study the finite temperature transition. Without higher dimension operators the transition is found to be second order (crossover with gauge fields) for the experimental value of the Higgs mass $M_h=125$ GeV. By taking a $\\phi^6$ interaction in the Higgs potential as a proxy for a UV completion of the Standard Model, the transition becomes stronger and turns first order if the scale of new physics, i.e. the mass of the lightest mediator particle, is around $1.5$ TeV. This implies that electroweak baryogenesis may be viable in models which introduce new particles around that scale.
Spectral theory of extended Harper's model and a question by Erdős and Szekeres
Avila, A.; Jitomirskaya, S.; Marx, C. A.
2017-10-01
The extended Harper's model, proposed by D.J. Thouless in 1983, generalizes the famous almost Mathieu operator, allowing for a wider range of lattice geometries (parametrized by three coupling parameters) by permitting 2D electrons to hop to both nearest and next nearest neighboring (NNN) lattice sites, while still exhibiting its characteristic symmetry (Aubry duality). Previous understanding of the spectral theory of this model was restricted to two dual regions of the parameter space, one of which is characterized by the positivity of the Lyapunov exponent. In this paper, we complete the picture with a description of the spectral measures over the entire remaining (self-dual) region, for all irrational values of the frequency parameter (the magnetic flux in the model). Most notably, we prove that in the entire interior of this regime, the model exhibits a collapse from purely ac spectrum to purely sc spectrum when the NNN interaction becomes symmetric. In physics literature, extensive numerical analysis had indicated such "spectral collapse," however so far not even a heuristic argument for this phenomenon could be provided. On the other hand, in the remaining part of the self-dual region, the spectral measures are singular continuous irrespective of such symmetry. The analysis requires some rather delicate number theoretic estimates, which ultimately depend on the solution of a problem posed by Erd\\H{o}s and Szekeres.
Costa, Rafael S; Hartmann, Andras; Gaspar, Paula; Neves, Ana R; Vinga, Susana
2014-03-04
Biomedical research and biotechnological production are greatly benefiting from the results provided by the development of dynamic models of microbial metabolism. Although several kinetic models of Lactococcus lactis (a Lactic Acid Bacterium (LAB) commonly used in the dairy industry) have been developed so far, most of them are simplified and focus only on specific metabolic pathways. Therefore, the application of mathematical models in the design of an engineering strategy for the production of industrially important products by L. lactis has been very limited. In this work, we extend the existing kinetic model of L. lactis central metabolism to include industrially relevant production pathways such as mannitol and 2,3-butanediol. In this way, we expect to study the dynamics of metabolite production and make predictive simulations in L. lactis. We used a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with approximate Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics for each reaction, where the parameters were estimated from multivariate time-series metabolite concentrations obtained by our team through in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The results show that the model captures observed transient dynamics when validated under a wide range of experimental conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the model using global perturbations, which corroborate experimental evidence about metabolic responses upon enzymatic changes. These include that mannitol production is very sensitive to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the wild type (W.T.) strain, and to mannitol phosphoenolpyruvate: a phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)) in a LDH mutant strain. LDH reduction has also a positive control on 2,3-butanediol levels. Furthermore, it was found that overproduction of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD) in a LDH/PTS(Mtl) deficient strain can increase the mannitol levels. The results show that this model has prediction capability over new experimental conditions and offers promising
Extending comprehensive models of the Earth's magnetic field with Ørsted and CHAMP data
Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Purucker, Michael E.
2004-11-01
A new model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field has been derived using a comprehensive approach, which includes not only POGO and Magsat satellite data, but also data from the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites. The resulting model shows great improvement over its predecessors in terms of completeness of sources, time span and noise reduction in parameters. With its well separated fields and extended time domain of 1960 to mid-2002, the model is able to detect the known sequence of geomagnetic jerks within this frame and gives evidence for an event of interest around 1997. Because all sources are coestimated in a comprehensive approach, intriguing north-south features typically filtered out with other methods are being discovered in the lithospheric representation of the model, such as the S Atlantic spreading ridge and Andean subduction zone lineations. In addition, this lithospheric field exhibits significantly less noise than previous models as a result of improved data selection. The F-region currents, through which the satellites pass, are now treated as lying within meridional planes, as opposed to being purely radial. Results are consistent with those found previously for Magsat, but an analysis at Ørsted altitude shows exciting evidence that the meridional currents associated with the equatorial electrojet likely close beneath the satellite. Besides the model, a new analysis technique has been developed to infer the portion of a model parameter state resolved by a particular data subset. This has proven very useful in diagnosing the cause of peculiar artefacts in the Magsat vector data, which seem to suggest the presence of a small misalignment bias in the vector magnetometer.
Extended Kinship in the United States: Competing Models and the Case of La Familia Chicana.
Sena-Rivera, Jaime
1979-01-01
Extended kinship among Chicanos is explored through intensive open-ended interviews with four cases of three generations of Mexican-descent families. "La familia chicana" is posited as a modified extended or kin-integrated family extending over time and space from Mexico at the turn of the century to present day industrial America. (Author)
Plasma contactor modeling with NASCAP/LEO - Extending laboratory results to space systems
Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.
1990-01-01
In the laboratory, hollow cathode-based plasma contactors have been observed to both emit and collect ampere-level electron currents with low impedance. The laboratory behavior of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors and the limited space experience with hollow cathodes suggest that, for many applications, a hollow cathode-based plasma contactor is the ideal device to provide electrical connection with the space plasma. In order to confidently extend the laboratory experience to the low-earth-orbit environment, a series of plasma contactor computer models has been developed. Calculations show that a hollow cathode plasma contactor that collects 0.5 A in the laboratory will only collect 2.4 mA in space. The simplest way to boost the collected current is to increase the gas flow. A mole of gas is enough to collect ampere level currents for 5-1/2 hours.
Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything
Tipler, Frank J
2005-01-01
I argue that the (extended) Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and the renormalizable Feynman-Weinberg theory of quantum gravity comprise a theory of everything. I show that imposing the appropriate cosmological boundary conditions make the theory finite. The infinities that are normally renormalized away and the series divergence infinities are both eliminated by the same mechanism. Furthermore, this theory can resolve the horizon, flatness, and isotropy problems of cosmology. Joint mathematical consistency naturally yields a scale-free, Gaussian, adiabatic perturbation spectrum, and more matter than antimatter. I show that mathematical consistency of the theory requires the universe to begin at an initial singularity with a pure $SU(2)_L$ gauge field. I show that quantum mechanics requires this field to have a Planckian spectrum whatever its temperature. If this field has managed to survive thermalization to the present day, then it would be the CMBR. If so, then we would have a natural explanation for...
Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H; Miller, Jason B; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T; Zhu, Hao; Siegwart, Daniel J
2016-01-19
RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer's own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs.
Nearest-Neighbor Repulsion and Competing Charge and Spin Order in the Extended Hubbard Model.
Bahman, Davoudi; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
2006-03-01
We generalize the Two-Particle Self-Consistent (TPSC) approach to study the extended Hubbard model where the nearest-neighbor interaction V is present in addition to the local interaction U. Our results are in good agreement with available Quantum Monte-Carlo results over the whole range of density n up to intermediate coupling. As a function of U, V and n we observe different kinds of charge and spin orders, like commensurate/incommensurate charge and spin density wave, phase separation, and ferromagnetic order. For attractive V superconductivity could exist in the regions where the other types of charge and spin orders do not dominate. Ref.: B. Davoudi and A.-M.S. Tremblay, cond-mat/0509707
Singlet exciton condensation and bond-order-wave phase in the extended Hubbard model
Hafez-Torbati, Mohsen; Uhrig, Götz S.
2017-09-01
The competition of interactions implies the compensation of standard mechanisms, which leads to the emergence of exotic phases between conventional phases. The extended Hubbard model (EHM) is a fundamental example for the competition of the local Hubbard interaction and the nearest-neighbor density-density interaction, which at half-filling and in one dimension leads to a bond-order wave (BOW) between a charge-density wave (CDW) and a quasi-long-range order Mott insulator. We study the full momentum-resolved excitation spectrum of the one-dimensional EHM in the CDW phase, and we clarify the relation between different elementary energy gaps. We show that the CDW-to-BOW transition is driven by the softening of a singlet exciton at momentum π . The BOW is realized as the condensate of this singlet exciton.
A Relevance-Extended Multi-dimensional Model for a Data Warehouse Contextualized with Documents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael
2005-01-01
Current data warehouse and OLAP technologies can be applied to analyze the structured data that companies store in their databases. The circumstances that describe the context associated with these data can be found in other internal and external sources of documents. In this paper we propose...... to combine the traditional corporate data warehouse with a document warehouse, resulting in a contextualized warehouse. Thus, contextualized warehouses keep a historical record of the facts and their contexts as described by the documents. In this framework, the user selects an analysis context which...... with the documents that explain their circumstances. In this work we extend an existing multi-dimensional data model and algebra for representing the R-cubes....
When subgroups secede: extending and refining the social psychological model of schism in groups.
Sani, Fabio
2005-08-01
This article is about a field study (N=1,080) concerning the secession of a subgroup from the Church of England, and it is aimed at extending and refining the existing social psychological model of schisms in groups. It was found that the first step toward a schism is the belief that the group identity has been subverted. This belief will prompt negative emotions (i.e., dejection and agitation) and decrease both group identification and perceived group entitativity (i.e., cohesion, oneness). In turn, low group entitativity will reduce the level of group identification. Finally, low group identification and high negative emotions will increase schismatic intentions. It is also demonstrated that the negative impact of group identification, and the positive impact of negative emotions, on schismatic intentions is moderated by the perceived ability to voice dissent (i.e., the greater the perceived voice, the weaker the impact).
Process simulation of CO2 capture with aqueous ammonia using the Extended UNIQUAC model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Darde, Victor Camille Alfred; Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; van Well, Willy J.M.
2012-01-01
The use of aqueous ammonia is a promising option to capture carbon dioxide from power plants thanks to the potential low heat requirement during the carbon dioxide desorption compared to monoethanolamine (MEA) based process. The patented Chilled Ammonia Process developed by Alstom absorbs carbon...... of the process is necessary.In this work, the performance of the carbon dioxide capture process using aqueous ammonia has been analyzed by process simulation. The Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model available for the CO2–NH3–H2O system has been implemented in the commercial simulator Aspen Plus®1 by using...... to be in the same range as the values reported recently for advanced amine processes. Assuming that cold cooling water is available, the electricity consumption remains limited. Hence the Chilled Ammonia Process is a promising option for post combustion carbon dioxide capture....
Extended Generalized-K (EGK): A New Simple and General Model for Composite Fading Channels
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a generalized composite fading distribution (termed extended generalized-K (EGK)) to model the envelope and the power of the received signal in millimeter wave (60 GHz or above) and free-space optical channels. We obtain the first and the second-order statistics of the received signal envelope characterized by the EGK composite fading distribution. In particular, expressions for probability density function, cumulative distribution function, level crossing rate and average fade duration, and fractional moments are derived. In addition performance measures such as amount of fading, average bit error probability, outage probability, average capacity, and outage capacity are offered in closed-form. Selected numerical and computer simulation examples validate the accuracy of the presented mathematical analysis.
Video Game Acceptance: A Meta-Analysis of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model.
Wang, Xiaohui; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian
2017-11-01
The current study systematically reviews and summarizes the existing literature of game acceptance, identifies the core determinants, and evaluates the strength of the relationships in the extended technology acceptance model. Moreover, this study segments video games into two categories: hedonic and utilitarian and examines player acceptance of these two types separately. Through a meta-analysis of 50 articles, we find that perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and perceived enjoyment (PE) significantly associate with attitude and behavioral intention. PE is the dominant predictor of hedonic game acceptance, while PEOU and PU are the main determinants of utilitarian game acceptance. Furthermore, we find that respondent type and game platform are significant moderators. Findings of this study provide critical insights into the phenomenon of game acceptance and suggest directions for future research.
University staff adoption of iPads: An empirical study using an extended TAM model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Steven Lane
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This research examined key factors influencing adoption of iPads by university staff. An online survey collected quantitative data to test hypothesised relationships in an extended TAM model. The findings show that university staff consider iPads easy to use and useful, with a high level of compatibility with their work. Social status had no influence on their attitude to using an iPad. However older university staff and university staff with no previous experience in using a similar technology such as an iPhone or smartphone found iPads less easy to use. Furthermore, a lack of formal end user ICT support impacted negatively on the use of iPads.
Use of the extended parallel processing model to evaluate culturally relevant kernicterus messages.
Russell, Jessica C; Smith, Sandi; Novales, Wilma; Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Hanson, Joseph
2013-01-01
Kernicterus is a serious but easily preventable disease in newborns that is not well-known even by some health care professionals. This study evaluated a parent guide and poster on kernicterus awareness and prevention generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The extended parallel processing model was used as a framework for creating the interview protocol and analyzing the results. In-depth interviews were conducted with four parents and six health care personnel of different ethnicities to evaluate the materials. Content for the parent guide and poster was held constant, but photos were varied according to the ethnicity of the baby (white, African American, or Hispanic) and the language in which the interviews were conducted (English and Spanish). The parent guide was evaluated positively, but reactions to the poster were varied. The consensus was that the poster drew more attention than the pocket guide but lacked sufficient information about what jaundice is or how to treat it, while the pocket guide provided information, especially with regard to efficacy. The extended parallel processing model claims that when efficacy is equal to or higher than perceived threat, respondents should engage in recommended responses, which was the general finding from these interviews. Recommendations for improvements of the materials are presented. The focus on different ethnicities in the materials was perceived as unnecessary and potentially counter-productive. Both parents and health care professionals mentioned the lack of information regarding treatment. Providing information on the length and effectiveness of treatment for jaundice and kernicterus might increase efficacy in averting the threat in both conditions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
An Extended Global Sensitivity Analysis Implemented on a 1D Land Biosphere Model
Ioannou-Katidis, Pavlos; Petropoulos, George; Griffiths, Hywel; Bevan, Rhodri
2014-05-01
The implementation of sophisticated mathematical models is undoubtedly becoming increasingly widely used in a variety of fields in geosciences. SimSphere belongs to a special category of land biosphere models called Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) models. Those provide representations, in a vertical profile, of the physical mechanisms controlling the physical interactions occurring in the soil/vegetation/atmosphere continuum at a temporal resolution that is in good agreement with the dynamic timescale of the atmospheric and surface processes. This study builds on previous works conducted by the authors and aims at extending our understanding of this model structure and further establishing its coherence. Herein we present the results from a thorough sensitivity analysis (SA) performed on SimSphere using a cutting edge and robust Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach, based on the use of the Gaussian Emulation Machine for Sensitivity Analysis (GEM-SA) tool. In particular, the sensitivity of selected key variables characterising land surface interactions simulated by SimSphere were evaluated at different times of model output. All model inputs were assumed to be normally distributed with their probability distribution functions (PDFs) defined using mean and variance taken from the entire theoretical range that these inputs can take in SimSphere. The sensitivity of the following SimSphere outputs was evaluated: Daily Average Net Radiation, Daily Average Latent Heat flux, Daily Average Sensible Heat flux, Daily Average Air Temperature , Daily Average Radiometric Temperature, Daily Average Surface Moisture Availability, Daily Average Evaporative Fraction and Daily Average Non-Evaporative Fraction. Our results showed largely comparable trends in terms of identifying the most sensitive model inputs in respect to the model outputs examined. In addition, a high percentage of first order interactions between the model inputs were reported, suggesting strong
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faramarzi, Leila; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Thomsen, Kaj
2009-01-01
and they cover a very wide range of conditions. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for the aqueous alkanolamine systems containing CO2 in the pressure range of 3-13,000 kPa and temperatures of 25-200 C are used. The model is also regressed with the VLE and freezing point depression data of the binary aqueous...... alkanolamine systems (MEA-water and MDEA-water). The two just mentioned types of data cover the full concentration range of alkanolamines from extremely dilute to almost pure. The experimental freezing point depression data down to the temperature of -20 degrees C are used. Experimental excess enthalpy (H...
A Bioinspired Neural Model Based Extended Kalman Filter for Robot SLAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Ni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM problem is a very important and challenging issue in the robotic field. The main tasks of SLAM include how to reduce the localization error and the estimated error of the landmarks and improve the robustness and accuracy of the algorithms. The extended Kalman filter (EKF based method is one of the most popular methods for SLAM. However, the accuracy of the EKF based SLAM algorithm will be reduced when the noise model is inaccurate. To solve this problem, a novel bioinspired neural model based SLAM approach is proposed in this paper. In the proposed approach, an adaptive EKF based SLAM structure is proposed, and a bioinspired neural model is used to adjust the weights of system noise and observation noise adaptively, which can guarantee the stability of the filter and the accuracy of the SLAM algorithm. The proposed approach can deal with the SLAM problem in various situations, for example, the noise is in abnormal conditions. Finally, some simulation experiments are carried out to validate and demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi Wu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cracked rotor and an asymmetric rotor with two disks representing a turbine and a generator is utilized to study the vibrations due to imbalance and side load. Nonlinearities typically related with a “breathing” crack are included using a Mayes steering function. Numerical simulations demonstrate how the variations of rotor parameters affect the vibration response and the effect of coupling between torsional and lateral modes. Bode, spectrum, and orbit plots are used to show the differences between the vibration signatures associated with cracked shafts versus asymmetric shafts. Results show how nonlinear lateral-torsional coupling shifts the resonance peaks in the torsional vibration response for cracked shafts and asymmetric rotors. The resonance peaks shift depending on the ratio of the lateral-to-torsional natural frequencies with the peak responses occurring at noninteger values of the lateral natural frequency. When the general nonlinear models used in this study are constrained to reduce to linear torsional vibration, the peak responses occur at commonly reported integer ratios. Full spectrum analyses of the X and Y vibrations reveal distinct vibration characteristics of both cracked and asymmetric rotors including reverse vibration components. Critical speeds and vibration orders predicted using the models presented herein include and extend diagnostic indicators commonly reported.
Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William
2017-04-01
Transport of colloids in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their down-gradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near surface fluid domain colloids may re-enter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via strong primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization onto grain surfaces. Colloid movement is described by a sequence of trials in a series of unit cells, and the binomial distribution is used to calculate the probabilities of each possible sequence. Pore-scale simulations provide mechanistically-determined likelihoods and timescales associated with the above pore-scale colloid mass transfer processes, whereas the network-scale model employs pore and grain topology to determine probabilities of transfer from up-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains to down-gradient bulk and near-surface fluid domains. Inter-grain transport of colloids in the near surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing.
Error model of geomagnetic-field measurement and extended Kalman-filter based compensation method.
Ge, Zhilei; Liu, Suyun; Li, Guopeng; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yanni
2017-01-01
The real-time accurate measurement of the geomagnetic-field is the foundation to achieving high-precision geomagnetic navigation. The existing geomagnetic-field measurement models are essentially simplified models that cannot accurately describe the sources of measurement error. This paper, on the basis of systematically analyzing the source of geomagnetic-field measurement error, built a complete measurement model, into which the previously unconsidered geomagnetic daily variation field was introduced. This paper proposed an extended Kalman-filter based compensation method, which allows a large amount of measurement data to be used in estimating parameters to obtain the optimal solution in the sense of statistics. The experiment results showed that the compensated strength of the geomagnetic field remained close to the real value and the measurement error was basically controlled within 5nT. In addition, this compensation method has strong applicability due to its easy data collection and ability to remove the dependence on a high-precision measurement instrument.
Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.
Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela
2016-09-01
Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Exact solutions to a spatially extended model of kinase-receptor interaction
Szopa, Piotr; Lipniacki, Tomasz; Kazmierczak, Bogdan
2011-10-01
B and Mast cells are activated by the aggregation of the immune receptors. Motivated by this phenomena we consider a simple spatially extended model of mutual interaction of kinases and membrane receptors. It is assumed that kinase activates membrane receptors and in turn the kinase molecules bound to the active receptors are activated by transphosphorylation. Such a type of interaction implies positive feedback and may lead to bistability. In this study we apply the Steklov eigenproblem theory to analyze the linearized model and find exact solutions in the case of non-uniformly distributed membrane receptors. This approach allows us to determine the critical value of receptor dephosphorylation rate at which cell activation (by arbitrary small perturbation of the inactive state) is possible. We found that cell sensitivity grows with decreasing kinase diffusion and increasing anisotropy of the receptor distribution. Moreover, these two effects are cooperating. We showed that the cell activity can be abruptly triggered by the formation of the receptor aggregate. Since the considered activation mechanism is not based on receptor crosslinking by polyvalent antigens, the proposed model can also explain B cell activation due to receptor aggregation following binding of monovalent antigens presented on the antigen presenting cell.
Szczęsna, Agnieszka; Pruszowski, Przemysław
2016-01-01
Inertial orientation tracking is still an area of active research, especially in the context of out-door, real-time, human motion capture. Existing systems either propose loosely coupled tracking approaches where each segment is considered independently, taking the resulting drawbacks into account, or tightly coupled solutions that are limited to a fixed chain with few segments. Such solutions have no flexibility to change the skeleton structure, are dedicated to a specific set of joints, and have high computational complexity. This paper describes the proposal of a new model-based extended quaternion Kalman filter that allows for estimation of orientation based on outputs from the inertial measurements unit sensors. The filter considers interdependencies resulting from the construction of the kinematic chain so that the orientation estimation is more accurate. The proposed solution is a universal filter that does not predetermine the degree of freedom at the connections between segments of the model. To validation the motion of 3-segments single link pendulum captured by optical motion capture system is used. The next step in the research will be to use this method for inertial motion capture with a human skeleton model.
Excitation function of elastic $pp$ scattering from a unitarily extended Bialas-Bzdak model
Nemes, F.; Csanád, M.
2015-01-01
The Bialas-Bzdak model of elastic proton-proton scattering assumes a purely imaginary forward scattering amplitude, which consequently vanishes at the diffractive minima. We extended the model to arbitrarily large real parts in a way that constraints from unitarity are satisfied. The resulting model is able to describe elastic $pp$ scattering not only at the lower ISR energies but also at $\\sqrt{s}=$7~TeV in a statistically acceptable manner, both in the diffractive cone and in the region of the first diffractive minimum. The total cross-section as well as the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is predicted for the future LHC energies of $\\sqrt{s}=$13, 14, 15~TeV and also to 28~TeV. A non-trivial, significantly non-exponential feature of the differential cross-section of elastic proton-proton scattering is analyzed and the excitation function of the non-exponential behavior is predicted. The excitation function of the shadow profiles is discussed and related to saturation at small ...
A Footprint Family extended MRIO model to support Europe's transition to a One Planet Economy.
Galli, Alessandro; Weinzettel, Jan; Cranston, Gemma; Ercin, Ertug
2013-09-01
Currently, the European economy is using nearly three times the ecological assets that are locally available. This situation cannot be sustained indefinitely. Tools are needed that can help reverse the unsustainable trend. In 2010, an EC funded One Planet Economy Network: Europe (OPEN:EU) project was launched to develop the evidence and innovative practical tools that will allow policy-makers and civil society to identify policy interventions to transform Europe into a One Planet Economy, by 2050. Building on the premise that no indicator alone is able to comprehensively monitor (progress towards) sustainability, the project has drawn on the Ecological, Carbon and Water Footprints to define a Footprint Family suite of indicators, to track human pressure on the planet. An environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model has then been developed to group the Footprint Family under a common framework and combine the indicators in the family with national economic accounts and trade statistics. Although unable to monitor the full spectrum of human pressures, once grouped within the MRIO model, the Footprint Family is able to assess the appropriation of ecological assets, GHG emissions as well as freshwater consumption and pollution associated with consumption of specific products and services within a specified country. Using MRIO models within the context of Footprint analyses also enables the Footprint Family to take into account full production chains with technologies specific to country of origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pairing symmetries of a hole-doped extended two-orbital model for the pnictides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicholson, Andrew D [ORNL; Ge, Weihao [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Riera, J. A. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Daghofer, Maria [ORNL; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL
2012-01-01
The hole-doped ground state of a recently introduced extended t-U-J two-orbital Hubbard model for the Fe-based superconductors is studied via exact diagonalization methods on small clusters. Similarly as in the previously studied case of electron doping [A. Nicholson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 217002 (2011)], upon hole doping it is observed that there are several competing pairing symmetries, including A1g , B1g , and B2g . However, contrary to the electron-doped case, the ground state of the hole-doped state has pseudocrystal momentum k = ( , ) in the unfolded Brillouin zone. In the two Fe-atom per unit cell representation, this indicates that the ground state involves antibonding, rather than bonding, combinations of the orbitals of the two Fe atoms in the unit cell. The lowest state with k = (0,0) has only a slightly higher energy. These results indicate that this simple two-orbital model may be useful to capture some subtle aspects of the hole-doped pnictides, since calculations for the five-orbital model have unveiled a hole pocket centered at M [k = ( , )] in the unfolded Brillouin zone.
Geometric-model-free tracking of extended targets using 3D lidar measurements
Steinemann, Philipp; Klappstein, Jens; Dickmann, Juergen; von Hundelshausen, Felix; Wünsche, Hans-Joachim
2012-06-01
Tracking of extended targets in high definition, 360-degree 3D-LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements is a challenging task and a current research topic. It is a key component in robotic applications, and is relevant to path planning and collision avoidance. This paper proposes a new method without a geometric model to simultaneously track and accumulate 3D-LIDAR measurements of an object. The method itself is based on a particle filter and uses an object-related local 3D grid for each object. No geometric object hypothesis is needed. Accumulation allows coping with occlusions. The prediction step of the particle filter is governed by a motion model consisting of a deterministic and a probabilistic part. Since this paper is focused on tracking ground vehicles, a bicycle model is used for the deterministic part. The probabilistic part depends on the current state of each particle. A function for calculating the current probability density function for state transition is developed. It is derived in detail and based on a database consisting of vehicle dynamics measurements over several hundreds of kilometers. The adaptive probability density function narrows down the gating area for measurement data association. The second part of the proposed method addresses weighting the particles with a cost function. Different 3D-griddependent cost functions are presented and evaluated. Evaluations with real 3D-LIDAR measurements show the performance of the proposed method. The results are also compared to ground truth data.
Extended QoS modelling based on multi-application environment in network on chip
Saadaoui, Abdelkader; Nasri, Salem
2015-01-01
Until now, there is no standard method of the quality of service (QoS) measurement and fewer techniques have been used to provide its definition. Therefore, researchers are looking for a projection of QoS on quantifiable space, since it is qualitative, subjective and not measurable. However, a few tentatives have studied QoS parameter estimation. Many applications in network on chip (NoC) present variable QoS parameters such as packet loss rate (PLR), end-to-end delay (EED) and throughput (Thp). However, there are a few papers that have developed different methods to modelise QoS in NoC. Their QoS presentation does not provide a multi-application parameter arbiter. Independently of the approach used, an important challenge associated with QoS provision is the development of an efficient and flexible way to monitor QoS. The originality of our approach is based on a proposition of a QoS-intellectual property module in NoC architecture to improve network performances. We implement an extended approach of QoS metrics modelling for NoC on multi-parameter and multi-application environment. The QoS metrics model is based on QoS parameters such as PLR, EED and Thp for different applications. To validate this work, a dynamic routing simulation for 4 × 4 mesh NoC behaviour under three different applications, namely transmission control protocol, variable bit rate and constant bit rate, is considered. To achieve an ideal network behaviour, load balancing on NoC with multiple concurrent applications is improved using QoS metrics measurement based on dynamic routing. The results have shown that extended QoS modelling approach is easy and cheap to implement in hardware-software quantifiable representation. Thus, implementing a quantifiable representation of QoS can be used to provide a NoC services arbiter. QoS arbiter interacts with other routers to ensure flit flow and QoS modelling to provide a QoS value.
Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok
2014-07-01
The two-dimensional extended Holstein-Hubbard model is investigated in the strong correlation regime to study the nature of self-trapping transition and the polaron phase diagram in the absence of superconductivity. Using a series of canonical transformations followed by zero-phonon averaging the extended Holstein-Hubbard model is converted into an effective extended Hubbard model which is subsequently transformed into an effective t- J model in the strong correlation limit. This effective t- J model is finally solved using the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation to show that the self-trapping transition is continuous in the anti-adiabatic limit while it is discontinuous in the adiabatic limit. The phase diagrams for the localization-delocalization transition, namely the phase line and the phase surface separating the small polaron and large polaron states are also shown.
Utility of ionosphere and troposphere models for extending the range of high-accuracy GPS
Dodd, David William
This dissertation studied the use of NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere products in extending the range of long-baseline, high-accuracy DGPS for real-time positioning. The question being addressed by this work is; can existing real-time ionosphere and troposphere models reduce the observation uncertainties to the level where they can be used to reliably resolve integer ambiguities, in real-time, over long baselines (>30km). In-house GPS processing software (USM_OTF) was developed to ingest the models and compute epoch-to-epoch, float and fixed ambiguity position solutions. Single baseline processing, ranging from 20 to 740 kin, over several days in four separate sessions (July 2004, January 2005, August 2005 and July 2006) incorporating four regions of the U.S.A. (Michigan, California, Central and the South East), were evaluated. The first session looked at the NOAA real-time troposphere model and the second session looked at the NOAA real-time ionosphere model. The third and fourth sessions looked at the use of both the NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere models. Results showed that the NOAA troposphere model reduced the height bias uncertainty by up to 30 cm, under high activity conditions. They also showed that the troposphere model increased the uncertainty standard deviation under these high activity conditions. The results from the first tests of the real-time NOAA ionosphere model showed that, due to satellite coverage issues, it produced worse results than other real-time models. The NOAA model suffered from lack of satellite coverage corrections, especially in areas near the limits of the model, and at the beginning and end of a satellite's flight path. A reduction in satellite numbers lead to weaker geometry and less reliable position solutions. These tests showed that it was better to provide less accurate ionosphere estimates than to leave the satellites out of the solution. These problems were addressed by NOAA prior to the final tests
Study of a 30-M Boom For Solar Sail-Craft: Model Extendibility and Control Strategy
Keel, Leehyun
2005-01-01
Space travel propelled by solar sails is motivated by the fact that the momentum exchange that occurs when photons are reflected and/or absorbed by a large solar sail generates a small but constant acceleration. This acceleration can induce a constant thrust in very large sails that is sufficient to maintain a polar observing satellite in a constant position relative to the Sun or Earth. For long distance propulsion, square sails (with side length greater than 150 meters) can reach Jupiter in two years and Pluto in less than ten years. Converting such design concepts to real-world systems will require accurate analytical models and model parameters. This requires extensive structural dynamics tests. However, the low mass and high flexibility of large and light weight structures such as solar sails makes them unsuitable for ground testing. As a result, validating analytical models is an extremely difficult problem. On the other hand, a fundamental question can be asked. That is whether an analytical model that represents a small-scale version of a solar-sail boom can be extended to much larger versions of the same boom. To answer this question, we considered a long deployable boom that will be used to support the solar sails of the sail-craft. The length of fully deployed booms of the actual solar sail-craft will exceed 100 meters. However, the test-bed we used in our study is a 30 meter retractable boom at MSFC. We first develop analytical models based on Lagrange s equations and the standard Euler-Bernoulli beam. Then the response of the models will be compared with test data of the 30 meter boom at various deployed lengths. For this stage of study, our analysis was limited to experimental data obtained at 12ft and 18ft deployment lengths. The comparison results are positive but speculative. To observe properly validate the analytic model, experiments at longer deployment lengths, up to the full 30 meter, have been requested. We expect the study to answer the
Lee, Yi Feng; Graalfs, Heiner; Frech, Christian
2016-09-16
An extended model is developed to describe protein retention in mixed-mode chromatography based on thermodynamic principles. Special features are the incorporation of pH dependence of the ionic interaction on a mixed-mode resin and the addition of a water term into the model which enables one to describe the total number of water molecules released at the hydrophobic interfaces upon protein-ligand binding. Examples are presented on how to determine the model parameters using isocratic elution chromatography. Four mixed-mode anion-exchanger prototype resins with different surface chemistries and ligand densities were tested using isocratic elution of two monoclonal antibodies at different pH values (7-10) and encompassed a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-5M). U-shape mixed-mode retention curves were observed for all four resins. By taking into account of the deprotonation and protonation of the weak cationic functional groups in these mixed-mode anion-exchanger prototype resins, conditions which favor protein-ligand binding via mixed-mode strong cationic ligands as well as conditions which favor protein-ligand binding via both mixed-mode strong cationic ligands and non-hydrophobic weak cationic ligands were identified. The changes in the retention curves with pH, salt, protein, and ligand can be described very well by the extended model using meaningful thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs energy, number of ionic and hydrophobic interactions, total number of released water molecules as well as modulator interaction constant. Furthermore, the fitted model parameters based on isocratic elution data can also be used to predict protein retention in dual salt-pH gradient elution chromatography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilaria Barone
Full Text Available Slow, progressive rod degeneration followed by cone death leading to blindness is the pathological signature of all forms of human retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Therapeutic schemes based on intraocular delivery of neuroprotective agents prolong the lifetime of photoreceptors and have reached the stage of clinical trial. The success of these approaches depends upon optimization of chronic supply and appropriate combination of factors. Environmental enrichment (EE, a novel neuroprotective strategy based on enhanced motor, sensory and social stimulation, has already been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of various disorders of the CNS, including Alzheimer and Huntington disease. Here we report the results of prolonged exposure of rd10 mice, a mutant strain undergoing progressive photoreceptor degeneration mimicking human RP, to such an enriched environment from birth. By means of microscopy of retinal tissue, electrophysiological recordings, visual behaviour assessment and molecular analysis, we show that EE considerably preserves retinal morphology and physiology as well as visual perception over time in rd10 mutant mice. We find that protective effects of EE are accompanied by increased expression of retinal mRNAs for CNTF and mTOR, both factors known as instrumental to photoreceptor survival. Compared to other rescue approaches used in similar animal models, EE is highly effective, minimally invasive and results into a long-lasting retinal protection. These results open novel perspectives of research pointing to environmental strategies as useful tools to extend photoreceptor survival.
Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee
2015-09-01
We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Based on two proposed functions of social identity performance (Klein, Spears, & Reicher, 2007), we distinguished between the efficacy of collective action at consolidating the identity of a protest movement and its efficacy at achieving social change (political efficacy). We expected identity consolidation efficacy to positively predict collective action tendencies directly and indirectly via political efficacy. We also expected collective action tendencies to be positively predicted by moral outrage and by sympathy in response to disadvantaged outgroup's suffering. These hypotheses were supported in two surveys examining intentions to protest for Palestine in Britain (Study 1), and intentions to attend the June 4th vigil in Hong Kong to commemorate the Tiananmen massacre among a sample of Hong Kong citizens (Study 2). The contributions of these findings to research on the dual pathway model of collective action and the different functions of collective action are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
The attentional drift-diffusion model extends to simple purchasing decisions.
Krajbich, Ian; Lu, Dingchao; Camerer, Colin; Rangel, Antonio
2012-01-01
How do we make simple purchasing decisions (e.g., whether or not to buy a product at a given price)? Previous work has shown that the attentional drift-diffusion model (aDDM) can provide accurate quantitative descriptions of the psychometric data for binary and trinary value-based choices, and of how the choice process is guided by visual attention. Here we extend the aDDM to the case of purchasing decisions, and test it using an eye-tracking experiment. We find that the model also provides a reasonably accurate quantitative description of the relationship between choice, reaction time, and visual fixations using parameters that are very similar to those that best fit the previous data. The only critical difference is that the choice biases induced by the fixations are about half as big in purchasing decisions as in binary choices. This suggests that a similar computational process is used to make binary choices, trinary choices, and simple purchasing decisions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siu Hing Lo
2014-02-01
Full Text Available From a corporate social responsibility perspective, there are many reasons to promote teleconference use as an alternative to business travel. The present study examines psychosocial and organizational factors relevant to teleconference use. We tested an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model of teleconference use among office workers of four organizations. Results indicate that intention was the strongest direct predictor of teleconference use. Habit and perceived norm, in turn, were the strongest predictors of intention to use teleconference. In contrast, attitude was only weakly predictive and perceived control not predictive at all of intention to use teleconference. We also examined how this model was influenced by the organizational context by comparing organizations from two different regions, and organizations from the private vs. the public sector. Most teleconference-related beliefs differed between regions and organizational sectors. The relevance of specific attitudinal and normative beliefs to the overall attitude and perceived norm also differed between organizational sectors. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Extending Validated Human Performance Models to Explore NextGen Concepts
Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.
2012-01-01
To meet the expected increases in air traffic demands, NASA and FAA are researching and developing Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concepts. NextGen will require substantial increases in the data available to pilots on the flight deck (e.g., weather,wake, traffic trajectory predictions, etc.) to support more precise and closely coordinated operations (e.g., self-separation, RNAV/RNP, and closely spaced parallel operations, CSPOs). These NextGen procedures and operations, along with the pilot's roles and responsibilities, must be designed with consideration of the pilot's capabilities and limitations. Failure to do so will leave the pilots, and thus the entire aviation system, vulnerable to error. A validated Man-machine Integration and design Analysis System (MIDAS) v5 model was extended to evaluate anticipated changes to flight deck and controller roles and responsibilities in NextGen approach and Land operations. Compared to conditions when the controllers are responsible for separation on decent to land phase of flight, the output from these model predictions suggest that the flight deck response time to detect the lead aircraft blunder will decrease, pilot scans to the navigation display will increase, and workload will increase.
Low energy gamma ray excess confronting a singlet scalar extended inert doublet dark matter model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amit Dutta Banik
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Recent study of gamma rays originating from the region of galactic centre has confirmed an anomalous γ-ray excess within the energy range 1–3 GeV. This can be explained as the consequence of pair annihilation of a 31–40 GeV dark matter into bb¯ with thermal annihilation cross-section σv∼1.4–2.0×10−26 cm3/s. In this work we revisit the Inert Doublet Model (IDM in order to explain this gamma ray excess. Taking the lightest inert particle (LIP as a stable DM candidate we show that a 31–40 GeV dark matter derived from IDM will fail to satisfy experimental limits on dark matter direct detection cross-section obtained from ongoing direct detection experiments and is also inconsistent with LHC findings. We show that a singlet extended inert doublet model can easily explain the reported γ-ray excess which is as well in agreement with Higgs search results at LHC and other observed results like DM relic density and direct detection constraints.
Continuous data assimilation for the three-dimensional Brinkman–Forchheimer-extended Darcy model
Markowich, Peter A.
2016-03-09
In this paper we introduce and analyze an algorithm for continuous data assimilation for a three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy (3D BFeD) model of porous media. This model is believed to be accurate when the flow velocity is too large for Darcy\\'s law to be valid, and additionally the porosity is not too small. The algorithm is inspired by ideas developed for designing finite-parameters feedback control for dissipative systems. It aims to obtain improved estimates of the state of the physical system by incorporating deterministic or noisy measurements and observations. Specifically, the algorithm involves a feedback control that nudges the large scales of the approximate solution toward those of the reference solution associated with the spatial measurements. In the first part of the paper, we present a few results of existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions of the 3D BFeD system. The second part is devoted to the convergence analysis of the data assimilation algorithm. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.
Development of Extended Period Pressure-Dependent Demand Water Distribution Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Judi, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mcpherson, Timothy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-20
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has used modeling and simulation of water distribution systems for N-1 contingency analyses to assess criticality of water system assets. Critical components considered in these analyses include pumps, tanks, and supply sources, in addition to critical pipes or aqueducts. A contingency represents the complete removal of the asset from system operation. For each contingency, an extended period simulation (EPS) is run using EPANET. An EPS simulates water system behavior over a time period, typically at least 24 hours. It assesses the ability of a system to respond and recover from asset disruption through distributed storage in tanks throughout the system. Contingencies of concern are identified as those in which some portion of the water system has unmet delivery requirements. A delivery requirement is defined as an aggregation of water demands within a service area, similar to an electric power demand. The metric used to identify areas of unmet delivery requirement in these studies is a pressure threshold of 15 pounds per square inch (psi). This pressure threshold is used because it is below the required pressure for fire protection. Any location in the model with pressure that drops below this threshold at any time during an EPS is considered to have unmet service requirements and is used to determine cascading consequences. The outage area for a contingency is the aggregation of all service areas with a pressure below the threshold at any time during the EPS.
Bornkessel, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias
2006-10-01
Real-time language comprehension is a principal cognitive ability and thereby relates to central properties of the human cognitive architecture. Yet how do the presumably universal cognitive and neural substrates of language processing relate to the astounding diversity of human languages (over 5,000)? The authors present a neurocognitive model of online comprehension, the extended argument dependency model (eADM), that accounts for cross-linguistic unity and diversity in the processing of core constituents (verbs and arguments). The eADM postulates that core constituent processing proceeds in three hierarchically organized phases: (1) constituent structure building without relational interpretation, (2) argument role assignment via a restricted set of cross-linguistically motivated information types (e.g., case, animacy), and (3) completion of argument interpretation using information from further domains (e.g., discourse context, plausibility). This basic architecture is assumed to be universal, with cross-linguistic variation deriving primarily from the information types applied in Phase 2 of comprehension. This conception can derive the appearance of similar neurophysiological and neuroanatomical processing correlates in seemingly disparate structures in different languages and, conversely, of cross-linguistic differences in the processing of similar sentence structures. Copyright 2006 APA.
Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong
2017-07-01
We revisit the effective field theory of the standard model that is extended with sterile neutrinos, N . We examine the basis of complete and independent effective operators involving N up to mass dimension seven (dim-7). By employing equations of motion, integration by parts, and Fierz and group identities, we construct relations among operators that were considered independent in the previous literature, and we find 7 redundant operators at dim-6, as well as 16 redundant operators and two new operators at dim-7. The correct numbers of operators involving N are, without counting Hermitian conjugates, 16 (L ∩B )+1 (L ∩B )+2 (L ∩ B) at dim-6 and 47 (L ∩B )+5 (L ∩ B) at dim-7. Here L /B (L/B) stands for lepton/baryon number conservation (violation). We verify our counting by the Hilbert series approach for nf generations of the standard model fermions and sterile neutrinos. When operators involving different flavors of fermions are counted separately and their Hermitian conjugates are included, we find there are 29 (1614) and 80 (4206) operators involving sterile neutrinos at dim-6 and dim-7, respectively, for nf=1 (3).
Extending the GEM model to support knowledge extraction from textual guidelines.
Georg, Gersende; Séroussi, Brigitte; Bouaud, Jacques
2005-03-01
Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) are being developed as a tool to promote best practice in medicine. However, the diffusion of paper guidelines has been shown to only have a limited impact. This is why computerization of CPGs has recently been suggested as a means to improve their dissemination as well as physicians' compliance. The Guideline Elements Model (GEM) has been proposed to facilitate the encoding of CPGs and support the automatic processing of marked-up documents. In this paper, we explore the automatic generation of a rule base from a textual guideline using GEM. In this study, we propose an extension of the GEM model that introduces additional levels of structuring centered on decision variables. This allows a more efficient representation of the decision processes, which supports the automatic generation of decision rules from textual guidelines. The 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension have been marked-up as a GEM-encoded instance of our extended DTD. We derived a rule base using an XML parser to extract the relevant elements to instantiate the IF and THEN clauses of decision rules. The rule base automatically generated compares favourably with the manual generation of decision rules in the ASTI project. This approach is an interesting case study in the computerization of CPGs, as it illustrates processing steps that are relevant to the various aspects of CPGs life-cycle, from production to consultation and use.
Right-handed neutrino dark matter in the classically conformal U(1 ) ' extended standard model
Oda, Satsuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Takahashi, Dai-suke
2017-11-01
We consider the dark matter (DM) scenario in the context of the classically conformal U(1 ) ' extended standard model (SM), with three right-handed neutrinos (RHNs) and the U(1 ) ' Higgs field. The model is free from all of the U(1 ) ' gauge and gravitational anomalies in the presence of the three RHNs. We introduce a Z2 parity in the model, under which an odd parity is assigned to one RHN, while all of the other particles are assigned to be Z2 even, and hence the Z2-odd RHN serves as a DM candidate. In this model, the U(1 ) ' gauge symmetry is radiatively broken through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, by which the electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered. There are three free parameters in our model—the U(1 ) ' charge of the SM Higgs doublet (xH ), the new U(1 ) ' gauge coupling (gX ), and the U(1 ) ' gauge boson (Z') mass (mZ')—which are severely constrained in order to solve the electroweak vacuum instability problem, and satisfy the LHC Run-2 bounds from the search for the Z' boson resonance. In addition to these constraints, we investigate the RHN DM physics. Because of the nature of classical conformality, we find that a RHN DM pair mainly annihilates into the SM particles through Z' boson exchange. This is the so-called Z'-portal DM scenario. Combining the electroweak vacuum stability condition, the LHC Run-2 bounds, and the cosmological constraint from the observed DM relic density, we find that all constraints work together to narrow the allowed parameter regions and, in particular, exclude mZ'≲3.5 TeV . For the obtained allowed regions, we calculate the spin-independent cross section of the RHN DM with nucleons. We find that the resultant cross section is well below the current experimental upper bounds.
St Hilaire, Melissa A; Rüger, Melanie; Fratelli, Federico; Hull, Joseph T; Phillips, Andrew J K; Lockley, Steven W
2017-01-01
Intraindividual night-to-night sleep duration is often insufficient and variable. Here we report the effects of such chronic variable sleep deficiency on neurobehavioral performance and the ability of state-of-the-art models to predict these changes. Eight healthy males (mean age ± SD: 23.9 ± 2.4 years) studied at our inpatient intensive physiologic monitoring unit completed an 11-day protocol with a baseline 10-hour sleep opportunity and three cycles of two 3-hour time-in-bed (TIB) and one 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities. Participants received one of three polychromatic white light interventions (200 lux 4100K, 200 or 400 lux 17000K) for 3.5 hours on the morning following the second 3-hour TIB opportunity each cycle. Neurocognitive performance was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) administered every 1-2 hours. PVT data were compared to predictions of five group-average mathematical models that incorporate chronic sleep loss functions. While PVT performance deteriorated cumulatively following each cycle of two 3-hour sleep opportunities, and improved following each 10-hour sleep opportunity, performance declined cumulatively throughout the protocol at a more accelerated rate than predicted by state-of-the-art group-average mathematical models. Subjective sleepiness did not reflect performance. The light interventions had minimal effect. Despite apparent recovery following each extended sleep opportunity, residual performance impairment remained and deteriorated rapidly when rechallenged with subsequent sleep loss. None of the group-average models were capable of predicting both the build-up in impairment and recovery profile of performance observed at the group or individual level, raising concerns regarding their use in real-world settings to predict performance and improve safety.
A Generic Bilevel Formalism for Unifying and Extending Model Reduction Methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Flippen, L
2000-01-01
An abstract, algebraic bilevel version of conventional multigrid methods has been developed that formally unifies and extends the reduced basis, substructuring, smoothing/homogenization, and frequency...
Prediction of L70 lumen maintenance and chromaticity for LEDs using extended Kalman filter models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn
2013-09-30
Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life
Extending the radial diffusion model of Falthammar to non-dipole background field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-05-26
A model for radial diffusion caused by electromagnetic disturbances was published by Falthammar (1965) using a two-parameter model of the disturbance perturbing a background dipole magnetic field. Schulz and Lanzerotti (1974) extended this model by recognizing the two parameter perturbation as the leading (non--dipole) terms of the Mead Williams magnetic field model. They emphasized that the magnetic perturbation in such a model induces an electric ield that can be calculated from the motion of field lines on which the particles are ‘frozen’. Roederer and Zhang (2014) describe how the field lines on which the particles are frozen can be calculated by tracing the unperturbed field lines from the minimum-B location to the ionospheric footpoint, and then tracing the perturbed field (which shares the same ionospheric footpoint due to the frozen -in condition) from the ionospheric footpoint back to a perturbed minimum B location. The instantaneous change n Roederer L*, dL*/dt, can then be computed as the product (dL*/dphi)*(dphi/dt). dL*/Dphi is linearly dependent on the perturbation parameters (to first order) and is obtained by computing the drift across L*-labeled perturbed field lines, while dphi/dt is related to the bounce-averaged gradient-curvature drift velocity. The advantage of assuming a dipole background magnetic field, as in these previous studies, is that the instantaneous dL*/dt can be computed analytically (with some approximations), as can the DLL that results from integrating dL*/dt over time and computing the expected value of (dL*)^2. The approach can also be applied to complex background magnetic field models like T89 or TS04, on top of which the small perturbations are added, but an analytical solution is not possible and so a numerical solution must be implemented. In this talk, I discuss our progress in implementing a numerical solution to the calculation of DL*L* using arbitrary background field models with simple electromagnetic
Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng
2017-08-01
Due to the maximum velocity and safe headway distance of the different vehicles are not exactly the same, an extended macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of multiple optimal velocity functions with probabilities is proposed in this paper. By means of linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability condition considering multiple probabilities optimal velocity is obtained. The KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line through nonlinear analysis. The numerical simulations of influences of multiple maximum velocities and multiple safety distances on model's stability and traffic capacity are carried out. The cases of two different kinds of maximum speeds with same safe headway distance, two different types of safe headway distances with same maximum speed and two different max velocities and two different time-gaps are all explored by numerical simulations. First cases demonstrate that when the proportion of vehicles with a larger vmax increase, the traffic tends to unstable, which also means that jerk and brakes is not conducive to traffic stability and easier to result in stop and go phenomenon. Second cases show that when the proportion of vehicles with greater safety spacing increases, the traffic tends to be unstable, which also means that too cautious assumptions or weak driving skill is not conducive to traffic stability. Last cases indicate that increase of maximum speed is not conducive to traffic stability, while reduction of the safe headway distance is conducive to traffic stability. Numerical simulation manifests that the mixed driving and traffic diversion does not have effect on the traffic capacity when traffic density is low or heavy. Numerical results also show that mixed driving should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when the traffic density is lower, while the traffic diversion should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when
Greater deciduous shrub abundance extends tundra peak season and increases modeled net CO2 uptake.
Sweet, Shannan K; Griffin, Kevin L; Steltzer, Heidi; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie T
2015-06-01
Satellite studies of the terrestrial Arctic report increased summer greening and longer overall growing and peak seasons since the 1980s, which increases productivity and the period of carbon uptake. These trends are attributed to increasing air temperatures and reduced snow cover duration in spring and fall. Concurrently, deciduous shrubs are becoming increasingly abundant in tundra landscapes, which may also impact canopy phenology and productivity. Our aim was to determine the influence of greater deciduous shrub abundance on tundra canopy phenology and subsequent impacts on net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) during the growing and peak seasons in the arctic foothills region of Alaska. We compared deciduous shrub-dominated and evergreen/graminoid-dominated community-level canopy phenology throughout the growing season using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We used a tundra plant-community-specific leaf area index (LAI) model to estimate LAI throughout the green season and a tundra-specific NEE model to estimate the impact of greater deciduous shrub abundance and associated shifts in both leaf area and canopy phenology on tundra carbon flux. We found that deciduous shrub canopies reached the onset of peak greenness 13 days earlier and the onset of senescence 3 days earlier compared to evergreen/graminoid canopies, resulting in a 10-day extension of the peak season. The combined effect of the longer peak season and greater leaf area of deciduous shrub canopies almost tripled the modeled net carbon uptake of deciduous shrub communities compared to evergreen/graminoid communities, while the longer peak season alone resulted in 84% greater carbon uptake in deciduous shrub communities. These results suggest that greater deciduous shrub abundance increases carbon uptake not only due to greater leaf area, but also due to an extension of the period of peak greenness, which extends the period of maximum carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wu, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yuan
2011-01-01
This paper applies the extended technology acceptance model (exTAM) in information systems research to the use of clickers in student learning. The technology acceptance model (TAM) posits that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of technology influence users' attitudes toward using and intention to use technology. Research subsequent…
Dasgupta, Anandaroop; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Sherer, Jeff T; Wallace, David; Sikri, Samir
2009-01-01
To evaluate pharmacists' behavioral intention to use personal digital assistants (PDAs) in their profession, by means of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM). Prospective cross-sectional study. Hospital and community pharmacies in Houston, TX, in 2004. Convenience sample of 295 practicing pharmacists. A prevalidated survey containing 30 items, evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree), which measured the ETAM variables. Predictors of intention to use PDA for pharmacists owning the device. Among the surveyed population, 49% of pharmacists owned PDAs. Overall, the ETAM constructs showed fairly good reliability. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the ETAM explained 69% of the variance in intention to use PDAs for pharmacists owning the device. Result demonstrability (beta = 0.53), subjective norm (beta = 0.25), and voluntariness (beta = -0.10) were significant (P ETAM proved useful in predicting pharmacists' behavior in using PDAs. With improvements in technology, PDAs be an effective tool for pharmacists in providing better patient care.
Detection of Emerging Faults on Industrial Gas Turbines Using Extended Gaussian Mixture Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Zhang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper extends traditional Gaussian mixture model (GMM techniques to provide recognition of operational states and detection of emerging faults for industrial systems. A variational Bayesian method allows a GMM to cluster with its mixture components to facilitate the extraction of steady-state operational behaviour; this is recognised as being a primary factor in reducing the susceptibility of alternative prognostic/diagnostic techniques, which would initiate false-alarms resulting from control set-point and load changes. Furthermore, a GMM with an outlier component is discussed and applied for direct novelty/fault detection. An advantage of the variational Bayesian method over traditional predefined thresholds is the extraction of steady-state data during both full- and part-load cases, and a primary advantage of the GMM with an outlier component is its applicability for novelty detection when there is a lack of prior knowledge of fault patterns. Results obtained from the real-time measurements on the operational industrial gas turbines have shown that the proposed technique provides integrated preprocessing, benchmarking, and novelty/fault detection methodology.
Numerical modeling approach of sinkhole propagation using the eXtended FEM code 'roxol'
Schneider-Löbens, Christiane; Wuttke, Manfred W.; Backers, Tobias; Krawczyk, Charlotte
2015-04-01
Subrosion and underground cavities lead to instability of the earth's surface. To minimize sinkhole hazard, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the processes and collapse mechanisms. Recent cases of subrosion in Germany that result in collapse structures (sinkholes) are used as a basis for this study. The aim is to simulate the collapse mechanism in order to specify the conditions in which sinkholes form. Using the XFEM code `roxol` (geomecon GmbH), it is possible to localize zones, in which rock failure occurs. Initiation of fracture propagation and interaction within these zones can be simulated. As a first approximation, we use a 2D model with simplified excavation and fault geometry and assume linear elastic, impermeable and non-poroelastic material behavior for the overburden layers; local stress field parameters are supplied by boundary conditions. We estimate the distribution of stress and strain in areas with critical loads to simulate failure under the influence of the stress field, material properties, as well as fault and joint geometry. Varying these parameters allows the calculation of the critical loads in which fractures propagate and failure occurs. The XFEM code `roxol` is a suitable approach to simulate the development of sinkholes. In this study, fracture propagation, as well as the interaction between existing joints are the most important parameters. Therefore, our first approach will be extended by local input parameters to develop predictions of time-dependent rock failure.
E-COCOMO: The Extended COst Constructive MOdel for Cleanroom Software Engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Mistakes create rework. Rework takes time and increases costs. The traditional software engineering methodology defines the ratio of Design:Code:Test as 40:20:40. As we can easily see that 40% time and efforts are used in testing phase in traditional approach, that means we have to perform rework again if we found some bugs in testing phase. This rework is being performed after Design and code phase. This rework will increase the cost exponentially. The cleanroom software engineering methodology controls the exponential growth in cost by removing this rework. It says that "do the work correct in first attempt and move to next phase after getting the proof of correctness". This new approach minimized the rework and reduces the cost in the exponential ratio. Due to the removal of testing phase, the COCOMO (COst COnstructive MOdel used for the traditional engineering is not directly applicable in cleanroom software engineering. The traditional cost drivers used for traditional COCOMO needs to be revised. We have proposed the Extended version of COCOMO (i.e. E-COCOMO in which we have incorporated some new cost drivers. This paper explains the proposed E-COCOMO and the detailed description of proposed new cost driver.
An Extended Finite Element Model for Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a numerical model for the fluid flow in fractured porous media with the extended finite element method. The governing equations account for the fluid flow in the porous medium and the discrete natural fractures, as well as the fluid exchange between the fracture and the porous medium surrounding the fracture. The pore fluid pressure is continuous, while its derivatives are discontinuous on both sides of these high conductivity fractures. The pressure field is enriched by the absolute signed distance and appropriate asymptotic functions to capture the discontinuities in derivatives. The most important advantage of this method is that the domain can be partitioned as nonmatching grid without considering the presence of fractures. Arbitrarily multiple, kinking, branching, and intersecting fractures can be treated with the new approach. In particular, for propagating fractures, such as hydraulic fracturing or network volume fracturing in fissured reservoirs, this method can process the complex fluid leak-off behavior without remeshing. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method in saturated fractured porous media.
Numerical Device Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization of Extended-SWIR HgCdTe Infrared Detectors
Schuster, J.; DeWames, R. E.; DeCuir, E. A.; Bellotti, E.; Dhar, N.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.
2016-09-01
Imaging in the extended short-wavelength infrared (eSWIR) spectral band (1.7-3.0 μm) for astronomy applications is an area of significant interest. However, these applications require infrared detectors with extremely low dark current (less than 0.01 electrons per pixel per second for certain applications). In these detectors, sources of dark current that may limit the overall system performance are fundamental and/or defect-related mechanisms. Non-optimized growth/device processing may present material point defects within the HgCdTe bandgap leading to Shockley-Read-Hall dominated dark current. While realizing contributions to the dark current from only fundamental mechanisms should be the goal for attaining optimal device performance, it may not be readily feasible with current technology and/or resources. In this regard, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory performed physics-based, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling of HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors designed for operation in the eSWIR spectral band. The underlying impetus for this capability and study originates with a desire to reach fundamental performance limits via intelligent device design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir in Iran from January 2002 to July 2003. Facing a serious sedimentation problem, the dead storage of the Dez Reservoir will be full in the coming 10 years, and the inflowing water in the hydropower conduit system is now becoming turbid. Based on the values of the dimensionless friction number ( and dimensionless entrainment number ( of turbidity currents, and the coefficient of determination between the observed and predicted deposit depths (R2 = 0.86 for the flow regime of negligible friction and negligible entrainment (NFNE, the flow regime of turbidity currents coming into the Dez Reservoir is considered to be NFNE. The results suggest that the ESWM is an appropriate approach for evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents in dam reservoirs where the characteristics of turbidity currents, such as the deposit depth, must be evaluated.
Ochoa, Maicol A.; Bruch, Anton; Nitzan, Abraham
2016-07-01
We study the energy distribution in the extended resonant level model at equilibrium. Previous investigations [Phys. Rev. B 89, 161306 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.161306; Phys. Rev. B 93, 115318 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.115318] have found, for a resonant electronic level interacting with a thermal free-electron wide-band bath, that the expectation value for the energy of the interacting subsystem can be correctly calculated by considering a symmetric splitting of the interaction Hamiltonian between the subsystem and the bath. However, the general implications of this approach were questioned [Phys. Rev. B 92, 235440 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.235440]. Here, we show that, already at equilibrium, such splitting fails to describe the energy fluctuations, as measured here by the second and third central moments (namely, width and skewness) of the energy distribution. Furthermore, we find that when the wide-band approximation does not hold, no splitting of the system-bath interaction can describe the system thermodynamics. We conclude that in general no proper division subsystem of the Hamiltonian of the composite system can account for the energy distribution of the subsystem. This also implies that the thermodynamic effects due to local changes in the subsystem cannot in general be described by such splitting.
Dey, Mahua; Yu, Dou; Kanojia, Deepak; Li, Gina; Sukhanova, Madina; Spencer, Drew A; Pituch, Katatzyna C; Zhang, Lingjiao; Han, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Aboody, Karen S; Lesniak, Maciej S; Balyasnikova, Irina V
2016-09-13
The challenges to effective drug delivery to brain tumors are twofold: (1) there is a lack of non-invasive methods of local delivery and (2) the blood-brain barrier limits systemic delivery. Intranasal delivery of therapeutics to the brain overcomes both challenges. In mouse model of malignant glioma, we observed that a small fraction of intranasally delivered neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to the brain tumor site. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxic preconditioning or overexpression of CXCR4 significantly enhances the tumor-targeting ability of NSCs, but without altering their phenotype only in genetically modified NSCs. Modified NSCs deliver oncolytic virus to glioma more efficiently and extend survival of experimental animals in the context of radiotherapy. Our findings indicate that intranasal delivery of stem cell-based therapeutics could be optimized for future clinical applications, and allow for safe and repeated administration of biological therapies to brain tumors and other CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neuron-specific antioxidant OXR1 extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Liu, Kevin X; Edwards, Benjamin; Lee, Sheena; Finelli, Mattéa J; Davies, Ben; Davies, Kay E; Oliver, Peter L
2015-05-01
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of spinal motor neurons. While the aetiological mechanisms underlying the disease remain poorly understood, oxidative stress is a central component of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and contributes to motor neuron injury. Recently, oxidation resistance 1 (OXR1) has emerged as a critical regulator of neuronal survival in response to oxidative stress, and is upregulated in the spinal cord of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OXR1 is a key neuroprotective factor during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis by crossing a new transgenic mouse line that overexpresses OXR1 in neurons with the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, we report that overexpression of OXR1 significantly extends survival, improves motor deficits, and delays pathology in the spinal cord and in muscles of SOD1(G93A) mice. Furthermore, we find that overexpression of OXR1 in neurons significantly delays non-cell-autonomous neuroinflammatory response, classic complement system activation, and STAT3 activation through transcriptomic analysis of spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice. Taken together, these data identify OXR1 as the first neuron-specific antioxidant modulator of pathogenesis and disease progression in SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and suggest that OXR1 may serve as a novel target for future therapeutic strategies. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.
Rosa, Regis Goulart; Tonietto, Tulio Frederico; da Silva, Daiana Barbosa; Gutierres, Franciele Aparecida; Ascoli, Aline Maria; Madeira, Laura Cordeiro; Rutzen, William; Falavigna, Maicon; Robinson, Caroline Cabral; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar; Cremonese, Rafael Viegas; Haack, Tarissa Ribeiro; Eugênio, Cláudia Severgnini; Dornelles, Aline; Bessel, Marina; Teles, José Mario Meira; Skrobik, Yoanna; Teixeira, Cassiano
2017-10-01
To evaluate the effect of an extended visitation model compared with a restricted visitation model on the occurrence of delirium among ICU patients. Prospective single-center before and after study. Thirty-one-bed medical-surgical ICU. All patients greater than or equal to 18 years old with expected length of stay greater than or equal to 24 hours consecutively admitted to the ICU from May 2015 to November 2015. Change of visitation policy from a restricted visitation model (4.5 hr/d) to an extended visitation model (12 hr/d). Two hundred eighty-six patients were enrolled (141 restricted visitation model, 145 extended visitation model). The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of delirium, assessed bid using the confusion assessment method for the ICU. Predefined secondary outcomes included duration of delirium/coma; any ICU-acquired infection; ICU-acquired bloodstream infection, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection; all-cause ICU mortality; and length of ICU stay. The median duration of visits increased from 133 minutes (interquartile range, 97.7-162.0) in restricted visitation model to 245 minutes (interquartile range, 175.0-272.0) in extended visitation model (p delirium in extended visitation model compared with 29 (20.5%) in restricted visitation model (adjusted relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.95). In comparison with restricted visitation model patients, extended visitation model patients had shorter length of delirium/coma (1.5 d [interquartile range, 1.0-3.0] vs 3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.5-5.0]; p = 0.03) and ICU stay (3.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-4.0] vs 4.0 d [interquartile range, 2.0-6.0]; p = 0.04). The rate of ICU-acquired infections and all-cause ICU mortality did not differ significantly between the two study groups. In this medical-surgical ICU, an extended visitation model was associated with reduced occurrence of delirium and shorter length of delirium/coma and ICU stay.
Pan, Xinyi; Li, Cheng; Ying, Kui; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng
2010-04-01
A model-based proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermometry method was developed to significantly reduce the temperature quantification errors encountered in the conventional phase mapping method and the spatiotemporal limitations of the spectroscopic thermometry method. Spectral data acquired using multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) is fit into a two-component signal model containing temperature information and fat is used as the internal reference. The noniterative extended Prony algorithm is used for the signal fitting and frequency estimate. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the advantages of the method for optimal water-fat separation and temperature estimation accuracy. Phantom experiments demonstrate that the model-based method effectively reduces the interscan motion effects and frequency disturbances due to the main field drift. The thermometry result of ex vivo goose liver experiment with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) heating was also presented in the paper to indicate the feasibility of the model-based method in real tissue. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Major, Jason T.; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.
2012-01-01
Three prominent theories of intelligence, the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC), extended fluid-crystallized (Gf-Gc) and verbal-perceptual-image rotation (VPR) theories, provide differing descriptions of the structure of intelligence (McGrew, 2009; Horn & Blankson, 2005; Johnson & Bouchard, 2005b). To compare these theories, models representing them were…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzhioev, Alan [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: dzhioev@thsun1.jinr.ru; Wambach, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wambach@physik.tu-darmstadt.de; Vdovin, A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vdovin@thsun1.jinr.ru; Aouissat, Z. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)
2005-02-21
Symmetry conserving 1/N expansion method combined with the Holstein-Primakoff mapping for bosonic systems is applied to the quantum anharmonic O(N+1) oscillator model which imitates essential features of the quantum-field linear sigma model. The Holstein-Primakoff mapping earlier extended to incorporate both single- and double-boson images is used. In the leading and next-to-leading order the existence of N-Goldstone modes and the validity of the Ward identity are proved. For matrix elements of the pion-pion interaction we show the equivalence of the results obtained via a diagrammatic technique and the extended Holstein-Primakoff mapping.
The benefits of extended plate motion history in mantle circulation models
Webb, Peter; Davies, Huw; Davies, Rhodri; Hochard, Cyril; Stampfli, Gerard
2010-05-01
Mantle Circulation Models (MCMs) are mantle convection simulations conditioned with plate motion history. Due to difficulties in reconstructing plate motions beyond ≈ 120 Ma, MCMs often only incorporate the most recent 120 Myr of plate tectonic evolution. We find that such models are strongly influenced by initial conditions. The development of a new series of tectonic reconstructions extending back to the Triassic (230 Ma) and including careful reconstruction of the oceanic parts of the plates (modified from Stampfli and Borel, 2004, Stampfli et al. 2008 and references therein) should prove to be of huge importance to MCMs. In this study we present a comparison between the traditionally used 120 Myr and the latest 230 Myr plate motion histories. We use the three-dimensional spherical mantle convection code TERRA (Bunge et al., 2003) to simulate convection at Earth like vigour. Here we apply the plate motion history as a surface velocity boundary condition to drive the internal convection of an already well-mixed system. The forward models from a chosen starting point to present day yield information on mantle temperature (as well as pressure, velocity and material properties) throughout the volume. One of the ways to validate our results is to compare these with tomographic models. Seismic tomography provides us with a snapshot of Earth's mantle at present day. Assuming that the mantle is driven largely by thermal convection, we can assume that the seismically fast regions are associated with cooler, denser material. The most significant of these can be interpreted as remnants of subducted slabs (Hafkenscheid et al 2006, van der Meer et al. 2010). We convert the temperatures predicted by the MCM to seismic velocities using the latest techniques (e.g. Cobden et al., 2008) and compare the calculated velocities to a range of seismic tomography models (both P and S wave). This way we can examine the validity of the surface velocity boundary condition and identify
UV-extended E-MILES stellar population models: young components in massive early-type galaxies
Vazdekis, A.; Koleva, M.; Ricciardelli, E.; Röck, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.
2016-01-01
We present UV extended E MILES stellar population synthesis models covering the spectral range ?? 1680 50 000 Å at moderately high resolution. We employ the NGSL space based stellar library to compute spectra of single age single metallicity stellar populations in the wavelength range from 1680 to 3540 Å. These models represent a significant improvement in resolution and age/metallicity coverage over previous studies based on earlier space based libraries. These model spectra were joined with...
Enomoto, Masataka; Kigin, Patricia D; Bledsoe, David; Slone, Robyn; Hash, Jonathan; Smith, Charles E; Lascelles, B Duncan X
2017-01-24
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), transdermal fentanyl patches, and transmucosal buprenorphine are probably the most commonly used options for providing post-operative analgesia in the early at-home period. However, these require daily administration or are associated with abuse concerns. One of the significant unmet needs in veterinary surgery and pain management is for longer acting opioids for cats to effectively bridge the gap between the in-hospital and at-home recovery periods. A proof of concept study of an extended release formulation of buprenorphine HCL (ER-Bup) was conducted using objective kinetic measures and a unilateral onychectomy model. Using a blinded, randomized, two period crossover design, four cats were allocated to control (saline) or ER-Bup (0.6 mg/kg, subcutaneously [SC]) treatment groups. All animals underwent a unilateral forelimb onychectomy per period with a washout/recovery period in between. Observational pain scores and kinetic data (using a pressure sensitive walkway [PSW]) were collected prior to (baseline) and at intervals for 72 h following surgery. Symmetry indices were derived for kinetic variables (peak vertical force [PVF]; vertical impulse [VI]) of each forelimb for landing following a jump and for walking. A rescue analgesic protocol was in place. Effect of surgery and treatment were evaluated using a mixed model statistical approach. No cats required rescue analgesics based on subjective pain score. ER-Bup had a positive influence on subjective pain scores during the 72 h postsurgery (p = 0.0473). PVF and VI of the operated limb were significantly decreased for both landing (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001) and walking (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001 respectively) compared to control. ER-Bup resulted in significantly decreased asymmetry in limb use during landing (PVF, p < 0.0001; VI, p < 0.0001) and walking (PVF, p = 0.0002, VI, p < 0.0001). The novel use of data collected
Kuno, Yoshihito; Sakane, Shinya; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study atomic quantum simulations of $(1+1)$-dimensional($(1+1)$D) U(1) gauge-Higgs models (GHMs) defined on a lattice. We explain how U(1) lattice GHMs appear from an extended Bose-Hubbard model (EBHM) describing ultra-cold atoms with a nearest neighbor repulsion in a 1D optical lattice. We first study a phase diagram of the 1D EBHM at low fillings by means of a quantum Monte-Carlo(MC) simulation. Next, we study the EBHM at large fillings and also GHMs by the MC simulations in the path-integral formalism and show that there are four phases, i.e., the Higgs phase(superfluid), the confinement phase (Mott insulator), and phases corresponding to the density wave and the supersolid. With the obtained phase diagrams, we investigate the relationship between the two models. Finally, we study real-time dynamic of an electric flux in the GHMs by the Gross-Pitaevskii equations and the truncated Wigner approximation.
Hydrodynamic Instability in an Extended Landau/Levich Model of Liquid-Propellant Combustion
Margolis, Stephen B.; Sackesteder, Kurt (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The classical Landau/Levich models of liquid propellant combustion, which serve as seminal examples of hydrodynamic instability in reactive systems, have been combined and extended to account for a dynamic dependence, absent in the original formulations, of the local burning rate on the local pressure and/or temperature fields. The resulting model admits an extremely rich variety of both hydrodynamic and reactive/diffusive instabilities that can be analyzed in various limiting parameter regimes. In the present work, a formal asymptotic analysis, based on the realistic smallness of the gas-to-liquid density ratio, is developed to investigate the combined effects of gravity, surface tension and viscosity on the hydrodynamic instability of the propagating liquid/gas interface. In particular, a composite asymptotic expression, spanning three distinguished wavenumber regimes, is derived for both cellular and pulsating hydrodynamic neutral stability boundaries A(sub p)(k), where A(sub p) is the pressure sensitivity of the burning rate and k is the disturbance wavenumber. For the case of cellular (Landau) instability, the results demonstrate explicitly the stabilizing effect of gravity on long-wave disturbances, the stabilizing effect of viscosity and surface tension on short-wave perturbations, and the instability associated with intermediate wavenumbers for critical negative values of A(sub p). In the limiting case of weak gravity, it is shown that cellular hydrodynamic instability in this context is a long-wave instability phenomenon, whereas at normal gravity, this instability is first manifested through O(l) wavenumber disturbances. It is also demonstrated that, in the large wavenumber regime, surface tension and both liquid and gas viscosity all produce comparable stabilizing effects in the large-wavenumber regime, thereby providing significant modifications to previous analyses of Landau instability in which one or more of these effects were neglected. In contrast
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakai, T [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5148 and CREST, JST (Japan)], E-mail: sakai@spring8.or.jp
2008-03-15
The phonon effect of the in-plane oxygen breathing vibration in the high-Tc cuprates is investigated by the numerical diagonalization of an extended t-J-Holstein model, including the modulation of t. As a result, it is found that if the modulation of t due to the phonon is sufficiently large, the breathing mode possibly stabilizes the superconductivity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouyan Jiang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We model the fluid flow within the crack as one-dimensional flow and assume that the flow is laminar; the fluid is incompressible and accounts for the time-dependent rate of crack opening. Here, we discretise the flow equation by finite volume methods. The extended finite element methods are used for solving solid medium with crack under dynamic loads. Having constructed the approximation of dynamic extended finite element methods, the derivation of governing equation for dynamic extended finite element methods is presented. The implicit time algorithm is elaborated for the time descritisation of dominant equation. In addition, the interaction integral method is given for evaluating stress intensity factors. Then, the coupling model for modelling hydraulic fracture can be established by the extended finite element methods and the finite volume methods. We compare our present numerical results with our experimental results for verifying the proposed model. Finally, we investigate the water pressure distribution along crack surface and the effect of water pressure distribution on the fracture property.
The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) is a watershed-scale water quality model that includes detailed representation of agricultural management but currently does not have microbial fate and transport simulation capabilities. The objective of this work was to develop a process-based ...
Predicting the sky from 30 MHz to 800 GHz: the extended Global Sky Model
Liu, Adrian
We propose to construct the extended Global Sky Model (eGSM), a software package and associated data products that are capable of generating maps of the sky at any frequency within a broad range (30 MHz to 800 GHz). The eGSM is constructed from archival data, and its outputs will include not only "best estimate" sky maps, but also accurate error bars and the ability to generate random realizations of missing modes in the input data. Such views of the sky are crucial in the practice of precision cosmology, where our ability to constrain cosmological parameters and detect new phenomena (such as B-mode signatures from primordial gravitational waves, or spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background; CMB) rests crucially on our ability to remove systematic foreground contamination. Doing so requires empirical measurements of the foreground sky brightness (such as that arising from Galactic synchrotron radiation, among other sources), which are typically performed only at select narrow wavelength ranges. We aim to transcend traditional wavelength limits by optimally combining existing data to provide a comprehensive view of the foreground sky at any frequency within the broad range of 30 MHz to 800 GHz. Previous efforts to interpolate between multi-frequency maps resulted in the Global Sky Model (GSM) of de Oliveira-Costa et al. (2008), a software package that outputs foreground maps at any frequency of the user's choosing between 10 MHz and 100 GHz. However, the GSM has a number of shortcomings. First and foremost, the GSM does not include the latest archival data from the Planck satellite. Multi-frequency models depend crucially on data from Planck, WMAP, and COBE to provide high-frequency "anchor" maps. Another crucial shortcoming is the lack of error bars in the output maps. Finally, the GSM is only able to predict temperature (i.e., total intensity) maps, and not polarization information. With the recent release of Planck's polarized data products, the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Mathur
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system is extended to simulate ozone, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Modeled processes were examined and enhanced to suitably represent the extended space and timescales for such applications. Hemispheric-scale simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model are performed for multiple years. Model capabilities for a range of applications including episodic long-range pollutant transport, long-term trends in air pollution across the Northern Hemisphere, and air pollution–climate interactions are evaluated through detailed comparison with available surface, aloft, and remotely sensed observations. The expansion of CMAQ to simulate the hemispheric scales provides a framework to examine interactions between atmospheric processes occurring on various spatial and temporal scales with physical, chemical, and dynamical consistency.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, Ada V.; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2005-01-01
Pressure parameters are added to the Extended UNIQUAC model presented by Thomsen and Rasmussen (1999). The improved model has been used for correlation and prediction of solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of scaling minerals (CaSO4, CaSO4·2H2O, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at temperatures up to 300°C and pressur...
Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modelling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life
Morrison, I. S.; Gowanlock, M. G.
2014-03-01
Previous studies of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favour the emergence of "complex life" - typically defined to be land-based life. A planet is deemed "habitable" if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. The notion of the GHZ, and the premise that sufficient chemical evolution is required for planet formation, was quantified by Gonzalez et al. (2001). This work was later broadened to include dangers to the formation and habitability of terrestrial planets by Lineweaver et al. (2004) and then studied using a Monte Carlo simulation on the resolution of individual stars in the previous work of Gowanlock et al. (2011). The model developed in the latter work considers the stellar number density distribution and formation history of the Galaxy, planet formation mechanisms and the hazards to planetary biospheres as a result of supernova sterilization events that take place in the vicinity of the planets. Based on timescales taken from the origin and evolution of complex life on Earth, the model suggests large numbers of potentially habitable planets exist in our Galaxy, with the greatest concentration likely being towards the inner Galaxy. In this work we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve on habitable planets to the point of intelligence - which we term the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life. We assume the propensity is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the "resetting" effect of nearby supernovae. The model of Gowanlock et al. (2011) is used to produce a representative population of habitable planets by matching major observable properties of the Milky Way. Account is taken of the birth and death dates of each habitable planet and the timing of supernova events in each planet's vicinity. The times between
ANALISIS BELANJA ONLINE MELALUI SMARTPHONE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN EXTENDED TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nining Heriyanti
2016-04-01
appropriate marketing strategies to take advantage of both the perpetrator marketing of new marketing channels, namely smart phones as shopping online media. Originality of this research is specifically discusses online shopping on one device, especially smart phones are still rare. Keyword:Online shopping, extended technology acceptance model
Performance Modelling of Automatic Identification System with Extended Field of View
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauersen, Troels; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Pedersen, Nikolaj Bisgaard
2010-01-01
This paper deals with AIS (Automatic Identification System) behavior, to investigate the severity of packet collisions in an extended field of view (FOV). This is an important issue for satellite-based AIS, and the main goal is a feasibility study to find out to what extent an increased FOV...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boiocchi, Riccardo; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V.
2015-01-01
In this work the Benchmark Simulation Model No.2 is extended with processes for nitrous oxide production and for side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) treatment. For these extensions the Activated Sludge Model for Greenhouse gases No.1 was used to describe the main waterline, whereas...... increased the total nitrogen removal by 10%; (ii) reduced the aeration demand by 16% compared to the base case, and (iii) the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is most influencing nitrous oxide emissions. The extended model provides a simulation platform to generate, test and compare novel control...... strategies to improve operation performance and to meet the new plant performance criteria such as minimization of greenhouse gas (in particular of nitrous oxide) emissions....
Jerrold E. Winandy
2000-01-01
One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....
Extended icosahedral structures
Jaric, Marko V
1989-01-01
Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra
Yang, Xiaoxia; Duan, John; Fisher, Jeffrey
2016-01-01
A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR) methylphenidate (MPH) was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER) MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations. PMID:27723791
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Pan, Xinyi; Li, Cheng; Li, Kuncheng; Ying, Kui; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen
2010-01-01
.... The noniterative extended Prony algorithm is used for the signal fitting and frequency estimate. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the advantages of the method for optimal water-fat separation and temperature estimation accuracy...
Lorenzo Sacconi
2004-01-01
This paper is the first part of a two parts essay aimed at giving a contractarian foundation to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) meant as an extended model of corporate governance of the firm. I fist present the heuristics of the scientific program meant to theorizing over an institution like a system of corporate governance, which is partitioned in two domains, the justification domain and the compliance domain. Bargaining theory, reputation game and reciprocity theories,...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca [CNRS and ENSICAEN, UMR6534, LPC, 14050 Caen cédex (France); Margueron, Jérôme [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, IN2P3-CNRS, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)
2015-02-24
A recently introduced analytical model for the nuclear density profile [1] is implemented in the Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) energy density functional. This allows to (i) shed a new light on the issue of the sign of surface symmetry energy in nuclear mass formulas, as well as to (ii) show the importance of the in-medium corrections to the nuclear cluster energies in thermodynamic conditions relevant for the description of core-collapse supernovae and (proto)-neutron star crust.
Extended models of gravity in SNIa cosmological data using genetic algorithms
López-Corona, O.
2015-04-01
In this talk I explained briefly the advantages of using genetic algorithms on any measured data but specially astronomical ones. This kind of algorithms are not only a better computational paradigm, but they also allow for a more profound data treatment enhancing theoretical developments. As an example, I will use the SNIa cosmological data to fit the extended metric theories of gravity of Carranza et al. (2013, 2014) showing that the best parameters combination deviate from theoretical predicted ones by a minimal amount. This means that these kind of gravitational extensions are statistically robust and show that no dark matter and/or energy is required to explain the observations.
Extended models of gravity in SNIa cosmological data using genetic algorithms
López-Corona, O
2015-01-01
In this talk I explained briefly the advantages of using genetic algorithms on any measured data but specially astronomical ones. This kind of algorithms are not only a better computational paradigm, but they also allow for a more profound data treatment enhancing theoretical developments. As an example, I will use the SNIa cosmological data to fit the extended metric theories of gravity of Carranza et al. (2013, 2014) showing that the best parameters combination deviate from theoretical predicted ones by a minimal amount. This means that these kind of gravitational extensions are statistically robust and show that no dark matter and/or energy is required to explain the observations.
Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Rahman, Ziyaur; Shah, Dhaval A; Khan, Mansoor A
2016-01-01
Variations in the solid state form of a pharmaceutical solid have profound impact on the product quality and clinical performance. Quantitative models that allow rapid and accurate determination of polymorphic changes in pharmaceutical products are essential in ensuring product quality throughout its lifecycle. This study reports the development and validation of chemometric models of Raman and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for quantifying the extent of pseudopolymorphic transitions of theophylline in extended release formulations. The chemometric models were developed using sample matrices consisting of the commonly used excipients and at the ratios in commercially available products. A combination of scatter removal (multiplicative signal correction and standard normal variate) and derivatization (Savitzky-Golay second derivative) algorithm were used for data pretreatment. Partial least squares and principal component regression models were developed and their performance assessed. Diagnostic statistics such as the root mean square error, correlation coefficient, bias and Q(2) were used as parameters to test the model fit and performance. The models developed had a good fit and performance as shown by the values of the diagnostic statistics. The model diagnostic statistics were similar for MSC-SG and SNV-SG treated spectra. Similarly, PLSR and PCR models had comparable performance. Raman chemometric models were slightly better than their corresponding NIR model. The Raman and NIR chemometric models developed had good accuracy and precision as demonstrated by closeness of the predicted values for the independent observations to the actual TMO content hence the developed models can serve as useful tools in quantifying and controlling solid state transitions in extended release theophylline products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kawazura, Yohei; Miloshevich, George; Morrison, Philip J.
2017-02-01
Two types of Eulerian action principles for relativistic extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are formulated. With the first, the action is extremized under the constraints of density, entropy, and Lagrangian label conservation, which leads to a Clebsch representation for a generalized momentum and a generalized vector potential. The second action arises upon transformation to physical field variables, giving rise to a covariant bracket action principle, i.e., a variational principle in which constrained variations are generated by a degenerate Poisson bracket. Upon taking appropriate limits, the action principles lead to relativistic Hall MHD and well-known relativistic ideal MHD. For the first time, the Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic Hall MHD with electron thermal inertia (akin to Comisso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 045001 (2014) for the electron-positron plasma) is introduced. This thermal inertia effect allows for violation of the frozen-in magnetic flux condition in marked contrast to nonrelativistic Hall MHD that does satisfy the frozen-in condition. We also find the violation of the frozen-in condition is accompanied by freezing-in of an alternative flux determined by a generalized vector potential. Finally, we derive a more general 3 + 1 Poisson bracket for nonrelativistic extended MHD, one that does not assume smallness of the electron ion mass ratio.
Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.
2009-01-01
The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by
Marković, V. M.; Čupić, Ž.; Ivanović, A.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.
2011-12-01
Stoichiometric network analysis (SNA) represents a powerful mathematical tool for stability analysis of complex stoichiometric networks. Recently, the important improvement of the method has been made, according to which instability relations can be entirely expressed via reaction rates, instead of thus far used, in general case undefined, current rates. Such an improved SNA methodology was applied to the determination of exact instability conditions of the extended model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a neuroendocrinological system, whose hormone concentrations exert complex oscillatory evolution. For emergence of oscillations, the Hopf bifurcation condition was utilized. Instability relations predicted by SNA showed good correlation with numerical simulation data of the HPA axis model.
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
2016-01-01
Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article...
Clustering financial time series : New insights from an extended hidden Markov model
Dias, J.G.; Vermunt, J.K.; Ramos, S.
2015-01-01
In recent years, large amounts of financial data have become available for analysis. We propose exploring returns from 21 European stock markets by model-based clustering of regime switching models. These econometric models identify clusters of time series with similar dynamic patterns and moreover
Gaining local accuracy while not losing generality – extending the range of gap model applications
Didion, M.P.; Kupferschmid, A.D.; Zingg, A.; Fahse, L.; Bugmann, H.
2009-01-01
For the study of long-term processes in forests, gap models generally sacrifice accuracy (i.e., simulating system behavior in a quantitatively accurate manner) for generality (i.e., representing a broad range of systems' behaviors with the same model). We selected the gap model ForClim to evaluate
Kawazura, Yohei; Morrison, Philip J
2016-01-01
Two types of Eulerian action principles for relativistic extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are formulated. With the first, the action is extremized under the constraints of density, entropy, and Lagrangian label conservation, which leads to a Clebsch representation for a generalized momentum and a generalized vector potential. The second action arises upon transformation to physical field variables, giving rise to a covariant bracket action principle, i.e., a variational principle in which constrained variations are generated by a degenerate Poisson bracket. Upon taking appropriate limits, the action principles lead to relativistic Hall MHD and well-known relativistic ideal MHD. For the first time, the Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic Hall MHD with electron thermal inertia (akin to [Comisso \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 113}, 045001 (2014)] for the electron--positron plasma) is introduced. This thermal inertia effect allows for violation of the frozen-in magnetic flux condition in marked con...
OpenMx 2.0: Extended Structural Equation and Statistical Modeling.
Neale, Michael C; Hunter, Michael D; Pritikin, Joshua N; Zahery, Mahsa; Brick, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Estabrook, Ryne; Bates, Timothy C; Maes, Hermine H; Boker, Steven M
2016-06-01
The new software package OpenMx 2.0 for structural equation and other statistical modeling is introduced and its features are described. OpenMx is evolving in a modular direction and now allows a mix-and-match computational approach that separates model expectations from fit functions and optimizers. Major backend architectural improvements include a move to swappable open-source optimizers such as the newly written CSOLNP. Entire new methodologies such as item factor analysis and state space modeling have been implemented. New model expectation functions including support for the expression of models in LISREL syntax and a simplified multigroup expectation function are available. Ease-of-use improvements include helper functions to standardize model parameters and compute their Jacobian-based standard errors, access to model components through standard R $ mechanisms, and improved tab completion from within the R Graphical User Interface.
A Survey of Graph Algorithms Under Extended Streaming Models of Computation
O'Connell, Thomas C.
There has been a great deal of recent interest in the streaming model of computation where algorithms are restricted to a single pass over the data and have significantly less internal memory available than would be required to store the entire stream of data. Because of the inherent difficulty of solving graph problems in the streaming model, a number of extensions to the streaming model have been considered, namely the Semi-Streaming model, the W-Stream model, and the Stream-Sort model. In this chapter, we survey the algorithms developed for graph problems in each of these models. The survey is intended to be tutorial in nature although familiarity with graph algorithms is assumed.
El Gharamti, Mohamad
2014-02-01
The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Extended foot-ankle musculoskeletal models for application in movement analysis.
Malaquias, Tiago M; Silveira, Carolina; Aerts, Wouter; De Groote, Friedl; Dereymaeker, Greta; Vander Sloten, Jos; Jonkers, Ilse
2017-02-01
Multibody simulations of human motion require representative models of the anatomical structures. A model that captures the complexity of the foot is still lacking. In the present work, two detailed 3D multibody foot-ankle models generated based on CT scans using a semi-automatic tool are described. The proposed models consists of five rigid segments (talus, calcaneus, midfoot, forefoot and toes), connected by five joints (ankle, subtalar, midtarsal, tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal), one with 15DOF and the other with 8DOF. The calculated kinematics of both models were evaluated using gait trials and compared against literature, both presenting realistic results. An inverse dynamic analysis was performed for the 8DOF model, again presenting feasible dynamic results.
Tavasszy, L; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.
2009-01-01
The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-individualization and changes in factor costs. In this paper we focus on the latter driver for changes in freight transport. The cost of interaction plays an important role in many modeling frameworks t...
Extended framework for the analysis of innovative Smart City business models
Agudo-Peregrina, Ángel F.; Navío-Marco, Julio
2016-01-01
Besides the promising forecasts for Smart City market, many projects haven't taken off due to financial restrictions, unsustainable business models or too technological visions instead of citizen orientation. The need for innovative business models in the context of Smart City motivates this study, that first reviews the Smart City business model literature, and then proposes a framework to study several companies within each sector of a broad definition of the Smart City. The results of the ...
Extending comprehensive models of the Earth's magnetic field with Orsted and CHAMP data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sabaka, T.J.; Olsen, Nils; Purucker, M.E.
2004-01-01
A new model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field has been derived using a comprehensive approach, which includes not only POGO and Magsat satellite data, but also data from the Orsted and CHAMP satellites. The resulting model shows great improvement over its predecessors in terms of compl......A new model of the quiet-time, near-Earth magnetic field has been derived using a comprehensive approach, which includes not only POGO and Magsat satellite data, but also data from the Orsted and CHAMP satellites. The resulting model shows great improvement over its predecessors in terms...
Extending the scope of models for large-scale structure formation in the Universe
Buchert, T; Pérez-Mercader, J; Buchert, Thomas; Dominguez, Alvaro; Perez-Mercader, Juan
1999-01-01
We propose a phenomenological generalization of the models of large-scale structure formation in the Universe by gravitational instability in two ways: we include pressure forces to model multi-streaming, and noise to model fluctuations due to neglected short-scale physical processes. We show that pressure gives rise to a viscous-like force of the same character as that one introduced in the ``adhesion model'', while noise leads to a roughening of the density field yielding a scaling behavior of its correlations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuo Ming Fu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The safety of Cyber-physical system(CPS is up to its behavior, and it is a key property for CPS to be applied in critical application fields. A method for CPS behavior modeling and safety verification is put forward in this paper. The behavior model of CPS is described by extended hybrid system description language(EHYSDEL. The formal definition of hybrid program(HP is given, and the behavior model is transformed to HP based on the definition. The safety of CPS is verified by inputting the HP to KeYmarea. The advantage of the approach is that it models CPS intuitively and verify it’s safety strictly avoiding the state space explosion
Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan
2014-07-01
An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electroactive polymer that bends in response to a small applied electric field as a result of mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. This paper presents an innovative and accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for estimating the bending behavior of IPMC actuators. The model is constructed via a general multilayer perceptron neural network (GMLPNN) integrated with a smart learning mechanism (SLM) that is based on an extended Kalman filter with self-decoupling ability (SDEKF). Here the GMLPNN is built with an ability to autoadjust its structure based on its characteristic vector. Furthermore, by using the SLM based on the SDEKF, the GMLPNN parameters are optimized with small computational effort, and the modeling accuracy is improved. An apparatus employing an IPMC actuator is first set up to investigate the IPMC characteristics and to generate the data for training and validating the model. The advanced NBBM model for the IPMC system is then created with the proper inputs to estimate IPMC tip displacement. Next, the model is optimized using the SLM mechanism with the training data. Finally, the optimized NBBM model is verified with the validating data. A comparison between this model and the previously developed model is also carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling technique.
Modeling Extended Lactation Curves of Dairy Cattle: A Biological Basis for the Multiphasic Approach
Grossman, M.; Koops, W.J.
2003-01-01
Objectives of this study are to describe the biological basis for multiphasic milk production and to propose a new empirical model for the lactation curve. To illustrate this model, we used data on 3573 first-lactation Holsteins having lactations of various lengths (285, 345, 405, 465, and 525 d)
Irreversible prey diapause as an optimal strategy of a physiologically extended Lotka-Volterra model
Staňková, K.; Abate, A.; Sabelis, M.W.
2013-01-01
We propose an optimal control framework to describe intra-seasonal predator-prey interactions, which are characterized by a continuous-time dynamical model comprising predator and prey density, as well as the energy budget of the prey over the length of a season. The model includes a time-dependent
Modelling the impact of extended vaccination strategies on the epidemiology of pertussis
Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Vries, R.; Le, H.H.; Postma, M.J.
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal pertussis booster vaccination strategy for The Netherlands. A realistic age-structured deterministic model was designed. Assuming a steady-state situation and correcting for underreporting, the model was calibrated using notification data from the
Opponent Modelling in Automated Multi-Issue Negotiation Using Bayesian Learning (extended abstract)
Hindriks, K.V.; Tykhonov, D.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show that it is nonetheless possible to construct an opponent model, i.e. a model of the opponent’s preferences that can be effectively used to improve negotiation outcomes. We provide a generic framework for learning both the preferences associated with issue values as well as the
Brewe, Eric; Traxler, Adrienne; de la Garza, Jorge; Kramer, Laird H.
2013-01-01
We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre-…
Wickramasuriya, R.C.; Bregt, A.K.; Delden, van H.; Hagen-Zanker, A.
2009-01-01
This paper presents an extension to the Constrained Cellular Automata (CCA) land use model of White et al. [White, R., Engelen, G., Uljee, I., 1997. The use of constrained cellular automata for high-resolution modelling of urban land-use dynamics. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingdong Zeng
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Fluid-solid coupling is ubiquitous in the process of fluid flow underground and has a significant influence on the development of oil and gas reservoirs. To investigate these phenomena, the coupled mathematical model of solid deformation and fluid flow in fractured porous media is established. In this study, the discrete fracture model (DFM is applied to capture fluid flow in the fractured porous media, which represents fractures explicitly and avoids calculating shape factor for cross flow. In addition, the extended finite element method (XFEM is applied to capture solid deformation due to the discontinuity caused by fractures. More importantly, this model captures the change of fractures aperture during the simulation, and then adjusts fluid flow in the fractures. The final linear equation set is derived and solved for a 2D plane strain problem. Results show that the combination of discrete fracture model and extended finite element method is suited for simulating coupled deformation and fluid flow in fractured porous media.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charreire Hélène
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Havenga
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Birkin
2011-01-01
Full Text Available For many years, effective model-based representations of the dynamics and evolution of urban spatial structure have proved elusive. While some progress has been made through the deployment of spatial interaction models, these approaches have been limited by the difficulty of representing behavioural mechanisms and processes. In this paper, it is demonstrated that evolutionary models grounded in the principles of spatial interaction are compatible with the more novel approaches of agent-based modelling. The incorporation of agents provides a much more flexible means for the representation of behavioural mechanisms. The paper illustrates the way in which three more complicated situations can be handled through the fusion of spatial interaction and agent modelling perspectives. These situations comprise discontinuous evolution (in which structural adjustment takes place in discrete steps, and not as a continuously smooth process; nonequilibrium dynamics (in which the underlying system parameters continue to evolve through time; the incorporation of new decision variables (which we illustrate through the addition of land rents into the model. The conclusion of the paper is that the combination of spatial interaction and agent-based modelling methods provides encouraging prospects for the social simulation of real urban systems.
Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this Phase I project is to prove the feasibility of using model-based design (MBD) tools to predict the performance and useful life of...
Model-Based Design Tools for Extending COTS Components To Extreme Environments Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this project is model-based design (MBD) tools for predicting the performance and useful life of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components and...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Barone, Ilaria; Novelli, Elena; Piano, Ilaria; Gargini, Claudia; Strettoi, Enrica
2012-01-01
.... Environmental enrichment (EE), a novel neuroprotective strategy based on enhanced motor, sensory and social stimulation, has already been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of various disorders of the CNS...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of estimating the aerodynamic models for flight control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with...
An Extended Tropospheric Scintillation Model for Free Space Optical Communication Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John O. Famoriji
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Fluctuations caused mostly by tropospheric scintillation at the free space optical receiver end have been a major problem in the rapid development of telecommunication and the increasing demands for larger bandwidth is forcing the use of free space optical (FSO technology. This paper examined existing tropospheric scintillation models of Karasawa, Van de Kamp model, Otung, Ortgies and ITU-R, and discovered that all of them operate at the microwave range, which limits their application in FSO laser beam technology that operates in PHz frequency-range. ITU-R model was later selected owing to its global application and modified for use in FSO communication system. The new model can serve as basis for communication engineers to use as platform in the link budgetary for planning and design of low margin systems of free space optical communication link.
Applying an MVC Framework for The System Development Life Cycle with Waterfall Model Extended
Hardyanto, W.; Purwinarko, A.; Sujito, F.; Masturi; Alighiri, D.
2017-04-01
This paper describes the extension of the waterfall model using MVC architectural pattern for software development. The waterfall model is the based model of the most widely used in software development, yet there are still many problems in it. The general issue usually happens on data changes that cause the delays on the process itself. On the other hand, the security factor on the software as well as one of the major problems. This study uses PHP programming language for implementation. Although this model can be implemented in several programming languages with the same concept. This study is based on MVC architecture so that it can improve the performance of both software development and maintenance, especially concerning security, validation, database access, and routing.
Extending the global coverage of Slab1.0 3D subduction zone models
Seidman, L.; Hayes, G. P.
2013-12-01
Slab1.0 is a three-dimensional model of subduction zone geometries that covers approximately 85% of global slabs by area. It is built from an automated interpolation of a combined dataset made up from subduction-related earthquakes, moment tensors, interpretations of active source seismic data, and models of bathymetry and sediment thickness. Those subduction zones that are missing from the model are difficult to characterize with this automated approach because of sparse teleseismically located, interplate seismicity (e.g., Cascadia, Hikurangi), complex geometry (e.g., Halmahera, southern Philippine Sea), or some combination of these issues (e.g., Caribbean). Here we attempt to solve this problem with a straightforward modification of the Slab1.0 approach. Instead of constructing a series of automated spline fits to our geophysical data in two-dimensional cross sections, we produce hand-contoured two-dimensional fits; under the assumption that where seismicity is sparse or geometry complex, a human guided by tectonic knowledge can produce a better fit to geometry than can a computer algorithm. These manual 2D sections are then interpolated into a 3D surface in the same way automated 2D fits are processed for Slab1.0. Following this approach, we produce models for slabs in the Caribbean, the Makran, the Manila Trench, the Halmahera Plate, and the Hellenic Arc. We also address regions of current models (e.g., Peru) that were poorly characterized by the original automated approach. These new models thus provide valuable information on subduction zone structure from the trench and into the mantle in regions previously missing from Slab1.0, and help to make existing models more accurate, and thus more useful, than was previously possible. In turn, the models can be used to better characterize associated seismic hazards.
Ma, Zhanshan (Sam)
Competition, cooperation and communication are the three fundamental relationships upon which natural selection acts in the evolution of life. Evolutionary game theory (EGT) is a 'marriage' between game theory and Darwin's evolution theory; it gains additional modeling power and flexibility by adopting population dynamics theory. In EGT, natural selection acts as optimization agents and produces inherent strategies, which eliminates some essential assumptions in traditional game theory such as rationality and allows more realistic modeling of many problems. Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) and Sir Philip Sidney (SPS) games are two well-known examples of EGT, which are formulated to study cooperation and communication, respectively. Despite its huge success, EGT exposes a certain degree of weakness in dealing with time-, space- and covariate-dependent (i.e., dynamic) uncertainty, vulnerability and deception. In this paper, I propose to extend EGT in two ways to overcome the weakness. First, I introduce survival analysis modeling to describe the lifetime or fitness of game players. This extension allows more flexible and powerful modeling of the dynamic uncertainty and vulnerability (collectively equivalent to the dynamic frailty in survival analysis). Secondly, I introduce agreement algorithms, which can be the Agreement algorithms in distributed computing (e.g., Byzantine Generals Problem [6][8], Dynamic Hybrid Fault Models [12]) or any algorithms that set and enforce the rules for players to determine their consensus. The second extension is particularly useful for modeling dynamic deception (e.g., asymmetric faults in fault tolerance and deception in animal communication). From a computational perspective, the extended evolutionary game theory (EEGT) modeling, when implemented in simulation, is equivalent to an optimization methodology that is similar to evolutionary computing approaches such as Genetic algorithms with dynamic populations [15][17].
An extended continuum model accounting for the driver's timid and aggressive attributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia [Faculty of Maritime and Transportation, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Urban Traffic Technologies, Nanjing 210096 (China); National Traffic Management Engineering and Technology Research Centre Ningbo University Sub-centre, Ningbo 315211 (China); Wang, Jufeng, E-mail: wjf@nit.zju.edu.cn [Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo 315100 (China)
2017-04-18
Considering the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously, a new continuum model is put forwarded in this paper. By applying the linear stability theory, we presented the analysis of new model's linear stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived to describe density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical results verify that aggressive driving is better than timid act because the aggressive driver will adjust his speed timely according to the leading car's speed. The key improvement of this new model is that the timid driving deteriorates traffic stability while the aggressive driving will enhance traffic stability. The relationship of energy consumption between the aggressive and timid driving is also studied. Numerical results show that aggressive driver behavior can not only suppress the traffic congestion but also reduce the energy consumption. - Highlights: • A new continuum model is developed with the consideration of the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously. • Applying the linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability is obtained. • Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV–Burgers equation is derived. • The energy consumption for this model is studied.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-09-01
Sintered silver has proven to be a promising candidate for use as a die-attach and substrate-attach material in automotive power electronics components. It holds promise of greater reliability than lead-based and lead-free solders, especially at higher temperatures (less than 200 degrees Celcius). Accurate predictive lifetime models of sintered silver need to be developed and its failure mechanisms thoroughly characterized before it can be deployed as a die-attach or substrate-attach material in wide-bandgap device-based packages. We present a finite element method (FEM) modeling methodology that can offer greater accuracy in predicting the failure of sintered silver under accelerated thermal cycling. A fracture mechanics-based approach is adopted in the FEM model, and J-integral/thermal cycle values are computed. In this paper, we outline the procedures for obtaining the J-integral/thermal cycle values in a computational model and report on the possible advantage of using these values as modeling parameters in a predictive lifetime model.
Xia, Zhiye; Xu, Lisheng; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Yongqian; Liu, Jinbao; Feng, Wenlan
2017-06-01
Extended range forecasting of 10-30 days, which lies between medium-term and climate prediction in terms of timescale, plays a significant role in decision-making processes for the prevention and mitigation of disastrous meteorological events. The sensitivity of initial error, model parameter error, and random error in a nonlinear crossprediction error (NCPE) model, and their stability in the prediction validity period in 10-30-day extended range forecasting, are analyzed quantitatively. The associated sensitivity of precipitable water, temperature, and geopotential height during cases of heavy rain and hurricane is also discussed. The results are summarized as follows. First, the initial error and random error interact. When the ratio of random error to initial error is small (10-6-10-2), minor variation in random error cannot significantly change the dynamic features of a chaotic system, and therefore random error has minimal effect on the prediction. When the ratio is in the range of 10-1-2 (i.e., random error dominates), attention should be paid to the random error instead of only the initial error. When the ratio is around 10-2-10-1, both influences must be considered. Their mutual effects may bring considerable uncertainty to extended range forecasting, and de-noising is therefore necessary. Second, in terms of model parameter error, the embedding dimension m should be determined by the factual nonlinear time series. The dynamic features of a chaotic system cannot be depicted because of the incomplete structure of the attractor when m is small. When m is large, prediction indicators can vanish because of the scarcity of phase points in phase space. A method for overcoming the cut-off effect ( m > 4) is proposed. Third, for heavy rains, precipitable water is more sensitive to the prediction validity period than temperature or geopotential height; however, for hurricanes, geopotential height is most sensitive, followed by precipitable water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shine Pintor Siolemba Patiro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of Indonesian bodybuilders’ intentions to use anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influence an Indonesian bodybuilder’s intention to use AAS and offer a better understanding of AAS use behavior based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The three predictor variables of (1 attitude, (2 subjective norms, and (3 perceived behavioral control accounted for the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to reuse the AAS. Likewise, (1 attitude and (2 intention accounted for of the variation in the outcome measure of the reuse of AAS. This research combined two methods which are qualitative and quantitative. The respondents who were used in this research are professional bodybuilders located in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, and Yogyakarta. The result of this research shows that the attitude of bodybuilders in using AAS tends to have values that are adopted by themselves. The result of this research differs from Bagozzi et al (1989 who stated that attitude influenced behavior directly as a nonpurposeful reaction or indirectly through intention as an aimed response. The result of this research clearly shows that attitude can influence behavior directly as a purposeful reaction, because the bodybuilders consume AAS to achieve a particular purpose and it is strengthened by achievement value in themselves. This research suggests also that attitude and subjective norms are not causally independent. They appear to reflect similar beliefs and to influence each other. These results differ from Titah and Barki (2009, as suggested by Chang (1998 and Aarts et al. (1998, who stated that a person whose positive subjective norms move them toward overt behavior, it will lead to a positive attitude toward the behavior. Future research directions are suggested regarding several areas
The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.
Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C
2012-04-02
A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system.
From core to coax: extending core RF modelling to include SOL, Antenna, and PFC
Shiraiwa, Syun'ichi
2017-10-01
A new technique for the calculation of RF waves in toroidal geometry enables the simultaneous incorporation of antenna geometry, plasma facing components (PFCs), the scrape off-layer (SOL), and core propagation. Traditionally, core RF wave propagation and antenna coupling has been calculated separately both using rather simplified SOL plasmas. The new approach, instead, allows capturing wave propagation in the SOL and its interactions with non-conforming PFCs permitting self-consistent calculation of core absorption and edge power loss, as well as investigating far and near field impurity generation from RF sheaths and a breakdown issue from antenna electric fields. Our approach combines the field solutions obtained from a core spectral code with a hot plasma dielectric and an edge FEM code using a cold plasma approximation via surface admittance-like matrix. Our approach was verified using the TORIC core ICRF spectral code and the commercial COMSOL FEM package, and was extended to 3D torus using open-source scalable MFEM library. The simulation result revealed that as the core wave damping gets weaker, the wave absorption in edge could become non-negligible. Three dimensional capabilities with non axisymmetric edge are being applied to study the antenna characteristic difference between the field aligned and toroidally aligned antennas on Alcator C-Mod, as well as the surface wave excitation on NSTX-U. Work supported by the U.S. DoE, OFES, using User Facility Alcator C-Mod, DE-FC02-99ER54512 and Contract No. DE-FC02-01ER54648.
Investigation of a four-body coupling in the one-dimensional extended Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model
Ding, Hanqin; Ma, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jun
2017-09-01
The experimental advances in cold fermion gases motivates the investigation of a one-dimensional (1D) correlated electronic system by incorporating a four-body coupling. Using the low-energy field theory scheme and focusing on the weak-coupling regime, we extend the 1D Penson-Kolb-Hubbard (PKH) model at half filling. It is found that the additional four-body interaction may significantly modify the quantum phase diagram, favoring the presence of the superconducting phase even in the case of two-body repulsions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede
2004-01-01
This paper presents a new sensorless vector control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with non-linearity compensation. The nonlinear voltage distortion that is caused by commutation delay and on-state voltage drop in switching device is corrected by a new...... matrix converter model. Regulated Order Extended Luenberger Observer (ROELO) is employed to bring better response in the whole speed operation range and a method to select the observer gain is presented. Experimental results are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed system...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Algal bloom in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and one of its tributaries, Xiangxi River (XR, have become major concerns and the dynamic changes of such events were investigated using the hydrodynamic model SELFE and the extended Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP model to address nutrient and biomass dynamics. The model has taken into consideration the surface wind, heat fluxes, oxygen exchanges, solar radiations and boundary conditions from main river channel and tributaries. As an extension to our previous work, this study aimed to report in more detailed the result of chlorophyll-a simulations, where the field observed data of algal blooms in TGR in 2007 was used for calibration and the horizontal and vertical distributions of phytoplankton biomass (based on chlorophyll-a were presented. It was found that the chlorophyll-a concentration characterized as algal biomass was influenced by many complex factors. Further study results are yet to be reported.
Wagner, Jacob W.; Dannenhoffer-Lafage, Thomas; Jin, Jaehyeok; Voth, Gregory A.
2017-07-01
Order parameters (i.e., collective variables) are often used to describe the behavior of systems as they capture different features of the free energy surface. Yet, most coarse-grained (CG) models only employ two- or three-body non-bonded interactions between the CG particles. In situations where these interactions are insufficient for the CG model to reproduce the structural distributions of the underlying fine-grained (FG) model, additional interactions must be included. In this paper, we introduce an approach to expand the basis sets available in the multiscale coarse-graining (MS-CG) methodology by including order parameters. Then, we investigate the ability of an additive local order parameter (e.g., density) and an additive global order parameter (i.e., distance from a hard wall) to improve the description of CG models in interfacial systems. Specifically, we study methanol liquid-vapor coexistence, acetonitrile liquid-vapor coexistence, and acetonitrile liquid confined by hard-wall plates, all using single site CG models. We find that the use of order parameters dramatically improves the reproduction of structural properties of interfacial CG systems relative to the FG reference as compared with pairwise CG interactions alone.
Extending Participatory Sensing to Personal Exposure Using Microscopic Land Use Regression Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luc Dekoninck
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Personal exposure is sensitive to the personal features and behavior of the individual, and including interpersonal variability will improve the health and quality of life evaluations. Participatory sensing assesses the spatial and temporal variability of environmental indicators and is used to quantify this interpersonal variability. Transferring the participatory sensing information to a specific study population is a basic requirement for epidemiological studies in the near future. We propose a methodology to reduce the void between participatory sensing and health research. Instantaneous microscopic land-use regression modeling (µLUR is an innovative approach. Data science techniques extract the activity-specific and route-sensitive spatiotemporal variability from the data. A data workflow to prepare and apply µLUR models to any mobile population is presented. The µLUR technique and data workflow are illustrated with models for exposure to traffic related Black Carbon. The example µLURs are available for three micro-environments; bicycle, in-vehicle, and indoor. Instantaneous noise assessments supply instantaneous traffic information to the µLURs. The activity specific models are combined into an instantaneous personal exposure model for Black Carbon. An independent external validation reached a correlation of 0.65. The µLURs can be applied to simulated behavioral patterns of individuals in epidemiological cohorts for advanced health and policy research.
An Extended Cellular Automaton Model for Train Traffic Flow on the Dedicated Passenger Lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenbo Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available As one of the key components for the railway transportation system, the Train Operation Diagram can be greatly influenced by many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Therefore, the railway train flow has shown the strong nonlinear characteristics, which makes it quite difficult to take further relative studies. Fortunately, the cellular automaton model has its own advantages in solving nonlinear problems and traffic flow simulation. Considering the mixed features of multispeed running trains on the passenger dedicated lines, this paper presents a new train model under the moving block system with different types of trains running with the cellular automaton idea. By analyzing such key factors as the maintenance skylight, the proportion of the multispeed running trains, and the distance between adjacent stations and departure intervals, the corresponding running rules for the cellular automaton model are reestablished herewith. By means of this CA model, the program of train running system is designed to analyze the potential impact on railway carrying capacity by various factors; the model can also be implemented to simulate the actual train running process and to draw the train operation diagram by computers. Basically the theory can be applied to organize the train operation on the dedicated passenger lines.
Extending Participatory Sensing to Personal Exposure Using Microscopic Land Use Regression Models
Dekoninck, Luc; Botteldooren, Dick; Int Panis, Luc
2017-01-01
Personal exposure is sensitive to the personal features and behavior of the individual, and including interpersonal variability will improve the health and quality of life evaluations. Participatory sensing assesses the spatial and temporal variability of environmental indicators and is used to quantify this interpersonal variability. Transferring the participatory sensing information to a specific study population is a basic requirement for epidemiological studies in the near future. We propose a methodology to reduce the void between participatory sensing and health research. Instantaneous microscopic land-use regression modeling (µLUR) is an innovative approach. Data science techniques extract the activity-specific and route-sensitive spatiotemporal variability from the data. A data workflow to prepare and apply µLUR models to any mobile population is presented. The µLUR technique and data workflow are illustrated with models for exposure to traffic related Black Carbon. The example µLURs are available for three micro-environments; bicycle, in-vehicle, and indoor. Instantaneous noise assessments supply instantaneous traffic information to the µLURs. The activity specific models are combined into an instantaneous personal exposure model for Black Carbon. An independent external validation reached a correlation of 0.65. The µLURs can be applied to simulated behavioral patterns of individuals in epidemiological cohorts for advanced health and policy research. PMID:28561799
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ines Baccouche
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Accurate modeling of the nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the state of charge (SOC is required for adaptive SOC estimation during the lithium-ion (Li-ion battery operation. Online SOC estimation should meet several constraints, such as the computational cost, the number of parameters, as well as the accuracy of the model. In this paper, these challenges are considered by proposing an improved simplified and accurate OCV model of a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC Li-ion battery, based on an empirical analytical characterization approach. In fact, composed of double exponential and simple quadratic functions containing only five parameters, the proposed model accurately follows the experimental curve with a minor fitting error of 1 mV. The model is also valid at a wide temperature range and takes into account the voltage hysteresis of the OCV. Using this model in SOC estimation by the extended Kalman filter (EKF contributes to minimizing the execution time and to reducing the SOC estimation error to only 3% compared to other existing models where the estimation error is about 5%. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed OCV model incorporated in the EKF estimator exhibits good reliability and precision under various loading profiles and temperatures.
Towards Extending Forward Kinematic Models on Hyper-Redundant Manipulator to Cooperative Bionic Arms
Singh, Inderjeet; Lakhal, Othman; Merzouki, Rochdi
2017-01-01
Forward Kinematics is a stepping stone towards finding an inverse solution and subsequently a dynamic model of a robot. Hence a study and comparison of various Forward Kinematic Models (FKMs) is necessary for robot design. This paper deals with comparison of three FKMs on the same hyper-redundant Compact Bionic Handling Assistant (CBHA) manipulator under same conditions. The aim of this study is to project on modeling cooperative bionic manipulators. Two of these methods are quantitative methods, Arc Geometry HTM (Homogeneous Transformation Matrix) Method and Dual Quaternion Method, while the other one is Hybrid Method which uses both quantitative as well as qualitative approach. The methods are compared theoretically and experimental results are discussed to add further insight to the comparison. HTM is the widely used and accepted technique, is taken as reference and trajectory deviation in other techniques are compared with respect to HTM. Which method allows obtaining an accurate kinematic behavior of the CBHA, controlled in the real-time.
An extended continuum model accounting for the driver's timid and aggressive attributions
Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng
2017-04-01
Considering the driver's timid and aggressive behaviors simultaneously, a new continuum model is put forwarded in this paper. By applying the linear stability theory, we presented the analysis of new model's linear stability. Through nonlinear analysis, the KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe density wave near the neutral stability line. Numerical results verify that aggressive driving is better than timid act because the aggressive driver will adjust his speed timely according to the leading car's speed. The key improvement of this new model is that the timid driving deteriorates traffic stability while the aggressive driving will enhance traffic stability. The relationship of energy consumption between the aggressive and timid driving is also studied. Numerical results show that aggressive driver behavior can not only suppress the traffic congestion but also reduce the energy consumption.
Enhancing rural connectivity through an extended internet cafés business models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo; Falch, Morten
2013-01-01
This paper discusses the potentials of an adaptation of the Internet café business model adopted for Internet access in African cities to improve rural Internet access through a partnership between the public and private sectors. The rural areas in most developing countries e lack of Internet...... are replicated in the rural areas. . A study is carried out in Ghana, where the market players in the Internet café operations to ascertain the potential viability of public –private partnership in the provisioning of internet access in the rural areas in Ghana. A new business model in the form of Public Private...... connectivity due to commercial unviability of such investment by the private sector alone.. The modernization theory is used to support the concept that the availability of Internet services in rural can be catalyzed if an Adaptation of the Internet cafés business model incorporating the public participation...
Extended probit mortality model for zooplankton against transient change of PCO(2).
Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yuji; Toyota, Koji; Ishizaka, Joji
2005-09-01
The direct injection of CO(2) in the deep ocean is a promising way to mitigate global warming. One of the uncertainties in this method, however, is its impact on marine organisms in the near field. Since the concentration of CO(2), which organisms experience in the ocean, changes with time, it is required to develop a biological impact model for the organisms against the unsteady change of CO(2) concentration. In general, the LC(50) concept is widely applied for testing a toxic agent for the acute mortality. Here, we regard the probit-transformed mortality as a linear function not only of the concentration of CO(2) but also of exposure time. A simple mathematical transform of the function gives a damage-accumulation mortality model for zooplankton. In this article, this model was validated by the mortality test of Metamphiascopsis hirsutus against the transient change of CO(2) concentration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2011-01-01
resistivity and the absorber thickness on the difference between the two surface reaction models are examined and discussed. For a porous absorber backed by a rigid surface, the local reaction models give errors of less than 10% if the thickness exceeds 120 mm for a flow resistivity of 5000 Nm-4s. As the flow...... resistivity doubles, a decrease in the required thickness by 25 mm is observed to achieve the same amount of error. For an absorber backed by an air gap, the thickness ratio between the material and air cavity is important. If the absorber thickness is approximately 40% of the cavity depth, the local reaction...... models give errors below 10% even for a low flow resistivity case....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Brewe
2013-10-01
Full Text Available We report on a multiyear study of student attitudes measured with the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey in calculus-based introductory physics taught with the Modeling Instruction curriculum. We find that five of six instructors and eight of nine sections using Modeling Instruction showed significantly improved attitudes from pre- to postcourse. Cohen’s d effect sizes range from 0.08 to 0.95 for individual instructors. The average effect was d=0.45, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.26–0.64. These results build on previously published results showing positive shifts in attitudes from Modeling Instruction classes. We interpret these data in light of other published positive attitudinal shifts and explore mechanistic explanations for similarities and differences with other published positive shifts.
Gu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Weihong; Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad
2017-09-01
The model presented in this paper was shown to successfully account for cyclic loading effects and thermomechanical coupling in SMAs, including the influence of load rate and temperature on both the rate and value at saturation of the residual strain. It is the first such comprehensive model to be successfully utilized for relatively complex simulations involving SMAs subjected to multiaxial nonproportional loading, which possibly result in strong stress gradients such as fracture mechanics. In fact, it is known that the high stress concentration at the tip of a crack in SMAs results in increased martensite transformation and reorientation, which influence the growth of the crack. The derivation of the constitutive equations as well as the time integration and relevant algorithmic considerations are presented in detail. The model was shown to allow reasonable agreement with several sets of reference experimental and simulation data taken from the literature.
Extended Latanoprost Release from Commercial Contact Lenses: In Vitro Studies Using Corneal Models
Mohammadi, Saman; Jones, Lyndon; Gorbet, Maud
2014-01-01
In this study, we compared, for the first time, the release of a 432 kDa prostaglandin analogue drug, Latanoprost, from commercially available contact lenses using in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells. Conventional polyHEMA-based and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses were soaked in drug solution ( solution in phosphate buffered saline). The drug release from the contact lens material and its diffusion through three in vitro models was studied. The three in vitro models consisted of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane without corneal epithelial cells, a PET membrane with a monolayer of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), and a PET membrane with stratified HCEC. In the cell-based in vitro corneal epithelium models, a zero order release was obtained with the silicone hydrogel materials (linear for the duration of the experiment) whereby, after 48 hours, between 4 to 6 of latanoprost (an amount well within the range of the prescribed daily dose for glaucoma patients) was released. In the absence of cells, a significantly lower amount of drug, between 0.3 to 0.5 , was released, (). The difference observed in release from the hydrogel lens materials in the presence and absence of cells emphasizes the importance of using an in vitro corneal model that is more representative of the physiological conditions in the eye to more adequately characterize ophthalmic drug delivery materials. Our results demonstrate how in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells may allow better prediction of in vivo release. It also highlights the potential of drug-soaked silicone hydrogel contact lens materials for drug delivery purposes. PMID:25207851
Extended latanoprost release from commercial contact lenses: in vitro studies using corneal models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saman Mohammadi
Full Text Available In this study, we compared, for the first time, the release of a 432 kDa prostaglandin F2a analogue drug, Latanoprost, from commercially available contact lenses using in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells. Conventional polyHEMA-based and silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses were soaked in drug solution (131 μg = ml solution in phosphate buffered saline. The drug release from the contact lens material and its diffusion through three in vitro models was studied. The three in vitro models consisted of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET membrane without corneal epithelial cells, a PET membrane with a monolayer of human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC, and a PET membrane with stratified HCEC. In the cell-based in vitro corneal epithelium models, a zero order release was obtained with the silicone hydrogel materials (linear for the duration of the experiment whereby, after 48 hours, between 4 to 6 μg of latanoprost (an amount well within the range of the prescribed daily dose for glaucoma patients was released. In the absence of cells, a significantly lower amount of drug, between 0.3 to 0.5 μg, was released, (p <0:001. The difference observed in release from the hydrogel lens materials in the presence and absence of cells emphasizes the importance of using an in vitro corneal model that is more representative of the physiological conditions in the eye to more adequately characterize ophthalmic drug delivery materials. Our results demonstrate how in vitro models with corneal epithelial cells may allow better prediction of in vivo release. It also highlights the potential of drug-soaked silicone hydrogel contact lens materials for drug delivery purposes.
Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chen; Du, Zhidong; Pan, Liang, E-mail: liangpan@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-06-15
The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM) to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.
Extending the diffusion approximation to the boundary using an integrated diffusion model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Chen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The widely used diffusion approximation is inaccurate to describe the transport behaviors near surfaces and interfaces. To solve such stochastic processes, an integro-differential equation, such as the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE, is typically required. In this work, we show that it is possible to keep the simplicity of the diffusion approximation by introducing a nonlocal source term and a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. We apply the proposed integrated diffusion model (IDM to a benchmark problem of heat conduction across a thin film to demonstrate its feasibility. We also validate the model when boundary reflections and uniform internal heat generation are present.
Modeling 3D PCMI using the Extended Finite Element Method with higher order elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2017-03-31
This report documents the recent development to enable XFEM to work with higher order elements. It also demonstrates the application of higher order (quadratic) elements to both 2D and 3D models of PCMI problems, where discrete fractures in the fuel are represented using XFEM. The modeling results demonstrate the ability of the higher order XFEM to accurately capture the effects of a crack on the response in the vicinity of the intersecting surfaces of cracked fuel and cladding, as well as represent smooth responses in the regions away from the crack.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi-Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A. [Center for Heliophysics, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai [Space Science Center and Physics Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)
2015-11-15
As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Recently, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.
Robust option replication for a Black-Scholes model extended with nondeterministic trends
Schoenmakers, J.G.M.; Kloeden, P.E.
1999-01-01
Statistical analysis on various stocks reveals long range dependence behavior of the stock prices that is not consistent with the classical Black and Scholes model. This memory or nondeterministic trend behavior is often seen as a reflection of market sentiments and causes that the historical
Park, Eunil; Kim, Ki Joon
2013-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated path model in order to explore user acceptance of long-term evolution (LTE) services by examining potential causal relationships between key psychological factors and user intention to use the services. Design/methodology/approach: Online survey data collected from 1,344 users are analysed…
Intelligent traffic signals : extending the range of self-organization in the BML model.
2013-04-01
The two-dimensional traffic model of Biham, Middleton and Levine (Phys. Rev. A, 1992) is : a simple cellular automaton that exhibits a wide range of complex behavior. It consists of both : northbound and eastbound cars traveling on a rectangular arra...
The Python Project: A Unique Model for Extending Research Opportunities to Undergraduate Students
Harvey, Pamela A.; Wall, Christopher; Luckey, Stephen W.; Langer, Stephen; Leinwand, Leslie A.
2014-01-01
Undergraduate science education curricula are traditionally composed of didactic instruction with a small number of laboratory courses that provide introductory training in research techniques. Research on learning methodologies suggests this model is relatively ineffective, whereas participation in independent research projects promotes enhanced…
OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework
Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John
2011-01-01
OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are…
Extended model of raw data signals for space-time adaptive processing and moving target indicators
Lidický, L.; Hoogeboom, P.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signal model. Its purpose is to study nonstationary raw SAR signals in moving target indication (MTI) systems. This is opposed to the traditional approach in which only stationary (harmonic) signals are considered. The principal
Extending distributed shared memory for the cell broadband engine to a channel model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovhede, Kenneth; Larsen, Morten Nørgaard; Vinter, Brian
2010-01-01
at the price of a quite complex programming model. In this paper we present an easy-to-use, CSP-like, communication method, which enables transfers of shared memory objects. The channel based communication method can significantly reduce the complexity of massively parallel programs. By implementing a few...
Extended TAM Model: Impacts of Convenience on Acceptance and Use of Moodle
Hsu, Hsiao-hui; Chang, Yu-ying
2013-01-01
The increasing online access to courses, programs, and information has shifted the control and responsibility of learning process from instructors to learners. Learners' perceptions of and attitudes toward e-learning constitute a critical factor to the success of such system. The purpose of this study is to take TAM (technology acceptance model)…
Bornkessel, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias
2006-01-01
Real-time language comprehension is a principal cognitive ability and thereby relates to central properties of the human cognitive architecture. Yet how do the presumably universal cognitive and neural substrates of language processing relate to the astounding diversity of human languages (over 5,000)? The authors present a neurocognitive model of…
Extending the Challenge-Hindrance Model of Occupational Stress: The Role of Appraisal
Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Love, Kevin
2011-01-01
Interest regarding the challenge-hindrance occupational stress model has increased in recent years, however its theoretical foundation has not been tested. Drawing from the transactional theory of stress, this study tests the assumptions made in past research (1) that workload and responsibility are appraised as challenges and role ambiguity and…
Extending the GTAP data base and model to cover domestic support issues using EU as example
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Urban, Kirsten; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Brockmeier, Martina
The EU Single Farm Payment (SFP) is currently distributed in proportion to primary factor shares in version 8 of the GTAP database. In this paper, we investigate whether this way of modeling the EU SFP makes a difference in analyzing agricultural policy reforms. To do so, we create alternative...
Extending the team component of the Latimer ethical decision-making model for palliative care
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purkis ME
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Mary Ellen Purkis1, Elizabeth Borycki1,2, Craig Kuziemsky3, Fraser Black4, Denise Cloutier-Fisher5, Lee Ann Fox6, Patricia MacKenzie7, Ann Syme1,8, Coby Tschanz1,41School of Nursing, 2School of Health Information Science, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 3Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario; 4Victoria Hospice Society, Victoria, British Columbia; 5Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 6Kingston General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario; 7School of Social Work, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia; 8British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, CanadaBackground: Each year more than 240,000 Canadians die from terminal and chronic illnesses. It is estimated that 62% of those deaths require palliative care. Palliative care is a specialized domain of health professional team practice that requires discipline-specific knowledge, skills, judgment, and expertise in order to address patient hopes, wishes, symptoms, and suffering. With the emergence of palliative care as a specialized area of interdisciplinary practice, new practice models have also emerged, eg, the Latimer ethical decision-making model for palliative care. The purpose of this research was to undertake a descriptive ethnographic field study of palliative care team practices to understand better the interdisciplinary team communication and the issues that arise when members of different health professions work together as a team.Methods: Study data were collected by observing and videotaping palliative care team meetings. Data were then analyzed using direct content analysis.Results: The study findings substantiated many of the team practice concepts outlined in Latimer's model. Palliative care teams engage in a number of processes that address patient symptoms, suffering, hopes, and plans. However, several new findings also emerged from the data that were
Robust option replication for a Black-Scholes model extended with nondeterministic trends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John G. M. Schoenmakers
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Statistical analysis on various stocks reveals long range dependence behavior of the stock prices that is not consistent with the classical Black and Scholes model. This memory or nondeterministic trend behavior is often seen as a reflection of market sentiments and causes that the historical volatility estimator becomes unreliable in practice. We propose an extension of the Black and Scholes model by adding a term to the original Wiener term involving a smoother process which accounts for these effects. The problem of arbitrage will be discussed. Using a generalized stochastic integration theory [8], we show that it is possible to construct a self financing replicating portfolio for a European option without any further knowledge of the extension and that, as a consequence, the classical concept of volatility needs to be re-interpreted.
Extended phase space analysis of interacting dark energy models in loop quantum cosmology
Zonunmawia, Hmar; Khyllep, Wompherdeiki; Roy, Nandan; Dutta, Jibitesh; Tamanini, Nicola
2017-10-01
The present work deals with the dynamical system investigation of interacting dark energy models (quintessence and phantom) in the framework of loop quantum cosmology by taking into account a broad class of self-interacting scalar field potentials. The main reason for studying potentials beyond the exponential type is to obtain additional critical points which can yield more interesting cosmological solutions. The stability of critical points and the asymptotic behavior of the phase space are analyzed using dynamical system tools and numerical techniques. We study two classes of interacting dark energy models and consider two specific potentials as examples: the hyperbolic potential and the inverse power-law potential. We find a rich and interesting phenomenology, including the avoidance of big rip singularities due to loop quantum effects, smooth and nonlinear transitions from matter domination to dark energy domination, and finite periods of phantom domination with dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier.
Extending simulation modeling to activity-based costing for clinical procedures.
Glick, N D; Blackmore, C C; Zelman, W N
2000-04-01
A simulation model was developed to measure costs in an Emergency Department setting for patients presenting with possible cervical-spine injury who needed radiological imaging. Simulation, a tool widely used to account for process variability but typically focused on utilization and throughput analysis, is being introduced here as a realistic means to perform an activity-based-costing (ABC) analysis, because traditional ABC methods have difficulty coping with process variation in healthcare. Though the study model has a very specific application, it can be generalized to other settings simply by changing the input parameters. In essence, simulation was found to be an accurate and viable means to conduct an ABC analysis; in fact, the output provides more complete information than could be achieved through other conventional analyses, which gives management more leverage with which to negotiate contractual reimbursements.
An Extended Role-Based Access Control Model for Delegating Obligations
Ben-Ghorbel-Talbi, Meriam; Cuppens, Frédéric; Cuppens-Boulahia, Nora; Bouhoula, Adel
The main aim of access control models is to provide means to simplify the management of the security policy, which is a fastidious and error-prone task. Supporting delegation is considered as an important mean to decentralize the administration and therefore to allow security policy to be more flexible and easier to manipulate. Our main contribution is the proposition of a unified model to the administration and delegation of obligations. Managing such delegations implies more requirements than managing traditional privileges delegation. In fact, delegating obligations may include two interpretations: the delegation of the obligation and the delegation of the responsibility related to this obligation. Therefore, it is important to deal with these two notions separately. Moreover, since delegating an obligation involves the delegation of sanctions, then the consent of the user who receives this delegation may be required in some cases. We address in this paper these requirements and we propose a formalism to deal with them.
Karkhin, V. A.; Pittner, A.; Schwenk, C.; Rethmeier, M.
2011-06-01
The paper presents bounded volume heat sources and the corresponding functional-analytical expressions for the temperature field. The power density distributions considered here are normal, exponential and parabolic. The sources model real heat sources like the welding arc, laser beam, electron beam, etc., the convection in the weld pool as well as the latent heat due to fusion and solidification. The parameters of the heat source models are unknown a priori and have to be evaluated by solving an inverse heat conduction problem. The functional-analytical technique for calculating 3D temperature fields in butt welding is developed. The proposed technique makes it possible to reduce considerably the total time for data input and solution. It is demonstrated with an example of laser beam welding of steel plates.
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Mohamd Hakkak
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet has radically changed the delivery channels applied by the financial services industry. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors that encourage customers to adopt online banking in Khorramabad. The research constructs are developed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM and incorporates some extra important control variables. The model is empirically verified to study the factors influencing the online banking adoption behavior of 210 customers of Tejarat Banks in Khorramabad. The findings of the study suggest that the quality of the internet connection, the awareness of online banking and its benefits, the social influence and computer self-efficacy have significant impacts on the perceived usefulness (PU and perceived ease of use (PEOU of online banking acceptance. Trust and resistance to change also have significant impact on the attitude towards the likelihood of adopting online banking.
Investigating the X-ray time lags in PG 1244+026 using an extended corona model
Chainakun, P.; Young, A. J.
2017-03-01
We present an extended corona model based on ray-tracing simulations to investigate X-ray time lags in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This model consists of two axial point sources illuminating an accretion disc that produce the reverberation lags. These lags are due to the time delays between the directly observed and reflection photons and are associated with the light-travel time between the source and the disc, so they allow us to probe the disc-corona geometry. We assume the variations of two X-ray sources are triggered by the same primary variations, but allow the two sources to respond in different ways (I.e. having different source responses). The variations of each source induce a delayed accretion disc response and the total lags consist of a combination of both source and disc responses. We show that the extended corona model can reproduce both the low-frequency hard and high-frequency soft (reverberation) lags. Fitting the model to the timing data of PG 1244+026 reveals the hard and soft X-ray sources at ˜6rg and ˜11rg, respectively. The upper source produces small amounts of reflection and can be interpreted as a relativistic jet, or outflowing blob, whose emission is beamed away from the disc. This explains the observed lag energy in which there is no soft lag at energies <1 keV as they are diluted by the soft continuum of the upper source. Finally, our models suggest that the fluctuations propagating between the two sources of PG 1244+026 are possible but only at near the speed of light.
Onwuzurike, Lucky; Mariconti, Enrico; Andriotis, Panagiotis; De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Ross, Gordon; Stringhini, Gianluca
2017-01-01
As Android becomes increasingly popular, so does malware targeting it, this motivating the research community to propose many different detection techniques. However, the constant evolution of the Android ecosystem, and of malware itself, makes it hard to design robust tools that can operate for long periods of time without the need for modifications or costly re-training. Aiming to address this issue, we set to detect malware from a behavioral point of view, modeled as the sequence of abstra...
Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model
Hagymasi, I.; Itai, K.; Solyom, J.
2012-01-01
We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of $d$-$f$ Coulomb interaction ($U_{df}$) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of $U_{df}$ and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of ...
Extended gauge transformations and the physical dynamics in a finite temperature BCS-model
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Rieckers, A.; Ullrich, M.
1985-01-01
In the finite temperature representation of the grand canonical limiting state the authors investigate the gauge transformations and the physical (in contradistinction to the reduced) dynamics for the strong coupling BCS-model. It is shown that both transformation groups act in a non-trivial manner on the centers of those von Neumann algebras which belong to temperature representations with ..beta.. > ..beta..sub(c). This gives a microscopic explanation for the macroscopic phase rotation in thermodynamic equilibrium at low temperatures.
FPGA-based firmware model for extended measurement systems with data quality monitoring
Wojenski, A.; Pozniak, K. T.; Mazon, D.; Chernyshova, M.
2017-08-01
Modern physics experiments requires construction of advanced, modular measurement systems for data processing and registration purposes. Components are often designed in one of the common mechanical and electrical standards, e.g. VME or uTCA. The paper is focused on measurement systems using FPGAs as data processing blocks, especially for plasma diagnostics using GEM detectors with data quality monitoring aspects. In the article is proposed standardized model of HDL FPGA firmware implementation, for use in a wide range of different measurement system. The effort was made in term of flexible implementation of data quality monitoring along with source data dynamic selection. In the paper is discussed standard measurement system model followed by detailed model of FPGA firmware for modular measurement systems. Considered are both: functional blocks and data buses. In the summary, necessary blocks and signal lines are described. Implementation of firmware following the presented rules should provide modular design, with ease of change different parts of it. The key benefit is construction of universal, modular HDL design, that can be applied in different measurement system with simple adjustments.
Extended sudden approximation model for high-energy nucleon removal reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carstoiu, F.; Sauvan, E.; Orr, N.A. [Caen Univ., Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Institut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, IN2P3-CNRS ISMRA, 14 (France); Carstoiu, F. [IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Bonaccorso, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy)
2004-04-01
A model based on the sudden approximation has been developed to describe high energy single nucleon removal reactions. Within this approach, which takes as its starting point the formalism of Hansen, the nucleon-removal cross section and the full 3-dimensional momentum distributions of the core fragments including absorption, diffraction, Coulomb and nuclear-Coulomb interference amplitudes, have been calculated. The Coulomb breakup has been treated to all orders for the dipole interaction. The model has been compared to experimental data for a range of light, neutron-rich psd-shell nuclei. Good agreement was found for both the inclusive cross sections and momentum distributions. In the case of {sup 17}C, comparison is also made with the results of calculations using the transfer-to-the-continuum model. The calculated 3-dimensional momentum distributions exhibit longitudinal and transverse momentum components that are strongly coupled by the reaction for s-wave states, whilst no such effect is apparent for d-waves. Incomplete detection of transverse momenta arising from limited experimental acceptances thus leads to a narrowing of the longitudinal distributions for nuclei with significant s-wave valence neutron configurations, as confirmed by the data. Asymmetries in the longitudinal momentum distributions attributed to diffractive dissociation are also explored. (authors)
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Justin M Calabrese
Full Text Available It is well known that parasites are often highly aggregated on their hosts such that relatively few individuals host the large majority of parasites. When the parasites are vectors of infectious disease, a key consequence of this aggregation can be increased disease transmission rates. The cause of this aggregation, however, is much less clear, especially for parasites such as arthropod vectors, which generally spend only a short time on their hosts. Regression-based analyses of ticks on various hosts have focused almost exclusively on identifying the intrinsic host characteristics associated with large burdens, but these efforts have had mixed results; most host traits examined have some small influence, but none are key. An alternative approach, the Poisson-gamma mixture distribution, has often been used to describe aggregated parasite distributions in a range of host/macroparasite systems, but lacks a clear mechanistic basis. Here, we extend this framework by linking it to a general model of parasite accumulation. Then, focusing on blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis on mice (Peromyscus leucopus, we fit the extended model to the best currently available larval tick burden datasets via hierarchical Bayesian methods, and use it to explore the relative contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on observed tick burdens. Our results suggest that simple bad luck-inhabiting a home range with high vector density-may play a much larger role in determining parasite burdens than is currently appreciated.
Verification of extended model of goal directed behavior applied on aggression
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Katarína Vasková
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The study was aimed to verify Model of Goal Directed Behavior (EMGB by Perugini and Bagozzi (2001 applied on aggression by Richetin, Richardson and Boykin (2011. Two different studies were performed. Firstly original form of model was verified. In the second study, modification of EMGB through new conceptualization of scale of perceived behavioral control was executed. The research sample consisted together from 385 students of University of P.J. Šafárik and High school in Košice (182 respondents (78 men, 104 women with average age 20,84 years and standard deviation 1,94, who were involved in first study and 203 students (49 men and 154 women, with average age 19,71 and standard deviation 1,99 participated in second study who were administrated questionnaire by Richetin et al. (2011 and Richardson Conflict Response Questionnaire (Richardson & Green, 2006. Expectancy of comparable relationships between particular factors of EMGB in comparison to its published original version was verified. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. In first study was shown insufficient fit of EMGB model. There were hypothesized two main sources of problems. At first, weak relationship between attitudes and behavioral desire was shown. Following statistical procedures confirmed its direct impact on intention, what is in correspondence with another studies (see Leone, Perugini & Ercolani, 2004, Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001, Richetin et al., 2011. Second source of problems was identified in factor named perceived behavioral control. Difficulties from our point of view lied in conceptualization of the term and its subsequent measurement. In the second study was involved new conceptualization of control. It corresponded with Baumeister´s understanding of selfcontrol as asserting control over one´s emotions, thoughts and behavior. After this modification sufficient fit of EMGB was shown. Besides this, factor of self-control was the strongest predictor of
Sherwood, John; Clabeaux, Raeanne; Carbajales-Dale, Michael
2017-10-01
We developed a physically-based environmental account of US food production systems and integrated these data into the environmental-input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model. The extended model was used to characterize the food, energy, and water (FEW) intensities of every US economic sector. The model was then applied to every Bureau of Economic Analysis metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to determine their FEW usages. The extended EIO-LCA model can determine the water resource use (kGal), energy resource use (TJ), and food resource use in units of mass (kg) or energy content (kcal) of any economic activity within the United States. We analyzed every economic sector to determine its FEW intensities per dollar of economic output. This data was applied to each of the 382 MSAs to determine their total and per dollar of GDP FEW usages by allocating MSA economic production to the corresponding FEW intensities of US economic sectors. Additionally, a longitudinal study was performed for the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, metropolitan statistical area to examine trends from this singular MSA and compare it to the overall results. Results show a strong correlation between GDP and energy use, and between food and water use across MSAs. There is also a correlation between GDP and greenhouse gas emissions. The longitudinal study indicates that these correlations can shift alongside a shifting industrial composition. Comparing MSAs on a per GDP basis reveals that central and southern California tend to be more resource intensive than many other parts of the country, while much of Florida has abnormally low resource requirements. Results of this study enable a more complete understanding of food, energy, and water as key ingredients to a functioning economy. With the addition of the food data to the EIO-LCA framework, researchers will be able to better study the food-energy-water nexus and gain insight into how these three vital resources are interconnected
How Sommerfeld extended Bohr's model of the atom (1913-1916)
Eckert, Michael
2014-04-01
Sommerfeld's extension of Bohr's atomic model was motivated by the quest for a theory of the Zeeman and Stark effects. The crucial idea was that a spectral line is made up of coinciding frequencies which are decomposed in an applied field. In October 1914 Johannes Stark had published the results of his experimental investigation on the splitting of spectral lines in hydrogen (Balmer lines) in electric fields, which showed that the frequency of each Balmer line becomes decomposed into a multiplet of frequencies. The number of lines in such a decomposition grows with the index of the line in the Balmer series. Sommerfeld concluded from this observation that the quantization in Bohr's model had to be altered in order to allow for such decompositions. He outlined this idea in a lecture in winter 1914/15, but did not publish it. The First World War further delayed its elaboration. When Bohr published new results in autumn 1915, Sommerfeld finally developed his theory in a provisional form in two memoirs which he presented in December 1915 and January 1916 to the Bavarian Academy of Science. In July 1916 he published the refined version in the Annalen der Physik. The focus here is on the preliminary Academy memoirs whose rudimentary form is better suited for a historical approach to Sommerfeld's atomic theory than the finished Annalen-paper. This introductory essay reconstructs the historical context (mainly based on Sommerfeld's correspondence). It will become clear that the extension of Bohr's model did not emerge in a singular stroke of genius but resulted from an evolving process.
Extended Standard Model in multi-spinor field formalism: Visible and dark sectors
Sogami, Ikuo S.
2013-12-01
To generalize the Standard Model so as to include dark matter, we formulate a theory of multi-spinor fields on the basis of an algebra that consists of triple-tensor products of elements of the Dirac algebra. Chiral combinations of multi-spinor fields form reducible representations of the Lorentz group possessing component fields with spin 1/2, which we interpret as expressing three ordinary families and an additional fourth family of quarks and leptons. Apart from the gauge and Higgs fields of the Standard Model interacting with the fermions of the three ordinary families, we assume the existence of additional gauge and Higgs fields interacting exclusively with the fermions of the fourth family. While the fields of the Standard Model organize the "visible sector" of our universe, the fields related with the fourth family are presumed to generate a "dark sector" that can contain dark matter. The two sectors possess a channel of communication through the bi-quadratic interaction between visible and dark Higgs fields. After experiencing a common inflationary phase, the two sectors follow a reheating period and weak-coupling paths of thermal histories. We propose scenarios for dark matter that have a tendency to take relatively broad interstellar distributions and examine methods for the detection of the main candidate particles of dark matter. The exchange of superposed fields of the visible and dark Higgs bosons induces weak reaction processes between the fields of the visible and dark sectors, which enables us to have a glimpse of the dark sector.
Decentralized Fuzzy P-hub Centre Problem: Extended Model and Genetic Algorithms
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Sara Mousavinia
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the uncapacitated P-hub center problem in a network under decentralized management assuming time as a fuzzy variable. In this network, transport companies act independently, each company makes its route choices according to its own criteria. In this model, time is presented by triangular fuzzy number and used to calculate the fraction of users that probably choose hub routes instead of direct routes. To solve the problem, two genetic algorithms are proposed. The computational results compared with LINGO indicate that the proposed algorithm solves large-scale instances within promising computational time and outperforms LINGO in terms of solution quality.
A model for extending antiretroviral care beyond the rural health centre
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Wools-Kaloustian Kara K
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A major obstacle facing many lower-income countries in establishing and maintaining HIV treatment programmes is the scarcity of trained health care providers. To address this shortage, the World Health Organization has recommend task shifting to HIV-infected peers. Methods We designed a model of HIV care that utilizes HIV-infected patients, community care coordinators (CCCs, to care for their clinically stable peers with the assistance of preprogrammed personal digital assistants (PDAs. Rather than presenting for the standard of care, monthly clinic visits, in this model, patients were seen every three months in clinics and monthly by their CCCs in the community during the interim two months. This study was conducted in Kosirai Division, western Kenya, where eight of the 24 sub-locations (defined geographic areas within the division were randomly assigned to the intervention with the remainder used as controls. Prior to entering the field, CCCs underwent intensive didactic training and mentoring related to the assessment and support of HIV patients, as well as the use of PDAs. PDAs were programmed with specific questions and to issue alerts if responses fell outside of pre-established parameters. CCCs were regularly evaluated in six performance areas. An impressionistic analysis on the transcripts from the monthly group meetings that formed the basis of the continuous feedback and quality improvement programme was used to assess this model. Results All eight of the assigned CCCs successfully passed their training and mentoring, entered the field and remained active for the two years of the study. On evaluation of the CCCs, 89% of their summary scores were documented as superior during Year 1 and 94% as superior during Year 2. Six themes emerged from the impressionistic analysis in Year 1: confidentiality and "community" disclosure; roles and responsibilities; logistics; clinical care partnership; antiretroviral adherence; and
Cascading Gravity Extending the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati Model to Higher Dimension
de Rham, Claudia; Hofmann, Stefan; Khoury, Justin; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele; Tolley, Andrew J
2008-01-01
We present a higher codimension generalization of the DGP scenario which, unlike previous attempts, is free of ghost instabilities. The 4D propagator is made regular by embedding our visible 3-brane within a 4-brane, each with their own induced gravity terms, in a flat 6D bulk. The model is ghost-free if the tension on the 3-brane is larger than a certain critical value, while the induced metric remains flat. The gravitational force law `cascades' from a 6D behavior at the largest distances followed by a 5D and finally a 4D regime at the shortest scales.
Effective field theory and electroweak baryogenesis in the singlet-extended Standard Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Damgaard, P.H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen Ø, DK-2100 (Denmark); Haarr, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,Stavanger, N-4036 (Norway); O’Connell, D. [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Tranberg, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,Stavanger, N-4036 (Norway)
2016-02-16
Electroweak baryogenesis is a simple and attractive candidate mechanism for generating the observed baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Its viability is sometimes investigated in terms of an effective field theory of the Standard Model involving higher dimension operators. We investigate the validity of such an effective field theory approach to the problem of identifying electroweak phase transitions strong enough for electroweak baryogenesis to be successful. We identify and discuss some pitfalls of this approach due to the modest hierarchy between mass scales of heavy degrees or freedom and the Higgs, and the possibility of dimensionful couplings violating the decoupling between light and heavy degrees of freedom.
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Ihsan Mohd Yassin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available System Identification (SI is a discipline concerned with inference of mathematical models from dynamic systems based on their input and output measurements. Among the many types of SI models, the superior NARMAX model and its derivatives (NARX and NARMA are powerful, efficient and unified representations of a variety of nonlinear systems. The identification process of NARX/NARMA/NARMAX is typically performed using the established Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS. Weaknesses of the OLS model are known, leading to various alternatives and modifications of the original algorithm. This paper extends the findings of previous research in application of the Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO for structure selection of a polynomial NARX model on a DC Motor (DCM dataset. The contributions of this paper involve the implementation and analysis of a MySQL database to serve as a lookup table for the BPSO optimization process. Additional analysis regarding the frequencies of term selection is also made possible by the database. An analysis of different preprocessing methods was also performed leading to the best model. The results show that the BPSO structure selection method is improved by the presence of the database, while the magnitude scaling approach was the best preprocessing method for NARX identification of the DCM dataset.
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I. Hoteit
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A singular evolutive extended Kalman (SEEK filter is used to assimilate real in situ data in a water column marine ecosystem model. The biogeochemistry of the ecosystem is described by the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM, while the physical forcing is described by the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. In the SEEK filter, the error statistics are parameterized by means of a suitable basis of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. The purpose of this contribution is to track the possibility of using data assimilation techniques for state estimation in marine ecosystem models. In the experiments, real oxygen and nitrate data are used and the results evaluated against independent chlorophyll data. These data were collected from an offshore station at three different depths for the needs of the MFSPP project. The assimilation results show a continuous decrease in the estimation error and a clear improvement in the model behavior. Key words. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction; numerical modelling – Oceanography: biological and chemical (ecosystems and ecology
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Hsing Yu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Extending the open-economy loanable funds model, this paper finds that more government borrowing as a percent of GDP leads to a higher government bond yield, that a higher real money market rate, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher EU government bond yield, or a decrease in the Slovak nominal effective exchange rate would increase the Slovak government bond yield, and that the positive coefficient of the percent change in real GDP is insignificant at the 10% level. When the standard closedeconomy or open-economy loanable funds model is considered, except that the positive coefficient of the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP is insignificant at the 10% level, other results are similar.
Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Yevick, Aaron; Cooper, Chana; Vasic, Relja
2011-07-01
Many metal clusters in the 1-nm size range are catalytically active, and their enhanced reactivity is often attributed to their size, structure, morphology, and details of alloying. Synchrotron sources provide a wide range of opportunities for studying catalysis. Among them, extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy is the premier method for investigating structure and composition of nanocatalysts. In this review, we summarize common methods of EXAFS analysis for geometric and compositional characterization of nanoparticles. We discuss several aspects of the experiments and analyses that are critical for reliably modeling EXAFS data. The most important are sample homogeneity, the width of the size and compositional distribution functions, and accounting for multiple-scattering contributions to EXAFS. We focus on the contribution of structural disorder and structural/compositional heterogeneity to the accuracy of three-dimensional modeling.
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Zhen Liu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.
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Liu, Zhen, E-mail: liu-zhen@sjtu.edu.cn; Gu, Pei-Hong, E-mail: peihong.gu@sjtu.edu.cn
2017-02-15
We extend some two Higgs doublet models, where the Yukawa couplings for the charged fermion mass generation only involve one Higgs doublet, by two singlet scalars respectively carrying a singly electric charge and a doubly electric charge. The doublet and singlet scalars together can mediate a two-loop diagram to generate a tiny Majorana mass matrix of the standard model neutrinos. Remarkably, the structure of the neutrino mass matrix is fully determined by the symmetric Yukawa couplings of the doubly charged scalar to the right-handed leptons. Meanwhile, a one-loop induced neutrinoless double beta decay can arrive at a testable level even if the electron neutrino has an extremely small Majorana mass. We also study other experimental constraints and implications including some rare processes and Higgs phenomenology.
Research on safety analysis for airborne system based on extended functional model
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Quan Jiang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available With the widespread use of embedded system in safety critical areas, system safety assurance has become one of the research hotspots of engineering technologies. System safety analysis mainly concentrates on the requirement specification and the recent design, and in the process of the actual development of the software, safety requirement analysis and design are two independent processes. This article expands the safety requirements described by fault tree into state diagram and proposes the new concept “fault state diagram,” which can unify safety requirement model and functional model. Based on the fault state diagram, this article proposes the method of airborne system safety analysis, including the following: gives out one method for abstracting and describing safety requirements from system fault tree based on Backus Normal Form; defines the transformation rules from fault tree logic gates and continuous time into state diagram elements; designs safety requirement information mapping table which translates safety requirements into state diagram elements; and designs the automatic construction algorithm of fault state diagram, which is based on the transformation rules and mapping table. Finally, a small gas stove control system case using the method proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
An extended cumulative logit model for detecting a shift in frequencies of sky-cloudiness conditions
Lu, Qiqi; Wang, Xiaolan L.
2012-08-01
In Canada, sky-cloudiness (or cloud cover) condition is reported in terms of tenths of the sky dome covered by clouds and hence has 11 categories (0/10 for clear sky, 1/10 for one tenth of the sky dome covered by clouds, …, and 10/10 for overcast). The cloud cover data often contain temporal discontinuities (changepoints) and present a large amount of observational uncertainty. Detecting changepoints in a sequence of continuous random variables has been extensively explored in both statistics and climatology literature. However, changepoint analyses of a multinomial sequence data with extra variabilities are relatively sparse. This study develops a likelihood ratio test for detecting a sudden change in parameters of the cumulative logit model for a multinomial sequence. The extra-multinomial variation is accounted for by allowing an overdispersion parameter in the model fitting. Moreover, the empirical distribution of the estimated changepoint is approximated by a bootstrap method. An application of this new technique to real sky cloudiness data in Canada is presented.
Extended Hubbard model for mesoscopic transport in donor arrays in silicon
Le, Nguyen H.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Ginossar, Eran
2017-12-01
Arrays of dopants in silicon are promising platforms for the quantum simulation of the Fermi-Hubbard model. We show that the simplest model with only on-site interaction is insufficient to describe the physics of an array of phosphorous donors in silicon due to the strong intersite interaction in the system. We also study the resonant tunneling transport in the array at low temperature as a mean of probing the features of the Hubbard physics, such as the Hubbard bands and the Mott gap. Two mechanisms of localization which suppresses transport in the array are investigated: The first arises from the electron-ion core attraction and is significant at low filling; the second is due to the sharp oscillation in the tunnel coupling caused by the intervalley interference of the donor electron's wave function. This disorder in the tunnel coupling leads to a steep exponential decay of conductance with channel length in one-dimensional arrays, but its effect is less prominent in two-dimensional ones. Hence, it is possible to observe resonant tunneling transport in a relatively large array in two dimensions.
Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices
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Mohammad Ali Baghapour
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi-Criteria Decision- Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes were considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts were taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, were related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that was drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks were consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement with the decision-making group. This study indicated that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and approaches. Moreover, using the FOWA model provides results accurate and closer- to-reality on the significance of
Extended Tonks-Langmuir-type model with non-Boltzmann-distributed electrons and cold ion sources
Kamran, M.; Kuhn, S.; Tskhakaya, D. D.; Khan, M.; Khan
2013-04-01
A general formalism for calculating the potential distribution Φ(z) in the quasineutral region of a new class of plane Tonks-Langmuir (TL)-type bounded-plasma-system (BPS) models differing from the well-known `classical' TL model (Tonks, L. and Langmuir, I. 1929 A general theory of the plasma of an arc. Phys. Rev. 34, 876) by allowing for arbitrary (but still cold) ion sources and arbitrary electron distributions is developed. With individual particles usually undergoing microscopic collision/sink/source (CSS) events, extensive use is made here of the basic kinetic-theory concept of `CSS-free trajectories' (i.e., the characteristics of the kinetic equation). Two types of electron populations, occupying the `type-t' and `type-p' domains of electron phase space, are distinguished. By definition, the type-t and type-p domains are made up of phase points lying on type-t (`trapped') CSS-free trajectories (not intersecting the walls and closing on themselves) and type-p (`passing') ones (starting at one of the walls and ending at the other). This work being the first step, it is assumed that ɛ ≡ λ D /l -> 0+ (where λ D and l are a typical Debye length and a typical ionization length respectively) so that the system exhibits a finite quasineutral `plasma' region and two infinitesimally thin `sheath' regions associated with the `sheath-edge singularities' | dΦ/dz| z->+/-zs -> ∞. The potential in the plasma region is required to satisfy a plasma equation (quasineutrality condition) of the form n i {Φ} = n e (Φ), where the electron density n e (Φ) is given and the ion density n i {Φ} is expressed in terms of trajectory integrals of the ion kinetic equation, with the ions produced by electron-impact ionization of cold neutrals. While previous TL-type models were characterized by electrons diffusing under the influence of frequent collisions with the neutral background particles and approximated by Maxwellian (Riemann, K.-U. 2006 Plasma-sheath transition in the
Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model
Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.
2013-03-01
We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of d-f Coulomb interaction (Udf) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of Udf and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of the QCP depends on the other parameters of the Hamiltonian. For larger values of Udf, the Kondo regime is bounded by two first-order transitions. These first-order transitions merge into a triple point at a certain value of Udf. For even larger Udf valence skipping occurs. Although the other methods do not give a critical point, they support this scenario.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pop Dragos Paul
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The present article concerns present status of implementation in Romania and Europe of eCall service and the proposed business models regarding eCall function implementation in Romania. eCall system is used for reliable transmission in case of crush between In Vehicle System and Public Service Answering Point, via the voice channel of cellular and Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN. eCall service could be initiated automatically or manual the driver. All data presented in this article are part of researches made by authors in the Sectorial Contract Implementation study regarding eCall system, having as partners ITS Romania and Electronic Solution, with the Romanian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology as beneficiary.
Extended TOPSIS model for solving multi-attribute decision making problems in engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel O. Aikhuele
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an exponential-related function (ER and develop an intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS model based on the function (IF-TOPSISEF to solve multi-attribute decision making (MADM problems in which the performance ratings are expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFSs. The main advantage of this new approach is that the exponential-related function is able to represent the aggregated effect of the positive and negative evaluations in the performance ratings of alternatives based on the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS data. It also serves as a mean for the computations of the separation measures of each alternative from the intuitionistic fuzzy positive and negative ideal solutions to determine the relative closeness coefficients. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the proposed IF-TOPSISEF is applied for the evaluation of the concept designs of a part in an HDD machine (The drill pipe slider, and for some hypothetical examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merkle, Peter Benedict
2006-03-01
Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
2016-01-01
beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions......Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...
Müller, Ingo
1993-01-01
Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...
Dijk, J.; Bijl, P.; Oppeneer, M.; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Iersel, M. van
2017-01-01
The Electro-Optical Signal Transmission and Ranging (EOSTAR) model is an image-based Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) for thermal imaging systems (MWIR/LWIR) developed for a sea environment with an extensive atmosphere model. The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) Target Acquisition model
Skowyra, Justyna; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Alhnan, Mohamed A
2015-02-20
Rapid and reliable tailoring of the dose of controlled release tablets to suit an individual patient is a major challenge for personalized medicine. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) based 3D printer to fabricate extended release tablet using prednisolone loaded poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) filaments and to control its dose. Prednisolone was loaded into a PVA-based (1.75 mm) filament at approximately 1.9% w/w via incubation in a saturated methanolic solution of prednisolone. The physical form of the drug was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Dose accuracy and in vitro drug release patterns were assessed using HPLC and pH change flow-through dissolution test. Prednisolone loaded PVA filament demonstrated an ability to be fabricated into regular ellipse-shaped solid tablets using the FDM-based 3D printer. It was possible to control the mass of printed tablet through manipulating the volume of the design (R(2) = 0.9983). On printing tablets with target drug contents of 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10mg, a good correlation between target and achieved dose was obtained (R(2) = 0.9904) with a dose accuracy range of 88.7-107%. Thermal analysis and XRPD indicated that the majority of prednisolone existed in amorphous form within the tablets. In vitro drug release from 3D printed tablets was extended up to 24h. FDM based 3D printing is a promising method to produce and control the dose of extended release tablets, providing a highly adjustable, affordable, minimally sized, digitally controlled platform for producing patient-tailored medicines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Jagdhuber
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Focusing on scattering from natural media, dihedral (double bounce scattering is often characterized as a soil-trunk double Fresnel reflection, like for instance, in most model-based decompositions. As soils are predominantly rough in agriculture, the classical Rank 1 dihedral scattering component has to be extended to account for soil roughness-induced depolarization. Therefore, an azimuthal Line of Sight (LoS rotation is applied solely on the soil plane of the double-bounce reflection to generate a depolarized dihedral scattering signal in agriculture. The results of the sensitivity analysis are shown for a distributed target in coherency matrix representation. It reveals that the combination of coherency matrix elements T22XD + T33XD is quasi-independent of the roughness-induced depolarization, while (T22XD − T33XD/(T22XD + T33XD is quasi-independent of the dielectric properties of the reflecting media. Therefore, a depolarization-independent retrieval of soil moisture or a direct roughness retrieval from the extended dihedral scattering component might be possible in stalk-dominated agriculture under certain conditions (e.g., the influence of a differential phase stays at a low level: ϕ < 15°. The first analyses with L-band airborne-SAR data of DLR’s E-SAR and F-SAR systems in agricultural regions during the AgriSAR, OPAQUE, SARTEO and TERENO project campaigns state the existence and potential of the extended Fresnel scattering mechanism to represent dihedral scattering between a rough (tilled soil and the stalks of the agricultural plants.
Andreozzi, L.; Faetti, M.; Zulli, F.; Giordano, M.
2004-10-01
The Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan (TNM) phenomenological model is widely accepted in order to describe the structural relaxation of glasses. However several quantitative discrepancies can be found in the literature that cannot be entirely ascribed to the experimental errors. In this work we compare the predictive power of two recently proposed configurational entropy approaches extending the TNM formalism. Both of them change the treatment of non linearity by adding a free parameter. We use Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) experiments in order to test the models in two different polymers. One of them is a commercial PMMA sample, the other is a side chain liquid crystal azo-benzene polymer properly synthesized for optical nanorecording purposes. Different results were found for the two systems. In the PMMA sample only one of the new models was able to improve the agreement between DSC experiments and theory with respect to the TNM model, whereas in the second polymer both the approaches were able to describe the experiments better than TNM model.
Implications of right-handed neutrinos in B -L extended standard model with scalar dark matter
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Chun, Eung Jin; Mandal, Rusa
2018-01-01
We investigate the standard model (SM) with a U (1 )B-L gauge extension where a B -L charged scalar is a viable dark matter (DM) candidate. The dominant annihilation process, for the DM particle is through the B -L symmetry breaking scalar to a right-handed neutrino pair. We exploit the effect of decay and inverse decay of the right-handed neutrino in thermal relic abundance of the DM. Depending on the values of the decay rate, the DM relic density can be significantly different from what is obtained in the standard calculation assuming the right-handed neutrino is in thermal equilibrium and there appear different regions of the parameter space satisfying the observed DM relic density. For a DM mass less than O (TeV ) , the direct detection experiments impose a competitive bound on the mass of the U (1 )B-L gauge boson Z' with the collider experiments. Utilizing the nonobservation of the displaced vertices arising from the right-handed neutrino decays, the bound on the mass of Z' has been obtained at present and higher luminosities at the LHC with 14 TeV center of mass energy where an integrated luminosity of 100 fb-1 is sufficient to probe mZ'˜5.5 TeV .
Real, Fernando; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Herai, Roberto Hirochi; Würtele, Martin; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Barbiéri, Clara Lucia; Mieczkowski, Piotr; da Silveira, José Franco; Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro da Silva; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Bahia, Diana
2013-01-01
We present the sequencing and annotation of the Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis genome, an etiological agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazon region of Brazil. L. (L.) amazonensis shares features with Leishmania (L.) mexicana but also exhibits unique characteristics regarding geographical distribution and clinical manifestations of cutaneous lesions (e.g. borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis). Predicted genes were scored for orthologous gene families and conserved domains in comparison with other human pathogenic Leishmania spp. Carboxypeptidase, aminotransferase, and 3′-nucleotidase genes and ATPase, thioredoxin, and chaperone-related domains were represented more abundantly in L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) mexicana species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these two species share groups of amastin surface proteins unique to the genus that could be related to specific features of disease outcomes and host cell interactions. Additionally, we describe a hypothetical hybrid interactome of potentially secreted L. (L.) amazonensis proteins and host proteins under the assumption that parasite factors mimic their mammalian counterparts. The model predicts an interaction between an L. (L.) amazonensis heat-shock protein and mammalian Toll-like receptor 9, which is implicated in important immune responses such as cytokine and nitric oxide production. The analysis presented here represents valuable information for future studies of leishmaniasis pathogenicity and treatment. PMID:23857904
Associative account of self-cognition: extended forward model and multi-layer structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motoaki eSugiura
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The neural correlates of self identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is supported by several amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices. The social self, representing the self as a collection of context-dependent social values, is supported by the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex. Despite differences in the underlying cognitive processes and neural substrates, all three categories of self are likely to share the computational characteristics of the forward model, which is underpinned by internal schema or learned associations between one’s behavioral output and the consequential input. Additionally, these three categories exist within a hierarchical layer structure based on developmental processes that updates the schema through the attribution of prediction error. In this account, most of the association cortices critically contribute to some aspect of the self through associative learning while the primary regions involved shift from the lateral to the medial cortices in a sequence from the physical to the interpersonal to the social self.
IM-UFF: Extending the universal force field for interactive molecular modeling.
Jaillet, Léonard; Artemova, Svetlana; Redon, Stephane
2017-10-01
The universal force field (UFF) is a broadly applicable classical force field that contains parameters for almost every atom type of the periodic table. This force field is non-reactive, i.e. the topology of the system under study is considered as fixed and no creation or breaking of covalent bonds is possible. This paper introduces interactive modeling-UFF (IM-UFF), an extension of UFF that combines the possibility to significantly modify molecular structures (as with reactive force fields) with a broad diversity of supported systems thanks to the universality of UFF. Such an extension lets the user easily build and edit molecular systems interactively while being guided by physics based inter-atomic forces. This approach introduces weighted atom types and weighted bonds, used to update topologies and atom parameterizations at every time step of a simulation. IM-UFF has been evaluated on a large set of benchmarks and is proposed as a self-contained implementation integrated in a new module for the SAMSON software platform for computational nanoscience available at http://www.samson-connect.net. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaozhao Zhao
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The principle of extreme physical information (EPI can be used to derive many known laws and distributions in theoretical physics by extremizing the physical information loss K, i.e., the difference between the observed Fisher information I and the intrinsic information bound J of the physical phenomenon being measured. However, for complex cognitive systems of high dimensionality (e.g., human language processing and image recognition, the information bound J could be excessively larger than I (J ≫ I, due to insufficient observation, which would lead to serious over-fitting problems in the derivation of cognitive models. Moreover, there is a lack of an established exact invariance principle that gives rise to the bound information in universal cognitive systems. This limits the direct application of EPI. To narrow down the gap between I and J, in this paper, we propose a confident-information-first (CIF principle to lower the information bound J by preserving confident parameters and ruling out unreliable or noisy parameters in the probability density function being measured. The confidence of each parameter can be assessed by its contribution to the expected Fisher information distance between the physical phenomenon and its observations. In addition, given a specific parametric representation, this contribution can often be directly assessed by the Fisher information, which establishes a connection with the inverse variance of any unbiased estimate for the parameter via the Cramér–Rao bound. We then consider the dimensionality reduction in the parameter spaces of binary multivariate distributions. We show that the single-layer Boltzmann machine without hidden units (SBM can be derived using the CIF principle. An illustrative experiment is conducted to show how the CIF principle improves the density estimation performance.
Walker, Leah A; Sullivan, David J
2017-04-01
Artemisinin-based combination therapies are a key pillar in global malaria control and are recommended as a first-line Plasmodium falciparum treatment. They rely upon a rapid 4-log-unit reduction in parasitemia by artemisinin compounds with a short half-life and the killing of remaining parasites by a partner compound with a longer half-life. Current treatment guidelines stipulate giving three 24-h-interval doses or six 12-h-interval doses over a 3-day period. Due to the short half-life of artesunate and artemether, almost all of the resulting cytocidal activity is confined within a single 48-h asexual P. falciparum cycle. Here, we utilized a luciferase reporter, Plasmodium berghei ANKA, in a cytocidal model in which treatment was initiated at high parasitemia, allowing us to monitor a greater than 3-log-unit reduction in parasite density, as well as 30-day survival. In this study, we demonstrated that increasing the artesunate duration from spanning one asexual cycle to spanning three asexual cycles while keeping the total dose constant results in enhanced cytocidal activity. Single daily artesunate doses at 50 mg/kg of body weight over 7 days were the minimum necessary for curative monotherapy. In combination with a single sub-human-equivalent dose of the partner drug amodiaquine or piperaquine, the three-asexual-cycle artesunate duration was able to cure 75% and 100% of mice, respectively, whereas 0% and 33% cures were achieved with the single-asexual-cycle artesunate duration. In summary, cytocidal activity of the artemisinin compounds, such as artesunate, can be improved solely by altering the dosing duration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabrina O. Sihombing
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
Dijk, J.; Bijl, P.; Oppeneer, M.; ten Hove, R. J. M.; van Iersel, M.
2017-10-01
The Electro-Optical Signal Transmission and Ranging (EOSTAR) model is an image-based Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) for thermal imaging systems (MWIR/LWIR) developed for a sea environment with an extensive atmosphere model. The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) Target Acquisition model calculates the sensor and signal processing effects on a set of input triangle test pattern images, judges their orientation using humans or a Human Visual System (HVS) model and derives the system image quality and operational field performance from the correctness of the responses. Combination of the TOD model and EOSTAR, basically provides the possibility to model Target Acquisition (TA) performance over the exact path from scene to observer. In this method ship representative TOD test patterns are placed at the position of the real target, subsequently the combined effects of the environment (atmosphere, background, etc.), sensor and signal processing on the image are calculated using EOSTAR and finally the results are judged by humans. The thresholds are converted into Detection-Recognition-Identification (DRI) ranges of the real target. In experiments is shown that combination of the TOD model and the EOSTAR model is indeed possible. The resulting images look natural and provide insight in the possibilities of combining the two models. The TOD observation task can be done well by humans, and the measured TOD is consistent with analytical TOD predictions for the same camera that was modeled in the ECOMOS project.
Fractional dosing of yellow fever vaccine to extend supply: a modelling study.
Wu, Joseph T; Peak, Corey M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lipsitch, Marc
2016-12-10
The ongoing yellow fever epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in July-August, 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidation of the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission. We estimate the effective reproductive number for yellow fever in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of yellow fever transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) with various levels of transmissibility and 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios, ie, random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible, and the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July-August, 2016, with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines. We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (ie, a proportion of vaccine recipients receive complete protection [VE] and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can greatly reduce infection attack rate as long as VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (ie, the susceptibility of each vaccine recipient is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (2 years) provides the largest reduction in infection attack rate if the efficacy of 5-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%. Dose fractionation is an effective strategy for reduction of the infection attack rate that would be robust with a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; David Andrs; Richard Martineau
2014-04-01
The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup water to the reactor vessel for core cooling when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. It was one of the very few safety systems still available during the Fukushima Daiichi accidents after the tsunamis hit the plants and the system successfully delayed the core meltdown for a few days for unit 2 & 3. Therefore, detailed models for RCIC system components are indispensable to understand extended station black-out accidents (SBO) for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the new generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, major components to simulate the RCIC system have been developed. This paper describes the models for those components such as turbine, pump, and wet well. Selected individual component test simulations and a simplified SBO simulation up to but before core damage is presented. The successful implementation of the simplified RCIC and wet well models paves the way to further improve the models for safety analysis by including more detailed physical processes in the near future.
Huntjens, Dymphy R; Liefaard, Lia C; Nandy, Partha; Drenth, Henk-Jan; Vermeulen, An
2016-03-01
Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with two mechanisms of action, µ-opioid receptor agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. The objectives were to describe the pharmacokinetic behavior of tapentadol after oral administration of an extended-release (ER) formulation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pain and to evaluate covariate effects. Data were obtained from 2276 subjects enrolled in five phase I and nine phase II and III studies. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was conducted using NONMEM. The population estimates of apparent oral clearance and apparent central volume of distribution were 257 L/h and 1870 L, respectively. The complex absorption was described with a transit compartment for the first input. The second input function embraces saturable "binding" in the "absorption compartment", and a time-varying rate constant. Covariate evaluation demonstrated that age, aspartate aminotransferase, and health (painful diabetic neuropathy or not) had a statistically significant effect on apparent clearance, and bioavailability appeared to be dependent on body weight. The pcVPC indicted that the model provided a robust and unbiased fit to the data. A one-compartment disposition model with two input functions and first-order elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol ER. The dose-dependency in the pharmacokinetics of tapentadol ER is adequately described by the absorption model. None of the covariates were considered as clinically relevant factors that warrant dose adjustments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manteuffel, Andreas von
2008-07-17
Theories with extended Higgs sectors such as Two-Higgs-Doublet Models (THDMs) or the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) allow for rich CP phenomena and involved Higgs-potential structures. Employing a gauge invariant formulation for the tree-level Higgs potential of the general THDM, we derive compact criteria for its stability, electroweak symmetry breaking, and generalised CP properties in a clear geometrical language. A new type of CP symmetry is shown to impose strong restrictions on the Lagrangian and to require at least two fermion generations for non-trivial Yukawa terms. Large regions of the NMSSM parameter space are excluded due to an instable vacuum. We present a rigorous determination of the global minimum of the tree-level potential via Groebner bases. In a second part, we investigate the colour dipole picture. This model of high energy photonproton scattering permits a very successful description of available HERA data. Nevertheless, its range of applicability is limited. We derive general bounds on ratios of deep-inelastic proton structure functions within the colour dipole picture, following exclusively from its framework and photon wave function properties. Confronting these bounds with HERA data we can further restrict the range of applicability of the colour dipole picture. Finally, we calculate Ioffe times for a specific model and find them to be too small to justify the dipole picture at large photon virtualities. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sadegh, Negar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj
2015-01-01
of pure MDEA vapor pressure, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) (total pressure and CO2 partial pressure), freezing point depression (SLE), excess enthalpy, heat capacity and heat of absorption were used to adjust model parameters. The model was then used to predict the NMR spectroscopic data. The developed...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)
2004-12-15
Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claire E Le Pichon
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor clinically approved for oncology indications. Although erlotinib failed to extend ALS mouse survival it did provide a modest but significant delay in the onset of multiple behavioral measures of disease progression. However, given the lack of protection of motor neuron synapses and the lack of survival extension, the small benefits observed after erlotinib treatment appear purely symptomatic, with no modification of disease course.
Zhao, X. L.; Shi, Z. C.; Yu, C. S.; Yi, X. X.
2017-04-01
By introducing loss to one sublattice of dimer chains described by the extended Aubry-André or Harper (AAH) model, we study the topological features including the winding number, the edge states, Chern number, and spectrum of the chain. We find that the parameter region for the system to have real band-gap closing is increased due to the loss, and the average displacement of the single excitation can indicate the topological features of the chain in the presence of loss on one sublattice. The robustness of the zero energy eigenstate against four kinds of disorders are examined. A feasible experimental apparatus based on coupled waveguides to observe the predictions of this work is proposed.
Bachschmid-Romano, L.; Battistin, C.; Opper, M.; Roudi, Y.
2016-10-01
We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mean field equations that are exact for the fully asymmetric random couplings (Mézard and Sakellariou 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 L07001). However, without this restriction the results are different. We also describe an extended Plefka expansion in which in addition to the magnetization, we also fix the correlation and response functions. Finally, we numerically study the performance of these approximations for Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type couplings for various coupling strengths and the degrees of coupling symmetry, for both temporally constant but random, as well as time varying external fields. We show that the dynamical equations derived from the extended Plefka expansion outperform the others in all regimes, although it is computationally more demanding. The unconstrained variational approach does not perform well in the small coupling regime, while it approaches dynamical TAP equations of (Roudi and Hertz 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 P03031) for strong couplings.
Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Trinder, John
2015-01-01
Study Objectives: School terms and vacations represent naturally occurring periods of restricted and extended sleep opportunities. A cognitive model of the relationships among objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood was tested across these periods, with sleep-specific (i.e., dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) and global (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes) cognitive vulnerabilities as moderators. Design: Longitudinal study over the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-w vacation (Time-V), and the first week of the next term (Time-S). Setting: General community. Participants: 146 adolescents, 47.3% male, mean age = 16.2 years (standard deviation ± 1 year). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured continuously by actigraphy. Sociodemographics and cognitive vulnerabilities were assessed at Time-E; subjective sleep, negative mood (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and academic stress were measured at each time point. Controlling for academic stress and sex, subjective sleep quality mediated the relationship between objective sleep and negative mood at all time points. During extended (Time-V), but not restricted (Time-E and Time-S) sleep opportunity, this mediation was moderated by global cognitive vulnerability, with the indirect effects stronger with higher vulnerability. Further, at Time-E and Time-V, but not Time-S, greater sleep-specific and global cognitive vulnerabilities were associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and mood, respectively. Conclusions: Results highlighted the importance of subjective sleep perception in the development of sleep related mood problems, and supported the role of cognitive vulnerabilities as potential mechanisms in the relationships between objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood. Adolescents with higher cognitive vulnerability are more susceptible to perceived poor sleep and sleep related mood problems. These findings have practical
UV-extended E-MILES stellar population models: young components in massive early-type galaxies
Vazdekis, A.; Koleva, M.; Ricciardelli, E.; Röck, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.
2016-12-01
We present UV-extended E-MILES stellar population synthesis models covering the spectral range λλ 1680-50 000 Å at moderately high resolution. We employ the NGSL space-based stellar library to compute spectra of single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations in the wavelength range from 1680 to 3540 Å. These models represent a significant improvement in resolution and age/metallicity coverage over previous studies based on earlier space-based libraries. These model spectra were joined with those we computed in the visible using MILES, and other empirical libraries for redder wavelengths. The models span the metallicity range -1.79≤ [M/H]≤ +0.26 and ages above 30 Myr, for a suite of initial mass function types with varying slopes. We focus on the behaviour of colours, spectra and line-strength indices in the UV range as a function of relevant stellar population parameters. Whereas some indices strengthen with increasing age and metallicity, as most metallicity indicators in the visible, other indices peak around 3 Gyr for metal-rich stellar populations, such as Mg at 2800 Å. Our models provide reasonably good fits to the integrated colours and most line strengths of the stellar clusters of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud. Our full spectrum fits in the UV range for a representative set of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of varying mass yield age and metallicity estimates in very good agreement with those obtained in the optical range. The comparison of UV colours and line strengths of massive ETGs with our models reveals the presence of young stellar components, with ages in the range 0.1-0.5 Gyr and mass fractions 0.1-0.5 per cent, on the top of an old stellar population.
Chen, M; Chen, J; Sun, F
2010-10-01
Agriculture related pollution has attracted the attention of policy makers as well as scientists in China as its contribution to water impairment has increased, and quantitative information at the national and regional levels is being sought to support decision making. However, traditional approaches are either time-consuming, expensive (e.g. national surveys) or oversimplified and crude (e.g. coefficient methods). Therefore, this study proposed an extended substance flow analysis (SFA) framework to estimate nutrient releases from agricultural and rural activities in China by depicting the nutrient flows in Chinese agro-ecosystems. The six-step process proposed herein includes: (a) system definition; (b) model development; (c) database development; (d) model validation; (e) results interpretation; and (f) uncertainty analysis. The developed Eubolism (Elementary Unit based nutrient Balance mOdeLIng in agro-ecoSysteM) model combined a nutrient balance module with an emission inventory module to quantify the nutrient flows in the agro-ecosystem. The model was validated and then applied to estimate the total agricultural nutrient loads, identify the contribution of different agricultural and rural activities and different land use types to the total loads, and analyze the spatial pattern of agricultural nutrient emissions in China. These results could provide an entire picture of agricultural pollution at the national level and be used to support policy making. Furthermore, uncertainties associated with the structure of the elementary units, spatial resolution, and inputs/parameters were also analyzed to evaluate the robustness of the model results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sellaoui, Lotfi; Dotto, Guilherme L; Lamine, Abdelmottaleb Ben; Erto, Alessandro
2017-08-01
In this work, a modeling analysis based on experimental tests of cadmium/zinc adsorption, in both single-compound and binary systems, was carried out. All the experimental tests were conducted at constant pH (around neutrality) and temperature (20 °C). The experimental results showed that the zinc adsorption capacity was higher than that of cadmium and it does not depend on cadmium presence in binary system. Conversely, cadmium adsorption is affected by zinc presence. In order to provide good understanding of the adsorption process, two statistical physics models were proposed. A monolayer and exclusive extended monolayer models were applied to interpret the single-compound and binary adsorption isotherms of zinc and cadmium on activated carbon. Based on these models, the modeling analysis demonstrated that zinc is dominant in solution and more favorably adsorbed on activated carbon surface. For instance, in single-compound systems, the number of ions bound per each receptor site was n (Zn2+) = 2.12 > n (Cd2+) = 0.98. Thus, the receptor sites of activated carbon are more selective for Zn2+ than for Cd2+. Moreover, the determination of adsorption energy through the adopted models confirmed that zinc is more favored for adsorption in single-compound system (adsorption energies equal to 12.12 and 7.12 kJ/mol for Zn and Cd, respectively) and its adsorption energy does not depend on the cadmium presence in binary system. Finally, the adsorption energy values suggested that single-compound and binary adsorption of zinc and cadmium is a physisorption.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Booher, Stephen R. (Teledyne Brown Engineering, Corrales, NM); Bacon, Larry Donald
2006-02-01
As military operations in urban environments become more numerous, the ability of combat units to communicate, jam enemy communications, or employ RF weapons within this environment must be evaluated. To perform this evaluation in a mission level model requires a capability to evaluate the contributions of both terrain and man-made structures (interior and exterior) to RF propagation. The present study is an analysis of the adequacy of a mission level model (EADSIM) to perform these RF propagation calculations in an urban environment. Three basic environments must be assessed. The first environment consists entirely of terrain, with no man-made features impacting propagation values. The second environment includes terrain, but also includes the contribution of solid structures with abrupt edges, which may obstruct/influence LOS paths. The third environment includes not only terrain and structures, but also contains structures with interior features which must be evaluated to determine the propagation levels within and around these structures. EADSIM was used as the model for evaluation in view of its suite of propagation tools which can be used for analysis of RF propagation between transmitters and receivers including terrain. To assess EADSIM's capability to perform in these environments, flat terrain maps with an obstruction were created to permit comparison of EADSIM's propagation models with analytical calculations and with measurements. Calculations from the Terrain Integrated Rough Earth Model (TIREM) and the Spherical Earth Knife Edge (SEKE) propagation models included within EADSIM showed that the ability of the models to calculate knife-edge diffraction agreed favorably with analytical values. The representation of multipath effects was less encouraging. SEKE only models multipath when Fresnel clearance exists. TIREM models multipath, but the cyclical characteristics of multipath are not represented, and only subtractive path loss is considered
Berg, van den W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Grasman, J.
2006-01-01
The Ricker model extended with a linear term was used to model the dynamics of a potato cyst nematode population on different potato cultivars over a wide range of population densities. The model accounts for contest and scramble competition and between-year carryover of unhatched eggs. Contest
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C A L AN DER OF EVENTS. Date of issue of bid document : 2016 September 21. Extended Due date and Time for Receipt of Tender : Up to 2016 October 17, Time 13:00 Hrs. Date and Time of opening of bid : 2016 October 17, Time 15:00 Hrs. Cost of Bid Document : Rs. 100/- only (Non-refundable). Earnest Money Deposit ...
Franceschi, Alessandro
2014-01-01
This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamonthip Maichum
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling in a sample of 483 respondents in Thailand. The findings of this model indicated that consumer attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have significant positive influences on the purchase intention for green products. Furthermore, our results indicated that environmental concerns have a significant effect on attitude, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention for green products, but subjective norm. Moreover, environmental knowledge had no significant effect on the purchase intention for green products. Instead, it had a distinct indirect effect through attitude towards purchasing green products, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. The findings from this study contribute to improving the understanding of intention to purchase green products, which could play a major role towards sustainable consumption.
Casarini, L.; Bonometto, S. A.; Tessarotto, E.; Corasaniti, P.-S.
2016-08-01
We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w0+(1-a)wa. The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [40]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w0-wa parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.com/luciano-casarini/pkequal.
Zhou, N J; Zheng, B; Dai, J H
2013-02-01
The recently discovered iron-based superconductors A(y)Fe(2-x)Se(2) (A=K, Rb, Cs, Tl) show a long-range antiferromagnetic order with an unexpectedly high transition temperature T(N)~550 K and a unique √5×√5 vacancy order. Taking the extended J(1)-J(2) model as a minimal model, we investigate the finite-temperature magnetic phase transitions in a square lattice with a √5×√5 vacancy superstructure by using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. By the parallel tempering technique, the block spin checkerboard and stripe antiferromagnetic states are detected to be the ground states for three representative sets of model parameters. The short-time dynamic approach is applied to accurately determine the critical temperature as well as the static and dynamic exponents. Our results indicate that the dramatic enhancement of the critical temperature as observed in experiments should be mainly due to a combination of the vacancy order and the block lattice contraction.
Albizuri, J; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Larrea, L
2009-01-01
This paper presents how, in a calibration process, different assumptions regarding the standard Mixed-Culture Biofilms (MCB) model were able to match the average results at a continuous Johannesburg pilot plant (comprising two aerobic reactors, AE1 and AE2), but failed to match the batch test results of either the rate of endogenous carbonaceous oxygen uptake (OUR) or the rate of nitrate production (NPR). Under the first assumption, where attachment and diffusion of particulate components were not used, the OUR in the biofilm of the first aerobic reactor (AE1) was too low due to the absence of slowly biodegradable COD (X(S)) attachment flux. In a second assumption, where high diffusion and attachment coefficients were used, the NPR in the biofilm of the AE1 reactor exceeded the experimental value due to the high attachment flux used for nitrifiers (X(A)) and the low competition for space from X(S) and heterotrophic bacteria (X(H)). The only way to match all the experimental results was through the use of a higher attachment coefficient for X(S) in the first reactor (AE1), but this was considered unreasonable. Hence, an extended model was developed where a colloidal state, which interacts at the same time with the flocs and the biofilm through attachment-detachment processes, is distinguished. This model allowed the experimental results to be matched, but using the same value for the attachment coefficients of all particulate components.
Xiong, Binyu; Zhao, Jiyun; Wei, Zhongbao; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria
2014-09-01
State of charge (SOC) estimation is a key issue for battery management since an accurate estimation method can ensure safe operation and prevent the over-charge/discharge of a battery. Traditionally, open circuit voltage (OCV) method is utilized to estimate the stack SOC and one open flow cell is needed in each battery stack [1,2]. In this paper, an alternative method, extended Kalman filter (EKF) method, is proposed for SOC estimation for VRBs. By measuring the stack terminal voltages and applied currents, SOC can be predicted with a state estimator instead of an additional open circuit flow cell. To implement EKF estimator, an electrical model is required for battery analysis. A thermal-dependent electrical circuit model is proposed to describe the charge/discharge characteristics of the VRB. Two scenarios are tested for the robustness of the EKF. For the lab testing scenarios, the filtered stack voltage tracks the experimental data despite the model errors. For the online operation, the simulated temperature rise is observed and the maximum SOC error is within 5.5%. It is concluded that EKF method is capable of accurately predicting SOC using stack terminal voltages and applied currents in the absence of an open flow cell for OCV measurement.
Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John
2015-03-01
School terms and vacations represent naturally occurring periods of restricted and extended sleep opportunities. A cognitive model of the relationships among objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood was tested across these periods, with sleep-specific (i.e., dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) and global (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes) cognitive vulnerabilities as moderators. Longitudinal study over the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-w vacation (Time-V), and the first week of the next term (Time-S). General community. 146 adolescents, 47.3% male, mean age =16.2 years (standard deviation +/- 1 year). N/A. Objective sleep was measured continuously by actigraphy. Sociodemographics and cognitive vulnerabilities were assessed at Time-E; subjective sleep, negative mood (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and academic stress were measured at each time point. Controlling for academic stress and sex, subjective sleep quality mediated the relationship between objective sleep and negative mood at all time points. During extended (Time-V), but not restricted (Time-E and Time-S) sleep opportunity, this mediation was moderated by global cognitive vulnerability, with the indirect effects stronger with higher vulnerability. Further, at Time-E and Time-V, but not Time-S, greater sleep-specific and global cognitive vulnerabilities were associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and mood, respectively. Results highlighted the importance of subjective sleep perception in the development of sleep related mood problems, and supported the role of cognitive vulnerabilities as potential mechanisms in the relationships between objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood. Adolescents with higher cognitive vulnerability are more susceptible to perceived poor sleep and sleep related mood problems. These findings have practical implications for interventions. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Bond-order-wave phase and quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model
Sengupta, Pinaki; Sandvik, Anders W.; Campbell, David K.
2002-04-01
We use a stochastic series-expansion quantum Monte Carlo method to study the phase diagram of the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model at half-filling for small to intermediate values of the on-site U and nearest-neighbor V repulsions. We confirm the existence of a novel, long-range-ordered bond-order-wave (BOW) phase recently predicted by Nakamura [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68, 3123 (1999)] in a small region of the parameter space between the familiar charge-density-wave (CDW) state for V≳U/2 and the state with dominant spin-density-wave (SDW) fluctuations for V≲U/2. We discuss the nature of the transitions among these states and evaluate some of the critical exponents. Further, we determine accurately the position of the multicritical point, (Um,Vm)=(4.7±0.1,2.51±0.04) (in energy units where the hopping integral is normalized to unity), above which the two continuous SDW-BOW-CDW transitions are replaced by one discontinuous (first-order) direct SDW-CDW transition. We also discuss the evolution of the CDW and BOW states upon hole doping. We find that in both cases the ground state is a Luther-Emery liquid, i.e., the spin gap remains but the charge gap existing at half-filling is immediately closed upon doping. The charge and bond-order correlations decay with distance r as r-Kρ, where Kρ is approximately 0.5 for the parameters we have considered. We also discuss advantages of using parallel tempering (or exchange Monte Carlo)—an extended ensemble method that we here combine with quantum Monte Carlo—in studies of quantum phase transitions.
Pasetto, Laura; Pozzi, Silvia; Castelnovo, Mariachiara; Basso, Manuela; Estevez, Alvaro G; Fumagalli, Stefano; De Simoni, Maria Grazia; Castellaneta, Valeria; Bigini, Paolo; Restelli, Elena; Chiesa, Roberto; Trojsi, Francesca; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Callea, Leonardo; Malešević, Miroslav; Fischer, Gunter; Freschi, Mattia; Tortarolo, Massimo; Bendotti, Caterina; Bonetto, Valentina
2017-02-08
Neuroinflammation is a major hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is currently untreatable. Several anti-inflammatory compounds have been evaluated in patients and in animal models of ALS, but have been proven disappointing in part because effective targets have not yet been identified. Cyclophilin A, also known as peptidylprolyl cis-/trans-isomerase A (PPIA), as a foldase is beneficial intracellularly, but extracellularly has detrimental functions. We found that extracellular PPIA is a mediator of neuroinflammation in ALS. It is a major inducer of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and is selectively toxic for motor neurons. High levels of PPIA were found in the CSF of SOD1G93A mice and rats and sporadic ALS patients, suggesting that our findings may be relevant for familial and sporadic cases. A specific inhibitor of extracellular PPIA, MM218, given at symptom onset, rescued motor neurons and extended survival in the SOD1G93A mouse model of familial ALS by 11 d. The treatment resulted in the polarization of glia toward a prohealing phenotype associated with reduced NF-κB activation, proinflammatory markers, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and insoluble phosphorylated TDP-43. Our results indicates that extracellular PPIA is a promising druggable target for ALS and support further studies to develop a therapy to arrest or slow the progression of the disease in patients.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We provide evidence that extracellular cyclophilin A, also known as peptidylprolyl cis-/trans-isomerase A (PPIA), is a mediator of the neuroinflammatory reaction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and is toxic for motor neurons. Supporting this, a specific extracellular PPIA inhibitor reduced neuroinflammation, rescued motor neurons, and extended survival in the SOD1G93A mouse model of familial ALS. Our findings suggest selective pharmacological inhibition of extracellular PPIA as a novel therapeutic strategy, not only for SOD1-linked ALS, but possibly also for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russier, V., E-mail: russier@glvt-cnrs.fr [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS and University UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Younsi, K.; Bessais, L. [ICMPE, UMR 7182 CNRS and University UPEC, 2 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)
2012-03-15
In nanocomposite magnetic materials the exchange coupling between phases plays a central role in the determination of the extrinsic magnetic properties of the material: coercive field,remanence magnetization. Exchange coupling is therefore of crucial importance in composite systems made of magnetically hard and soft grains or in partially crystallized media including nanosized crystallites in a soft matrix. It has been shown also to be a key point in the control of stratified hard/soft media coercive field in the research for optimized recording media. A signature of the exchange coupling due to the nanostructure is generally obtained on the magnetization curve M(H) with a plateau characteristic of the domain wall compression at the hard/soft interface ending at the depinning of the wall inside the hard phase. This compression/depinning behavior is clearly evidenced through one dimensional description of the interface, which is rigorously possible only in stratified media. Starting from a local description of the hard/soft interface in a model for nanocomposite system we show that one can extend this kind of behavior for system of hard crystallites embedded in a soft matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange coupling between hard and soft components of a magnetic nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Connection between one dimensional stratified media and three dimensional model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of the compression behavior of the local magnetization profile at the interface.
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Moskvin, A. S., E-mail: alexander.moskvin@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
We discuss the most prominent and intensively studied S = 1 pseudospin formalism for the extended bosonic Hubbard model (EBHM) with the on-site Hilbert space truncated to the three lowest occupation states n = 0, 1, 2. The EBHM Hamiltonian is a paradigmatic model for the highly topical field of ultracold gases in optical lattices. The generalized non-Heisenberg effective pseudospin Hamiltonian does provide a deep link with a boson system and a physically clear description of “the myriad of phases,” from uniform Mott insulating phases and density waves to two types of superfluids and supersolids. We argue that the 2D pseudospin system is prone to a topological phase separation and focus on several types of unconventional skyrmion-like topological structures in 2D boson systems, which have not been analyzed until now. The structures are characterized by a complicated interplay of insulating and two superfluid phases with a single- boson and two-boson condensation, respectively.
Banas, Kasia; Lyimo, Ramsey A; Hospers, Harm J; van der Ven, Andre; de Bruin, Marijn
2017-10-01
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV is widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Adherence is crucial to successful treatment. This study aimed to apply an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model to predict objectively measured adherence to cART in Tanzania. Prospective observational study (n = 158) where patients completed questionnaires on demographics (Month 0), socio-cognitive variables including intentions (Month 1), and action planning and self-regulatory processes hypothesised to mediate the intention-behaviour relationship (Month 3), to predict adherence (Month 5). Taking adherence was measured objectively using the Medication Events Monitoring System (MEMS) caps. Model tests were conducted using regression and bootstrap mediation analyses. Perceived behavioural control (PBC) was positively (β = .767, p behavioural measure, identified PBC as the main driver of adherence intentions. The effect of intentions on adherence was only indirect through self-regulatory processes, which were the main predictor of objectively assessed adherence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton M. Verwey
2003-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate an extended conceptual model depicting hypothesised relationships between employee climate, customer value and financial performance. Questionnaires assessing employee experienced climate and customer-experienced value were completed by all the employees (more than 1200 and more than 2000 customers of a single retail company operating almost 100 stores in Southern Africa. The major findings were that some of the components of employee-experienced climate are positively related to customer experienced value in terms of both product and relationship quality. There was no significant relationship between customer-experienced value and the financial performance of the organisation. OpsommingDie doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n uitgebreide konseptuele model te toets wat gehipotetiseerde verwantskappe voorstel tussen werknemer-ervaarde klimaat, kliënt-ervaarde waarde en finansiële prestasie. Vraelyste wat werknemer-ervaarde klimaat en kliënt-ervaarde waarde meet is voltooi deur meer as 1200 werknemers en meer as 2000 kliënte van ‘n enkele kleinhandelaar wat landwyd byna 100 winkels regoor Suid-Afrika bedryf. Die hoofbevindinge is dat sommige komponente van werknemer-ervaarde klimaat positief verwant is aan kliënt-ervaarde waarde in terme van beide produk en verhoudingsgehalte. Daar was egter geen beduidende verband tussen kliëntervaarde waarde en die finansiële prestasie van die organisasie nie.
Otero, Noelia; Sillmann, Jana; Butler, Tim
2017-04-01
A gridded, geographically extended weather type classification has been developed based on the Jenkinson-Collison (JC) classification system and used to evaluate the representation of weather types over Europe in a suite of climate model simulations. To this aim, a set of models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is compared with the circulation from two reanalysis products. Furthermore, we examine seasonal changes between simulated frequencies of weather types at present and future climate conditions. The models are in reasonably good agreement with the reanalyses, but some discrepancies occur in cyclonic days being overestimated over North, and underestimated over South Europe, while anticyclonic situations were overestimated over South, and underestimated over North Europe. Low flow conditions were generally underestimated, especially in summer over South Europe, and Westerly conditions were generally overestimated. The projected frequencies of weather types in the late twenty-first century suggest an increase of Anticyclonic days over South Europe in all seasons except summer, while Westerly days increase over North and Central Europe, particularly in winter. We find significant changes in the frequency of Low flow conditions and the Easterly type that become more frequent during the warmer seasons over Southeast and Southwest Europe, respectively. Our results indicate that in winter the Westerly type has significant impacts on positive anomalies of maximum and minimum temperature over most of Europe. Except in winter, the warmer temperatures are linked to Easterlies, Anticyclonic and Low Flow conditions, especially over the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, we show that changes in the frequency of weather types represent a minor contribution of the total change of European temperatures, which would be mainly driven by changes in the temperature anomalies associated with the weather types themselves.
Zhao, Jifeng; Kontsevoi, Oleg Y.; Xiong, Wei; Smith, Jacob
2017-05-01
In this work, a multi-scale computational framework has been established in order to investigate, refine and validate constitutive behaviors in the context of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) void mechanics model. The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) has been implemented in order to (1) develop statistical volume elements (SVE) of a matrix material with subscale inclusions and (2) to simulate the multi-void nucleation process due to interface debonding between the matrix and particle phases. Our analyses strongly suggest that under low stress triaxiality the nucleation rate of the voids f˙ can be well described by a normal distribution function with respect to the matrix equivalent stress (σe), as opposed to that proposed (σbar + 1 / 3σkk) in the original form of the single void GTN model. The modified form of the multi-void nucleation model has been validated based on a series of numerical experiments with different loading conditions, material properties, particle shape/size and spatial distributions. The utilization of XFEM allows for an invariant finite element mesh to represent varying microstructures, which implies suitability for drastically reducing complexity in generating the finite element discretizations for large stochastic arrays of microstructure configurations. The modified form of the multi-void nucleation model is further applied to study high strength steels by incorporating first principles calculations. The necessity of using a phenomenological interface separation law has been fully eliminated and replaced by the physics-based cohesive relationship obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in order to provide an accurate macroscopic material response.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn
2013-08-08
Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Aghayan
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper compares two fuzzy clustering algorithms – fuzzy subtractive clustering and fuzzy C-means clustering – to a multi-layer perceptron neural network for their ability to predict the severity of crash injuries and to estimate the response time on the traffic crash data. Four clustering algorithms – hierarchical, K-means, subtractive clustering, and fuzzy C-means clustering – were used to obtain the optimum number of clusters based on the mean silhouette coefficient and R-value before applying the fuzzy clustering algorithms. The best-fit algorithms were selected according to two criteria: precision (root mean square, R-value, mean absolute errors, and sum of square error and response time (t. The highest R-value was obtained for the multi-layer perceptron (0.89, demonstrating that the multi-layer perceptron had a high precision in traffic crash prediction among the prediction models, and that it was stable even in the presence of outliers and overlapping data. Meanwhile, in comparison with other prediction models, fuzzy subtractive clustering provided the lowest value for response time (0.284 second, 9.28 times faster than the time of multi-layer perceptron, meaning that it could lead to developing an on-line system for processing data from detectors and/or a real-time traffic database. The model can be extended through improvements based on additional data through induction procedure.
Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Hung, Chi-Tung; -Yen Lin, Wen; Ma, Kuo-chen
2017-04-01
In recent years, cities and industries in the vicinity of the estuarine region have developed rapidly, resulting in a sharp increase in the population concerned. The increasing demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on massive pumping of water in estuarine area. Since the 1950s, numerous studies have focused on the effects of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow in the estuarine area. Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system considered is multi-layered with estuarine bank and the leaky aquifer extend finite distance under the estuary. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such an estuarine aquifer system and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from estuarine river is developed based on the method of separation of variables along with river boundary. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of leakage, hydraulic parameters, and loading effect on the groundwater head fluctuation due to tide are investigated and discussed. KEYWORDS: analytical model, estuarine river, groundwater fluctuation, leaky aquifer.
Margolis, Stephen B.
1998-01-01
The classical Landau/Levich models of liquid-propellant combustion, despite their relative simplicity, serve as seminal examples that correctly describe the onset of hydrodynamic instability in reactive systems. Recently, these two separate models have been combined and extended to account for a dynamic dependence, absent in the original formulations, of the local burning rate on the local pressure and temperature fields. The resulting model admits an extremely rich variety of both hydrodynamic and reactive/diffusive instabilities that can be analyzed either numerically or analytically in various limiting parameter regimes. In the present work, a formal asymptotic analysis, based on the realistic smallness of the gas-to-liquid density ratio, is developed to investigate the combined effects of gravity and other parameters on the hydrodynamic instability of the propagating liquid/gas interface. In particular, an analytical expression is derived for the neutral stability boundary A(sub p)(k), where A(sub p) is the pressure sensitivity of the burning rate and k is the wavenumber of the disturbance. The results demonstrate explicitly the stabilizing effect of gravity on long-wave disturbances, the stabilizing effect of viscosity (both liquid and gas) and surface tension on short-wave perturbations, and the instability associated with intermediate wavenumbers for critical negative values of A(sub p). In the limiting case of weak gravity, it is shown that hydrodynamic instability in liquid-propellant combustion is a long-wave instability phenomenon, whereas at normal gravity, this instability is first manifested through O(1) wavenumber disturbances. It is also demonstrated that, in general, surface tension and the viscosity of both the liquid and gas phases each produce comparable stabilizing effects in the large-wavenumber regime, thereby providing important modifications to previous analyses in which one or more of these effects were neglected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, J Lynn
2014-06-24
Abstract— Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. Life prediction of L70 life for the LEDs used in SSL luminaires from KF and EKF based models have
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.-Y. Tu
Full Text Available An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan which shows that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum α, and the fragmentation fraction P_{1}, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 s to 0.7 h from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we cannot establish for P_{1} either a clear radial evolution trend, or a solar-wind-speed or stream-structure dependence or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, P_{1} has values between 0.7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind P_{1} has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices α of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent α has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values. In the solar wind with considerable density fluctuations near the interplanetary current sheet near 1 AU, it is found that P_{1} has a comparatively high value of 0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villafafila, Ada; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2006-01-01
Two additional parameters to account for the pressure dependency of solubility are added to the Extended UNIQUAC model presented by Thomsen and Rasmussen (1999). The improved model has been used for correlation and prediction of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium for different carbonate systems (CaCO...
Yangui, Ahmed; Font, Montserrat Costa; Gil, José María
2013-01-01
Due to the increasing interest on understanding the formation of consumer’s food choice process, the hybrid choice model (HCM) has been developed. HCM represents a promising new class of models which merge classic choice models with structural equations models (SEM) for latent variables (LV). Regardless of their conceptual appeal, up to date the application of HCM in agro food marketing remains very scarce. The present work extends previous HCM applications by first estimating a random parame...
Long, Jiangang; Gao, Hongxiang; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Jiankang; Zhao-Wilson, Xi
2009-10-01
A botanical extract (Regrapex-R) prepared from whole grape (Vitis vinifera) and Polygonum cuspidatum, which contains polyphenols, including flavans, anthocyanins, emodin, and resveratrol, exhibited dose-dependent scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS). The extract inhibited increases of ROS and protein carbonyl in isolated rat liver mitochondria following exposure to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidino propane) dihydrocholoride (AAPH), a potent lipid oxidant generator. The antioxidant effects of this extract were further demonstrated by protecting enzyme activities of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain (complexes I and II) and pyruvate dehydrogenase in isolated liver mitochondria with AAPH insult. In human neuroblastoma cells (SKN-MC), pretreatment of extract protected cells against AAPH induced oxidation in maintaining cell viability and inhibiting excessive ROS generation. Extract was fed to transgenic Drosophila expressing human alpha-synuclein. This model for Parkinson disease recapitulates essential features of the disorder, including loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and a locomotor dysfunction that is displayed by a progressive loss of climbing ability measured using a geotaxis assay. Male transgenic flies fed the extract (0.16-0.64 mg/100 g of culture medium) showed a significant improvement in climbing ability compared to controls. Female transgenic flies showed a significant extension in average lifespan. These results suggest that Regrapex-R is a potent free radical scavenger, a mitochondrial protector, and a candidate for further studies to assess its ability to protect against neurodegenerative disease and potentially extend lifespan.
Li, Xingli; Guo, Fang; Kuang, Hua; Zhou, Huaguo
2017-12-01
Psychology tells us that the different level of tension may lead to different behavior variation for individuals. In this paper, an extended cost potential field cellular automaton is proposed to simulate pedestrian counter flow under an emergency by considering behavior variation of pedestrian induced by psychological tension. A quantitative formula is introduced to describe behavioral changes caused by psychological tension, which also leads to the increasing cost of discomfort. The numerical simulations are performed under the periodic boundary condition and show that the presented model can capture some essential features of pedestrian counter flow, such as lane formation and segregation phenomenon for normal condition. Furthermore, an interesting feature is found that when pedestrians are in an extremely nervous state, a stable lane formation will be broken by a disordered mixture flow. The psychological nervousness under an emergency is not always negative to moving efficiency and a moderate level of tension will delay the occurrence of jamming phase. In addition, a larger asymmetrical ratio of left walkers to right walkers will improve the critical density related to the jamming phase and retard the occurrence of completely jammed phase. These findings will be helpful in pedestrian control and management under an emergency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stumpf, Harald [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Theoretical Physics
2017-11-01
Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.
Rico, Antonio; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Benghazi, Kawtar; Barjis, Joseph
2016-05-01
Multi-tenant architectures (MTAs) are considered a cornerstone in the success of Software as a Service as a new application distribution formula. Multi-tenancy allows multiple customers (i.e. tenants) to be consolidated into the same operational system. This way, tenants run and share the same application instance as well as costs, which are significantly reduced. Functional needs vary from one tenant to another; either companies from different sectors run different types of applications or, although deploying the same functionality, they do differ in the extent of their complexity. In any case, MTA leaves one major concern regarding the companies' data, their privacy and security, which requires special attention to the data layer. In this article, we propose an extended data model that enhances traditional MTAs in respect of this concern. This extension - called multi-target - allows MT applications to host, manage and serve multiple functionalities within the same multi-tenant (MT) environment. The practical deployment of this approach will allow SaaS vendors to target multiple markets or address different levels of functional complexity and yet commercialise just one single MT application. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated via a case study of a real multi-tenancy multi-target (MT2) implementation, called Globalgest.
Cooper, Rachel
2017-08-01
In this article, I compare and evaluate R. D. Laing and A. Esterson's account of schizophrenia as developed in Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964), social models of disability, and accounts of extended mental disorder. These accounts claim that some putative disorders (schizophrenia, disability, certain mental disorders) should not be thought of as reflecting biological or psychological dysfunction within the afflicted individual, but instead as external problems (to be located in the family, or in the material and social environment). In this article, I consider the grounds on which such claims might be supported. I argue that problems should not be located within an individual putative patient in cases where there is some acceptable test environment in which there is no problem. A number of cases where such an argument can show that there is no internal disorder are discussed. I argue, however, that Laing and Esterson's argument-that schizophrenia is not within diagnosed patients-does not work. The problem with their argument is that they fail to show that the diagnosed women in their study function adequately in any environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Witte
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: An effective preventive health education program on drug abuse can be delivered by applying behavior change theories in a complementary fashion. Methods: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating self-control into Extended Parallel Process Model in drug substance abuse behaviors. A sample of 189 governmental high school students participated in this survey. Information was collected individually by completing researcher designed questionnaire and a urinary rapid immuno-chromatography test for opium and marijuana. Results: The results of the study show that 6.9% of students used drugs (especially opium and marijuana and also peer pressure was determinant factor for using drugs. Moreover the EPPM theoretical variables of perceived severity and perceived self-efficacy with self-control are predictive factors to behavior intention against substance abuse. In this manner, self-control had a significant effect on protective motivation and perceived efficacy. Low self- control was a predictive factor of drug abuse and low self-control students had drug abuse experience. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that an integration of self-control into EPPM can be effective in expressing and designing primary preventive programs against drug abuse, and assessing abused behavior and deviance behaviors among adolescent population, especially risk seekers
Stumpf, Harald
2017-08-01
Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.
An extended 3D discrete-continuous model and its application on single- and bi-crystal micropillars
Huang, Minsheng; Liang, Shuang; Li, Zhenhuan
2017-04-01
A 3D discrete-continuous model (3D DCM), which couples the 3D discrete dislocation dynamics (3D DDD) and finite element method (FEM), is extended in this study. New schemes for two key information transfers between DDD and FEM, i.e. plastic-strain distribution from DDD to FEM and stress transfer from FEM to DDD, are suggested. The plastic strain induced by moving dislocation segments is distributed to an elementary spheroid (ellipsoid or sphere) via a specific new distribution function. The influence of various interfaces (such as free surfaces and grain boundaries (GBs)) on the plastic-strain distribution is specially considered. By these treatments, the deformation fields can be solved accurately even for dislocations on slip planes severely inclined to the FE mesh, with no spurious stress concentration points produced. In addition, a stress correction by singular and non-singular theoretical solutions within a cut-off sphere is introduced to calculate the stress on the dislocations accurately. By these schemes, the present DCM becomes less sensitive to the FE mesh and more numerically efficient, which can also consider the interaction between neighboring dislocations appropriately even though they reside in the same FE mesh. Furthermore, the present DCM has been employed to model the compression of single-crystal and bi-crystal micropillars with rigid and dislocation-absorbed GBs. The influence of internal GB on the jerky stress-strain response and deformation mode is studied in detail to shed more light on these important micro-plastic problems.
Eisen, E A; Bardin, J; Gore, R; Woskie, S R; Hallock, M F; Monson, R R
2001-08-01
This report describes the extended follow-up of a cohort of 46 399 automobile manufacturing workers with potential exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF). The outcomes of interest were cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, larynx, skin, prostate, and brain, as well as leukemia. Additional follow-up increased the power to detect modest elevations in mortality rates in association with specific types of MWF, including synthetic fluids not in widespread use until the 1970s. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for the most recent 10 years of follow-up, as well as for the entire study period. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated in Poisson regression models with categorical variables for cumulative exposure to each type of MWF and in proportional hazards models with continuous exposure variables. Associations were found between straight MWF and esophageal, laryngeal and rectal cancer; soluble MWF and cancer of the esophagus, larynx, skin, and brain; synthetic MWF and cancer of the esophagus, liver, and prostate. The elevated RR values were modest in magnitude (1.5 to 2.0). SMR values were increased for stomach, liver, and pancreatic cancer and also for leukemia in the last 10 years of follow-up. The SMR values were also elevated for stomach and liver cancer among the persons recently hired. The results provide further evidence that exposure to metalworking fluids causes cancer among workers in automobile manufacturing. Although airborne exposures declined over the study period, this study suggests that modest risk of several digestive cancers, as well as prostatic cancer and leukemia, may persist at current levels of exposure to water-based metalworking fluids.
Chagnon, Frederic; Coquerel, David; Salvail, Dany; Marsault, Eric; Dumaine, Robert; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Sarret, Philippe; Lesur, Olivier
2017-04-01
Dobutamine is the currently recommended β-adrenergic inotropic drug for supporting sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction when cardiac output index remains low after preload correction. Better and safer therapies are nonetheless mandatory because responsiveness to dobutamine is limited with numerous side effects. Apelin-13 is a powerful inotropic candidate that could be considered as an alternative noncatecholaminergic support in the setting of inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction. Interventional controlled experimental animal study. Tertiary care university-based research institute. One hundred ninety-eight adult male rats. Using a rat model of "systemic inflammation-induced cardiac dysfunction" induced by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection (10 mg/kg), hemodynamic efficacy, cardioprotection, and biomechanics were assessed under IV osmotic pump infusions of apelin-13 (0.25 μg/kg/min) or dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg/min). In this model and in both in vivo and ex vivo studies, apelin-13 compared with dobutamine provoked distinctive effects on cardiac function: 1) optimized cardiac energy-dependent workload with improved cardiac index and lower vascular resistance, 2) upgraded hearts' apelinergic responsiveness, and 3) consecutive downstream advantages, including increased urine output, enhanced plasma volume, reduced weight loss, and substantially improved overall outcomes. In vitro studies confirmed that these apelin-13-driven processes encompassed a significant and rapid reduction in systemic cytokine release with dampening of myocardial inflammation, injury, and apoptosis and resolution of associated molecular pathways. In this inflammatory cardiovascular dysfunction, apelin-13 infusion delivers distinct and optimized hemodynamic support (including positive fluid balance), along with cardioprotective effects, modulation of circulatory inflammation and extended survival.
Kleinbach, Christian; Martynenko, Oleksandr; Promies, Janik; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Fehr, Jörg; Schmitt, Syn
2017-09-02
In the state of the art finite element AHBMs for car crash analysis in the LS-DYNA software material named *MAT_MUSCLE (*MAT_156) is used for active muscles modeling. It has three elements in parallel configuration, which has several major drawbacks: restraint approximation of the physical reality, complicated parameterization and absence of the integrated activation dynamics. This study presents implementation of the extended four element Hill-type muscle model with serial damping and eccentric force-velocity relation including [Formula: see text] dependent activation dynamics and internal method for physiological muscle routing. Proposed model was implemented into the general-purpose finite element (FE) simulation software LSDYNA as a user material for truss elements. This material model is verified and validated with three different sets of mammalian experimental data, taken from the literature. It is compared to the *MAT_MUSCLE (*MAT_156) Hill-type muscle model already existing in LS-DYNA, which is currently used in finite element human body models (HBMs). An application example with an arm model extracted from the FE ViVA OpenHBM is given, taking into account physiological muscle paths. The simulation results show better material model accuracy, calculation robustness and improved muscle routing capability compared to *MAT_156. The FORTRAN source code for the user material subroutine dyn21.f and the muscle parameters for all simulations, conducted in the study, are given at https://zenodo.org/record/826209 under an open source license. This enables a quick application of the proposed material model in LS-DYNA, especially in active human body models (AHBMs) for applications in automotive safety.
Robb, Daniel T.; Ostrander, Aaron
2014-02-01
We present numerical evidence for an extended order parameter and conjugate field for the dynamic phase transition in a Ginzburg-Landau mean-field model driven by an oscillating field. The order parameter, previously taken to be the time-averaged magnetization, comprises the deviations of the Fourier components of the magnetization from their values at the critical period. The conjugate field, previously taken to be the time-averaged magnetic field, comprises the even Fourier components of the field. The scaling exponents β and δ associated with the extended order parameter and conjugate field are shown numerically to be consistent with their values in the equilibrium mean-field model.
Analysis of ELM stability with extended MHD models in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA tokamak plasmas
Aiba, N.; Pamela, S.; Honda, M.; Urano, H.; Giroud, C.; Delabie, E.; Frassinetti, L.; Lupelli, I.; Hayashi, N.; Huijsmans, G.; JET Contributors, the; Research Unit, JT-60SA
2018-01-01
The stability with respect to a peeling–ballooning mode (PBM) was investigated numerically with extended MHD simulation codes in JET, JT-60U and future JT-60SA plasmas. The MINERVA-DI code was used to analyze the linear stability, including the effects of rotation and ion diamagnetic drift ({ω }* {{i}}), in JET-ILW and JT-60SA plasmas, and the JOREK code was used to simulate nonlinear dynamics with rotation, viscosity and resistivity in JT-60U plasmas. It was validated quantitatively that the ELM trigger condition in JET-ILW plasmas can be reasonably explained by taking into account both the rotation and {ω }* {{i}} effects in the numerical analysis. When deuterium poloidal rotation is evaluated based on neoclassical theory, an increase in the effective charge of plasma destabilizes the PBM because of an acceleration of rotation and a decrease in {ω }* {{i}}. The difference in the amount of ELM energy loss in JT-60U plasmas rotating in opposite directions was reproduced qualitatively with JOREK. By comparing the ELM affected areas with linear eigenfunctions, it was confirmed that the difference in the linear stability property, due not to the rotation direction but to the plasma density profile, is thought to be responsible for changing the ELM energy loss just after the ELM crash. A predictive study to determine the pedestal profiles in JT-60SA was performed by updating the EPED1 model to include the rotation and {ω }* {{i}} effects in the PBM stability analysis. It was shown that the plasma rotation predicted with the neoclassical toroidal viscosity degrades the pedestal performance by about 10% by destabilizing the PBM, but the pressure pedestal height will be high enough to achieve the target parameters required for the ITER-like shape inductive scenario in JT-60SA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J Barnett
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Local public health agencies play a central role in response to an influenza pandemic, and understanding the willingness of their employees to report to work is therefore a critically relevant concern for pandemic influenza planning efforts. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has been found useful for understanding adaptive behavior in the face of unknown risk, and thus offers a framework for examining scenario-specific willingness to respond among local public health workers. We thus aim to use the EPPM as a lens for examining the influences of perceived threat and efficacy on local public health workers' response willingness to pandemic influenza.We administered an online, EPPM-based survey about attitudes/beliefs toward emergency response (Johns Hopkins approximately Public Health Infrastructure Response Survey Tool, to local public health employees in three states between November 2006-December 2007. A total of 1835 responses were collected for an overall response rate of 83%. With some regional variation, overall 16% of the workers in 2006-7 were not willing to "respond to a pandemic flu emergency regardless of its severity". Local health department employees with a perception of high threat and high efficacy--i.e., those fitting a 'concerned and confident' profile in the EPPM analysis--had the highest declared rates of willingness to respond to an influenza pandemic if required by their agency, which was 31.7 times higher than those fitting a 'low threat/low efficacy' EPPM profile.In the context of pandemic influenza planning, the EPPM provides a useful framework to inform nuanced understanding of baseline levels of--and gaps in--local public health workers' response willingness. Within local health departments, 'concerned and confident' employees are most likely to be willing to respond. This finding may allow public health agencies to design, implement, and evaluate training programs focused on emergency response attitudes in
Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok
2014-04-01
The two-dimensional extended Holstein-Hubbard model (EHH) has been considered at strong correlation regime in the non-half-filled band case to understand the self-trapping transition of electrons in strongly correlated electron system. We have used the method of optimized canonical transformations to transform an EHH model into an effective extended Hubbard (EEH) model. In the strong on-site correlation limit an EH model can be transformed into a t-J model which is finally solved using Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA). We found that, for non-half-filled band case, the transition is abrupt in the adiabatic region whereas it is continuous in the anti-adiabatic region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sankar, I. V., E-mail: ivshankar27@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok, E-mail: ivshankar27@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli-500046, Hyderabad (India)
2014-04-24
The two-dimensional extended Holstein-Hubbard model (EHH) has been considered at strong correlation regime in the non-half-filled band case to understand the self-trapping transition of electrons in strongly correlated electron system. We have used the method of optimized canonical transformations to transform an EHH model into an effective extended Hubbard (EEH) model. In the strong on-site correlation limit an EH model can be transformed into a t-J model which is finally solved using Hartree-Fock approximation (HFA). We found that, for non-half-filled band case, the transition is abrupt in the adiabatic region whereas it is continuous in the anti-adiabatic region.
Teo, Timothy
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' attitudes to computers. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) framework by adding subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological complexity as external variables. Results show that the TAM and subjective norm, facilitating conditions, and technological…
Linker, Gerrit-Jan; van Duijnen, Piet Th.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.; Broer-Braam, Henderika
2012-01-01
The geometry of ethylenedioxy-tetrathiafulvalene, EDO-TTF, plays an important role in the metal-insulator transition in the charge transfer salt (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6. The planar and off-planar geometrical conformations of the EDO-TTF molecules are explained using an extended Debye polarizability model
Microbial contamination of waters in agricultural watershed is the critical public health issue. The watershed-scale model has been proven to be one of the candidate tools for predicting microbial water quality and evaluating management practices. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia
2012-01-01
of neural thresholds distinguishes the unfolding of the informational broadcast from the emergence of subjective awareness. In such sense, I conceptualize consciousness as a phenomenon unfolding along a continuum, ranging from complete inaccessibility to full awareness. The proposal presented......There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...