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Sample records for exposure immunofluorescent phase

  1. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by solid-phase immunoassays and immunofluorescence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Wiik, Allan; Høier-Madsen, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) are associated with several inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The aim of the present work was to evaluate enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and compare them with classic immunofluorescent analysis (IFA) for the detection of ANA. METHODS: Seven enzyme immunoassays...... an IFA was performed (n = 164); and (c) a population of consecutive outpatients suspected to have a rheumatic disease (n = 101). The current clinical diagnoses of the patients served as the standard against which performance of the assays was evaluated. RESULTS: In patients with well...... and was mostly clinical setting in which...

  2. Phase exposure-dependent exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, T. R.; Schreyer, L. G.; Zamani, K.

    2017-01-01

    Solutes and suspended material often experience delays during exchange between phases one of which may be moving. Consequently transport often exhibits combined effects of advection/dispersion, and delays associated with exchange between phases. Such processes are ubiquitous and include transport in porous/fractured media, watersheds, rivers, forest canopies, urban infrastructure systems, and networks. Upscaling approaches often treat the transport and delay mechanisms together, yielding macroscopic "anomalous transport" models. When interaction with the immobile phase is responsible for the delays, it is not the transport that is anomalous, but the lack of it, due to delays. We model such exchanges with a simple generalization of first-order kinetics completely independent of transport. Specifically, we introduce a remobilization rate coefficient that depends on the time in immobile phase. Memory-function formulations of exchange (with or without transport) can be cast in this framework, and can represent practically all time-nonlocal mass balance models including multirate mass transfer and its equivalent counterparts in the continuous time random walk and time-fractional advection dispersion formalisms, as well as equilibrium exchange. Our model can address delayed single-/multievent remobilizations as in delay-differential equations and periodic remobilizations that may be useful in sediment transport modeling. It is also possible to link delay mechanisms with transport if so desired, or to superpose an additional source of nonlocality through the transport operator. This approach allows for mechanistic characterization of the mass transfer process with measurable parameters, and the full set of processes representable by these generalized kinetics is a new open question.

  3. Immunofluorescence in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Chhabra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct immunofluorescence (DIF and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF tests on skin biopsy are being done mostly in academic teaching hospitals. These tests provide a useful diagnostic aid to dermatologists. Immunohistology and serology can, in conjunction with histology, provide considerable help in delineation and diagnosis of various skin disorders as well as systemic diseases with skin involvement, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunofluorescence (IF studies have now become an invaluable supplement to clinical and histological examination in a variety of dermatological diseases. These skin diseases now include not only bullous and connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and conditions such as lichen planus, but also the scaling dermatoses, notably psoriasis. In this review article, we share our experience of providing such a diagnostic facility for more than 30 years in a large tertiary care health center in North India and also help to outline the conditions, which can be diagnosed confidently, and others where IF can help in confirming a diagnosis or the immune component of the disease. The article also deals with handling of skin biopsy specimens and interpretation of biopsy findings on DIF and IIF examination.

  4. Immunofluorescence of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Gilles F; Pas, Hendri H; Jonkman, Marcel F

    Autoimmmune bullous diseases of skin and mucosa are uncommon, disabling, and potentially lethal diseases. For a quick and reliable diagnosis immunofluorescence is essential. This article describes two variants of immunofluorescence. The direct method uses a skin or mucosal biopsy of the patient to

  5. Technical Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment - Analysis Phase: Exposure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure Characterization is the second major component of the analysis phase of a risk assessment. For a pesticide risk assessment, the exposure characterization describes the potential or actual contact of a pesticide with a plant, animal, or media.

  6. Diagnóstico de criptosporidiose em amostras fecais de bezerros por imunofluorescência direta e microscopia de contraste de fase Diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in fecal samples of calves using direct immunofluorescence and phase contrast microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar as técnicas de imunofluorescência direta (IFD e a microscopia de contraste de fase em solução de Sheather (MCF, para detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras fecais de bezerros. A determinação dos limiares detecção da IFD e da MCF foi realizada utilizando cinco alíquotas de uma amostra fecal de bezerro, comprovadamente negativa para Cryptosporidium spp., adicionadas com diferentes quantidades de oocistos de Cryptosporidium parvum. Ao exame das 5 alíquotas, a IFD e a MCF apresentaram, respectivamente, limiares de detecção de 3,3x104 (duas alíquotas positivas e 3,3x105 oocistos (1 alíquota positiva por grama de fezes. Foram também realizadas a comparação entre a positividade obtida e uma análise semiquantitativa do número de oocistos observados por campo de microscopia, em ambos os métodos, em 300 amostras fecais de bezerros. Entre as 300 amostras, 19,7% (59/300 foram positivas pela IFD, com diferença estatisticamente significante (P=0,0098 quando comparada com a positividade obtida pela MCF, que foi de 11,7% (35/300. As amostras positivas foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase para amplificação de fragmentos da subunidade 18S do rRNA, com posterior sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados, o que permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium andersoni em 11,9% (7/59 e de C.parvum em 88,1% (52/59 das amostras. Os resultados observados comprovam que a IFD foi mais eficiente que a MCF para detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras fecais de bezerros.This study aimed to compare the direct immunofluorescence assay (DIF and the phase contrast microscopy in Sheather solution (PCM for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples from calves. The determination of the thresholds of detection of DIF and PCM was performed using five aliquots of a fecal sample from a calf negative for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, spiked with

  7. Cell-sensitive phase contrast microscopy imaging by multiple exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhaozheng; Su, Hang; Ker, Elmer; Li, Mingzhong; Li, Haohan

    2015-10-01

    We propose a novel way of imaging live cells in a Petri dish by the phase contrast microscope. By taking multiple exposures of phase contrast microscopy images on the same cell dish, we estimate a cell-sensitive camera response function which responds to cells' irradiance signals but generates a constant on non-cell background signal. The result of this new microscopy imaging is visually superior quality, which reveals the appearance details of cells and suppresses background noise near zero. Using the cell-sensitive microscopy imaging, cells' original irradiance signals are restored from all exposures and the irradiance signals on non-cell background regions are restored as a uniform constant (i.e., the imaging system is sensitive to cells only but insensitive to non-cell background). The restored irradiance signals greatly facilitate the cell segmentation by simple thresholding. The experimental results validate that high quality cell segmentation can be achieved by our approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Phases of ERA - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. Role of direct immunofluorescence in dermatological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya V Mysorekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct immunofluorescence (DIF test for tissue-bound autoantibodies, has been found to be of value in the diagnosis of several dermatological disorders. The location and pattern of deposition of immunoreactants helps in classifying various immune-mediated diseases. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the concordance between the clinical, histopathological and DIF diagnosis in bullous and nonbullous lesions of the skin, and thus determine the impact of immunofluorescence on diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 215 skin biopsies performed in suspected immune-mediated vesiculobullous disease, vasculitis or dermatosis, were studied. Histopathological examination was done along with DIF study for deposits of immunoglobulin G(IgG, IgA, IgM, and C3. Results: Direct immunofluorescence was positive in 103/215 cases. There was very good concordance between the clinical, histological and DIF results (observed agreement = 93.4%, κ =0.90, with 95% confidence interval = 0.86-0.94. The overall sensitivity of DIF in immune-mediated skin disorders was 98.0%. DIF was positive in 52/53 cases (98.1% in the pemphigus group and 24/25 (96.0% bullous pemphigoid cases. None of the clinically suspected cases of dermatitis herpetiformis showed DIF positivity. A positive lupus band test was seen in 9/9 (100% cases of lupus erythematosus. DIF was positive in 10/10 (100% clinically suspected cases of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. In 110 cases, negative DIF results helped to rule out immune-mediated vesiculobullous disorders, lupus erythematosus and vasculitis, and the final diagnosis was made on the basis of the clinical features and/or histopathology. Conclusion: Direct immunofluorescence is a useful supplement for the accurate diagnosis of immune-mediated dermatological disorders, and helps to classify various autoimmune bullous disorders. When the clinical features/histopathology are inconclusive, the diagnosis often can be made on

  10. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a) Identification. Mycobacterium... used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3460 - Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rabiesvirus immuno-fluorescent reagents. 866.3460... immuno-fluorescent reagents. (a) Identification. Rabiesvirus immunofluorescent reagents are devices that consist of rabiesvirus antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye used to identify rabiesvirus in...

  12. Direct immunofluorescence for the diagnosis of legionellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David JM Haldane

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture and direct immunofluorescent microscopy (DFA results for Legionella pneumophila were reviewed over a two-year period. In the first year, a positive result was defined as having at least one morphologically typical fluorescing organism. In the second year, a positive was defined as at least five typical fluorescing organisms. Despite these stricter criteria and other measures to reduce the possibility of reagent contamination, there was no statistically significant difference in the sensitivity or specificity of the DFA in the two years for sputa, deep specimens or overall. Of 37 sputum specimens from infected patients, 16 were positive on DFA. Thirty-two of 38 positive patients were detected by sputum culture. DFA can provide rapid diagnostic information but cannot be used to rule out the diagnosis. Sputum is a useful specimen for the initial laboratory investigation of patients with legionellosis.

  13. relationship between the exposure outputs of single-phase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physics, 178 (2005) 203. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXPOSURE OUTPUTS ... 2Department of Physics, University of lbadan, lbadan, Nigeria. Abstract. 'lhe indirect determination of the patient dose .... The x-ray machine, a GEC Medical Apollo,. Roentgen 501 with an x-ray tube made by. Machlett at ...

  14. Nonlinear phased analysis of reinforced concrete tunnels under fire exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilliu, G.; Meda, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fire analysis of precast segmental tunnels involves several problems, mainly related to the soil-structure interaction during fire exposure, coupled with material degradation. Temperature increase in the tunnel is the cause of thermal expansion of the lining, which is resisted by the soil pressure.

  15. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping for hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of inherited, mechanobullous disorders that are caused by mutations in the structural proteins in the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction. Characteristic clinical picture is the presence of blisters at trauma prone areas of the body, which develops at or soon after birth. Availability of specific monoclonal antibodies against the target proteins together with advances in the molecular genetics have led to the revision in the classification of EB. Now four major types of EB are recognized depending upon the level of blister and the location of target protein: EB simplex (epidermolytic, junctional EB (lucidolytic, dystrophic EB (dermolytic and Kindler′s syndrome (mixed cleavage plane. The laboratory tests not only help to confirm the diagnosis of EB but are also an important tool to classify (and subtype EB. These include immunofluorescence antigen mapping (IFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and mutation analysis. IFM is the most preferred method for final diagnosis of EB worldwide. It is relatively easy to perform and results can be obtained rapidly. This article describes the technicalities and significance of IFM in various types of EB.

  16. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  17. Direct Immunofluorescence in Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Nis; Thanakun, Supanee; Laothumthut, Titikarn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common immune-mediated oral mucosal disease. Diagnosis of OLP depends mainly on both clinical and histopathological features. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is a useful investigation method to distinguish between similar lesions and to confirm diagnosis in cases of uncharacterized features. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of DIF in a group of Thai patients with OLP. Materials and Methods Records of clinically and histologically diagnosed OLP patients attending the Oral Medicine Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand were consecutively reviewed for DIF results. The DIF patterns in these patients were analysed. Results There were 82 atrophic and/or erosive OLP patients with a mean age of 51.6 years. Male to female ratio was 1:5. Of these, 82.9% showed positive DIF. Buccal mucosa was superior to the gingiva and palate in terms of sensitivity for DIF. All specimens except one (98.5%) demonstrated deposition of fibrinogen at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) in a shaggy pattern. The most common DIF pattern was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ with IgM deposition on the colloid bodies (CB) (35.3%) followed by shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ (27.9%). Conclusion The prevalence of positive DIF in Thai OLP patients was 82.9%. The most common finding was shaggy fibrinogen at BMZ. The typical pattern was shaggy fibrinogen along BMZ with or without positive IgM at CB. DIF pattern could be evaluated for the diagnosis of OLP lacking clinical and/or histopathological characteristic features. PMID:26436043

  18. LIGHT EXPOSURE AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH DELAYED SLEEP PHASE DISORDER: A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Sharma, Ruchi G.; Slocumb, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Our study objective was to compare light exposure and sleep parameters between adolescents with delayed sleep phase disorder (n=16, 15.3 ± 1.8 years) and unaffected controls (n=22, 13.7 ± 2.4 years) using a prospective cohort design. Participants wore wrist actigraphs with photosensors for 14 days. Mean hourly lux levels from 20:00-05:00 h and 05:00-14:00 h were examined, in addition to the 9-hour intervals prior to sleep onset and after sleep offset. Sleep parameters were compared separately, and were also included as covariates within models that analyzed associations with specified light intervals. Additional covariates included group and school night status. Adolescent subjects with delayed sleep phase disorder received more evening (psleep exposure with adjustments for the time of sleep onset (psleep offset interval. Increased total sleep time and later sleep offset times were associated with decreased evening (psleep onset times were associated with increased evening exposure (psleep time also correlated with increased exposure during the 9 hours before sleep-onset (p=0.01), and a later sleep onset time corresponded with decreased exposure during the same interval (psleep timing among adolescents with delayed sleep phase disorder. Pre- and post-sleep exposure do not appear to contribute directly to phase delays. Sensitivity to morning light may be reduced among adolescents with delayed sleep phase disorder. PMID:22080736

  19. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  20. Controlling light-dark exposure patterns rather than sleep schedules determines circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Kenneth; Figueiro, Mariana G; Rea, Mark S

    2013-05-01

    To examine, in a field study circadian phase changes associated with two different light-dark exposures patterns, one that was congruent with a phase advanced sleep schedule and one that was incongruent with an advanced schedule. Twenty-one adults (mean age±standard deviation=22.5±3.9 years; 11 women) participated in the 12day study. After a five-day baseline period, participants were all given individualized, fixed, 90-minute advanced sleep schedules for one week. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, an advance group with a light-dark exposure prescription designed to advance circadian phase or a delay group with light-dark exposure prescription designed to delay circadian phase. The advance group received two morning hours of short-wavelength (blue) light (λmax ≈ 476±1 nm, full-width-half-maximum ≈20 nm) exposure and three evening hours of light restriction (orange-filtered light, λblue light for three hours in the evening and light restriction for two hours in the morning. Participants led their normal lives while wearing a calibrated wrist-worn light exposure and activity monitor. After seven days on the 90-minute advanced sleep schedule, circadian phase advanced 132±19 minutes for the advance group and delayed 59±7.5 minutes for the delay group. Controlling the light-dark exposure pattern shifts circadian phase in the expected direction irrespective of the fixed advanced sleep schedule. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of chronic ammonia exposure on acute phase proteins, immunoglobulin and cytokines in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is a potential health hazard to both humans and animals, causing systemic low-grade inflammation based on its levels and durations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of 45 weeks of exposure to 30 ppm NH3 on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and c...

  2. Flow cytometric immunofluorescence of rat anterior pituitary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. Michael; Hymer, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    A flow cytometric immunofluorescence technique was developed for the quantification of growth hormone, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone producing cells. The procedure is based on indirect-immunofluorescence of intracellular hormone using an EPICS V cell sorter and can objectively count 50,000 cells in about 3 minutes. It can be used to study the dynamics of pituitary cell populations under various physiological and pharmacological conditions.

  3. Microwave oven-based technique for immunofluorescent staining of paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Delwin J; Buggs, Colleen

    2008-02-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging due to potential modifications of protein structure by exposure to formalin. Heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques can reverse reactions between formalin and proteins that block antibody recognition. Interactions between antibodies and antigens are further enhanced by microwave irradiation, which has simplified immunohistochemical staining protocols. In this report, we modify a technique for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by showing that it works well with several antibodies and buffers. This microwave-assisted method for antigen retrieval and immunofluorescent staining eliminates the need for blocking reagents and extended washes, which greatly simplifies the protocol allowing one to complete the analysis in less than 3 h.

  4. Statistical evaluation of an improved quantitative immunofluorescence method of measuring serum antibody levels directed against intestinal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G.J.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Deddens, B.; Waaij, D. van der

    The accuracy of an improved quantitative immunofluorescence method to measure the antibody binding capacity of intestinal bacteria was assessed. The improvements comprise: calibration on a non-fading fluorescence standard (uranyl glass), prolonged camera exposure time (over 4 s) and shading

  5. Immunofluorescence findings in granuloma faciale: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirwas, Matthew J; Abell, Edward; Ruben, Alan; Silverman, Alan R; Wolff, Jeffrey; Deng, Jau-Shyong

    2003-05-01

    Immunofluorescence findings in granuloma faciale have been infrequently described. Reported findings include granular IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 deposits in the dermoepidermal junction, in blood vessel walls, and on connective tissue fibers; IgG in the basement membrane zone, and IgG around blood vessels. We report two cases of granuloma faciale in which biopsy specimens were sent for routine pathology as well as immunofluorescence. Additional work-up included serologic testing for markers of lupus erythematosus (LE). Immunofluorescence in both cases revealed granular IgA, IgG, IgM, C3, and C5-9 deposits along the dermoepidermal junction only. Blood vessel walls and connective tissue fibers were spared. Serologic studies for markers of LE were negative. Immunofluorescence findings were essentially identical to those which would be expected in cutaneous LE; however, the combination of negative serologic studies for LE, histopathologic findings typical of granuloma faciale, and clinical findings most consistent with granuloma faciale allowed the diagnosis of granuloma faciale to be rendered with certainty. Interpretation of results of direct immunofluorescence of skin should be correlated with clinical presentation, histopathological findings and other laboratory results in order to render final diagnosis of a given patient.

  6. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  7. Phase transformation during long-term low temperature exposure of 1424 Al-Li-Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlatova, L.B.; Alekseev, A.A.; Kolobnev, N.I.; Lukina, E.A. [All-Russian Inst. of Aviation Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ber, L.B.; Ukolova, O.G. [All-Russian Inst. of Light Alloys, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The chemical composition and strengthening heat treatment, involving air quenching and three step aging, ensure a thermal stability of 1424 alloy sheets as for the fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation rate characteristics after exposure for up to 3000 hrs at 85 C. But these characteristics decrease after exposure for up to 4000 hrs. The study of phase transformation under heating in the temperature range of 85-95 C, during 300-4000 hrs shows the increase in both the size and volume fraction of {delta}'-phase (Al{sub 3}Li), and additional precipitation of its fine particles, and an appearance of special regions which have fine cellular structure. Fine cellular regions essentially differ from the S{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}MgLi)-phase. Decrease in fracture toughness characteristics after heating for up to 4000 hrs correlates with additional precipitation of fine {delta}'- phase particles and intensification of special cellular structures formation along the grain boundaries. (orig.)

  8. [Immunofluorescence study of the extracellular matrix of the human placenta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S; Fokin, E I; Milovanov, A P

    1989-01-01

    Distribution of collagen types I, III, IV, V and fibronectin in human placental villi has been studied by indirect immunofluorescence. During 9-12 weeks of pregnancy the extracellular matrix of villi represents a network of filaments organized in bundles and aggregates that contain collagen types I and III and finer filaments of collagen types IV and V. Collagen type IV is regularly detected in basal membrane of capillaries and particularly in villous epithelium, collagen type V and fibronectin are occasionally detected there. Marked immunofluorescent reaction on collagen types IV and V and fibronectin, and weak reaction on collagen type III is observed in cellular islets around cytotrophoblasts. In the fetus born in term placental villi have uniform immunofluorescence in thick basal membranes of fetal capillaries and of chorionic epithelium. The immunofluorescent reaction specific for all collagen types is uniform in villous stroma. Distribution of different collagen types and fibronectin, including the unusual localization of membrane collagen type IV, in villous stroma and cellular islets of early and mature placenta is discussed.

  9. Role of direct immunofluorescence in the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunofluorescence microscopy is a vital tool for the diagnosis of glomerular diseases. This study was carried out to study patterns of glomerulonephritis (GN and to record the sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence (DIF in renal lesions. The DIF findings were correlated with clinical and histopathology findings and discrepancies were analyzed. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional analytical study was conducted during the period July 2011 to July 2013 at a tertiary care Hospital, Department of Pathology. A total of 75 renal biopsies were received for routine and immunofluorescence studies in which histopathology and clinical data were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The sensitivity of DIF was 87.9% and specificity was 70.5%. The maximum number of cases were seen in the age group 41-50 years. The pattern of GN by DIF was minimal change disease (MCD in 24%, IgA nephropathy in 13%, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in 9% and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 8% of the cases. Twelve histopathologically proven cases of GN were negative on DIF. One case of MCD on histopathology was diagnosed as IgM nephropathy based on DIF. Conclusion: Direct immunofluorescence forms an important diagnostic tool in reaching the exact diagnosis in various types of GN presenting with overlapping clinical and histomorphological features.

  10. Evaluation of serology to measure exposure of piglets to Ascaris suum during the nursery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Elise; Vlaminck, Johnny; Geldhof, Peter

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serology can be used to measure exposure of piglets to Ascaris suum during the nursery phase. Experimental infection studies were performed in which 7 groups of 10 piglets of 4 weeks of age were orally infected with either 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 500 A. suum eggs/day during 7 consecutive weeks, mimicking a nursery phase in an A. suum contaminated environment. Serum was collected on a weekly basis to monitor seroconversion on 2 ELISA tests based on the antibody recognition of either a haemoglobin protein purified from the pseudocoelomic fluid of adult A. suum or a water-soluble complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larvae isolated from the lungs (L3-lung). A dose-dependent seroconversion was measurable with the L3-lung ELISA starting from 4 weeks post-infection onwards, whereas this was not measurable with the haemoglobin-based test. After 7 weeks, equivalent to the end of the nursery phase, the L3-lung ELISA showed a 99% specificity and a 90% sensitivity to detect exposure of piglets to A. suum, with a minimum infection level of 20 A. suum eggs per day. To further evaluate the test under field conditions, a seroprevalence study was performed by sampling 10 piglets on 68 different nursery farms in Belgium. The results showed that for 38% of the farms analysed all piglets tested seronegative, whereas for the remaining 62% of the farms the percentage seropositive piglets ranged from 10 to 100%. This indicates contamination of the nursery facilities with A. suum eggs. In conclusion, the outcome of this study shows that serology can be used to measure exposure of nursery piglets to A. suum, thereby providing an additional tool in the control of this widespread parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solid Phase Extraction for Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Cr (III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Shahtaheri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium is an important constituent widely used in different industrial processes for production of various synthetic materials. For evaluation of workers’ exposure to trace toxic metal of Cr (III, environmental and biological monitoring are essential processes, in which, preparation of samples is one of the most time-consuming and error-prone aspects prior to analysis. The use of solid-phase extraction (SPE has grown and is a fertile technique of sample preparation as it provides better results than those produced by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE. SPE using mini columns filled with XAD-4 resin was optimized regarding to sample pH, ligand concentration, loading flow rate, elution solvent, sample volume, elution volume, amount of resins, and sample matrix interferences. Chromium was retained on solid sorbent and was eluted with 2 M HNO3 followed by simple determination of analytes by using flame atomic absorption spectrometery. Obtained recoveries of metal ion were more than 92%. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. Through this study, suitable results were obtained for relative standard deviation, therefore, it is concluded that, this optimized method can be considered to be successful in simplifying sample preparation for trace residue analysis of Cr in different matrices for evaluation of occupational and environmental exposures. To evaluate occupational exposure to chromium, 16 urine samples were taken, prepared, and analyzed based on optimized procedure.

  12. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhi-Hua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs and thromboxane A2 (TXA2. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2 after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187 induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells.

  13. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  14. Oral Mucocutaneous Lesions – A Comparative Clinicopathological and Immunofluorescence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Varghese, Alex Kumaranthara; Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Ahmed, Shaheen; Venkatramani, Janaki; Sugirtharaj, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral mucosa is often affected by many diseases including mucocutaneous disorders. The diagnoses of these disorders are primarily based on history, clinical features, and histopathology. For the past few years’ immunofluorescence techniques emerged as an important tool to study the pathogenesis and in the diagnosis of oral mucocutaneous and vesiculobullous disorders. The present study was designed to carry out retrospective and prospective analysis of oral mucocutaneous lesions to elucidate the clinicopathologic features and its immunofluorescence findings. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions were retrieved from the oral pathology files of Tamil Nadu Govt. Dental College and their clinical features were evaluated, and the histopathology was also evaluated with the help of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. For the prospective study, biopsy from 12 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions was subjected to routine histopathological examination and DIF to evaluate the consistency of the methods. Results: In the retrospective analysis of 70 subjects with oral mucocutaneous lesions in relation to clinical features and histopathology, most of the findings were similar to the previous studies except for few criteria like male predilection in lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) and more prevalence of pemphigus vulgaris than MMP (2:1). In the prospective analysis of 12 subjects, the histopathological diagnosis was consistent with DIF study in 66% of cases. Conclusion: The diagnostic efficiency of oral mucocutaneous lesions can be improved by modern tools like DIF studies in addition to traditional methods like clinical and histopathology. PMID:25878481

  15. Proof of the quantitative potential of immunofluorescence by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Maria I; Cecchi, Fabiola; Hembrough, Todd; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Rimm, David L

    2017-03-01

    Protein expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded patient tissue is routinely measured by Immunohistochemistry (IHC). However, IHC has been shown to be subject to variability in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility, and is generally, at best, considered semi-quantitative. Mass spectrometry (MS) is considered by many to be the criterion standard for protein measurement, offering high sensitivity, specificity, and objective molecular quantification. Here, we seek to show that quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF) with standardization can achieve quantitative results comparable to MS. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence in 15 cell lines with a wide range of EGFR expression, using different primary antibody concentrations, including the optimal signal-to-noise concentration after quantitative titration. QIF target measurement was then compared to the absolute EGFR concentration measured by Liquid Tissue-selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The best agreement between the two assays was found when the EGFR primary antibody was used at the optimal signal-to-noise concentration, revealing a strong linear regression (R 2 =0.88). This demonstrates that quantitative optimization of titration by calculation of signal-to-noise ratio allows QIF to be standardized to MS and can therefore be used to assess absolute protein concentration in a linear and reproducible manner.

  16. Diagnostic significance of colloid body deposition in direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chularojanamontri Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colloid bodies (CB in direct immunofluorescence (DIF studies are usually found in interface dermatitis. Furthermore, CB can be found in various skin diseases and even in normal skin. Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of CB deposits in DIF studies. Methods: From 1996-2007, data from 502 patients where DIF studies showed immunoreactants at CB were enrolled. The definite diagnoses of these patients were based on clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescent findings. The results of DIF studies were analyzed. Results: Immunoreactants at CB were detected in 44.4%, 43.8%, 4.2%, 3.8%, and 2.2% of interface dermatitis, vasculitis, autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, panniculitis, and scleroderma/morphea, respectively. The most common immunoreactant deposit of all diseases was Immunoglobulin M (IgM. Brighter intensity and higher quantity of CB was detected frequently in the group with interface dermatitis. Conclusions: Immunoreactant deposits at CB alone can be found in various diseases but a strong intensity and high quantity favor the diagnosis of interface dermatitis. CB plus dermoepidermal junction (DEJ deposits are more common in interface dermatitis than any other disease. Between lichen planus (LP and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE, CB alone is more common in LP; whereas, CB plus DEJ and superficial blood vessel (SBV is more common in DLE. The most common pattern in both diseases is CB plus DEJ. The quantity and intensity of CB in LP is higher than in DLE.

  17. Durability of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) slides stored at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Amira; Zhou, Cheng; Truong, Jonathan; Elston, Dirk M

    2015-12-01

    Prior studies suggested that direct immunofluorescence (DIF) slides can be stored at room temperature. We sought to determine the durability of DIF slides stored at room temperature for 5 years. This was a retrospective study of 83 DIF slides archived at room temperature during 2010. The pattern of immunoreactants was compared with those noted in the original report. Loss of reactivity was limited to cases with weak fluorescence at original diagnosis. Loss of IgG was noted in 12.5% of cases, IgA in 12%, C3 in 10%, and IgM in 9.75%. Fibrin showed no loss of reactivity. Preservation of immunofluorescence was not related to site of deposition. Overall, a reliable diagnosis could be made in 75 of 79 archived cases (94.9%). Cases had been archived for periods varying from 4.5 to 5 years. Variations in processing and fluorochromes could affect durability. We have no way of knowing how long slides had been exposed to ultraviolet light at the time of initial examination. DIF showed excellent durability in slides kept at room temperature for 5 years. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Swierkosz, E M; Arens, M Q; Schmidt, R R; Armstrong, T

    1985-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay and a direct immunofluorescence assay were evaluated for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The indirect immunofluorescence assay (Electro-Nucleonics, Inc.) correctly identified 16 HSV type 2 (HSV-2) isolates, but failed to identify 4 of 14 HSV-1 isolates because of background fluorescence and instability of reagents. Forty-nine HSV-1 isolates were correctly typed by direct immunofluorescence assay (Kallestad Laboratories, Inc.), but 1...

  19. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushil, S. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Alabdulrahman, A.M. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Petroleum and Petrochemical Research Institute (PAPRI), PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Balakrishnan, M. [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Batra, V.S., E-mail: vidyasb@teri.res.in [Centre for Energy and Environment, TERI University, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Blackley, R.A. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Clapp, J.; Hargreaves, J.S.J.; Monaghan, A.; Pulford, I.D. [WestCHEM, Department of Chemistry, Joseph Black Building, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rico, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalisis, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio E, CU, Morelia, Mich. C.P. 58060 (Mexico); Zhou, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe{sub 3}C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction.

  20. Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy for pooled exposure--response analyses of North Carolina and South Carolina, USA asbestos textile cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John M; Loomis, Dana; Richardson, David; Wolf, Susanne H; Kuempel, Eileen D

    2011-08-01

    To develop pooled size-specific asbestos fiber exposure estimates for North Carolina and South Carolina asbestos textile plants. Airborne sample data and prior exposure estimates by phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) for the two cohorts were reviewed and compared. Estimates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for 160 membrane filter samples from all plant were pooled. Poisson regression models were developed to predict bivariate diameter/length airborne fiber size distributions based on independent categorical variables for fiber diameter, fiber length, plant, and exposure zone. The model predicted bivariate diameter/length distributions were expressed as the proportion of fibers in 28 size-specific cells and these data were used to calculate PCM to TEM adjustment factors in order to estimate fiber size-specific exposures for the pooled cohort. Exposure levels in the North Carolina plants were in excess of 50 f/cc for many operations through about 1955 owing to lack of dust control measures in early years whereas levels in the South Carolina plant were generally less than 10 f/cc by about 1950. The Poisson regression models found covariates for plant department to be a stronger predictor of bivariate size proportions than plant; however, a plant effect was observed. The final Poisson models demonstrated good fit to the observed data. Consistent with early studies, fiber exposures in the North Carolina plants were much higher than in South Carolina plant. Use of the predicted size-specific TEM exposures by plant and department based on the Poisson model predictions should reduce exposure.

  1. Inverse effects of flowing phase-shift nanodroplets and lipid-shelled microbubbles on subsequent cavitation during focused ultrasound exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Cui, Zhiwei; Xu, Tianqi; Liu, Pan; Li, Dapeng; Shang, Shaoqiang; Xu, Ranxiang; Zong, Yujin; Niu, Gang; Wang, Supin; He, Xijing; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-01-01

    This paper compared the effects of flowing phase-shift nanodroplets (NDs) and lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs) on subsequent cavitation during focused ultrasound (FUS) exposures. The cavitation activity was monitored using a passive cavitation detection method as solutions of either phase-shift NDs or lipid-shelled MBs flowed at varying velocities through a 5-mm diameter wall-less vessel in a transparent tissue-mimicking phantom when exposed to FUS. The intensity of cavitation for the phase-shift NDs showed an upward trend with time and cavitation for the lipid-shelled MBs grew to a maximum at the outset of the FUS exposure followed by a trend of decreases when they were static in the vessel. Meanwhile, the increase of cavitation for the phase-shift NDs and decrease of cavitation for the lipid-shelled MBs had slowed down when they flowed through the vessel. During two discrete identical FUS exposures, while the normalized inertial cavitation dose (ICD) value for the lipid-shelled MB solution was higher than that for the saline in the first exposure (p-value phase-shift NDs, the normalized ICD was 0.71 in the first exposure and increased to 0.97 in the second exposure. At a low acoustic power, the normalized ICD values for the lipid-shelled MBs tended to increase with increasing velocities from 5 to 30cm/s (r>0.95). Meanwhile, the normalized ICD value for the phase-shift NDs was 0.182 at a flow velocity of 5cm/s and increased to 0.188 at a flow velocity of 15cm/s. As the flow velocity increased to 20cm/s, the normalized ICD was 0.185 and decreased to 0.178 at a flow velocity of 30cm/s. At high acoustic power, the normalized ICD values for both the lipid-shelled MBs and the phase-shift NDs increased with increasing flow velocities from 5 to 30cm/s (r>0.95). The effects of the flowing phase-shift NDs vaporized into gas bubbles as cavitation nuclei on the subsequent cavitation were inverse to those of the flowing lipid-shelled MBs destroyed after focused ultrasound

  2. Polymorphisms in phase I and phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Eiberg, Hans; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    (PFOA) and carriers of at least: one CYP1A1 variant Val allele; one variant COMT Met allele; or the common CYP17 A1 allele. No combined effects were seen between PFAS exposure and CYP1B1 and CYP19 polymorphisms. The risk of BC was not found significantly associated with exposure to PCBs and OCPs...... increases with higher serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Serum PFAS levels were a consistent risk factor of BC, but inter-individual polymorphic differences might cause variations in sensitivity to the PFAS/POP exposure....

  3. V. Detection of the Virus in Infected Materials by Immunofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckerbauer, G. M.; Gray, D. P.; Girard, A.; Bannister, G. L.; Boulanger, P.

    1967-01-01

    The fluorescent-antibody technique was employed for the detection of bluetongue virus in bovine foetal kidney cell cultures inoculated with tissues and blood from experimentally infected animals. In the first series, a total number of 79 inoculated suckling-mouse brains were examined, 36 as frozen sections alone and 43 as impression slides in conjunction with tissue culture inoculation of the same material. With the combined tissue culture immunofluorescent methods, 36 suspicious were detected by impression smears and 37 positives by the tissue culture out of 43 brains examined. Twenty-two were suspicious out of the 36 examined as frozen sections. Results obtained with the second series, using sheep tissues, showed that the combined tissue culture-fluorescent antibody method was satisfactory for demonstrating the virus in blood of infected animals 1 to 9 days postinfection, and in some organs after death. No false positive reactions were obtained. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4227047

  4. Risk assessment of gaseous/particulate phase PAH exposure in foundry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chou, Choa-Da; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2010-09-15

    Thirty-seven air samplings in different working areas of two foundry industries were collected to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. The average PAH level inside Foundry A was 19.56 microg/m(3), which was higher than that in Foundry B (8.26 microg/m(3)), whereas for the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent (BaPeq) level (38.81 ng/m(3) vs. 46.52 ng/m(3)). A higher PAH level was found for big moulding process than for the small one, and the chemical binder in the different size moulds was hypothesized to be the main cause. The higher PAH levels were found in the painting area (95.51 microg/m(3)), pouring area (18.42 microg/m(3)), and inside the office (16.48 microg/m(3)); as well as the higher BaPeq level was in the painting area (152.3 ng/m(3)), and the furnace for melting iron (96.9 ng/m(3)). The gas phase (over 90%) was the major contributor of total PAHs in the manufacturing areas. Moreover, health risk assessment of PAHs exposure showed that lung cancer risks were 9.06x10(-4) and 1.09x10(-3) in Foundries A and B, respectively. This study suggests that the workers shall use appropriate respiratory masks in painting, melting, and pouring areas to prevent their occupational exposure to PAHs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... and lasted longer than hepatic Saal mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas...... and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing MWCNT that induce less SAA....

  6. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  7. Immunofluorescent determination of wheat protein in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-02-01

    foodstuffs is relatively difficult because of the fact that they occur in trace amounts and are often masked by various parts of the product. This paper deals with detection of wheat protein in meat products bought in the retail network of the Czech Republic. Ten cooked meat products, especially types of sausages and soft salami which stated wheat protein in their composition, were examined. The samples were processed using the method of immunofluorescence and stained with Texas Red fluorochrome. The presence of wheat protein was demonstrated in all the examined meat products. From the results it follows that the method of immunofluorescence is suitable for detection of wheat protein in meat products. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  8. Phase-shift nano-emulsions induced cavitation and ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Phase-shift Nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The aim of this work was to provide spatial and temporal information on PSNE induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. The PSNEs were composed of perfluorohaxane (PFH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), and then uniformly distributed in a transparent polyacrylamide phantom. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation distribution and formation process of PSNEs induced cavitation. For the phantom which was used for ablation observation, heat sensitive BSA was added. When the temperature generated by ultrasound exposure was high enough to denature BSA, the transparent phantom would turn out white lesions. The shape of the lesion and the formation process were compared with those of cavitation. Each of the pulse contained 12 cycles for a duration of 10 µs. And the duty cycle changed from 1:10 to 1:40. The total "on" time of HIFU was 2s. PSNE can evidently accelerate cavitation emitting bright SL in pre-focal region. The cavitation was generated layer by layer towards the transducer. The formed bubble wall can block acoustic waves transmitting to the distal end. And the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts. One in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly toward the transducer. The other in focal region was formed by merging some small white dots, and grew much slower. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. The lower duty cycle with longer pulse-off time would generate more intense cavitation, however, smaller lesion. Bubble cloud gradually developed within phantom would greatly influence the cavitation and ablation

  9. Increase of vitamin D2 by UV-B exposure during the growth phase of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mushrooms are the only non-animal food source of vitamin D. Wild mushrooms have naturally high vitamin D2 content, and cultivated mushrooms produce vitamin D2 from ergosterol when exposed to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase. Objectives: This study investigated...... the effects of providing supplementary UV-B during the growth phase on vitamin D2 formation and the interactions with growth of mushrooms, as compared to supplementary UV-B during the post-harvest phase or exposure to sunlight for both cultivated and wild mushrooms. Methods: Experiments were carried out...... with exposure to supplementary UV-B just prior to harvest in the range of 0-2,400 mJ cm-2. Mushrooms grew for 2 days with or without repeated UV-B exposure each day. Vitamin D2 and growth rate were determined. Some mushrooms were post-harvest treated by exposure at 200 mJ cm-2 supplementary UV-B or natural...

  10. Intracellular distribution of Tankyrases as detected by multicolor immunofluorescence techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Bottone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of NAD+ into ADP-ribose. Among them, Tankyrases have been found to bind to centrosome, mitotic spindle and microsome proteins, in the cytoplasm, and to telomeres in the nucleus, where they play a relevant role in telomere metabolism. However, their precise intracellular localization during interphase has not been so far fully elucidated. We investigated this aspect in situ by double immunofluorescence experiments using antibodies recognizing Tankyrases 1-2 or other proteins residing in specific organelles (Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum. We used HeLa cells as a model system in vitro, before and after treatment with either actinomycin D or etoposide, to also investigate the possible relocation of Tankyrases during apoptosis. We observed that Tankyrases are distributed both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm; in this latter compartment, they were found to colocate with the Golgi apparatus but never with the mitochondria; a pool of Tankyrases also colocates with the endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. Interestingly, in cells with clear signs of apoptosis, Tankyrases were detectable in the cytoplasmic blebs: this suggests that they are not massively cleaved during apoptosis and persist in the largely heterogeneous apoptotic remnants which are known to contain components of cytoplasmic and nuclear origin.

  11. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2015-08-01

    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.

  12. In Situ Immunofluorescent Staining of Autophagy in Muscle Stem Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Castagnetti, Francesco

    2017-06-13

    Increasing evidence points to autophagy as a crucial regulatory process to preserve tissue homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and the autophagic process has been described in several muscular pathologies and agerelated muscle disorders. A recently described block of the autophagic process that correlates with the functional exhaustion of satellite cells during muscle repair supports the notion that active autophagy is coupled with productive muscle regeneration. These data uncover the crucial role of autophagy in satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration in both normal and pathological conditions, such as muscular dystrophies. Here, we provide a protocol to monitor the autophagic process in the adult Muscle Stem Cell (MuSC) compartment during muscle regenerative conditions. This protocol describes the setup methodology to perform in situ immunofluorescence imaging of LC3, an autophagy marker, and MyoD, a myogenic lineage marker, in muscle tissue sections from control and injured mice. The methodology reported allows for monitoring the autophagic process in one specific cell compartment, the MuSC compartment, which plays a central role in orchestrating muscle regeneration.

  13. [Analysis of direct immunofluorescence tests for trachoma diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N H; Gentil, R M; Caraça, M; Suzuki, C K; Melles, H H

    1996-04-01

    For the confirmation of trachoma foci in places where no previous cases had been reported, the State Health Secretariat of S. Paulo makes provision for the realization of laboratory exams, particularly because the disease was considered to have been eradicated from the State in the seventies. During the epidemiological investigations, conjunctival scrapings were collected from the subjects with inflammatory trachoma (TF/TI), clinically diagnosed. The results of the immunofluorescence (DFA) exams were analysed in the light of the frequency of the appropriate exams and their positive results, by the quantity of elementary bodies (EB) found. A total of 385 slides were studied, the criteria for positivity being 5 or more EBs. The test's sensitivity was 19.9%. The DFA test is considered to be the best laboratorial exam to be used in field work, though it does not show a sufficient sensitivity to confirm all clinically diagnosed cases of trachoma; it can only confirm the circulation of the aetiological agent within a community. In endemic areas the clinical diagnosis continues to be the criterion for case confirmation.

  14. Detection of Tilletia controversa using immunofluorescent monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Feng, C; Li, B; Liu, T; Liu, B; Chen, W

    2015-02-01

    Tilletia controversa is an internationally quarantined pathogenic fungus that causes dwarf bunt of wheat and is similar to Tilletia caries in both teliospore morphology and genetic structure. This study developed a rapid and sensitive immunofluorescence method for differentiating the teliospores of T. controversa from T. caries. The method utilizes monoclonal antibody D-1 against teliospores of T. controversa as well as a PE-Cy3-conjugated goat anti-mouse antibody (overlapping light excitation of 495 and 555 nm). The orange cycle fluorescent signal was stronger against T. controversa teliospores in the outer spore wall and net ridge, whereas only the green signal was observed for the protoplasm of T. caries teliospores. The detection limit of this method was 2.0 μg ml(-1) of the D-1 monoclonal antibody. This study describes the production and diagnostic application of a novel mouse monoclonal antibody specific to T. controversa teliospores. This method could be used for the on-site identification of T. controversa teliospores in the near future and will help in selecting fungicides to control dwarf bunt of wheat as further technical developments are achieved. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Cell Cycle Dynamics of Proteins and Post-translational Modifications Using Quantitative Immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopyan, Karen; Lindqvist, Arne; Müllers, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence can be a powerful tool to detect protein levels, intracellular localization, and post-translational modifications. However, standard immunofluorescence provides only a still picture and thus lacks temporal information. Here, we describe a method to extract temporal information from immunofluorescence images of fixed cells. In addition, we provide an optional protocol that uses micropatterns, which increases the accuracy of the method. These methods allow assessing how protein levels, intracellular localization, and post-translational modifications change through the cell cycle.

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...

  17. Phase tunable multilevel diffractive optical element based single laser exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Debashis; Herman, Peter R.

    2007-08-01

    The fabrication of diamond-like three-dimensional photonic crystal templates using a single laser exposure through a diffractive optical element has been demonstrated. An orthogonal combination of two linear phasemasks was used to define a two-dimensional diffractive optical element of multiple phase levels. By adjusting the gap between two phasemasks, a variable phase shift is shown by theory and demonstrated experimentally to control the interlacing position of two orthogonally rotated periodic structures. The transition of formation of diamond-like woodpile structures having tetragonal symmetry to structures having body-centered-tetragonal symmetry and variations in between has been demonstrated.

  18. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M. [Inst. of Biophysics, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  19. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of vaccination: pathologic, immunofluorescent, and ultrastructural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I

    1986-06-01

    Ten sheep were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17. Six of the sheep had been vaccinated before challenge exposure, 4 sheep served as nonvaccinated challenge-exposed controls, and 2 additional sheep served as nonvaccinated, nonchallenge-exposed, contact controls. Biopsy specimens (oral labial mucosa and skin) were obtained periodically after challenge exposure. Sheep were killed 8 to 13 days after challenge exposure, and necropsy was done. Vaccination did not seem to affect the nature or severity of the lesions observed. The changes in the mucosa of the cranial portion of the digestive tract included hyperemia, edema, inflammation, petechiae, erosions, ulcers, and surface encrustations. Lesions of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles included hemorrhage, edema, myofiber degeneration, and necrosis. Lesions in cardiac muscles were sometimes widespread, indicating that cardiac failure may have been the major contributor to pulmonary congestion, edema, and eventual death during acute BTV infection. Damage to esophageal musculature resulted in vomiting. Hemorrhage was observed within the base of the pulmonary artery of all challenge-exposed sheep. Using immunofluorescence, bluetongue viral antigens were detected in small blood vessels of the skin, oral labial mucosa, tongue, esophagus, rumen, reticulum, urinary bladder, and pulmonary artery and in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Viral antigens were present in tissues obtained 3 to 11 days after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, changes in small-caliber blood vessels included congestion, hemorrhage, swollen degenerated endothelial cells, and occasional fibrin-platelet thrombi. Tubular structures and virus-like particles were observed within some of these endothelial cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Acute Phase Response, Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers of Libby Asbestos Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. Objective: We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help ...

  1. Synchronization of S phase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells by transient exposure to M-factor pheromone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    A well-characterized S phase, a unicellular lifestyle, and a plethora of mutations in key components of DNA metabolism make fission yeast a particularly attractive system in which to study DNA replication. However, synchronization of passage through a normal S phase has proved challenging. This p....... This protocol describes how combining nitrogen starvation with M-factor mating pheromone treatment presents a highly effective method for synchronizing passage through an ostensibly normal S phase....

  2. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  3. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Sarah S; Knudsen, Kristina B; Jackson, Petra; Weydahl, Ingrid E K; Saber, Anne T; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing

  4. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kristina B.; Jackson, Petra; Weydahl, Ingrid E. K.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step towards designing

  5. Melasma: a clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, N P; Pathak, M A; Sato, S; Fitzpatrick, T B; Sanchez, J L; Mihm, M C

    1981-06-01

    Melasma is an acquired brown hypermelanosis of the face. Although it is thought that melasma is associated with multiple etiologic factors (pregnancy, gastric, racial, and endocrine), one of the primary causes of its exacerbation appears to be exposure to sunlight. Three patterns of melasma are recognized clinically: (1) a centrofacial pattern, (2) a malar pattern, and (3) a mandibular pattern. Examination of patients with Wood's light (320--400 nm) is useful in classifying the specific type of melasma in correlation with the localization of pigment granules (melanosomes) in the epidermis and dermis. Four types of melasma are described on the basis of Wood's light examination: (1) an epidermal type, (2) a dermal type, (3) a mixed type, and (4) a fourth type, described in patients of dark complexion, in which the lesions, for lack of contrast, are not discernible on Wood's light examination, perhaps due to the increased number of melanosomes in the normal skin of black individuals. Light, histochemical, and electron microscopic studies revealed an increase in number and activity of type-specific melanocytes which appeared to be engaged in increased formation, melanization, and transfer of pigment granules (melanosomes) to the epidermis as well as to the dermis. The melanocyte seems to undergo a functional alteration brought about by a combination of multiple factors, including persistent sun exposure, hormonal factors, and genetic predisposition.

  6. Phase evolution in an MCrAlY coating during high temperature exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MCrAlY (M = Ni and/or Co coating systems are often applied on gas turbine blades and vanes to withstand the challenges of severe conditions. During service MCrAlY coatings are subjected to microstructural transformations that can be an indication of components service temperatures. The development of indirect methods to measure this parameter is of great concern in the gas turbine “world” due to the impossibility of direct measurements. In the present work the evolution of an MCrAlY coating applied on Rene80 by LPPS (Low Pressure Plasma Spray technique has been studied in order to verify if it was possible to identify a microstructural indicator of the service temperature. The specimens were exposed for different lengths of time at test temperatures of 700 - 800 - in order to characterize the phase evolution with time and temperature. Selective etching was employed for optical metallographic investigation. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM observation combined with Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS showed that the coating is composed of a γ- Co matrix, β-AlNi, σ-(Cr, Co, Cr carbide and Y-rich phases. Among these phases, the sigma phase resulted in a temperature - composition dependence that can be a useful tool for evaluating the local service temperature and modelling the residual lifetime.

  7. Improved detection of Pneumocystis carinii by an immunofluorescence technique using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Holten-Andersen, W; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1990-01-01

    To assess whether a recently developed indirect immunofluorescent stain using monoclonal antibodies was more sensitive in detecting Pneumocystis carinii than the combination of Giemsa and methenamine silver nitrate stains which has routinely been used in the laboratory, 88 lavage fluid specimens...... and 34 induced sputum specimens were examined. All specimens were stained by five techniques: immunofluorescence using a combination of three monoclonal antibodies (from the National Institutes of Health, USA), immunofluorescence using a single monoclonal antibody (from Dakopatts), Giemsa, methenamine...... silver nitrate and toluidine blue O. Immunofluorescence using the monoclonal antibodies from the NIH was significantly more sensitive than any other single staining method and than the combination of Giemsa and methenamine silver nitrate staining. The study also showed that the cytospin centrifuge...

  8. Detection of the thraustochytrid protist Ulkenia visurgensis in a hydroid, using immunofluorescence

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.

    An immunofluorescence technique was employed to detect the thraustochytrid protist Ulkenia visurgensis (Ulken) Gaertner, originally isolated from an algal bed, in natural samples in Goa, India Collections were made monthly from September 1985...

  9. Large area gratings by x-ray LIGA dynamic exposure for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Tobias J.; Koch, Frieder; Meyer, Pascal; Baumann, Martin; Münch, Daniel; Kunka, Danays; Engelhardt, Sabine; Zuber, Marcus; Baumbach, Tilo; Mohr, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging (DPCI) using a Talbot-Lau interferometer at a conventional tube source has continuously found applications since its first demonstration. It requires high aspect ratio grating structures with a feature size in the micrometer range that are fabricated using lithographie, galvanik und abformung technology. To overcome the current limitation in grating area, an exposure strategy-continuous exposure-has been developed. In this case, the mask is fixed in respect to the synchrotron beam and only the substrate is scanned. Thus, the grating area is given by the scanning length which is much larger than the actual mask size. The design, needs, and tolerances to adopt this process of dynamic exposure will be described. Furthermore, the first tests using this method will be presented. Gratings with a metal aspect ratio of 11 and a period of 10 μm were fabricated on an area of 165 mm×65 mm. First imaging results demonstrate the suitability of this method. No differences in the visibility or in x-ray image compared to gratings fabricated by the standard method could be found.

  10. Variations of attractors and wavelet spectra of the immunofluorescence distributions for women in the pregnant period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galich, Nikolay E.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for women in the pregnant period allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions, their bifurcation and wavelet spectra. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions and peculiarities of wavelet spectra allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Peculiarities of immunofluorescence for women in pregnant period are classified. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  11. Detection of antinuclear antibodies by solid-phase immunoassays and immunofluorescence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens; Wiik, Allan; Høier-Madsen, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    -established rheumatic disorders, the newly developed EIA in which HEp-2 extracts were included had sensitivities and specificities comparable to or in some instances better than the IFA. The assays without HEp-2 extracts included had significantly lower sensitivities and specificities. In the outpatient population, up...... to 51% of patients had positive ANA tests that did not correspond to classic ANA-associated disease. However, in the assays in which the HEp-2 extracts were not included, the false-positive rate was ... and was mostly HEp-2 extracts included had a low sensitivity but a high specificity, particularly in nonselected populations. The choice of test is highly dependent on the clinical setting in which...

  12. Estimates of historical exposures by phase contrast and transmission electron microscopy in North Carolina USA asbestos textile plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, J M; Myers, D; Loomis, D; Richardson, D; Wolf, S

    2009-09-01

    To develop a job-exposure matrix (JEM) for fibre exposures in three asbestos textile plants and to develop estimates of fibre size-specific exposures. Historical dust samples from three North Carolina, USA asbestos textile plants were obtained. Plant specific samples were used to express impinger dust concentrations as fibre concentrations by phase contract microscopy (PCM). Mixed models were used to estimate PCM exposures by plant, department, job and calendar time. Archived membrane filter samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres by plant and operation. PCM fibre levels estimated from the models were very high in the 1930s, with some operations having in excess of 200 fibres/ml, and decreased appreciably over time. TEM results for 77 airborne dust samples found that only a small proportion of airborne fibres were measured by PCM (>0.25 microm in diameter and >5 microm in length) and the proportion varied considerably by plant and operation (range 2.9% to 10.0%). The bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres demonstrated a relatively high degree of variability by plant and operation. PCM adjustment factors also varied substantially across plants and operations. These data provide new information concerning airborne fibre levels and characteristics in three historically important asbestos textile plants. PCM concentrations were high in the early years and TEM data demonstrate that the vast majority of airborne fibres inhaled by the workers were shorter than 5 microm in length, and thus not included in the PCM-based fibre counts.

  13. Gas phase microreaction: nanomaterials synthesis via plasma exposure of liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Paul; Mahony, Charles; Kelsey, Colin; Hamilton, Neil; Askari, Sadegh; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Diver, Declan; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-liquid interactions are complex but offer considerable scope for use in nanomaterials synthesis. The introduction of individual picolitre micro-droplets into a steady-state low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure, offers opportunities for enhanced scope and control of plasma-liquid chemistry and material properties. The gas-phase micro-reactor is similar in concept to liquid bubble microfluidics currently under intense research but with enhanced opportunities for scale-up. For nanomaterials and quantum dot synthesis, the addition of a liquid phase within the plasma expands considerably the scope for core-shell and alloy formation. The synthesis and encapsulation within a liquid droplet allows continuous delivery of nanoparticles to remote sites for plasma medicine, device fabrication or surface coating. We have synthesized Au nanoparticles in flight using AuHCl4 droplets with plasma flight times <0.1 ms. Also, Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized downstream via the delivery of plasma exposed water droplets onto AgNO3 laden substrates. Funding from EPSRC acknowledged (Grants EP/K006088/1 and EP/K006142/1).

  14. Effect of Exposure Face Orientation and Tilt Angle on Immersion Corrosion Behavior of Dual-Phase and Mild Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkute, Pratik; Choudhary, Sanjay; Ramkumar, J.; Mondal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of the exposure angle (0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and near 90°) and the number of exposed faces (skyward and downward surfaces) on the immersion corrosion behavior of a dual phase and a mild steel in freely aerated stagnant 3.5% NaCl solution for a period of 10 days. In one case, two surfaces are exposed simultaneously, whereas in other case, one of the surfaces is exposed, while other is lacquered. Analysis shows that the corrosion rate of the skyward surface is considerably high when both the surfaces are exposed. The corrosion rate of the downward surface is higher than that of the skyward sample, when one of the surfaces is exposed. Moreover, the corrosion rate gradually decreases from zero to near-90° orientation for all the cases. Though the effect of tilt angle and exposed face does not depend on steel varieties, the dual-phase steel has higher corrosion resistance than the mild steel. Relative oxygen content, microcell formation, gravity effect and reaction nature with depth are the plausible reasons for the observed variation of corrosion behavior.

  15. The Use of Mobile, Electrochemical Sensor Nodes for the Measurement of Personal Exposure to Gas-Phase Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G.; Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; McKeating, S. J.; Calleja, M.; Hayes, M.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    , and thus also the potential insufficiency at quantifying the risks to health in the surrounding area. Recent campaigns with mobile sensor nodes have included attempts to probe the differences in personal exposure to gas-phase air pollutants at different heights of breathing zone and between different methods of transport.

  16. Enhanced cavitation and heating of flowing polymer- and lipid-shelled microbubbles and phase-shift nanodroplets during focused ultrasound exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siyuan; Cui, Zhiwei; Li, Chong; Zhou, Fanyu; Zong, Yujin; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-03-01

    Cavitation and heating are the primary mechanisms of numerous therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Various encapsulated microbubbles (MBs) and phase-shift nanodroplets (NDs) have been used to enhance local cavitation and heating, creating interests in developing ultrasound therapy using these encapsulated MBs and NDs. This work compared the efficiency of flowing polymer- and lipid-shelled MBs and phase-shift NDs in cavitation and heating during focused ultrasound (FUS) exposures. Cavitation activity and temperature were investigated when the solution of polymer- and lipid-shelled MBs and NDs flowed through the vessel in a tissue-mimicking phantom with varying flow velocities when exposed to FUS at various acoustic power levels. The inertial cavitation dose (ICD) for the encapsulated MBs and NDs were higher than those for the saline. Temperature initially increased with increasing flow velocities of the encapsulated MBs, followed by a decrease of the temperature with increasing flow velocities when the velocity was much higher. Meanwhile, ICD showed a trend of increases with increasing flow velocity. For the phase-shift NDs, ICD after the first FUS exposure was lower than those after the second FUS exposure. For the encapsulated MBs, ICD after the first FUS exposure was higher than those after the second FUS exposure. Further studies are necessary to investigate the treatment efficiency of different encapsulated MBs and phase-shift NDs in cavitation and heating.

  17. Use of commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies for immunofluorescence double staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bzorek, M.; Stamp, I.M.; Frederiksen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry, that is, the use of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to detect cell and tissue antigens at a microscopical level is a powerful tool for both research and diagnostic purposes. Especially in the field of hematologic disease, there is often a need to detect several antigens...... synchronously, and we report here a fast and easy technique for demonstrating more than 1 antigen in 1 slide using immunofluorescence. We have used commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies (Cyclin D1, CD3, CD5, CD23, etc.) paired with mouse monoclonal antibodies (CD7, CD20, CD79a, Pax-5, etc.......) for double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibodies in combination with mouse monoclonal antibodies proved useful in double immunofluorescence labeling on paraffin-embedded tissue, and all combinations used yielded excellent results...

  18. Identification of proteins in painting cross-sections by immunofluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnini, M; Pitzurra, L; Cartechini, L; Miliani, C; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A

    2008-09-01

    Immunofluorescence microscopy offers a highly specific analytical tool for unambiguous recognition and mapping of proteins in complex matrices. In the present work, the analytical potentials of immunofluorescence microscopy have been exploited to provide recognition of proteinaceous binders in painting cross-sections. An optimised analytical protocol is proposed for the identification of ovalbumin and of bovine serum albumin as markers of egg white and casein, respectively. The study has been carried out on laboratory model samples simulating both easel and mural paintings. The obtained results demonstrated the effectiveness of the method, suggesting the potential future use of immunofluorescence microscopy as a routine diagnostic tool in conservation science. Possible developments of the proposed methodology in order to improve the specificity of the method and its detection sensitivity are presented and discussed.

  19. Effects of an advanced sleep schedule and morning short wavelength light exposure on circadian phase in young adults with late sleep schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Carskadon, Mary A; Figueiro, Mariana G; Zhu, Yong; Rea, Mark S

    2011-08-01

    We examined the effects of an advanced sleep/wake schedule and morning short wavelength (blue) light in 25 adults (mean age±SD=21.8±3 years; 13 women) with late sleep schedules and subclinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). After a baseline week, participants kept individualized, fixed, advanced 7.5-h sleep schedules for 6days. Participants were randomly assigned to groups to receive "blue" (470nm, ∼225lux, n=12) or "dim" (<1lux, n=13) light for 1h after waking each day. Head-worn "Daysimeters" measured light exposure; actigraphs and sleep diaries confirmed schedule compliance. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), self-reported sleep, and mood were examined with 2×2 ANOVA. After 6days, both groups showed significant circadian phase advances, but morning blue light was not associated with larger phase shifts than dim-light exposure. The average DLMO advances (mean±SD) were 1.5±1.1h in the dim light group and 1.4±0.7h in the blue light group. Adherence to a fixed advanced sleep/wake schedule resulted in significant circadian phase shifts in young adults with subclinical DSPD with or without morning blue light exposure. Light/dark exposures associated with fixed early sleep schedules are sufficient to advance circadian phase in young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the serology of hantavirus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); G. van der Groen (Guido); G. Hoofd; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThree enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems based upon different principles were developed for the serology of Hantaan virus infections and compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The indirect IFA was carried out with gamma-irradiated Hantaan virus-infected

  1. Immune diagnosis of pure ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid : indirect immunofluorescence versus immunoblot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Marcell F.; De Groot, Anton C.; Slegers, Tanja P. A. M.; De Jong, Marcel C. J. M.; Pas, Hendri H.

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of pure ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (OMMP) is based on the demonstration of linear depositions of IgG, IgA, C3 or combinations thereof alongside the epithelial basal membrane zone with direct immunofluorescence (DIF) or immunoperoxidase ( DIP) analysis of a freeze biopsy of the

  2. BLIND TRIALS EVALUATING IN VITRO INFECTIVITY OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS USING CELL CULTURE IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    An optimized cell culture-immunofluorescence (IFA) procedure, using the HCT-8 cell line, was evaluated in 'blind' trials to determine the sensitivity and reproducibility for measuring infectivity of flow cytometry prepared inocula of C. parvum oocysts. In separate trials, suspens...

  3. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  4. Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas minig project before exploitation phase, Peru 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Astete, Jonh; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Gastañaga, Maria del Carmen; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Fiestas, Víctor; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Oblitas, Tania; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Enfermera.; Sabastizagal, Iselle; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Psicóloga.; Lucero, Martha; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Psicóloga.; del Milagro Abadíe, Jesús; Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Técnico de Laboratorio.; Muñoz, María Elena; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Tecnólogo Médico.; Valverde, Ada; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Tecnólogo Médico.; Suarez, Magna; Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Tecnólogo Médico.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (vira...

  5. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the inflammatory response, acute phase response and genotoxic effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, NIST1650b) following a single intratracheal instillation. C57BL/6J BomTac mice received 18, 54 or 162 µg/mouse and were killed 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. Vehicle controls a...

  6. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined...... in serum sampled repeatedly from 33 greenhouse workers. Blood was drawn repeatedly on Mondays and Thursdays during work weeks. Acute phase protein levels were compared to levels in a comparison group of 42 people and related to individual exposure levels to endotoxin, dust, bacteria, fungi and β......-glucan. RESULTS: Serum levels of SAA and CRP were not significantly different in greenhouse workers and a reference group, or on the two work days. In a mixed model, SAA levels were positively associated with endotoxin exposure levels (p = 0.0007). Results for fungi were not clear. CRP levels were positively...

  7. Amplitude reduction and phase shifts of melatonin, cortisol and other circadian rhythms after a gradual advance of sleep and light exposure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Duffy, Jeanne F; Silva, Edward J; Shanahan, Theresa L; Boivin, Diane B; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    The phase and amplitude of rhythms in physiology and behavior are generated by circadian oscillators and entrained to the 24-h day by exposure to the light-dark cycle and feedback from the sleep-wake cycle. The extent to which the phase and amplitude of multiple rhythms are similarly affected during altered timing of light exposure and the sleep-wake cycle has not been fully characterized. We assessed the phase and amplitude of the rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, cortisol, alertness, performance and sleep after a perturbation of entrainment by a gradual advance of the sleep-wake schedule (10 h in 5 days) and associated light-dark cycle in 14 healthy men. The light-dark cycle consisted either of moderate intensity 'room' light (∼90-150 lux) or moderate light supplemented with bright light (∼10,000 lux) for 5 to 8 hours following sleep. After the advance of the sleep-wake schedule in moderate light, no significant advance of the melatonin rhythm was observed whereas, after bright light supplementation the phase advance was 8.1 h (SEM 0.7 h). Individual differences in phase shifts correlated across variables. The amplitude of the melatonin rhythm assessed under constant conditions was reduced after moderate light by 54% (17-94%) and after bright light by 52% (range 12-84%), as compared to the amplitude at baseline in the presence of a sleep-wake cycle. Individual differences in amplitude reduction of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the amplitude of body temperature, cortisol and alertness. Alterations in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and associated bright or moderate light exposure can lead to changes in phase and reduction of circadian amplitude which are consistent across multiple variables but differ between individuals. These data have implications for our understanding of circadian organization and the negative health outcomes associated with shift-work, jet-lag and exposure to artificial light.

  8. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we as...... without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...... the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90...

  9. Spatial and temporal observation of phase-shift nano-emulsions assisted cavitation and ablation during focused ultrasound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yangzi; Zong, Yujin; Yin, Hui; Chang, Nan; Li, Zhaopeng; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-09-01

    Phase-shift nano-emulsions (PSNEs) with a small initial diameter in nanoscale have the potential to leak out of the blood vessels and to accumulate at the target point of tissue. At desired location, PSNEs can undergo acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process, change into gas bubbles and enhance focused ultrasound efficiency. The threshold of droplet vaporization and influence of acoustic parameters have always been research hotspots in order to spatially control the potential of bioeffects and optimize experimental conditions. However, when the pressure is much higher than PSNEs' vaporization threshold, there were little reports on their cavitation and thermal effects. In this study, PSNEs induced cavitation and ablation effects during pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure were investigated, including the spatial and temporal information and the influence of acoustic parameters. Two kinds of tissue-mimicking phantoms with uniform PSNEs were prepared because of their optical transparency. The Sonoluminescence (SL) method was employed to visualize the cavitation activities. And the ablation process was observed as the heat deposition could produce white lesion. Precisely controlled HIFU cavitation and ablation can be realized at a relatively low input power. But when the input power was high, PSNEs can accelerate cavitation and ablation in pre-focal region. The cavitation happened layer by layer advancing the transducer. While the lesion appeared to be separated into two parts, one in pre-focal region stemmed from one point and grew quickly, the other in focal region grew much more slowly. The influence of duty cycle has also been examined. Longer pulse off time would cause heat transfer to the surrounding media, and generate smaller lesion. On the other hand, this would give outer layer bubbles enough time to dissolve, and inner bubbles can undergo violent collapse and emit bright light. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Triple immunofluorescence labeling of atherosclerotic plaque components in apoE/LDLR -/- mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Chłopicki; Andrzej Radziszewski; Grzegorz J Lis; Lukasz Mateuszuk; Jacek Jawień; Mariusz Gajda; Jan A Litwin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable method of triple immunofluorescence staining that allows simultaneous detection of various cell types present in atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/-) mice. We used combined direct and indirect procedures applying commercially available primary antibodies raised in different species to detect smooth muscle cells (Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-smooth muscle actin, SMA), macrophages (rat anti-CD68) and T...

  11. Culture confirmation of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 by direct immunofluorescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Tison, D L

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of a fluorescein-labeled, polyclonal, affinity-purified goat antibody to Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 (Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.) was conducted to determine the efficacy of this research reagent for the rapid direct immunofluorescence identification of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from fecal specimens cultured on sorbitol-MacConkey (SMAC) agar. The E. coli O157:H7 fluorescent-antibody conjugate proved to be 100% sensitive and specific for the rapid...

  12. Evaluation of three immunofluorescence assays for culture confirmation and typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipson, S M; Schutzbank, T E; Szabo, K

    1987-01-01

    Three pairs of monoclonal antibodies, supplied in kits by Electro-Nucleonics, Inc. (ENI), The Syva Co., and Kallestad Laboratories, Inc. (KL), were evaluated for the laboratory confirmation and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Of 108 coded HSV slide preparation, run in parallel with each monoclonal-antibody set, 103 were equivalent by the immunofluorescence assays. Among the five discordant isolates, three (2.8%) did not type with the KL monoclonal antibodies and two (1.9%) false-positiv...

  13. Immunofluorescent staining of nuclear antigen in lymphoid cells transformed by Herpesvirus papio (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H

    1981-01-01

    An improved fixation method for antigen detection in lymphoblastoid cells is described. Herpesvirus papio nuclear antigen (HUPNA) could be stained in several transformed lymphoid cell lines by anti-complement immunofluorescence (ACIF). Antibody to HUPNA was detected in many human sera containing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid and nuclear antigen (EBNA). Rheumatoid arthritis sera showed a high incidence of both anti-EBNA and anti-HUPNA antibodies.

  14. Early life exposure to farm animals and symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema: an ISAAC Phase Three Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Wong, G.; Odhiambo, J.; Clayton, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between early life exposure to farm animals and respiratory symptoms and allergy in children have been reported in developed countries, but little is known about such associations in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between early life exposure to

  15. Characterizing use-phase chemical releases, fate, and disposal for modeling longitudinal human exposures to consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s Human Exposure Model (HEM) is an integrated modeling system to estimate human exposure to chemicals in household consumer products. HEM consists of multiple modules, which may be run either together, or independently. The Source-to-Dose (S2D) module in HEM use...

  16. Utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography evaluations of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic bone marrow transplant: reducing patient radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togni Filho, Paulo Henrique; Casagrande, Joao Luiz Marin; Lederman, Henrique Manoel, E-mail: paulotognifilho@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. of Diagnostico por Imagem; Universidade de Sao Paulo (InRad/HC/FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radiologia

    2017-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of the inspiratory phase in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest for the diagnosis of post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study. We selected patients of either gender who underwent bone marrow transplantation and chest HRCT between March 1, 2002 and December 12, 2014. Ages ranged from 3 months to 20.7 years. We included all examinations in which the HRCT was performed appropriately. The examinations were read by two radiologists, one with extensive experience in pediatric radiology and another in the third year of residency, who determined the presence or absence of the following imaging features: air trapping, bronchiectasis, alveolar opacities, nodules, and atelectasis. Results: A total of 222 examinations were evaluated (mean, 5.4 ± 4.5 examinations per patient). The expiratory phase findings were comparable to those obtained in the inspiratory phase, except in one patient, in whom a small uncharacteristic nodule was identified only in the inspiratory phase. Air trapping was identified in a larger number of scans in the expiratory phase than in the inspiratory phase, as was atelectasis, although the difference was statistically significant only for air trapping. Conclusion: In children being evaluated for post-bone marrow transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans, the inspiratory phase can be excluded from the chest HRCT protocol, thus reducing by half the radiation exposure in this population. (author)

  17. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bengtson

    Full Text Available We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse, except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3 and hepatic (Saa1 acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90 without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.

  18. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina B; Kyjovska, Zdenka O; Berthing, Trine; Skaug, Vidar; Levin, Marcus; Koponen, Ismo K; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Booth, Timothy J; Alonso, Beatriz; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Thomsen, Birthe L; Troelsen, Jesper T; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Vogel, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90 without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis.

  19. Inhalation toxicology of diesel fuel obscurant aerosol in Sprague-Dawley rats. Final report, Phase 3, subchronic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, S.; Dalbey, W.; Schmoyer, R.; Griesemer, R.

    1984-12-01

    Inhalation exposures were performed twice per week, for 13 weeks, to determine whether there was any potential toxicity to rats of comparatively low concentrations of a condensation aerosol from diesel fuel. Changes in breathing frequency and the response of animals to a loud sharp sound (startle response) were measured in selected animals prior to the start of the exposures, at various time points during the thirteen week exposure period, and at monthly intervals during the recovery period. Assays were performed on selected animals at the end of the exposure period, and again after the two month recovery period. Endpoints included pulmonary function tests, numbers of alveolar free cells, clinical chemistry, hematology, organ weights and histopathology. No mortalities were recorded during the exposure or recovery periods. Slight toxicity occurred at these low aerosol concentrations with the loss in body weight of all treated animals during the exposure period. During the exposure period there were also some slight changes in startle reflex, however, these were apparently acute effects, and there appeared to be no permanent CNS involvement as measured by this endpoint. Immediately post-exposure, the numbers of lavaged alveolar macrophages were slightly elevated in all aerosol exposed animals. Pulmonary function tests, pulmonary gas exchange and dynamic lung tests were all apparently unaffected by these low diesel fuel aerosol exposures. Changes in tissue weights in aerosol exposed animals were minor and the few histopathological lesions were randomly scattered amongst all groups included in this study and were more attributable to the age of the animals than any specific treatment group. No significant cumulative toxicity may be attributed to these diesel fuel aerosol exposures. 14 references, 1 figure, 42 tables.

  20. A quantum dot-immunofluorescent labeling method to investigate the interactions between a crinivirus and its whitefly vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. K. Ng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful vector-mediated plant virus transmission entails an intricate but poorly understood interplay of interactions among virus, vector, and plant. The complexity of interactions requires continually improving/evaluating tools and methods for investigating the determinants that are central to mediating virus transmission. A recent study using an organic fluorophore (Alexa Fluor-based immunofluorescent localization assay demonstrated that specific retention of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV virions in the anterior foregut or cibarium of its whitefly vector is required for virus transmission. Continuous exposure of organic fluorophore to high excitation light intensity can result in diminished or loss of signals, potentially confounding the identification of important interactions associated with virus transmission. This limitation can be circumvented by incorporation of photostable fluorescent nanocrystals, such as quantum dots (QDs, into the assay. We have developed and evaluated a QD-immunofluorescent labeling method for the in vitro and in situ localization of LIYV virions based on the recognition specificity of streptavidin-conjugated QD605 (S-QD605 for biotin-conjugated anti-LIYV IgG (B-αIgG. IgG biotinylation was verified in a blot overlay assay by probing SDS-PAGE separated B-αIgG with S-QD605. Immunoblot analyses of LIYV using B-αIgG and S-QD605 resulted in a virus detection limit comparable to that of DAS-ELISA. In membrane feeding experiments, QD signals were observed in the anterior foregut or cibarium of virion-fed whitefly vectors but absent in those of virion-fed whitefly non-vectors. Specific virion retention in whitefly vectors corresponded with successful virus transmission. A fluorescence photobleaching assay of viruliferous whiteflies fed B-αIgG and S-QD605 vs. those fed anti-LIYV IgG and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated IgG revealed that QD signal was stable and deteriorated ∼7 to 8 fold slower than that of Alexa

  1. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  2. Lowering of L1{sub 0} phase transition temperature of FePt thin films by single shot H{sup +} ion exposure using plasma focus device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Z.Y.; Lin, J.J. [NSSE, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zhang, T. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Karamat, S.; Tan, T.L.; Lee, P.; Springham, S.V. [NSSE, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Rawat, R.S. [NSSE, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)], E-mail: rajdeep.rawat@nie.edu.sg

    2009-02-27

    FePt thin films are exposed to pulsed energetic H{sup +} ion beam from plasma focus. In irradiated films, the phase transition from the low K{sub u} disordered face-centered-cubic structure to high K{sub u} ordered face-centered-tetragonal phase was achieved at 400 deg. C with the order parameter S ranging from 0.73 to 0.83, high coercivity of about 5356 kA/m, high negative nucleation field of about 7700 kA/m and high squareness ratio ranging from 0.73 to 0.79. The advantage of using plasma focus device is that it can lower phase transition temperature and significantly enhance the magnetic properties by a pulsed single shot exposure.

  3. Amplitude reduction and phase shifts of melatonin, cortisol and other circadian rhythms after a gradual advance of sleep and light exposure in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derk-Jan Dijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phase and amplitude of rhythms in physiology and behavior are generated by circadian oscillators and entrained to the 24-h day by exposure to the light-dark cycle and feedback from the sleep-wake cycle. The extent to which the phase and amplitude of multiple rhythms are similarly affected during altered timing of light exposure and the sleep-wake cycle has not been fully characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the phase and amplitude of the rhythms of melatonin, core body temperature, cortisol, alertness, performance and sleep after a perturbation of entrainment by a gradual advance of the sleep-wake schedule (10 h in 5 days and associated light-dark cycle in 14 healthy men. The light-dark cycle consisted either of moderate intensity 'room' light (∼90-150 lux or moderate light supplemented with bright light (∼10,000 lux for 5 to 8 hours following sleep. After the advance of the sleep-wake schedule in moderate light, no significant advance of the melatonin rhythm was observed whereas, after bright light supplementation the phase advance was 8.1 h (SEM 0.7 h. Individual differences in phase shifts correlated across variables. The amplitude of the melatonin rhythm assessed under constant conditions was reduced after moderate light by 54% (17-94% and after bright light by 52% (range 12-84%, as compared to the amplitude at baseline in the presence of a sleep-wake cycle. Individual differences in amplitude reduction of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the amplitude of body temperature, cortisol and alertness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Alterations in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and associated bright or moderate light exposure can lead to changes in phase and reduction of circadian amplitude which are consistent across multiple variables but differ between individuals. These data have implications for our understanding of circadian organization and the negative health outcomes associated with shift

  4. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  5. Isolation from soils ofNitrobacter and evidence for novel serotypes using immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josserand, A; Cleyet-Marel, J C

    1979-09-01

    To study the ecology of chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria (Nitrobacter), the immunofluorescence technique has been used. Fluorescent antibodies againstNitrobacter winogradskyi andNitrobacter agilis, the two known serotypes, have not labeled strains isolated from soils of the Lyon region (pH 8.1 and pH 4.7). The pure-culture isolates appeared to belong to the same genus, but to be serologically different from the reference strains. These results led us to question the diversity of strains ofNitrobacter in soils.

  6. Localization of stationary pronuclei during conjugation of Paramecium as indicated by immunofluorescence staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Xian-Yu; Yuan, Jin-Qiang; Wang, Yi-Wen; Song, Min-Guo

    2011-08-01

    After the third prezygotic division during conjugation of Paramecium caudatum, migratory and stationary pronuclei are produced. The migratory pronuclei remain in the paroral region tightly against the conjugating boundaries; while the stationary pronuclei are located beside the migratory pronuclei. To date, however, it is not clear what causes this close side-by-side localization between migratory and stationary pronuclei. In the current study, immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibody of anti-α tubulin indicated that ''U'' or ''V'' shaped spindles connected the migratory and stationary pronuclei during the third prezygotic division. This observation accounts for the close localization between these two types of pronuclei.

  7. Optimized Protocol of Methanol Treatment for Immunofluorescent Staining in Fixed Brain Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Xiong, Guoxiang; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S

    2017-03-01

    We optimized methanol treatment in paraformaldehyde-fixed slices for immunofluorescent staining of ependymal basal bodies in brain ventricles. As 100% methanol induced severe deformations to the slices (including rolling and folding over), we tried to decrease methanol concentration. We found that 33.3% to 75% methanol could result in ideal immunostaining of basal bodies without inducing obvious deformations. Instead of treating slices at -20°C (without proper cryoprotection measurements) as suggested in previous studies, we carried out methanol treatment at room temperature. Our modified protocol can not only raise immunostaining efficiency in tissue slices, it may also prevent potential freezing damages to the samples.

  8. Development of immunofluorescence colony staining (IFC) for detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp michiganensis in tomato seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, J.; Vuurde, van J.W.L.

    2006-01-01

    Immunofluorescence colony-staining (IFC) is based on sample pour plating in combination with immunofluorescence staining for recognition of the target colony. IFC was optimised for detecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in

  9. A compromise phase position for permanent night shift workers: circadian phase after two night shifts with scheduled sleep and light/dark exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clara; Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2006-01-01

    Night shift work is associated with a myriad of health and safety risks. Phase-shifting the circadian clock such that it is more aligned with night work and day sleep is one way to attenuate these risks. However, workers will not be satisfied with complete adaptation to night work if it leaves them misaligned during days off. Therefore, the goal of this set of studies is to produce a compromise phase position in which individuals working night shifts delay their circadian clocks to a position that is more compatible with nighttime work and daytime sleep yet is not incompatible with late nighttime sleep on days off. This is the first in the set of studies describing the magnitude of circadian phase delays that occurs on progressively later days within a series of night shifts interspersed with days off. The series will be ended on various days in order to take a "snapshot" of circadian phase. In this set of studies, subjects sleep from 23:00 to 7:00 h for three weeks. Following this baseline period, there is a series of night shifts (23:00 to 07:00 h) and days off. Experimental subjects receive five 15 min intermittent bright light pulses (approximately 3500 lux; approximately 1100 microW/cm2) once per hour during the night shifts, wear sunglasses that attenuate all visible wavelengths--especially short wavelengths ("blue-blockers")--while traveling home after the shifts, and sleep in the dark (08:30-15:30 h) after each night shift. Control subjects remain in typical dim room light (light, and sleep whenever they want after the night shifts. Circadian phase is determined from the circadian rhythm of melatonin collected during a dim light phase assessment at the beginning and end of each study. The sleepiest time of day, approximated by the body temperature minimum (Tmin), is estimated by adding 7 h to the dim light melatonin onset. In this first study, circadian phase was measured after two night shifts and day sleep periods. The Tmin of the experimental subjects (n

  10. Choice of Illumination System & Fluorophore for Multiplex Immunofluorescence on FFPE Tissue Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishen, Ria E. B.; Kluth, David C.; Bellamy, Christopher O. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of novel dyes and alternative light sources to facilitate complex tissue immunofluorescence studies such as multiplex labelling has not been matched by reports critically evaluating the considerations and relative benefits of these new tools, particularly in combination. Product information is often limited to wavelengths used for older fluorophores (FITC, TRITC & corresponding Alexa dyes family). Consequently, novel agents such as Quantum dots are not widely appreciated or used, despite highly favourable properties including extremely bright emission, stability and potentially reduced tissue autofluorescence at the excitation wavelength. Using spectral analysis, we report here a detailed critical appraisal and comparative evaluation of different light sources and fluorophores in multiplex immunofluorescence of clinical biopsy sections. The comparison includes mercury light, metal halide and 3 different LED-based systems, using 7 Qdots (525, 565, 585, 605, 625, 705), Cy3 and Cy5. We discuss the considerations relevant to achieving the best combination of light source and fluorophore for accurate multiplex fluorescence quantitation. We highlight practical limitations and confounders to quantitation with filter-based approaches. PMID:27632367

  11. Histologic, ultrastructural, and immunofluorescent evaluation of human laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis corneal wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Daniel G; Kramer, Theresa R; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Waring, George O; Edelhauser, Henry F

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate human corneas after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis at different postoperative intervals. Thirty-eight postmortem corneas from 20 patients with postoperative intervals from 2 months to 6.5 years after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery were collected from eye banks. The corneas were trisected and processed for conventional histologic analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed focal undulations in Bowman layer, focal epithelial hypertrophic modifications, and a variably thick (range, 0.4-16.4-mum) lamellar stromal interface scar in all specimens. The flap wound margin, which was adjacent to the epithelium, healed by producing an approximately 8-mum-thick hypercellular fibrotic stromal scar, whereas the central and paracentral wound regions healed differently because a thinner (approximately 5-mum) hypocellular primitive stromal scar was present in all the corneas examined. Immunofluorescence identified increased type 3 collagen and myofibroblasts in the hypercellular fibrotic scar regions and decreased or absent levels of all corneal stromal components other than type 1 collagen in the hypocellular primitive scar regions. After laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery, the keratocyte-mediated production of a variably thick lamellar corneal stromal scar occurs, resulting in 2 regional types of scarring. The hypercellular fibrotic scar at the wound margin is usually visible clinically and functions to hold the flap in place, while the more central hypocellular primitive scar is not visible clinically and allows easy lifting of the flap postoperatively.

  12. The use of Biochip immunofluorescence microscopy for the serological diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Angelo Valerio; Cozzani, Emanuele; Biasin, Matteo; Russo, Irene; Alaibac, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a rare autoimmune bullous disease characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies directed against the collagen type VII. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical history, clinical features, histology, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and ELISA. Our study aims to determine the validity of the Biochip immunofluorescence microscopy for the serological diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Six patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and presence of antibodies against type VII collagen confirmed by ELISA were included in the study. Subsequently, all sera of patients were analyzed using Biochip. Antibodies anti-collagen type VII were detected in all sera by means of the Biochip technology. Thus, Biochip shows a good correlation with ELISA and seems to be an appropriate method for the diagnosis of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. It is an easy, fast and standardized method which could facilitate the diagnosis of this autoimmune bullous disease. We suggest that it could be used as an initial screening test to identify patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  13. Nail unit in collagen vascular diseases: A clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities of the nail unit are common in patients with connective tissue diseases. Clinical examination of the nail unit, coupled with biopsy of proximal nail fold offers an additional advantage in the diagnosis. Purpose: Our aim was to record clinical changes of the nail unit in connective tissue diseases and to study the histopathological (both H and E and periodic acid Schiff and direct immunofluorescence (DIF findings of nail-fold biopsy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight confirmed cases connective tissue diseases attending skin OPD were enrolled in the study. After detailed clinical examination of the nail unit, a crescentric biopsy was taken from the proximal nail fold (PNF. Histopathological and DIF studies were was carried out. Findings: Nail changes could be demonstrated in 65% connective tissue diseases. Specific histopathological (H and E and immunofluorescence findings were also encountered in many patients. Conclusion: Clinical examination of the nail unit offers additional clue in the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases. Though DIF of PNF biopsy is useful in the diagnosis, it is not an ideal site for H and E study, as the yield is very low. Limitations: Lack of adequate comparison group and non-utilization of capillary microscopy for the detection of nail fold capillary abnormalities.

  14. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of fecal streptococci for rapid assessment of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlova, M.T.; Beauvais, E.; Brezenski, F.T.; Litsky, W.

    1975-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques were employed in an attempt to develop a rapid test for the identification of fecal streptococci. Fresh isolates were obtained from river waters and raw sewage. Identification to species were made by the conventional physiological, biochemical, and serological tests. Both whole and disrupted cells of representative strains of each species were used for the preparation of the fecal streptococcal vaccine. Globulin fractions of individual and pooled antisera were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate, and the resulting conjugates were tested with homologous and heterologous antigens. The present findings suggest that the immunofluorescence techniques can be employed in the determination of the presence and source of fecal pollution in water employing the fecal streptococci as indicator organisms. By using this method it was determined that fecal streptococci can be identified from water and sewage samples within 20 hours. Parenthetically it should be noted that the identification procedures using the routine biochemical and serological tests may take as long as 7 to 14 days. The procedure may be automated for continual monitoring.

  15. Original Approach for Automated Quantification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies by Indirect Immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bertin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is the gold standard method for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA which are essential markers for the diagnosis of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. For the discrimination of positive and negative samples, we propose here an original approach named Immunofluorescence for Computed Antinuclear antibody Rational Evaluation (ICARE based on the calculation of a fluorescence index (FI. Methods. We made comparison between FI and visual evaluations on 237 consecutive samples and on a cohort of 25 patients with SLE. Results. We obtained very good technical performance of FI (95% sensitivity, 98% specificity, and a kappa of 0.92, even in a subgroup of weakly positive samples. A significant correlation between quantification of FI and IIF ANA titers was found (Spearman's ρ=0.80, P<0.0001. Clinical performance of ICARE was validated on a cohort of patients with SLE corroborating the fact that FI could represent an attractive alternative for the evaluation of antibody titer. Conclusion. Our results represent a major step for automated quantification of IIF ANA, opening attractive perspectives such as rapid sample screening and laboratory standardization.

  16. Clinical Implications of Direct Immunofluorescence Findings in Patients With Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labowsky, Mary T; Stinnett, Sandra S; Liss, Jason; Daluvoy, Melissa; Hall, Russell P; Shieh, Christine

    2017-11-01

    To examine the clinical implications of positive or negative direct immunofluorescence biopsies (DIF) in patients with clinically typical ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP). Retrospective cohort study. The study population was patients with clinically typical ocular MMP disease with documented DIF results who were followed for at least 1 year at the Duke University multidisciplinary ocular MMP clinic. Data were collected by chart review and included patient demographics, clinical examination findings, and history of autoimmune disease and/or malignancy, as well as topical, systemic, and surgical treatments received. Main outcome measures included MMP Disease Area Index, Foster stages, proportion legally blind, duration of follow-up, and use of systemic immunosuppression and ocular procedures in treatment. In multivariable analysis restricted to 55 patients, patients with negative and positive biopsies were similar in the outcome measures; however, positive-biopsy patients were more likely to be treated with systemic immunosuppression and were followed for longer at our clinic. Patients with isolated ocular disease were also more likely to have negative biopsies compared to those who also had extraocular disease. Patients who had conjunctival biopsies were more likely to have a negative direct immunofluorescence result than patients with biopsies from other sites. We encourage clinicians and patients to consider treatment with systemic immunosuppression even in the absence of diagnosis confirmation by DIF. Furthermore, this study supports current standard of care to pursue a nonocular biopsy of normal-appearing, perilesional skin or oral mucosa when possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Dynamically-enhanced retention of gold nanoclusters in HeLa cells following X-rays exposure: A cell cycle phase-dependent targeting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Weiqiang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Li, Ping; Li, Feifei; Zhang, Hongpeng; Zou, Guozhang; Li, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Cell cycle phase could affect the cellular uptake of nanoparticles. Based on the fact that ionizing radiation exposure can delay cell cycle progression including inducing G2/M phase arrest, we propose that ionizing radiation exposure is a cell cycle phase-dependent targeting approach for intracellular delivery of nano-agents in tumor cells. We synthesized luminescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) using a one-pot green synthetic method. Subsequently, we used the as-prepared AuNCs as both "nano-agents" and fluorescent trafficking probes for our study using human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Estimating the cellular uptake of AuNCs and cell cycle analysis were performed following X-rays irradiation and cell synchronization. Our work showed that X-rays irradiation could delay the division of HeLa cells and thereby enhance the retention of AuNCs in HeLa cells, which is a reverse strategy compared with other studies on synergistic nano-radiotherapy. Our results demonstrated that the cell cycle synchronization influenced the cellular uptake processes of AuNCs, suggesting that dynamic cell cycle progression could affect the cellular uptake kinetics of AuNCs. We consider that the radiation-induced cell division delay might provide a possible mechanism underlying the enhanced effect for the cellular uptake of AuNCs in irradiated HeLa cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Professional ski waxers' exposure to PFAS and aerosol concentrations in gas phase and different particle size fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Westberg, Håkan

    2013-04-01

    Previous reports show that professional ski waxers have elevated blood levels of perfluorinated substances (PFAS) such as perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and are exposed to very high concentrations of PFAS in air during ski waxing. Aerosol exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, and PFOA is a potential hormonal disruptor and carcinogen, and can affect the fatty acid metabolism. Animal studies have shown that 8:2 FTOH can undergo biotransformation to PFOA. For the first time, this study presents an occupational scenario of professional ski waxers who are exposed to extremely high dust levels as well as per- and polyfluorinated compounds. Personal and fixed measurements of total aerosol, inhalable and respirable fractions were performed during World Cup events 2007-2010. The occupational exposure limit (OEL) is exceeded in 37% of the personal measurements with concentrations up to 15 mg m(-3) in air. There are differences between personal and area total aerosol concentrations with levels from personal measurements twice as high as those from the area measurements. The personal levels for FTOH ranged up to 996 μg m(-3) (mean = 114 μg m(-3)) and for PFOA up to 4.89 μg m(-3) (mean = 0.53 μg m(-3)) in ENV+ sorbent samples as compared to the general exposure levels from air reaching only low ng m(-3) (PFAS is not in compliance with the occupational exposure standards and by far exceed the general populations' exposure. Preventive measures must be taken to minimize the exposure in this occupational group.

  19. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  20. Exposure to gamma-rays at the telogen phase of the hair cycle inhibits hair follicle regeneration at the anagen phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Kimihiko; Hirobe, Tomohisa

    2014-02-01

    The effects of ionizing radiations on somatic stem cells largely remain to be studied. Hair follicles are self-renewing structures that reconstitute themselves throughout the hair cycle, which is comprised of the following phases: Anagen (growth), catagen (regression) and telogen (resting), suggesting the presence of their own stem cells. The whole bodies of C57BL/10JHir mice in the 1st telogen phase were irradiated with γ-rays. Mice were examined for effects on hair follicles, including their number, morphology and pigmentation in the 2nd anagen phase. Decreased hair follicle density and induction of curved hair follicles were observed in the dermal skin of irradiated mice. In addition to these keratinocyte-derived anomalies, melanocyte-derived anomalies including white hair and hypopigmented hair bulbs were found. The decrease in hair follicle density and the increase in the frequency of hypopigmented hair bulbs were dependent on the dose of γ-rays. These results suggest that γ-rays damage stem cells and progenitors for keratinocytes and melanocytes, thereby affecting the structure and character of regenerated hair follicles. The density of hair follicles and pigment production in hair bulbs are established as criteria for the effects of γ-rays on the hair cycle.

  1. Phage exposure causes dynamic shifts in the expression states of specific phase-variable genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidley, Jack; Holst Sørensen, Martine C.; Bayliss, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Phase variation (PV) creates phenotypic heterogeneity at high frequencies and in a reversible manner. This phenomenon allows bacteria to adapt to a variety of different environments and selective pressures. In Campylobacter jejuni this reversible adaptive process is mediated by mutations...... in homopolymeric G/C tracts. Many C. jejuni-specific phages are dependent on phase-variable surface structures for successful infection. We previously identified the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) moiety, MeOPN-GalfNAc, as a receptor for phage F336 and showed that phase-variable expression of the transferase...... for this CPS modification, cj1421, and two other phase-variable CPS genes generated phage resistance in C. jejuni. Here we investigate the population dynamics of C. jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to phage F336 in vitro using a newly described method - the 28-locus-CJ11168 PV analysis. Dynamic switching...

  2. Phage exposure causes dynamic shifts in the expression states of specific phase-variable genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aidley, Jack; Holst Sørensen, Martine C.; Bayliss, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Phase variation (PV) creates phenotypic heterogeneity at high frequencies and in a reversible manner. This phenomenon allows bacteria to adapt to a variety of different environments and selective pressures. In Campylobacter jejuni this reversible adaptive process is mediated by mutations in homop......Phase variation (PV) creates phenotypic heterogeneity at high frequencies and in a reversible manner. This phenomenon allows bacteria to adapt to a variety of different environments and selective pressures. In Campylobacter jejuni this reversible adaptive process is mediated by mutations...... in homopolymeric G/C tracts. Many C. jejuni-specific phages are dependent on phase-variable surface structures for successful infection. We previously identified the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) moiety, MeOPN-GalfNAc, as a receptor for phage F336 and showed that phase-variable expression of the transferase...

  3. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL AND PHASE TRANSITIONS OF MULTICOMPONENT ALLOYS UNDER PULSED LASER EXPOSURE IN THE AIR BY METHODS OF CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Veiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with computational thermodynamic method for determination of phase chemical composition of metal alloys surface formed under laser action in the atmosphere, depending on its volume components, conditions of laser exposure and atmosphere composition. By giving an example of laser heating of complex alloy (alloyed steel in the air it is demonstrated that from a set of various possible reactions of interaction between iron, nickel or chrome with air components (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, their compounds, atmospheric moisture, etc., only strictly defined reactions are realized. Primarily, these are metal oxidation processes with the formation of an oxide film, whose phase and chemical composition is determined by temperature and heating time. Calculation data are confirmed by the experimental data provided by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase in office environment in Shanghai, China: occurrence and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Chen, Ling; Ngoc, Duong Minh; Duan, Yan-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bo; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total suspended particles (TSP) with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209) were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs). Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm) bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs), indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai.

  5. Haloperidol treatment at pre-exposure phase reduces the disturbance of latent inhibition in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Animals with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions develop during or after adolescence abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia such as anxiety and latent inhibition disruption. The aim of this study was to test whether haloperidol injection prior to pre-exposure session in the latent inhibition test would facilitate latent inhibition. Lesioned animals showed a significant decrease in the number and duration of social interactions, a decrease in the marbles buried, a significant increase in locomotor activity, and a disruption of latent inhibition. In the conditioned taste aversion test, injection of haloperidol produced the recovery of latent inhibition. These findings demonstrate that neonatal lidocaine lesion of the ventral hippocampus can induce behavioral changes related to schizophrenia, and injection of haloperidol, when restricted only to a three-day pre-exposure, is sufficient to facilitate latent inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Microtubules in Plant Cells: Strategies and Methods for Immunofluorescence, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Live Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celler, Katherine; Fujita, Miki; Kawamura, Eiko; Ambrose, Chris; Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are required throughout plant development for a wide variety of processes, and different strategies have evolved to visualize and analyze them. This chapter provides specific methods that can be used to analyze microtubule organization and dynamic properties in plant systems and summarizes the advantages and limitations for each technique. We outline basic methods for preparing samples for immunofluorescence labeling, including an enzyme-based permeabilization method, and a freeze-shattering method, which generates microfractures in the cell wall to provide antibodies access to cells in cuticle-laden aerial organs such as leaves. We discuss current options for live cell imaging of MTs with fluorescently tagged proteins (FPs), and provide chemical fixation, high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution, and post-fixation staining protocols for preserving MTs for transmission electron microscopy and tomography.

  7. Triple immunofluorescence labeling of atherosclerotic plaque components in apoE/LDLR -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Mariusz; Jawień, Jacek; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Lis, Grzegorz J; Radziszewski, Andrzej; Chłopicki, Stefan; Litwin, Jan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable method of triple immunofluorescence staining that allows simultaneous detection of various cell types present in atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/-) mice. We used combined direct and indirect procedures applying commercially available primary antibodies raised in different species to detect smooth muscle cells (Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-smooth muscle actin, SMA), macrophages (rat anti-CD68) and T lymphocytes (rabbit anti-CD3). Fixation of the material in acetone and modified incubation protocol employing nonfat dry milk in preincubation and incubation media significantly increased the intensity of labeling and effectively quenched the background. Our method offers an efficient way to detect qualitative as well as quantitative changes of macrophages, T lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaque of apoE/LDLR -/- mice during atherosclerosis development or in response to pharmacological treatment.

  8. Triple immunofluorescence labeling of atherosclerotic plaque components in apoE/LDLR -/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Chłopicki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple and reliable method of triple immunofluorescence staining that allows simultaneous detection of various cell types present in atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/- mice. We used combined direct and indirect procedures applying commercially available primary antibodies raised in different species to detect smooth muscle cells (Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-smooth muscle actin, SMA, macrophages (rat anti-CD68 and T lymphocytes (rabbit anti-CD3. Fixation of the material in acetone and modified incubation protocol employing nonfat dry milk in preincubation and incubation media significantly increased the intensity of labeling and effectively quenched the background. Our method offers an efficient way to detect qualitative as well as quantitative changes of macrophages, T lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaque of apoE/LDLR -/- mice during atherosclerosis development or in response to pharmacological treatment.

  9. Direct immunofluorescence in granuloma faciale: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas, M A; Curell, R; Alomar, A

    2006-07-01

    A 49-year-old male presented at our department with erythematous brownish plaques in the malar areas and left cheek of 9 years' evolution. Histopathological study revealed a dense, predominantly perivascular, inflammatory infiltrate in the reticular dermis. The infiltrate was composed of abundant neutrophils, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Leukocytoclasia and fibrin in some vessel walls were also observed. The patient was diagnosed with granuloma faciale (GF). Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) study showed heavy immunoglobulin G (IgG) and less intense deposits of IgA, IgM, C(3) and C(1q) surrounding superficial and deep vessels of the reticular dermis. Perivascular and diffuse fibrinogen deposits were also present. No deposits were detected at the dermoepidermal junction. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that classical pathway activation of complement may be involved in the development of vasculitis in GF.

  10. Ammonium improves elution of fixed dried blood spots without affecting immunofluorescence assay quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borremans, Benny

    2014-04-01

    To solve the problem of fixed dried blood spot elution without damaging IgG antibodies. The minimum effective concentration of liquid ammonium (NH3 ) in a PBS solution, which was found to elute fixed blood, was determined. By using a dilution series, the effects of NH3 on IgG antibody quality were assessed using immunofluorescence assays. The minimum effective concentration of 0.2% NH3 has no detectable effects on IgG quality. Ammonium greatly improves blood elution from fixed DBS while maintaining IgG antibody quality. These results are encouraging and provide a basis for further testing of the efficacy of ammonium in different situations as well as its effect on other compounds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A rare case of signet ring cell lymphoma: Diagnosis aided by immunofluorescent staining

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    Charusheela R Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Signet ring cell lymphomas are the proliferations of malignant lymphoid cells containing cytoplasmic vacuoles or globules which displace the nuclei, imparting it a signet ring appearance. This rare tumor is a variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Signet ring appearance is due to cytoplasmic accumulation of immunoglobulin or vacuoles derived from multivesicular bodies. These cells, particularly with cytoplasmic vacuoles, may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma cells. We are presenting one such case where immunofluorescence helped us to demonstrate the immunoglobulins on fine needle aspiration smears. This is an innovative technique and has not been reported earlier. Our aim of presenting this case is to review the awareness of this rare lymphoma among pathologists to give due consideration for avoiding inappropriate investigations and treatment.

  12. Studies on bluetongue. V. Detection of the virus in infected materials by immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckerbauer, G M; Gray, D P; Girard, A; Bannister, G L; Boulanger, P

    1967-07-01

    The fluorescent-antibody technique was employed for the detection of bluetongue virus in bovine foetal kidney cell cultures inoculated with tissues and blood from experimentally infected animals. In the first series, a total number of 79 inoculated suckling-mouse brains were examined, 36 as frozen sections alone and 43 as impression slides in conjunction with tissue culture inoculation of the same material. With the combined tissue culture immunofluorescent methods, 36 suspicious were detected by impression smears and 37 positives by the tissue culture out of 43 brains examined. Twenty-two were suspicious out of the 36 examined as frozen sections. Results obtained with the second series, using sheep tissues, showed that the combined tissue culture-fluorescent antibody method was satisfactory for demonstrating the virus in blood of infected animals 1 to 9 days postinfection, and in some organs after death. No false positive reactions were obtained.

  13. [Markers for Immunofluorescence Analysis Based on Europium Complex with Fluorinated β-Diketones Carbazole Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostryukova, T S; Ivanovskaya, N P; Zatonsky, G V; Osin, N S; Vasilev, N V

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop new markers for immunofluorescence time-resolved luminescence analysis tetraketodiester carbazole series was obtained. Compound contains methoxycarbonyl reactive groups, separated from the 1,3-dicarbonyl chelating fragment by difluoromethylene spacers (CF2)4. Complexes of this compound with the ions Eu3+ are stable in aqueous solution and possess a long-living intensive luminescence with the main peaks: emission--in the area of 615 nm and excitation--in the 380-390 nm, that distinguishes them from most used analogues. Conjugate of streptavidin to compound was obtained and its fluorescent spectral characteristics allow to use it as a universal reagent for various schemes of biological microanalysis.

  14. Staining pattern classification of antinuclear autoantibodies based on block segmentation in indirect immunofluorescence images.

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    Jiaqian Li

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image with a total accuracy of about 94.62%.

  15. Immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin-embedded human kidney specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

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    Rantala, I; Laasonen, A; Pasternack, A; Mustonen, J

    1983-04-01

    Recently, we have introduced an atraumatic fine-needle aspiration biopsy method to obtain human glomeruli for morphologic investigation. In the present study, immunofluorescence microscopy of paraffin-embedded, fine-needle specimens is described. The specimens were obtained by aspiration with a 10-mL syringe fitted to the fine-needle prepared from a lumbar puncture needle (Jintan Terumo). Embedding of the specimens into conventional paraffin blocks was carried out after pelleting them by centrifugation between processing steps in conical centrifuge tubes. Sections from the blocks were collected on small pieces of GelBond film (FMC Corporation) instead of objective slides, which prevented the detachment of small sections during enzyme treatment. Localization then was performed on deparaffinized trypsin-digested sections using fluorescein-labeled antibodies. The choice of fixative and digestive enzymes was found to have a marked effect on the localization; periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixative and trypsin digestion gave the most reliable results.

  16. Optimized detection of circulating anti-nuclear envelope autoantibodies by immunofluorescence

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    Kouroumalis Elias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antinuclear antibodies are useful diagnostic tools in several autoimmune diseases. However, the routine detection of nuclear envelope autoantibodies using immunofluorescence (IF is not always easy to perform in patients' sera because of the presence of autoantibodies to other nuclear and cytoplasmic components which could mask the characteristic rim-like pattern of nuclear envelope autoantibodies. This is particularly common in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, which generaly have high titres of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Therefore, we have assayed a number of commercial slides and alternative fixation conditions to optimize the detection of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies (ANEA in PBC sera. Methods We have explored the presence of ANEA in 33 sera from patients with established PBC using three different Hep2 commercial slides and home-made slides with HeLa and Hep2 cells fixed with methanol, ethanol, 1% or 4% formaldehyde. Results We observed that the IF pattern was related to the cell type used (Hep2 or HeLa, the manufacturer and the cell fixation scheme. When both cell lines were fixed with 1% formaldehyde, the intensity of the cytoplasmic staining was considerably decreased regardless to the serum sample, whereas the prevalence of cytoplasmic autoantibodies was significantly lowered, as compared to any of the Hep2 commercial slide and fixation used. In addition, the prevalence of ANEA was importantly increased in formaldehyde-fixed cells. Conclusion Immunofluorescence using appropriately fixed cells represent an easy, no time-consuming and low cost technique for the routine screening of sera for ANEA. Detection of ANEA is shown to be more efficient using formaldehyde-fixed cells instead of commercially available Hep2 cells.

  17. Variability in the recognition of distinctive immunofluorescence patterns in different brands of HEp-2 cell slides

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    Alessandra Dellavance

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells is considered the gold standard for the detection of autoantibodies against cellular antigens. However, the culture conditions, cell fixation and permeabilization processes interfere directly in the preservation and spatial distribution of antigens. Therefore, one can assume that certain peculiarities in the processing of cellular substrate may affect the recognition of indirect immunofluorescence patterns associated with several autoantibodies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a panel of serum samples representing nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic, mitotic apparatus, and chromosome plate patterns on HEp-2 cell substrates from different suppliers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven blinded observers, independent from the three selected reference centers, evaluated 17 samples yielding different nuclear, nucleolar, cytoplasmic and mitotic apparatus patterns on HEp-2 cell slides from eight different brands. The slides were coded to maintain confidentiality of both brands and participating centers. RESULTS: The 17 HEp-2 cell patterns were identified on most substrates. Nonetheless, some slides showed deficit in the expression of several patterns: nuclear coarse speckled/U1-ribonucleoprotein associated with antibodies against RNP (U1RNP, centromeric protein F (CENP-F, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cytoplasmic fine speckled associated with anti-Jo-1 antibodies (histidyl synthetase, nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA-1 and nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 2 (NuMA-2. CONCLUSION: Despite the overall good quality of the assessed HEp-2 substrates, there was considerable inconsistency in results among different commercial substrates. The variations may be due to the evaluated batches, hence generalizations cannot be made as to the respective brands. It is recommended that each new batch or new brand be tested with a panel of reference sera representing the various patterns.

  18. An expert protocol for immunofluorescent detection of calcium channels in tsA-201 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Herzig, Stefan; Matthes, Jan

    Pore-forming subunits of voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are large membrane proteins (260kDa) containing 24 transmembrane domains. Despite transfection with viral promoter driven vectors, biochemical analysis of VGCC is often hampered by rather low expression levels in heterologous systems rendering VGCC challenging targets. Especially in immunofluorescent detection, calcium channels are demanding proteins. We provide an expert step-by-step protocol with adapted conditions for handling procedures (tsA-201 cell culture, transient transfection, incubation time and temperature at 28°C or 37°C and immunostaining) to address the L-type calcium-channel pore Cav1.2 in an immunofluorescent approach. We performed immunocytochemical analysis of Cav1.2 expression at single-cell level in combination with detection of different markers for cellular organelles. We show confluency levels and shapes of tsA-201 cells at different time points during an experiment. Our experiments reveal sufficient levels of Cav1.2 protein and a correct Cav1.2 expression pattern in polygonal shaped cells already 12h after transfection. A sequence of elaborated protocol modifications allows subcellular localization analysis of Cav1.2 in an immunocytochemical approach. We provide a protocol that may be used to achieve insights into physiological and pathophysiological processes involving voltage gated calcium channels. Our protocol may be used for expression analysis of other challenging proteins and efficient overexpression may be exploited in related biochemical techniques requiring immunolabels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic exposure to ivabradine reduces readmissions in the vulnerable phase after hospitalization for worsening systolic heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of SHIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komajda, Michel; Tavazzi, Luigi; Swedberg, Karl; Böhm, Michael; Borer, Jeffrey S; Moyne, Aurélie; Ford, Ian

    2016-09-01

    During the post-discharge phase following a heart failure hospitalization (HFH), patients are at high risk of early readmission despite standard of care therapy. We examined the impact of chronic exposure to ivabradine on early readmissions in patients hospitalized for heart failure during the course of the SHIFT study (Systolic Heart Failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial). A total of 1186 of the 6505 randomized patients experienced at least one HFH during the study, and had a more severe profile than those without HFH. Of these 1186 patients, 334 patients (28%) were rehospitalized within 3 months for any reason, mostly for cardiovascular causes (86%), including HFH (61%). Ivabradine was associated with fewer all-cause hospitalizations at 1 month [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.00, P post-hoc analysis that chronic exposure to ivabradine reduces the incidence of all-cause hospitalizations during the vulnerable phase after a HFH. Further studies are needed to investigate if in-hospital or early post-discharge initiation of ivabradine could be useful to improve early outcomes in patients hospitalized for HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using solid-phase extraction and bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion to quantify the fungicide tebuconazole in controlled frog exposure study: analysis of water and animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Martin; Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan; Sedlak, David L; Hayes, Tyrone

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization, and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the concentration of the antifungal drug and fungicide tebuconazole in a controlled exposure study of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). The method is validated on animal tank water and on tissue from exposed and non-exposed adult X. laevis. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), the analytical method allows for quantification of tebuconazole at concentrations as low as 3.89 pg mL(-1) in 10 mL water samples. Using bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), it was possible to quantify tebuconazole down to 0.63 pg mg(-1) wet weight liver using 150 mg tissue. The deuterated analogue of tebuconazole was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 80.6-99.7% for water and 68.1-109% for tissue samples. The developed method was successfully applied in a 4-week X. laevis repeated-exposure study, revealing high levels of tebuconazole residues in adipose and liver tissue, and with experimental bioconcentration factors up to 18,244 L kg(-1).

  1. Comparison of new immunofluorescence method for detection of soy protein in meat products with immunohistochemical, histochemical, and ELISA methods

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    Michaela Petrášová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy proteins are commonly used in the food industry thanks to their technological properties. However, soy is, along with cow’s milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, responsible for around 90% of food allergies, and is also one of the foodstuffs that can cause anaphylaxis. The aim of this work was to compare the immunofluorescence method for the detection of soy protein in meat products purchased from the retail market with other microscopic methods (immunohistochemical and histochemical, with the ELISA reference method and with the confirmatory results. Within the research, 127 meat products purchased in the retail network were examined using the immunofluorescence method used for the detection of soy protein. The method was compared to Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, immunohistochemical, and histochemical methods. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and immunohistochemical method was low. In addition, a significant difference between the fluorescence method and ELISA (P P < 0.01 was found. The immunofluorescence method was also compared with confirmatory results. According to McNemar’s test, non-compliance between the immunofluorescence method and confirmatory results was low. The results showed the possibilities of this new method to detect the content of soy protein in meat products.

  2. Hepatic phase I and II biotransformation responses and contaminant exposure in long-finned pilot whales from the Northeastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoydal, Katrin S; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Letcher, Robert J; Dam, Maria; Arukwe, Augustine

    2017-12-19

    Faroe Island pilot whales have been documented to have high body burdens of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but low burdens of their respective hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs). The present study investigated the hepatic expression and/or catalytic activities of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in relation to hepatic concentrations of target OHCs, including OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs, in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Northeastern Atlantic. CYP1A, 2B, 2E and 3A protein expressions were identified in juveniles and adult males, but not in adult females. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was significantly lower in adult females than in juveniles and adult males. Using multivariate analyses to investigate relationships between biological responses and OHC concentrations, a positive relationship was identified between EROD and OHCs. The activity levels of phase II conjugating enzymes (uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase [UDPGT], and glutathione S-transferase [GST]) were low. The analyses of mRNA expression did not show correlative relationships with OHC concentrations, but cyp1a and ahr transcripts were positively correlated with EROD activity. We suggest that the low concentrations of OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs reported in pilot whales is probably due to the identified low phase I biotransformation activities in the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Doping Liquid Crystal Cells with Photocurable Monomer via Holographic Exposure to Realize Optical-Scattering-Free Infrared Phase Modulators with Fast Response Time

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    Chun-Yu Chien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocurable monomer-doped liquid crystal (LC cells were processed via holographic exposure using a low-power He–Ne laser to generate holographic polymer networks. The polymer network LC (PNLC cells are used to fabricate infrared phase modulators at 1550 nm wavelength possessing favorable electro-optical performance. Compared with our previous work, the percentages of ingredients in the LC mixture filled in PNLC cells underwent a slight change. The 2 wt% concentration of anisotropic monomer RM257 were in place of isotropic monomer N–vinyl–2–pyrrolidinone (NVP. As a result, the fabricated phase modulators also maintained well homogeneous LC alignments and optical-scattering-free characteristics. Furthermore, NVP dopant successfully reduced the operating voltages from 95 Vrms to 79 Vrms to prevent polymer network deformation when electrically operating with higher voltages. The fabricated infrared phase modulators had a good average response time (i.e., rising time of 0.88 ms and falling time of 0.40 ms.

  4. Correlation of antinuclear antibody immunofluorescence patterns with immune profile using line immunoassay in the Indian scenario.

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    Sebastian, Wendy; Roy, Atanu; Kini, Usha; Mullick, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Immunity status, individual response to disease and types of antibodies produced are well known to vary from person to person, place to place and probably from population to population. A broad spectrum of specific auto antibodies that have so far been associated with specific rheumatic diseases, as noted in Western literature, has been well taken as a reference standard all over the world. There is neither research work nor any data correlating the auto antibodies and their antinuclear antibody (ANA) patterns with the immunoprofile in the Indian population to date. To understand a definite association between ANA patterns and specific antibodies in the serum in the Indian study population and to document similarities / differences with the West. This prospective and retrospective double blind study was undertaken on the South Indian population referred for ANA testing by Indirect Immunofluorescence method and by immunoline methods. Serum samples of patients from a random South Indian population who sought medical help for rheumatic disease were subjected for ANA testing by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) method and line immunoassay during the study period of 27 months. Serum samples were processed in dilution of 1:100 using HEp - 2010 / liver biochip (Monkey) (EUROIMMUN AG). The serum samples which were further processed for line immunoassay were treated in 1:100 dilution on nylon strips coated with recombinant and purified antigens as discrete lines with plastic backing (EUROIMMUN AG) coated with antigens nRNP / Sm, Sm, SSA, Ro-52, SSB, Scl-70, PM-Scl, PCNA, Jo-1, CENP-B, dsDNA, nucleosomes, histones, ribosomal protein-P, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA-M2) along with a control band. The analysis was done by comparing the intensity of the reaction with positive control line by image analysis. The antinuclear antibody indirect immunofluorescence (ANA - IIF) patterns obtained were projectable to visualize a certain spectrum of specific antibodies such as

  5. Oral fat exposure increases the first phase triacylglycerol concentration due to release of stored lipid in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D

    2002-12-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat (through modified sham feeding, which entails mastication and expectoration of foods) augments the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, in part, though augmented lipid absorption. This study was designed to characterize early events in this process. At 2200 h, 25 healthy adults (13 men, 12 women) consumed 80 g of almonds (high oleic acid content) and fasted until approximately 0700 h. After placement of a catheter in a hand vein and 4 blood draws at 10-min intervals, 50 1-g safflower oil (high linoleic acid content) capsules were consumed. After another blood draw, modified sham feeding was initiated with a cracker only or cracker with cream cheese in random order with 1 wk between trials. Oral exposures occurred at 5-min intervals for 60 min then at 15-min intervals from min 60 to 120. Additional blood draws occurred at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 480 min. Oral stimulation, especially by fat, prompted the rapid (mean approximately 23 min) release of lipid stored from the previous meal (almonds) in all participants. This resulted in multimodal postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) peaks generally occurring at 0-30 min, 60-120 min and 240-480 min after loading and initiation of oral stimulation. TAG magnitudes during these times were correlated (r = 0.40-0.89, P absorption of meal lipid; this in turn supplements a later peak associated with release of endogenously synthesized TAG because lipid from all three sources competed for a common clearance mechanism. If substantiated, additional understanding of the behavioral factors (e.g., eating patterns) that initiate this cascade will be warranted.

  6. Medical Devices; Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Classification of the Automated Indirect Immunofluorescence Microscope and Software-Assisted System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the automated indirect immunofluorescence microscope and software-assisted system into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the automated indirect immunofluorescence microscope and software-assisted system's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  7. Detection of viral infection by immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed tissues, pretreated with trypsin

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    O. M. Barth

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of viral antigen in sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissues was demonstrated by trypsin digestion followed by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. The specimens may be used for retrospective diagnosis. The immunofluorescence technique has to be adapted to the suspected virus infection on the basis of previous histopathology study. Variations of trypsin concentration time and temperature of incubation, expose different viral antigens and have to be previously tested for each unknown system. For measles virus detection in lung a stronger digestion has to be applied as compared to adenovirus or respiratory disease viruses in the same tisue. Flavivirus in liver tissue needs a weaker digestion. The reproducibility of the method makes it useful as a routine technique in diagnosis of virus infection.A presença de antígeno viral em cortes de tecidos humanos fixados em formol e emblocados em parafina foi demonstrada pela digestão com tripsina foi demonstrada pela ingestão com tripsina seguida de imunofluorescência direta ou indireta. Os espécimens podem ser utilizados para diagnoses retrospectivas. A técnica da imunofluorescência deve ser adaptada à infecção viral suspeita segundo diagnosie histopatológica prévia. Os parâmetros para a digestão do tecido pela tripsina, relacionados à concentração, duração de atuação e temperatura, expõem diferentes antígenos virais e devem ser previamente testados para cada sistema a ser estabelecido. Uma digestão mais intensa deve ser aplicada para a detecção do vírus do sarampo em tecido pulmonar do que para adenovírus ou vírus respiratório sincicial no mesmo tecido. Por outro lado, o vírus da febre amarela em tecido de fígado necessita de uma digestão mais fraca.

  8. Solid-phase microextraction set-up for the analysis of liver volatolome to detect livestock exposure to micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Jihéne; Ratel, Jérémy; Abouelkaram, Said; Mercier, Frédéric; Travel, Angelique; Baéza, Elisabeth; Jondreville, Catherine; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dubreil, Estelle; Mompelat, Sophie; Verdon, Eric; Inthavong, Chanthadary; Guérin, Thierry; Rutledge, Douglas N; Engel, Erwan

    2017-05-12

    Starting from a critical analysis of a first "proof of concept" study on the utility of the liver volatolome for detecting livestock exposure to environmental micropollutants (Berge et al., 2011), the primary aim of this paper is to improve extraction conditions so as to obtain more representative extracts by using an extraction temperature closer to livestock physiological conditions while minimizing analytical variability and maximizing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) abundancies. Levers related to extraction conditions and sample preparation were assessed in the light of both abundance and coefficient of variation of 22 candidate VOC markers identified in earlier volatolomic studies. Starting with a CAR/PDMS fiber and a 30min extraction, the reduction of SPME temperature to 40°C resulted in a significant decrease in the area of 14 candidate VOC markers (p<0.05), mainly carbonyls and alcohols but also a reduction in the coefficient of variation for 17 of them. In order to restore VOC abundances and to minimize variability, two approaches dealing with sample preparation were investigated. By increasing sample defrosting time at 4°C from 0 to 24h yielded higher abundances and lower variabilities for 15 and 13 compounds, respectively. Lastly, by using additives favouring the release of VOCs (1.2g of NaCl) the sensitivity of the analysis was improved with a significant increase in VOC abundances of more than 50% for 13 out of the 22 candidate markers. The modified SPME parameters significantly enhanced the abundances while decreasing the analytical variability for most candidate VOC markers. The second step was to validate the ability of the revised SPME protocol to discriminate intentionally contaminated broiler chickens from controls, under case/control animal testing conditions. After verification of the contamination levels of the animals by national reference laboratories, data analysis by a multivariate chemometric method (Common Components and Specific

  9. Semi-automated, occupationally safe immunofluorescence microtip sensor for rapid detection of Mycobacterium cells in sputum.

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    Shinnosuke Inoue

    Full Text Available An occupationally safe (biosafe sputum liquefaction protocol was developed for use with a semi-automated antibody-based microtip immunofluorescence sensor. The protocol effectively liquefied sputum and inactivated microorganisms including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while preserving the antibody-binding activity of Mycobacterium cell surface antigens. Sputum was treated with a synergistic chemical-thermal protocol that included moderate concentrations of NaOH and detergent at 60°C for 5 to 10 min. Samples spiked with M. tuberculosis complex cells showed approximately 10(6-fold inactivation of the pathogen after treatment. Antibody binding was retained post-treatment, as determined by analysis with a microtip immunosensor. The sensor correctly distinguished between Mycobacterium species and other cell types naturally present in biosafe-treated sputum, with a detection limit of 100 CFU/mL for M. tuberculosis, in a 30-minute sample-to-result process. The microtip device was also semi-automated and shown to be compatible with low-cost, LED-powered fluorescence microscopy. The device and biosafe sputum liquefaction method opens the door to rapid detection of tuberculosis in settings with limited laboratory infrastructure.

  10. In-vivo immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis

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    Kaufman, Stephen C.; Laird, Jeffery A.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    1996-05-01

    The white-light confocal microscope offers an in vivo, cellular-level resolution view of the cornea. This instrument has proven to be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the study of infectious keratitis. In this study, we investigate the direct visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected corneal epithelium, with in vivo confocal microscopy, using HSV-1 immunofluorescent antibodies. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with McKrae strain of HSV-1 in one eye; the other eye of each rabbit was used as an uninfected control. Four days later, the rabbits were anesthetized and a cellulose sponge was applied to each cornea, and a drop of direct HSV fluorescein-tagged antibody was placed on each sponge every 3 to 5 minutes for 1 hour. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was then performed. The HSV-infected corneas showed broad regions of hyperfluorescent epithelial cells. The uninfected corneas revealed no background fluorescence. Thus, using the confocal microscope with a fluorescent cube, we were able to visualize HSV-infected corneal epithelial cells tagged with a direct fluorescent antibody. This process may prove to be a useful clinical tool for the in vivo diagnosis of HSV keratitis.

  11. Segment and fit thresholding: a new method for image analysis applied to microarray and immunofluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Elliot; Sinha, Jessica; Sinha, Arkadeep; Tang, Huiyuan; Calderone, Heather M; Hostetter, Galen; Winter, Jordan; Cherba, David; Brand, Randall E; Allen, Peter J; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Haab, Brian B

    2015-10-06

    Experiments involving the high-throughput quantification of image data require algorithms for automation. A challenge in the development of such algorithms is to properly interpret signals over a broad range of image characteristics, without the need for manual adjustment of parameters. Here we present a new approach for locating signals in image data, called Segment and Fit Thresholding (SFT). The method assesses statistical characteristics of small segments of the image and determines the best-fit trends between the statistics. Based on the relationships, SFT identifies segments belonging to background regions; analyzes the background to determine optimal thresholds; and analyzes all segments to identify signal pixels. We optimized the initial settings for locating background and signal in antibody microarray and immunofluorescence data and found that SFT performed well over multiple, diverse image characteristics without readjustment of settings. When used for the automated analysis of multicolor, tissue-microarray images, SFT correctly found the overlap of markers with known subcellular localization, and it performed better than a fixed threshold and Otsu's method for selected images. SFT promises to advance the goal of full automation in image analysis.

  12. Pattern of glomerular diseases in oman: A study based on light microscopy and immunofluorescence

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    Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy and immunofluorescence play an important part in the final diagnosis of renal biopsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of various glomerular diseases in Oman. A total of 424 renal biopsies were retrospectively analyzed at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between 1999 and 2010. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, minimal change disease (MCD, membranous glomerulopathy (MGN and IgA nephropathy were the most common primary glomerular diseases encountered, accounting for 21.2%, 17%, 12.3% and 8.3%, respectively, of all cases. Lupus nephritis was the most common secondary glomerular disease and was the most prevalent among all biopsies, accounting for 30.4% of all biopsies. Amyloidosis was seen in only two cases. The presence of fluorescein isothiocyanatefibrin in all renal cases was low when compared with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and C1q markers. In conclusion, based on the findings of this study, lupus nephritis was the most common of all glomerular diseases and FSGS was the most common primary glomerular disease. The importance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrin in the diagnosis of renal biopsy needs to be further investigated.

  13. Is psoriasis an autoimmune disease? Interpretations from an immunofluorescence-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Shashi; Gupta, Parikshaa; Bhardwaj, Ranjeet; Narang, Tarun; Dogra, Sunil; Minz, Ranjana W; Saikia, Biman; Chhabra, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multisystem, immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Some authors have proposed an autoimmune basis for psoriasis; however, till date, it has not been definitely established. This study was conducted to explore the autoimmune nature of psoriasis. This was a prospective study in which 43 psoriasis patients were assessed for detailed clinical, histopathological and immunopathological features to explore the diagnostic utility of subtypes, intensity and number of immunoreactants in lesional and non-lesional skin in these patients. In addition, the sera of these patients were analyzed for the presence of various autoantibodies. The patients' age ranged from 14 to 75 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.52:1. Nine patients (20.93%) were positive for antinuclear and 2 (4.65%) for antismooth muscle antibodies. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) was positive in 31 (72%) biopsies from the lesional and 27 (63%) biopsies from non-lesional skin. In all these DIF positive cases, granular deposits of C5b-9 were detected at the dermoepidermal junction. No significant difference was observed on comparing the type and pattern of immunoreactant positivity, among lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies (P > .05). No significant association between psoriasis and immunoreactant deposition as well as autoantibody seroprevalence was observed, thereby refuting a definite autoimmune basis for psoriasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Immunofluorescence study of corneal wound healing after excimer laser anterior keratectomy in the monkey eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, D S; Steinert, R F; Puliafito, C A; Dobi, E T

    1990-09-01

    We performed anterior keratectomies on six monkey eyes, four by excimer laser large-area ablation at 193 nm and two by mechanical keratectomy. Immunofluorescence was used to study the wound healing response histopathologically. The distribution of fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, collagen types III, IV, and VI, and keratan sulfate was determined at postoperative intervals of 24 hours, 6 days, and 1 month. At 24 hours, fibrinogen and fibronectin coated the ablated surface, but corneal epithelial cells had not yet migrated over the wound. By 6 days and persisting at 1 month, an epithelial ingrowth of seven to 10 layers, mild stromal hypercellularity, and new collagen formation were present in the repair region. At 1 month, fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, and type III collagen were strongly detected in the repair region. Type VI collagen was present in both normal and healed corneal stroma at all intervals, and type IV collagen was present in Descemet's membrane only. Sulfated keratan sulfate was absent from the newly synthesized collagen stroma at all intervals. Slit-lamp photographs demonstrated corneal haze in the ablation zone in all cases at 24 hours, persisting for 1 month. The fluorescence patterns produced by excimer laser ablation and mechanical keratectomy were qualitatively identical.

  15. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence with agar gel immunodiffusion for the diagnosis of bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, G M; Gatti, M S; Germano, P M; Pestana-de-Castro, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Sera from 190 cows and from 72 sheep were examined to compare the results obtained with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests for the diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) disease. 2. In the AGID test, 96 of 190 (50.5%) cattle serum samples and 38 of 72 (52.7%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 134 out of 262 (51.1%) sera. In the IIF test, 98 of 190 (51.6%) cattle serum samples and 39 of 72 (54.2%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 137 out of 262 (52.3%) sera. 3. The fluorescence of the IIF test presented a granular cytoplasmic aspect, which in some cells was observed only on the cell membranes. 4. Statistical analysis of the data showed close agreement between the two techniques, regardless of the kind of sera examined. The IIF test showed high sensitivity (93.8% and 92.1%), specificity (91.4% and 88.2%) and positive (91.8% and 89.7%) and negative (93.48% and 90.9%) predictive values for cattle serum and sheep serum, respectively. 5. The results obtained with IIF were comparable to those obtained with the AGID test, indicating that both techniques can be used routinely in epidemiologic studies of BT. However, the IIF offers the additional advantages that it can be used for antibody quantification and for the detection of viral antigens in BT-infected cell lines.

  16. Quantitative validation of immunofluorescence and lectin staining using reduced CLARITY acrylamide formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolewski, D M; Kumar, V; Martin, B; Tomer, R; Deisseroth, K; Myers, R M; Schatzberg, A F; Lee, F S; Barchas, J D; Bunney, W E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    2017-12-14

    The CLARITY technique enables three-dimensional visualization of fluorescent-labeled biomolecules in clarified intact brain samples, affording a unique view of molecular neuroanatomy and neurocircuitry. It is therefore, essential to find the ideal combination for clearing tissue and detecting the fluorescent-labeled signal. This method requires the formation of a formaldehyde-acrylamide fixative-generated hydrogel mesh through which cellular lipid is removed with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Several laboratories have used differential acrylamide and detergent concentrations to achieve better tissue clearing and antibody penetration, but the potential effects upon fluorescent signal retention is largely unknown. In an effort to optimize CLARITY processing procedures we performed quantitative parvalbumin immunofluorescence and lectin-based vasculature staining using either 4 or 8% sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent in combination with different acrylamide formulas in mouse brain slices. Using both confocal and CLARITY-optimized lightsheet microscope-acquired images, we demonstrate that 2% acrylamide monomer combined with 0.0125% bis-acrylamide and cleared with 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate generally provides the most optimal signal visualization amongst various hydrogel monomer concentrations, lipid removal times, and detergent concentrations.

  17. The Reliability of a Novel Automated System for ANA Immunofluorescence Analysis in Daily Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alsuwaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated interpretation (AI systems for antinuclear antibody (ANA analysis have been introduced based on assessment of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF patterns. The diagnostic performance of a novel automated IIF reading system was compared with visual interpretation (VI of IIF in daily clinical practice to evaluate the reduction of workload. ANA-IIF tests of consecutive serum samples from patients with suspected connective tissue disease were carried out using HEp-2 cells according to routine clinical care. AI was performed using a visual analyser (Zenit G-Sight, Menarini, Germany. Agreement rates between ANA results by AI and VI were calculated. Of the 336 samples investigated, VI yielded 205 (61% negative, 42 (13% ambiguous, and 89 (26% positive results, whereas 82 (24% were determined to be negative, 176 (52% ambiguous, and 78 (24% positive by AI. AI displayed a diagnostic accuracy of 175/336 samples (52% with a kappa coefficient of 0.34 compared to VI being the gold standard. Solely relying on AI, with VI only performed for all ambiguous samples by AI, would have missed 1 of 89 (1% positive results by VI and misclassified 2 of 205 (1% negative results by VI as positive. The use of AI in daily clinical practice resulted only in a moderate reduction of the VI workload (82 of 336 samples: 24%.

  18. Assessment of occupational exposure to asbestos fibers: Contribution of analytical transmission electron microscopy analysis and comparison with phase-contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eypert-Blaison, Céline; Romero-Hariot, Anita; Clerc, Frédéric; Vincent, Raymond

    2017-12-01

    From November 2009 until October 2010, the French general directorate for labour organised a large field-study using analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to characterise occupational exposure to asbestos fibers during work on asbestos containing materials (ACM). The primary objective of this study was to establish a method and to validate the feasibility of using ATEM for the analysis of airborne asbestos of individual filters sampled in various occupational environments. For each sampling event, ATEM data were compared to those obtained by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCOM), the WHO-recommended reference technique. A total of 265 results were obtained from 29 construction sites where workers were in contact with ACM. Data were sorted depending on the combination of the ACM type and the removal technique. For each "ACM-removal technique" combination, ATEM data were used to compute statistical indicators on short, fine and WHO asbestos fibers. Moreover, exposure was assessed taking into account the use of respiratory protective devices (RPD). As in previous studies, no simple relationship was found between results by PCOM and ATEM counting methods. Some ACM, such as asbestos-containing plasters, generated very high dust levels, and some techniques generated considerable levels of dust whatever the ACM treated. On the basis of these observations, recommendations were made to measure and control the occupational exposure limit. General prevention measures to be taken during work with ACM are also suggested. Finally, it is necessary to continue acquiring knowledge, in particular regarding RPD and the dust levels measured by ATEM for the activities not evaluated during this study.

  19. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  20. Axitinib dose titration: analyses of exposure, blood pressure and clinical response from a randomized phase II study in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, B I; Melichar, B; Fishman, M N; Oya, M; Pithavala, Y K; Chen, Y; Bair, A H; Grünwald, V

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized, double-blind phase II trial in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), axitinib versus placebo titration yielded a significantly higher objective response rate. We evaluated pharmacokinetic and blood pressure (BP) data from this study to elucidate relationships among axitinib exposure, BP change, and efficacy. Patients received axitinib 5 mg twice daily during a lead-in period. Patients who met dose-titration criteria were randomized 1:1 to stepwise dose increases with axitinib or placebo. Patients ineligible for randomization continued without dose increases. Serial 6-h and sparse pharmacokinetic sampling were carried out; BP was measured at clinic visits and at home in all patients, and by 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in a subset of patients. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h throughout the course of treatment (AUCstudy) was higher in patients with complete or partial responses than those with stable or progressive disease in the axitinib-titration arm, but comparable between these groups in the placebo-titration and nonrandomized arms. In the overall population, AUCstudy and efficacy outcomes were not strongly correlated. Mean BP across the population was similar when measured in clinic, at home, or by 24-h ABPM. Weak correlations were observed between axitinib steady-state exposure and diastolic BP. When grouped by change in diastolic BP from baseline, patients in the ≥10 and ≥15 mmHg groups had longer progression-free survival. Optimal axitinib exposure may differ among patients with mRCC. Pharmacokinetic or BP measurements cannot be used exclusively to guide axitinib dosing. Individualization of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including axitinib, is thus more complex than anticipated and cannot be limited to a single clinical factor. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  1. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, MF

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and

  2. OBJECTIVE QUANTITATION OF SERUM ANTIBODY-TITERS AGAINST ENTEROBACTERIACEAE USING INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE, READ BY VIDEOCAMERA AND IMAGE-PROCESSING SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    APPERLOORENKEMA, HZ; WILKINSON, MHF; OENEMA, DG; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    A new way of measuring indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) of microscopic bacterial slide preparations by videocamera and an image processing system is presented. This method is compared with the conventional method of reading the slides by eye. The advantages of this new approach are objective

  3. Objective quantitation of serum antibody titres against Enterobacteriaceae using indirect immunofluorescence, read by videocamera and image processing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apperloo-Renkema, H.Z.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.; Oenema, D.G.; Waaij, D. van der

    1991-01-01

    A new way of measuring indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) of microscopic bacterial slide preparations by videocamera and an image processing system is presented. This method is compared with the conventional method of reading the slides by eye. The advantages of this new approach are objective

  4. Effect of colistin exposure and growth phase on the surface properties of live Acinetobacter baumannii cells examined by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Rachel L.; Nation, Roger L.; Harper, Marina; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D.; Tan, Chun-Hong; Li, Jian; Larson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The diminishing antimicrobial development pipeline has forced the revival of colistin as a last line of defence against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ‘superbugs’ such as Acinetobacter baumannii. The complete loss of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediates colistin resistance in some A. baumannii strains. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface properties of colistin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains at mid-logarithmic and stationary growth phases in liquid and in response to colistin treatment. The contribution of LPS to surface properties was investigated using A. baumannii strains constructed with and without the lpxA gene. Bacterial spring constant measurements revealed that colistin-susceptible cells were significantly stiffer than colistin-resistant cells at both growth phases (P colistin treatment at high concentrations (32 mg/L) resulted in more rigid surfaces for both phenotypes. Multiple, large adhesive peaks frequently noted in force curves captured on colistin-susceptible cells were not evident for colistin-resistant cells. Adhesion events were markedly reduced following colistin exposure. The cell membranes of strains of both phenotypes remained intact following colistin treatment, although fine topographical details were illustrated. These studies, conducted for the first time on live A. baumannii cells in liquid, have contributed to our understanding of the action of colistin in this problematic pathogen. PMID:21925844

  5. Flavones derived from nature attenuate the immediate and late-phase asthmatic responses to aerosolized-ovalbumin exposure in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Yun; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Chang Jong

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lung that is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and the increase of inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways. Naturally occurring flavones have potent anti-inflammatory effects, but their effects on asthmatic responses are still relatively unknown. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of flavone derivatives having the chromone moiety on the immediate-phase asthmatic response (IAR) and the late-phase asthmatic response (LAR) to aerosolized-ovalbumin (OA) exposure in conscious OA-sensitized guinea pigs. Luteolin and apigenin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P recruitment of leukocytes and the release of histamine and activities of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and eosinophil peroxide (EPO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), compared to control. However, their anti-asthmatic activities were less than those of cromolyn sodium and dexamethasone. These results indicate that flavones containing more hydroxyl radicals have a greater anti-asthmatic effect. The potencies of flavone anti-asthmatic activities are, in order: luteolin ≥ apigenin > baicalein > chrysin > flavone.

  6. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using solid-phase extraction and bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion to quantify the fungicide tebuconazole in controlled frog exposure study: analysis of water and animal tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Poulsen, Rikke; Luong, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization, and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the concentration of the antifungal drug and fungicide tebuconazole in a controlled exposure study of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). The method is validated on animal tank water...... and on tissue from exposed and non-exposed adult X. laevis. Using solid-phase extraction (SPE), the analytical method allows for quantification of tebuconazole at concentrations as low as 3.89 pg mL(-1) in 10 mL water samples. Using bead-beating-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), it was possible...... to quantify tebuconazole down to 0.63 pg mg(-1) wet weight liver using 150 mg tissue. The deuterated analogue of tebuconazole was used as internal standard, and ensured method accuracy in the range 80.6-99.7 % for water and 68.1-109 % for tissue samples. The developed method was successfully applied in a 4...

  7. Effectiveness of PCR and Immunofluorescence Techniques for Detecting Human Cytomegalovirus in Blood and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roży, A; Duk, K; Szumna, B; Skrońska, P; Gawryluk, D; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J

    Current diagnostic methods allow a rapid and reliable detection of active human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection by identifying the presence of pp65 CMV antigen or CMV DNA in peripheral blood and affected organs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CMV detection in blood and organ-specific biological material, such as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), by comparing two standard diagnostic methods, immunofluorescence (IF) and the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We evaluated 25 patients with concomitant respiratory disease who were referred to our hospital for diagnosis due to suspected acute CMV infection. The presence of hCMV was concomitantly evaluated by IF and PCR in 16 peripheral blood samples. In two patients, we observed positive results for both IF and PCR, and in two other patients the results were discordant. Of 11 patients, CMV DNA was detected in six BALF samples, and in one blood plasma sample. Real-time PCR detected CMV DNA in 54.6 % of BALF samples and 12.0 % of blood samples, while indirect IF testing confirmed antigenemia in 12.5 % of blood samples. The results from our study suggest that the IF method is as effective as PCR for detecting an ongoing CMV infection in blood samples. However, real-time PCR was much more effective at detecting CMV DNA in BALF compared to blood samples. Our results suggest that the biological material being tested during CMV diagnosis should be derived directly from the virally infected organ(s).

  8. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  9. Immunofluorescence tests for HIV antibody and their value as confirmatory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Groen, G; Vercauteren, G; Piot, P

    1987-08-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is currently being used as a sensitive screening test for HIV antibody. The immunoblot assay (IBA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IF) techniques are two recommended confirmation tests for EIA-positive sera. An indirect IF test has been developed by various laboratories using acetone fixed mixtures of uninfected and HIV-infected cells, which facilitated the reading, since nonspecific reactions were easily differentiated from specific staining. Similar results have been obtained with H9-, CEM-, and HUT78-HIV-infected and uninfected cells. Anti-nuclear antibodies and auto-antibodies resulting in false-positive EIA results, could easily be differentiated by the IF test. Aspecific fluorescence can be removed by absorption of the specimens with non-infected cells. However, IF is not suitable for the screening of large series of specimens. IF is especially well suited for quantitative analysis of serum antibody levels. Whereas serum antibody titers rise initially after infection, they decrease as AIDS develops. Heat inactivation of sera did not affect reactivity in IF, in contrast to a high rate of false-positive results obtained with heat inactivated sera in some ELISAs. A well characterized serum from an AIDS patient can be used to perform IF in order to monitor HIV infection of susceptible cells. It has been claimed that titers of neutralizing antibodies significantly correlate with the levels of IF anti-HIV antibodies. An overall correlation of 99% between IF and IBA was reported by different laboratories, when HIV ELISA-reactive European and North American sera were tested. The concordance with IBA was 97% when HIV ELISA-reactive African sera were tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Simplified CLARITY for visualizing immunofluorescence labeling in the developing rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-05-01

    CLARITY is an innovative technological advance in which intact biological tissue is transformed into a "nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form" (Chung et al. 2013; Chung and Deisseroth 2013) with markedly improved chemical and optical accessibility, permitting fluorescent visualization and extraction of high-resolution structural data from mm-thick blocks of tissue. CLARITY affords an excellent but as yet unexploited opportunity to visualize the growth and maturation of phenotypically identified neurons and axonal processes in the developing brain. This brief report describes a moderately revised, simplified, and less expensive CLARITY protocol that effectively reveals the structure of chemically identified neurons in whole neonatal/juvenile rat brains and tissue slabs. Rats [postnatal day (P)0-24] were transcardially perfused with one of two fixative/hydrogel solutions, followed by hydrogel polymerization to generate brain hybrids. Whole brain hybrids or 2.0-mm-thick coronal slabs were passively cleared of lipid and then processed for dual immunofluorescence labeling, including labeling using tyramide signal amplification. After refractive index matching using 2,20-Thiodiethanol (60 % solution), a Leica confocal microscope equipped with a CLARITY objective was used to view the hypothalamus in whole brain hybrids or slabs. Collected image stacks revealed the distribution and three-dimensional structure of hypothalamic pro-oxyphysin (oxytocin)-, neuropeptide Y-, glucagon-like peptide-1-, and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neurons and processes within large tissue volumes. Outstanding structural preservation and immunolabeling quality demonstrates the efficacy of this approach for interrogating chemically defined neural circuits as they develop in postnatal rodent brain.

  11. Babesial antibody dynamics after cattle immunisation with live vaccines, measured with an indirect immunofluorescence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Lugaresi, C I; Volpogni, M M; Anziani, O S; Vanzini, V R

    1997-06-01

    The efficacy of vaccination of Argentinean cattle against babesiosis and anaplasmosis using live immunogens was tested to detect specific antibodies in samples obtained about 60 days after vaccination. Under these conditions a higher than expected proportion of cattle failed to show antibodies against Babesia bigemina. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate if this failure was due to insensitivity of the routine test to detect antibodies to B. bigemina or to lack of infectivity of the live vaccine. Four groups (G) of cattle were each inoculated subcutaneously with 10 million Babesia bovis (vaccinal strain R1A), 10 million B. bigemina (vaccinal strain S1A) and 10 million Anaplasma centrale (strain M1). G1 and G2 consisted of ten Angus bulls 20-24 months old and ten Angus bulls 15-18 months old, respectively; G3 and G4 consisted of ten and 16 Holstein 1-month-old male calves, respectively. Blood samples were obtained on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 after vaccination and the sera were analysed with an indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) test to detect antibodies to B. bovis (baseline dilution for a positive result 1:60) and B. bigemina (baseline dilution 1:120). Positive IFA titres were considered as evidence of the infectivity of the Babesia vaccinal strains contained in the vaccine. All Angus bulls were found positive to antibodies against both Babesia species, by day 20 (B. bovis) and day 30 (B. bigemina), whereas 10-25% of Holstein calves were negative throughout. The partial lack of vaccine infectivity in the calves was considered to be a consequence of innate resistance of young calves to Babesia. Antibody titres to B. bovis and B. bigemina declined by day 60 after vaccination. However, all cattle that were positive to B. bovis antibodies on day 50 were still positive to the IFA test 10 days later while 10%, 30% and 12% of cattle of G1, G2 and G3 that were positive to B. bigemina antibodies on day 50 after vaccination were found negative to the IFA test

  12. Sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence in oral diseases. Study of 125 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Susana Mariela; Quarracino, María Cecilia; Aguas, Silvia Cristina; González, Ernestina Jesús; Harada, Laura; Krupitzki, Hugo; Mordoh, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is widely used for the diagnosis of bullous diseases and other autoimmune pathologies such as oral lichen planus. There is no evidence in the literature on how the following variants influence the detection rate of DIF: intraoral site chosen for the biopsy, perilesional locus or distant site from the clinical lesion, number of biopsies and instrument used. to determine if the following variants influenced the sensitivity (detection rate): intraoral site chosen for the biopsy, perilesional or distant site from the clinical lesion, number of biopsies and instrument used (punch or scalpel). A retrospective study was done at the Cátedra de Patología y Clínica Bucodental II at the Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires; 136 clinical medical histories were revised for the period March 2000 - March 2005 corresponding to patients with clinical diagnosis of OLP and bullous diseases (vulgar pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid). DIF detection rate was 65.8% in patients with OLP, 66.7% in cicatricial pemphigoid patients, in bullous pemphigoid 55.6%, in pemphigus vulgaris 100%, and in those cases in which certain diagnosis could not be obtained, the DIF positivity rate was 45.5% (Pearson chi(2) (4)= 21.5398 Pr= 0.000). There was no statistically significant difference between the different sites of biopsy (Fisher exact test: 0.825). DIF detection rate in perilesional biopsies was 66.1% and in those distant from the site of clinical lesion was 64.7% (Pearson chi(2) v1)= 0.0073 Pr= 0.932. When the number of biopsies were incremented, DIF detection rate also incremented (Pearson chi(2) = 8.7247 Pr= 0.003). The biopsies taken with punch had a higher detection rate than those taken with scalpel (39.1% versus 71.7%) (Pearson chi(2) = 49.0522 Pr= 0.000). While not statistically significant, the tendency outlined in this study indicates there are intraoral regions in which the detection rate of the DIF technique is

  13. Atomic layer deposition coating of carbon nanotubes with zinc oxide causes acute phase immune responses in human monocytes in vitro and in mice after pulmonary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandley, Erinn C; Taylor, Alexia J; Duke, Katherine S; Ihrie, Mark D; Shipkowski, Kelly A; Parsons, Gregory N; Bonner, James C

    2016-06-08

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method for applying conformal nanoscale coatings on three-dimensional structures. We hypothesized that surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with polycrystalline ZnO by ALD would alter pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes in vitro and modulate the lung and systemic immune response following oropharyngeal aspiration in mice. Pristine (U-MWCNTs) were coated with alternating doses of diethyl zinc and water over increasing ALD cycles (10 to 100 ALD cycles) to yield conformal ZnO-coated MWCNTs (Z-MWCNTs). Human THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to U-MWCNTs or Z-MWCNTs in vitro and cytokine mRNAs measured by Taqman real-time RT-PCR. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to U- or Z-MWCNTs by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) and lung inflammation evaluated at one day post-exposure by histopathology, cytokine expression and differential counting of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells. Lung fibrosis was evaluated at 28 days. Cytokine mRNAs (IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL10, TNF-α) in lung, heart, spleen, and liver were quantified at one and 28 days. DNA synthesis in lung tissue was measured by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake. ALD resulted in a conformal coating of MWCNTs with ZnO that increased proportionally to the number of coating cycles. Z-MWCNTs released Zn(+2) ions in media and increased IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL10, and TNF-α mRNAs in THP-1 cells in vitro. Mice exposed to Z-MWCNTs by OPA had exaggerated lung inflammation and a 3-fold increase in monocytes and neutrophils in BALF compared to U-MWCNTs. Z-MWCNTs, but not U-MWCNTs, induced IL-6 and CXCL10 mRNA and protein in the lungs of mice and increased IL-6 mRNA in heart and liver. U-MWCNTs but not Z-MWCNTs stimulated airway epithelial DNA synthesis in vivo. Lung fibrosis at 28 days was not significantly different between mice treated with U-MWCNT or Z-MWCNT. Pulmonary exposure to ZnO-coated MWCNTs produces a systemic acute phase response that

  14. [Comparative value of ELISA technique and immunofluorescence for the detection in the foci of human African trypanosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, M; Chaize, J; Desfontaine, M; Duvallet, G; Moreau, J P

    1979-01-01

    As the parasitological diagnosis method consisting in the detection of the parasite in people suffering from sleeping sickness did not prove entirely reliable, the authors have tested a new immunoenzymatic diagnosis method called ELISA. 41 sera from clinical suspects have been tested (parasite having been found in 16 of them). Positive and negative levels have been tested by comparison with indirect immunofluorescence. The following results, given in optical density, have been obtained: negative cases less than 36 less than or equal to uncertain cases less than or equal to 40 less than positive cases. When using these date, correlation with immunofluorescence proves to be excellent with a sensibility between 95 and 97,5 p. 100 and a specificity between 97,5 and 99 p. 100.

  15. Confocal and conventional immunofluorescent and immunogold electron microscopic localization of collagen types III and IV in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaev, A K; Rukosuev, V S; Shirinsky, V P; Milovanov, A P; Domogatsky, S P; Duance, V C; Bradbury, F M; Yarrow, P; Gardiner, L; d'Lacey, C

    1991-01-01

    Confocal and conventional indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopic methods were applied to examine the distribution of extracellular matrix constituents (collagens types III and IV) in the villi of immature and term human placentae. The immunofluorescence study revealed that collagen type III is more distinct in the villous stroma of term placenta as compared with that of the first trimester. Collagen type IV was detected mainly in endothelial and epithelial basement membranes and interestingly also to a certain extent in the stroma. Results obtained using immunoelectron microscopy support the proposal that collagen types III and IV are characteristic of stromal and basement membranes, respectively. Stromal collagen type IV is apparently localized in association with the interstitial types of collagen (I and III), in the villous stroma of term placenta.

  16. [Designing and clinical testing of immune-enzyme and immunofluorescence test systems for serodiagnosis of ixodes borreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelova, V G; Kharitonenkov, I G; Sadykbekova, R K; Bychenkova, T A; Anan'eva, L P; Sokolova, M V; Osin, N S

    2004-01-01

    The methods of immune enzyme assay (MIEA) and of lanthanide immunofluorescence analysis (LIFA) were used to work out the test systems for the detection (in blood serum of patients) of specific IgM IgG antibodies to the B. burgdorferi spirochete--a causative agent of ixodic borrelioses. The test system was clinically tested versus the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIFR) and commercial immune enzyme test system (CIET). The results of antibodies' detection were shown to correlate with the analysis data for the same sera in IIFR and to be in line with a real presence or absence of the disease. Test systems based on LIFA were proven to be most sensitive and specific.

  17. Unequivocal identification of the active and inactive centromere of a dicentric chromosome by simultaneous CENP-C immunofluorescence and FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.L.; Shaffer, L.G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Earnshaw, W.C. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    There have been many reports of stable dicentric chromosomes resulting from translocations in humans. The stability of these chromosomes has been attributed to the inactivation of one centromere, yielding a functionally monocentric chromosome. We ascertained a patient with the karyotype 45,X/45,X,der(X)t(X;15)(Xpter{yields}Xq26::15p11{yields}15qter). The derivative chromosome was apparently dicentric by G-band analysis. A primary constriction at the X centromere and lack of a constriction corresponding to the 15 centromere suggested that the 15 centromere was inactive, while the X centromere remained active. Centromere Protein C(CENP-C) is normally present at all human centromeres and is localized to the inner kinetochore plate. Previous immunofluorescence studies of a stable isodicentric chromosome showed CENP-C to be present at the active centromere, while no staining was observed at the inactive centromere. By combining immunofluorescence detection of CENP-C and multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific {alpha} satellite DNA probes, we have unequivocally identified the active centromere in the (X;15) translocation. Metaphases were prepared by cytocentrifugation of hypotonically swelled lymphoblasts. Indirect immunofluorescence, performed using polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against CENP-C, and FISH with {alpha}-satellite probes specific for the centromeres of chromosomes 15 (pTRA-20,pTRA-25) and X (DXZ1) revealed CENP-C immunofluorescence signals at the X {alpha}-satellite probe, with no CENP-C detected at the 15 centromere on the translocation in this cell line. This study is the first to demonstrate the specificity of CENP-C to the active centromere in a nonhomologous dicentric rearrangement and further establishes CENP-C as an essential component of a functional human centromere.

  18. Comparison of an avidin-biotin immunoassay with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B; Richards, D F

    1985-01-01

    An avidin-biotin complex system was compared with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for serotyping herpes simplex virus isolates from clinical specimens. Sensitivity values showed that the Electro-Nucleonics and Immulok reagents were useful in detecting the presence of virus, whereas the predictive values showed that the Syva and Immulok reagents possessed adequate discrimination between the herpes simplex virus serotypes. The avidin-biotin complex system was equal or super...

  19. Understanding the complexity of antigen retrieval of DNA methylation for immunofluorescence-based measurement and an approach to challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Selcen

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5meC) in the CpG-rich regions of the mammalian genome is an important epigenetic mechanism playing roles in transcription regulation and genomic stability. The abnormalities in DNA methylation can occur in various types of cancer and some genetic diseases. The measurement of DNA methylation is therefore important and there is a range of methodologies used to detect DNA methylation. Many methods based on bisulfite treatment appeared with a lack of specificity after recent discoveries of various modifications of methylated cytosine, however there are new treatments developed to overcome this limitation. Immunofluorescence is currently known to be able to specifically detect DNA methylation as it uses different antibodies against 5meC and its derivatives, but it is a semi-quantitative method. Immunofluorescence protocols commonly include fixation of cells followed by permeabilisation, antigen retrieval, and treatments with antibodies. Establishing the strategy for antigen retrieval of immunofluorescence is important to unmask epitopes (i.e. 5meC) from other proteins, and therefore to access the antigen of interest. There are many approaches used for antigen retrieval induced by acid, enzyme and/or heat. The selection of antigen retrieval method can depend on a variety of such antigen-based or cell-based conditions, since the dynamic structure of DNA and chromatin accounts for the complexity of involved proteins to mask the epitope. This review aims to specifically focus on the complexity of in situ detection of DNA methylation by immunofluorescence-based methods using antigen retrieval with the current understanding of DNA methylation mechanism, and suggests conditions for antigenic retrieval of 5meC epitope. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New finding of Giardia intestinalis (Eukaryote, Metamonad in Old World archaeological site using immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Le Bailly

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nine organic sediment samples from a medieval archaeological site at Pineuilh, France, were examined for Giardia intestinalis using two commercially available immunological kits [enzyme-linked immuno sorbent and immunofluorescence (IFA assays]. Both techniques detected G. intestinalis in one sample, dated to 1,000 Anno Domini. This is the first time IFA was successfully used to detect protozoa in Old World archaeological samples. Such immunological techniques offer important perspectives concerning ancient protozoa detection and identification.

  1. Microstructural characterization of second phases in X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after long steam exposure time at 550 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, Kinga; Hernas, Adam [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Materials Science, Katowice (Poland); Vodarek, Vlastimil [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    Microstructural changes in high alloy (9-12% Cr) creep resistant martensitic X10CrMoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoW . CuVNb steels after 100 000 h of steam exposure at 550 C have been studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Precipitates were identified using electron diffraction patterns and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. After long time exposure, a significant coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and intensive precipitation of the coarse Laves phase were observed. Moreover, in the 12CrMoW . CuVNb steel, a low amount of the modified Z-phase particles was detected. The microstructures of the X10Cr . MoVNb9-1 and 12CrMoWCuVNb steels after 100 000 h of exposure differ in several aspects.

  2. Attenuation-based automatic kilovoltage selection and sonogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction: Effects on radiation exposure and image quality of portal-phase liver CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Eun Young; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To compare the radiation dose and image quality between standard-dose CT and a low-dose CT obtained with the combined use of an attenuation-based automatic kilovoltage (kV) selection tool (CARE kV) and sonogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) for contrast-enhanced CT examination of the liver. We retrospectively reviewed 67 patients with chronic liver disease in whom both, standard-dose CT with 64-slice multidetector-row CT (MDCT) (protocol A), and low-dose CT with 128-slice MDCT using CARE kV and SAFIRE (protocol B) were performed. Images from protocol B during the portal phase were reconstructed using either filtered back projection or SAFIRE with 5 different iterative reconstruction (IR) strengths. We performed qualitative and quantitative analyses to select the appropriate IR strength. Reconstructed images were then qualitatively and quantitatively compared with protocol A images. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of protocol B demonstrated that SAFIRE level 2 (S2) was most appropriate in our study. Qualitative and quantitative analysis comparing S2 images from protocol B with images from protocol A, showed overall good diagnostic confidence of S2 images despite a significant radiation dose reduction (47% dose reduction, p < 0.001). Combined use of CARE kV and SAFIRE allowed significant reduction in radiation exposure while maintaining image quality in contrast-enhanced liver CT.

  3. Solid-phase microextraction to predict bioavailability and accumulation of organic micropollutants in terrestrial organisms after exposure to a field-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Leon; Jager, Tjalling; Fleuren, Roel H L J; Barendregt, Arjan; Sinnige, Theo L; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Hermens, Joop L M

    2004-09-15

    The risk posed by soil contaminants strongly depends on their bioavailability. In this study, a partition-based sampling method was applied as a tool to estimate bioavailability in soil. The accumulation of organic micropollutants was measured in two earthworm species (Eisenia andrei and Aporrectodea caliginosa) and in 30-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-coated solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fibers after exposure to two field-contaminated soils. Within 10 days, steady state in earthworms was reached, and within 20 days in the SPME fibers. Steady-state concentrations in both earthworm species were linearly related to concentrations in fibers over a 10,000-fold range of concentrations. Measured concentrations in earthworms were compared to levels calculated via equilibrium partitioning theory and total concentrations of contaminants in soil. In addition, freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate concentrations in earthworms. Measured concentrations in earthworms were close to estimated concentrations from the SPME fiber measurements. Freely dissolved concentrations of contaminants in pore water, derived from SPME measurements, were used to calculate bioconcentration factors (BCF) in earthworms. A plot of log BCFs against the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) was linear up to a log Kow of 8. These results show that measuring concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals in a PDMS-coated fiber represents a simple tool to estimate internal concentrations of chemicals in biota exposed to soil.

  4. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Stefania Meneses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43. For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  5. Indirect immunofluorescence test in new world Leishmaniasis: serological and clinical relation-ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio C. F. Mendonça

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available The indirect immunofluorescence test (IF for anti-Leishmania antibodies (IgC and IgM was performed with sera form the following groups of individuals: 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients, 28 healthy subjects with positive Montenegro's skin test (MST, 29 healthy subjects with negativeMST and 16 visceral leishmaniasis patients. The first four groups came from a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis is endemic. It was observed that IF-IgM titers were significantly higher amongst the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with less than four months of disease as compared to those with longer periods and that IF-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with multiple lesions as compared to those with single lesions. The visceral leishmaniasis patients had IF-IgG titers significantly higher than those from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. A group of 28 individuals selected amongst the 214 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients had their IF-titers (IgG and IgM compared to those of the two control groups of healthy subjects from the endemic area, respectively with positive and negative MST. Significantly higher titers of IF-IgG and IF-IgM were found in the group with active disease. The same group of patients showed IF-IgG titers significantly lower at the end of the antimonial therapy than those observed during this tratment.O teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IF para a detecção de anticorpos anti-Leismania nas classes IgG e IgM foi realizado em soros de indivíduos dos seguintes grupos: 214 pacientes com leismaniose cutânea, quatro pacientes com leismaniose mucocutânea, 28 indivíduos sadios com intradermorreação de Montenegro (IDRM positiva, 29 indivíduos sadios com IDRM negativa e 16 pacientes com leishmaniose visceral. Os indivíduos dos quatro primeiros grupos eram provenientes de uma área da periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (Jacarepaguá onde a

  6. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43). For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III) was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent) are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  7. [Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, Peru 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astete, Jonh; Gastañaga, María del Carmen; Fiestas, Víctor; Oblitas, Tania; Sabastizagal, Iselle; Lucero, Martha; Abadíe, Jesús del Milagro; Muñoz, María Elena; Valverde, Ada; Suarez, Magna

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (viral hepatitis B, C and delta, syphilis and HIV) were evaluated, as well as heavy metals (lead in blood, and cadmium, arsenic and mercury in urine samples) and serum cholinesterase levels. Mean age was 29 ± 17.25 years, 59.2% were female and a range of 6 to 15 years of living in the area was found. No cases of HIV, hepatitis C and delta were found, 1.4% were positive for syphilis and in relation to hepatitis B, we found 1,7% of subjects positive to total anti HBc and 0.5% positive for HBsAg. Heavy metal testing identified people with exceeding limits of mercury in 1.8% arsenic in 4.6%, lead in 24.3% and cadmium in 43.9%. Besides, 29.1% of the population had cholinesterase levels below normal range. Among children, 12.5% were at psychomotor development levels of risk; 2.1% and 3.1% suffered from mild and borderline intellectual disability (mental retardation), respectively. 34.3% of subjects older than 12 had anxiety and 17.5% depression. Evidence of heavy metal environmental pollution and presence of communicable diseases in this population were already found. Future careless mining activity could worsen the current health situation.

  8. Validation of commercially available sphingosine kinase 2 antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi A. Neubauer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2 is a ubiquitously expressed lipid kinase that has important, albeit complex and poorly understood, roles in regulating cell survival and cell death. In addition to being able to promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis under certain conditions, it has recently been shown that SK2 can promote neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Therefore, well validated and reliable tools are required to study and better understand the true functions of SK2. Here, we compare two commercially available SK2 antibodies: a rabbit polyclonal antibody from Proteintech that recognizes amino acids 266-618 of human SK2a, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody from ECM Biosciences that recognizes amino acids 36-52 of human SK2a. We examine the performance of these antibodies for use in immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining of endogenous SK2, using human HEK293 and HeLa cell lines, as well as mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. Furthermore, we assess the specificity of these antibodies to the target protein through the use of siRNA-mediated SK2 knockdown and SK2 knockout (Sphk2-/- MEFs. Our results demonstrate that the Proteintech anti-SK2 antibody reproducibly displayed superior sensitivity and selectivity towards SK2 in immunoblot analyses, while the ECM Biosciences anti-SK2 antibody was reproducibly superior for SK2 immunoprecipitation and detection by immunofluorescence staining. Notably, both antibodies produced non-specific bands and staining in the MEFs, which was not observed with the human cell lines. Therefore, we conclude that the Proteintech SK2 antibody is a valuable reagent for use in immunoblot analyses, and the ECM Biosciences SK2 antibody is a useful tool for SK2 immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining, at least in the human cell lines employed in this study.

  9. Autoradiography and immunofluorescence combined for autecological study of single cell activity with Nitrobacter as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans, C B; Schmidt, E L

    1975-10-01

    Specific detection of a particular bacterium by immunofluorescence was combined with estimation of its metabolic activity by autoradiography. The nitrifying bacteria Nitrobacter agilis and N. winogradskyi were used as a model system. Nitrobacter were incubated with NaH14CO3 and 14CO2 prior to study. The same preparations made for autoradiograms were stained with fluorescent antibodies specific for the Nitrobacter species. Examination by epifluorescence and transmitted dark-field microscopy revealed Nitrobacter cells with and without associated silver grains. Direct detection and simultaneous evaluation of metabolic activity of Nitrobacter was demonstrated in pure cultures, in a simple mixed culture, and in a natural soil.

  10. Autoradiography and Immunofluorescence Combined for Autecological Study of Single Cell Activity with Nitrobacter as a Model System1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliermans, C. B.; Schmidt, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Specific detection of a particular bacterium by immunofluorescence was combined with estimation of its metabolic activity by autoradiography. The nitrifying bacteria Nitrobacter agilis and N. winogradskyi were used as a model system. Nitrobacter were incubated with NaH14CO3 and 14CO2 prior to study. The same preparations made for autoradiograms were stained with fluorescent antibodies specific for the Nitrobacter species. Examination by epifluorescence and transmitted dark-field microscopy revealed Nitrobacter cells with and without associated silver grains. Direct detection and simultaneous evaluation of metabolic activity of Nitrobacter was demonstrated in pure cultures, in a simple mixed culture, and in a natural soil. Images PMID:1103733

  11. Immunofluorescent localization of collagen types I, III, IV, V, fibronectin, laminin, entactin, and heparan sulphate proteoglycan in human immature placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukosuev, V S

    1992-03-15

    The distribution of eight components of the extracellular matrix in immature human placenta was studied by an indirect immunofluorescence method with monospecific antibodies. In the stroma of the term chorionic villi, collagen types I, III, IV, V, and fibronectin formed a mesh of fibers and conglomerates. Heparan sulphate proteoglycan formed multiple conglomerates, whereas laminin comprised small, scanty, discrete granules. Collagen type IV, laminin, entactin, and heparan sulphate proteoglycan were confined to the basement membrane of the trophoblast. Sometimes, only collagen type IV was identified in fetal vascular basement membrane.

  12. COMPARISON OF INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE WITH AGAR-GEL IMMUNODIFFUSION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS-INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    ARITA, GMM; GATTI, MSV; GERMANO, PML; PESTANADECASTRO, AF

    1992-01-01

    1. Sera from 190 cows and from 72 sheep were examined to compare the results obtained with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests for the diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) disease. 2. In the AGID test, 96 of 190 (50.5%) cattle serum samples and 38 of 72 (52.7%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 134 out of 262 (51.1%) sera. In the IIF test, 98 of 190 (51.6%) cattle serum samples and 39 of 72 (54.2%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a to...

  13. An assessment of the immunofluorescence technique as a method for demonstrating the histological localization of tetrahydrocannabinol in mammalian tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, M.; Gee, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    The use of the indirect immunofluorescence technique as a method for demonstrating the histological localization of tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-THC) has been examined. The experimental protocol was designed in order that optimal staining conditions with respect to temperature, the length of time of incubations and washes, and the dilution of the antisera should be defined. No marked differences were detected between frozen sections of liver from normal and delta-THC-injected mice. Results from radiotracer experiments using human liver suggest that the success of the method is dependent upon the solubility characteristics of the antigen-antibody complex.

  14. Daily and non-daily pre-exposure prophylaxis in African women (HPTN 067/ADAPT Cape Town Trial): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Linda-Gail; Roux, Surita; Sebastien, Elaine; Yola, Ntando; Amico, K Rivet; Hughes, James P; Marzinke, Mark A; Hendrix, Craig W; Anderson, Peter L; Elharrar, Vanessa; Stirratt, Michael; Rooney, James F; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Eshleman, Susan H; McKinstry, Laura; Li, Maoji; Dye, Bonnie J; Grant, Robert M

    2018-02-01

    The relative feasibility and acceptability of daily versus non-daily dosing of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among women are unknown. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of non-daily PrEP regimens in adult women. We did a randomised, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial (HPTN 067/ADAPT) of oral PrEP with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate at a research centre in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were adult women (age ≥18 years) who received directly observed dosing once a week for 5 weeks followed by random assignment (1:1:1) at week 6 to one of three unblinded PrEP regimens for self-administered dosing over 24 weeks: daily; time-driven (twice a week plus a post-sex dose); or event-driven (one tablet both before and after sex). Primary outcomes were PrEP coverage (at least one dose within the 4 days before sex and one dose within 24 h after sex), pills needed or used to achieve regimen-specific adherence and coverage, and symptoms and side-effects. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01327651; the trial is completed and this report presents the final analysis. Between Sept 12, 2011, and Oct 3, 2012, 191 women were enrolled to the trial. 178 (93%) completed directly observed dosing and were randomly assigned one of the three PrEP regimens for the self-administered phase: 59 were allocated the daily regimen, 59 the time-driven regimen, and 60 the event-driven regimen. Median age of women was 26 years (IQR 21-37; range 18-52). In women allocated the daily regimen, 1459 (75%) of 1952 sex events were covered by PrEP, compared with 599 (56%) of 1074 sex events among those assigned the time-driven regimen (odds ratio [OR] 2·35, 95% CI 1·43-3·83; p=0·0007) and 798 (52%) of 1542 sex events among those allotted the event-driven regimen (2·76, 1·68-4·53; p<0·0001). Fewer pills were needed for complete adherence in women allocated non-daily regimens (vs daily regimen

  15. Evaluation of exposure conditions for the water-side corrosion test of a sodium heated steam generator evaporator model employing a duplex tube (2160 hours at critical heat flux - phase III SSGM tests). [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waszink, R.P.; Hwang, J.Y.; Efferding, L.E.

    1975-12-01

    This report describes the specialized corrosion test water steam loop, test procedures, test conditions, and test results. A complete water chemistry and thermal hydraulic performance history is given and evaluated for the Phase III test program. The movement of the dryout location and the heat flux variations in pre- and post-critical heat flux regions are documented and analyzed. On seven occasions during the course of the test program to date, the operating conditions drifted from the CHF reference Phase III operation in the dryout regime into the DNB regime. The corresponding corrosion mechanism experienced differing exposure conditions on these occasions. CHF sensitivity to this apparent drift behavior is evaluated.

  16. Performance analysis of automated evaluation of Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence tests in a routine setting - strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Wymke; Hahn, Melanie; Gerlach, Stefan; Hochstrate, Nicola; Affeldt, Kai; Giesen, Joyce; Fechner, Kai; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C

    2017-11-27

    Antibodies directed against dsDNA are a highly specific diagnostic marker for the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus and of particular importance in its diagnosis. To assess anti-dsDNA antibodies, the Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) is one of the assays considered to be the best choice. To overcome the drawback of subjective result interpretation that inheres indirect immunofluorescence assays in general, automated systems have been introduced into the market during the last years. Among these systems is the EUROPattern Suite, an advanced automated fluorescence microscope equipped with different software packages, capable of automated pattern interpretation and result suggestion for ANA, ANCA and CLIFT analysis. We analyzed the performance of the EUROPattern Suite with its automated fluorescence interpretation for CLIFT in a routine setting, reflecting the everyday life of a diagnostic laboratory. Three hundred and twelve consecutive samples were collected, sent to the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the Maastricht University Medical Centre with a request for anti-dsDNA analysis over a period of 7 months. Agreement between EUROPattern assay analysis and the visual read was 93.3%. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.1% and 93.2%, respectively. The EUROPattern Suite performed reliably and greatly supported result interpretation. Automated image acquisition is readily performed and automated image classification gives a reliable recommendation for assay evaluation to the operator. The EUROPattern Suite optimizes workflow and contributes to standardization between different operators or laboratories.

  17. Production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and standardization of direct immunofluorescence for detecting oocysts in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Osaki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The production of anti-Cryptosporidium polyclonal antibodies and its use in direct immunofluorescence assays to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium in water are described in the present work. METHODS: Two rabbits were immunized with soluble and particulate antigens from purified Cryptosporidium oocysts. The sera produced were prepared for immunoglobulin G extraction, which were then purified and conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC. Slides containing known amounts of oocysts were prepared to determine the sensitivity of the technique. To test the specificity, slides containing Giardia duodenalis cysts were prepared. RESULTS: The conjugate was successfully used in water samples experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts, and it was possible to detect up to five oocysts/spot, corresponding to contamination of 250 oocysts/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The three immunizations performed in the rabbits were enough to produce antibodies against Cryptosporidium, the standard direct immunofluorescence assay permitted the detection of five oocysts in 20% of the samples, and no cross-reaction with Giardia duodenalis cysts occurred.

  18. Longitudinal imaging of HIV-1 spread in humanized mice with parallel 3D immunofluorescence and electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Collin; Ladinsky, Mark S; Ninh, Allen; Galimidi, Rachel P; Bjorkman, Pamela J

    2017-02-15

    Dissemination of HIV-1 throughout lymphoid tissues leads to systemic virus spread following infection. We combined tissue clearing, 3D-immunofluorescence, and electron tomography (ET) to longitudinally assess early HIV-1 spread in lymphoid tissues in humanized mice. Immunofluorescence revealed peak infection density in gut at 10-12 days post-infection when blood viral loads were low. Human CD4+ T-cells and HIV-1-infected cells localized predominantly to crypts and the lower third of intestinal villi. Free virions and infected cells were not readily detectable by ET at 5-days post-infection, whereas HIV-1-infected cells surrounded by pools of free virions were present in ~10% of intestinal crypts by 10-12 days. ET of spleen revealed thousands of virions released by individual cells and discreet cytoplasmic densities near sites of prolific virus production. These studies highlight the importance of multiscale imaging of HIV-1-infected tissues and are adaptable to other animal models and human patient samples.

  19. Temporal appearance of structural and nonstructural bluetongue viral proteins in infected cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetter, L E; Gebhard, D H; MacLachlan, N J

    1990-08-01

    The temporal appearance of 4 viral proteins was detected in bluetongue virus (BTV)-infected Vero cells by indirect immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to BTV structural proteins VP2 and VP7 and nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2. Bluetongue viral proteins were detected at distinct intervals after inoculation of Vero cells; VP7 was first detected 3 hours after inoculation, NS1 and NS2 at 5 hours after inoculation, whereas VP2 was not detected until 8 hours after inoculation. Patterns of fluorescence varied with the fixative used, but each MAb induced a distinct pattern of fluorescence in infected cells. Flow cytometry, which was used with each of the 4 MAb, proved to be an accurate and sensitive method of detecting BTV-infected P3 mouse myeloma cells. The temporal appearance of each viral protein in BTV-infected P3 cells was similar to that detected in BTV-infected Vero cells. Advantages of flow cytometry over conventional immunofluorescence staining to detect BTV-infected cells included: (1) enumeration of the proportion of infected cells in a population; (2) further characterization of infected cells, including estimates of their viability; and (3) computer-assisted storage and analysis of data obtained.

  20. Preparation of a bio-immunoreagent between ZZ affibody and enhanced green fluorescent protein for immunofluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Ming; Chen, Yong; Gao, Zhi-Qin; Tang, Jin-Bao

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we constructed plasmid pUC-ZZ-EGFP to express Pro-ZZ-EGFP using ZZ peptide (a synthetic artificial IgG-Fc-fragment-binding protein derived from the B domain of staphylococcal protein A) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Without induction with isopropyl-β-D: -thiogalactopyranoside, the chimeric protein was effectively expressed in Escherichia coli HB101. Its affinity constant binding IgG was 2.6 × 10(8) M(-1) obtained by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicating that the ZZ peptide retains the native structure in Pro-ZZ-EGFP. The application of immunofluorescence assay for detecting the Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG antibody, Pro-ZZ-EGFP, exhibited a good signal comparable in brightness and fluorescence pattern with the signal generated using the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-human IgG. The result indicates that Pro-ZZ-EGFP possesses great potential for clinical immunofluorescence IgG test as an alternative versatile fluorescent antibody.

  1. Characterization of pars intermedia connections in amphibians by biocytin tract tracing and immunofluorescence aided by confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, K; Fabro, C; Artero, C; Feuilloley, M; Vaudry, H; Fasolo, A; Franzoni, M F

    1997-02-01

    Biocytin, recently introduced in neuroanatomical studies, was used as a retrograde tract tracer in combination with immunofluorescence in order to analyse the neurochemical characters of some central neuronal projections to the pars intermedia in two amphibian species, the anuran Rana esculenta and the urodele Triturus carnifex. After biocytin insertions in the pars intermedia, neurons became retrogradely labelled in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus and the locus coeruleus of the brainstem in both species. Some scattered biocytin-labelled neurons were observed in the preoptic area. Moreover, working on the same sections, immunofluorescence revealed a number of codistributions and, in some cases, colocalization in the same neurons of biocytin labellings and immunopositivity for (1) tyrosine hydroxylase in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus and the locus coeruleus of Rana and Triturus, (2) gamma-aminobutyric acid in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus of Rana and Triturus and (3) neuropeptide Y in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus of Rana. The specificity of such colocalizations was fully confirmed using dual-channel confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis.

  2. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which...... g/mouse of small, entangled (CNTsmall, 0.8 +/- 0.1 pm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 +/- 0.4 mu m long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1,3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess...

  3. Genetic, immunofluorescence labeling, and in situ hybridization techniques in identification of stem cells in male and female germline niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Ying; Kango-Singh, Madhuri; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have an enormous capacity of self-renewal, as well as the ability to differentiate into specialized cell types. Proper control of these two properties of stem cells is crucial for animal development, growth control, and reproduction. Germline stem cells (GSCs) are a self-renewing population of germ cells, which generate haploid gametes (sperms or oocyte) that transmit genetic information from generation to generation. In Drosophila testis and ovary, GSCs are anchored around the niche cells. The cap cells cluster in females and hub cells in males act as a niche to control GSC behavior. With highly sophisticated genetic techniques in Drosophila, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the interactions between stem cells and niches at cellular and molecular levels. Here, we provide details of genetic, immunofluorescence labeling, and in situ hybridization techniques in identification and characterization of stem cells in Drosophila male and female germline niches.

  4. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  5. Furcation Perforation: Periradicular Tissue Response to Biodentine as a Repair Material by Histopathologic and Indirect Immunofluorescence Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Pieroni, Karina Alessandra Michelão Grecca; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Hernandéz-Gatón, Patrícia; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vivo response of periradicular tissues after sealing of furcation perforations with Biodentine, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and gutta-percha by means of histopathologic and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Thirty teeth of 3 dogs were divided into 3 groups: Biodentine (n = 14 teeth), MTA (negative control, n = 10 teeth), and gutta-percha (positive control, n = 6 teeth). After endodontic treatment, perforations were made on the center of the pulp chamber floor and filled with the materials. After 120 days, the animals were killed, and blocks containing the teeth and periradicular tissues were processed histotechnically for histopathologic semiquantitative (new mineralized tissue formation and bone resorption at the perforation site) and quantitative (thickness and area of newly formed mineralized tissue and number of inflammatory cells) analyses and RUNX2 immunofluorescence assay. Data were analyzed by χ 2 , Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Dunn posttest (α = 0.05). MTA and Biodentine induced the formation of significantly more new mineralized tissue (P Biodentine and MTA exhibited no bone resorption in the furcation region, fewer inflammatory cells, and greater RUNX2 immunostaining intensity than gutta-percha. Although MTA presented higher frequency of complete sealing and greater thickness and area of newly formed mineralized tissue, Biodentine also had good histopathologic results and can be considered as an adequate furcation perforation repair material. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid determination of myosin heavy chain expression in rat, mouse, and human skeletal muscle using multicolor immunofluorescence analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Bloemberg

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue comprised of fibers with different morphological, functional, and metabolic properties. Different muscles contain varying proportions of fiber types; therefore, accurate identification is important. A number of histochemical methods are used to determine muscle fiber type; however, these techniques have several disadvantages. Immunofluorescence analysis is a sensitive method that allows for simultaneous evaluation of multiple MHC isoforms on a large number of fibers on a single cross-section, and offers a more precise means of identifying fiber types. In this investigation we characterized pure and hybrid fiber type distribution in 10 rat and 10 mouse skeletal muscles, as well as human vastus lateralis (VL using multicolor immunofluorescence analysis. In addition, we determined fiber type-specific cross-sectional area (CSA, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activity, and α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPD activity. Using this procedure we were able to easily identify pure and hybrid fiber populations in rat, mouse, and human muscle. Hybrid fibers were identified in all species and made up a significant portion of the total population in some rat and mouse muscles. For example, rat mixed gastrocnemius (MG contained 12.2% hybrid fibers whereas mouse white tibialis anterior (WTA contained 12.1% hybrid fibers. Collectively, we outline a simple and time-efficient method for determining MHC expression in skeletal muscle of multiple species. In addition, we provide a useful resource of the pure and hybrid fiber type distribution, fiber CSA, and relative fiber type-specific SDH and GPD activity in a number of rat and mouse muscles.

  7. A Unique Immunofluorescence Protocol to Detect Protein Expression in Vascular Tissues: Tacking a Long Standing Pathological Hitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet GANDHI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autofluorescence induced interference is one of the major drawbacks in immunofluorescence analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, as it decreases the signal-to-noise ratio of specific labeling. Apart from aldehyde-fixation induced artifacts; collagen and elastin, red blood cells and endogenous fluorescent pigment lipofuscin are prime sources of autofluorescence in vascular and aging tissues. We describe herein, an optimized indirect-immunofluorescence method for archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues tissues and cryo sections, using a combination of 3-reagents in a specific order, to achieve optimal fluorescence signals and imaging. Material and Method: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase, a protein implicated as a proliferation marker, was chosen relevant to its expression in solid tumors along with 3 other intracellular proteins exhibiting nuclear and/or cytoplasmic expression. Staining was performed on 10 glioma tissue sections along with 5 of their cryo sections, 5 sections each of hepatocellular, lung, papillary-thyroid and renal cell carcinoma, with 10 non-malignant brain tissue samples serving as control. Specimens were imaged using epifluorescence microscopy, followed by software-based quantification of fluorescence signals for statistical analysis and validation. Results: We observed that the combined application of sodium-borohydride followed by crystal violet before antigen retrieval and a Sudan black B treatment after secondary antibody application proved to be most efficacious for masking autofluorescence/non-specific background in vascular tissues. Conclusion: This unique trio-methodology provides quantifiable observations with maximized fluorescence signal intensity of the target protein for longer retention time of the signal even after prolonged storage. The results can be extrapolated to other human tissues for different protein targets.

  8. Use of read-across and tiered exposure assessment in risk assessment under REACH - A case study on a phase-in substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, S.R.; Mikkers, J.; Bouwman, T.; Marquart, H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    REACH requests the exploration of alternative strategies for hazard identification before resorting to (in vivo) testing. Here, we combined read-across as non-testing strategy with a tiered exposure assessment for the risk characterisation of 1-methoxypropan-2-ol (PGME) as a representative for

  9. A comparison between immunofluorescence staining on smears from Membrana nictitans (M3 test), immunohistopathology and routine pathology in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, K

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence method using smears from membrana nictitans (M3 test) to diagnose feline corona virus (FCV) infection was compared with immunohistopathology (using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFFA) performed on organs (IFO], and routine pathology (RP) in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A close correlation between the 2 immunofluorescence methods (IFO and M3) was observed. Although the M3 test requires samples from only 1 organ per animal, both the sensitivity and specificity were high (80%), when compared to IFO (using samples from an average of 5 organs per animal). In 21% of the cats with suspected FIP typical pathological lesions were found. As the M3 test is relatively easy to perform, it could reduce work-load of pathology laboratories and provide valuable data for clinical and epidemiological use.

  10. Use of immunofluorescence technique in cultured fibroblasts from Mediterranean cetaceans as new "in vitro" tool to investigate effects of environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Bucalossi, Daniela; Porcelloni, Serena; Maltese, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose the immunofluorescence technique in cultured fibroblasts from Mediterranean cetaceans as a new "in vitro" tool to explore the susceptibility of these marine mammals to different xenobiotic compounds. The cell lines were cultured from integument biopsies of free-ranging and stranded cetaceans (dead within 12h). Using the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we detected endogenous proteins induced by different contaminants. Here we present the method used for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cytochromes P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP2B) induced by some POPs (DDTs and PCBs) and emerging contaminants (PBDEs) in fibroblast cell cultures of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Immunofluorescence was quantified with a specially designed Olympus macro, DetectIntZ. A major result was the possibility of using this "in vitro" assay to quantify induction of endogenous proteins.

  11. A touchdown nucleic acid amplification protocol as an alternative to culture backup for immunofluorescence in the routine diagnosis of acute viral respiratory tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feeney Susan A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunofluorescence and virus culture are the main methods used to diagnose acute respiratory virus infections. Diagnosing these infections using nucleic acid amplification presents technical challenges, one of which is facilitating the different optimal annealing temperatures needed for each virus. To overcome this problem we developed a diagnostic molecular strip which combined a generic nested touchdown protocol with in-house primer master-mixes that could recognise 12 common respiratory viruses. Results Over an 18 month period a total of 222 specimens were tested by both immunofluorescence and the molecular strip. The specimens came from 103 males (median age 3.5 y, 80 females (median age 9 y and 5 quality assurance scheme specimens. Viruses were recovered from a number of specimen types including broncho-alveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal secretions, sputa, post-mortem lung tissue and combined throat and nasal swabs. Viral detection by IF was poor in sputa and respiratory swabs. A total of 99 viruses were detected in the study from 79 patients and 4 quality control specimens: 31 by immunofluorescence and 99 using the molecular strip. The strip consistently out-performed immunofluorescence with no loss of diagnostic specificity. Conclusions The touchdown protocol with pre-dispensed primer master-mixes was suitable for replacing virus culture for the diagnosis of respiratory viruses which were negative by immunofluorescence. Results by immunofluorescence were available after an average of 4–12 hours while molecular strip results were available within 24 hours, considerably faster than viral culture. The combined strip and touchdown protocol proved to be a convenient and reliable method of testing for multiple viruses in a routine setting.

  12. IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN CLINICAL BIOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    SERODIAGNOSIS), (*FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUES , IDENTIFICATION, BACTERIA, VIRUSES, TREPONEMA PALLIDUM, NUCLEI( BIOLOGY ), ANTIGEN ANTIBODY REACTIONS, BLOOD GROUPS, ERYTHROCYTES, TOXOPLASMA, IMMUNOLOGY, BELGIUM.

  13. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women: a secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Glidden, David V; Liu, Albert Y; McMahan, Vanessa; Guanira, Juan V; Mayer, Kenneth H; Goicochea, Pedro; Grant, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    For maximum effect pre-exposure prophylaxis should be targeted to the subpopulations that account for the largest proportion of infections (population-attributable fraction [PAF]) and for whom the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent infection is lowest. We aimed to estimate the PAF and NNT of participants in the iPrEx (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative) trial. The iPrEx study was a randomised controlled efficacy trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in 2499 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Participants aged 18 years or older who were male at birth were enrolled from 11 trial sites in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either a pill with active pre-exposure prophylaxis or placebo, taken daily. We calculated the association between demographic and risk behaviour during screening and subsequent seroconversion among placebo recipients using a Poisson model, and we calculated the PAF and NNT for risk behaviour subgroups. The iPrEx trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00458393. Patients were enrolled between July 10, 2007, and Dec 17, 2009, and were followed up until Nov 21, 2010. Of the 2499 MSM and transgender women in the iPrEx trial, 1251 were assigned to pre-exposure prophylaxis and 1248 to placebo. 83 of 1248 patients in the placebo group became infected with HIV during follow-up. Participants reporting receptive anal intercourse without a condom seroconverted significantly more often than those reporting no anal sex without a condom (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 5·11, 95% CI 1·55-16·79). The overall PAF for MSM and transgender women reporting receptive anal intercourse without a condom was 64% (prevalence 60%). Most of this risk came from receptive anal intercourse without a condom with partners with unknown serostatus (PAF 53%, prevalence 54%, AHR 4·76, 95% CI 1·44-15·71); by

  14. Alignment technique for second-level exposure of phase-shifting masks using 10-kV raster-scan electron-beam lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Freyer, Jorge L.; Muray, Andrew J.; Naber, Robert J.; Poreda, John T.; Thomas, John R.

    1993-03-01

    The fabrication of phase shifting masks requires precise alignment between the primary and shifter layers. The MEBESR IV electron-beam lithography system uses its SEM mode to acquire a video image of the phase shift mask (PSM) alignment mark. Digital signal- processing algorithms have been developed to accurately determine the locations of the marks. Alignment marks are acquired through various resist systems and film thicknesses. Machine control software translates and rotates the MEBES coordinate system to align it with the mask coordinate system, as determined by the location of the alignment marks. Results showing overlay accuracy between layers are presented.

  15. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  16. Demineralization of dentin with EDTA in organic solvent: immunofluorescence of collagen in osteogenesis imperfecta and normal teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinmaa, P L; Ranta, H; Ranta, K; Peltonen, L; Hietanen, J

    1985-12-01

    The immunofluorescence of dentin collagen(s) after demineralization with ethanolic trimethylammonium ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EtOH-TMA-EDTA) was studied using normal deciduous teeth, and deciduous and permanent teeth from three patients with Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Sections of the demineralized teeth were immunostained with anti type I, III and IV collagen sera. Preservation of the antigenicity of the collagens after treatment with EtOH-TMA-EDTA was confirmed by staining of the soft tissue controls. Anti type I collagen sera stained the normal dentin matrix peritubularly only. In OI, a homogeneous fluorescence of the mantle dentin and the dentin zone surrounding the abnormal canal-like structures was observed. With anti type III collagen serum, the normal dentin matrix failed to stain. In OI, the staining pattern was a narrow halo surrounding the canal-like structures. Alteration in the collagen or the noncollagenous components of the dentin matrix may explain the staining reactions of the various collagens in OI.

  17. RRM1, ERCC1 and TS1 Immunofluorescence Expression in Leiomyosarcoma: A Tissue Microarray Study with Clinical Outcome Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sam D; Bui, Katherine; Chiappori, Alberto; Bepler, Gerold; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-07-01

    ERCC1, RRM1 and TS1 are reportedly linked to chemotherapy resistance in lung and other cancers. However, there are currently no studies reporting the relationship between these genes and clinical parameters in leiomyosarcomas. This study investigated the expression pattern of ERCC1, RRM1 and TS1 in forty-four leiomyosarcoma samples by the use of tissue microarray (TMA), immunofluorescence and AQUA methods. The results were then analyzed for expression level and correlations were made with clinical outcome to determine their potential prognostic value in leiomyosarcoma. In the forty-four samples studied, the expression level of these three proteins can be well quantified in the AQUA system and reflected by the AQUA score. RRM1 and ERCC1 expression levels did not show any relationship with overall survival. However, a correlation was found between TS1 expression in the cytoplasm and overall survival. The high expression group had a shorter overall survival time (log-rank p = 0.0498). This trend was confirmed by the Cox proportional hazards model. The poor overall survival of leiomyosarcoma is linked to TS1 cytoplasm expression which may be useful in predicting prognoses of this tumor, methods targeting expression of TS1 may lead to improved overall survival in leiomyosarcoma, though more detailed information regarding treatment information and a larger sample size is needed to confirm this phenomenon.

  18. Sensitive and Quantitative Detection of C-Reaction Protein Based on Immunofluorescent Nanospheres Coupled with Lateral Flow Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Cong-Ying; Tang, Man; Wu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Cui; Zhu, Lian; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-06-21

    Sensitive and quantitative detection of protein biomarkers with a point-of-care (POC) assay is significant for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseases. In this paper, a quantitative lateral flow assay with high sensitivity for protein biomarkers was established by utilizing fluorescent nanospheres (FNs) as reporters. Each fluorescent nanosphere (FN) contains 332 ± 8 CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), leading to its superstrong luminescence, 380-fold higher than that of one QD. Then a detection limit of 27.8 pM C-reaction protein (CRP) could be achieved with an immunofluorescent nanosphere (IFN)-based lateral flow test strip. The assay was 257-fold more sensitive than that with a conventional Au-based lateral flow test strip for CRP detection. Besides, the fluorescence intensity of FNs and bioactivity of IFNs were stable during 6 months of storage. Hence, the assay owns good reproducibility (intra-assay variability of 5.3% and interassay variability of 6.6%). Furthermore, other cancer biomarkers (PSA, CEA, AFP) showed negative results by this method, validating the excellent specificity of the method. Then the assay was successfully applied to quantitatively detect CRP in peripheral blood plasma samples from lung cancer and breast cancer patients, and healthy people, facilitating the diagnosis of lung cancer. It holds a good prospect of POC protein biomarker detection.

  19. Reversible optical control of cyanine fluorescence in fixed and living cells: optical lock-in detection immunofluorescence imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuling; Petchprayoon, Chutima; Mao, Shu; Marriott, Gerard

    2013-02-05

    Optical switch probes undergo rapid and reversible transitions between two distinct states, one of which may fluoresce. This class of probe is used in various super-resolution imaging techniques and in the high-contrast imaging technique of optical lock-in detection (OLID) microscopy. Here, we introduce optimized optical switches for studies in living cells under standard conditions of cell culture. In particular, a highly fluorescent cyanine probe (Cy or Cy3) is directly or indirectly linked to naphthoxazine (NISO), a highly efficient optical switch that undergoes robust, 405/532 nm-driven transitions between a colourless spiro (SP) state and a colourful merocyanine (MC) state. The intensity of Cy fluorescence in these Cy/Cy3-NISO probes is reversibly modulated between a low and high value in SP and MC states, respectively, as a result of Förster resonance energy transfer. Cy/Cy3-NISO probes are targeted to specific proteins in living cells where defined waveforms of Cy3 fluorescence are generated by optical switching of the SP and MC states. Finally, we introduce a new imaging technique (called OLID-immunofluorescence microscopy) that combines optical modulation of Cy3 fluorescence from Cy3/NISO co-labelled antibodies within fixed cells and OLID analysis to significantly improve image contrast in samples having high background or rare antigens.

  20. Characterisation of L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1 Expression in Human Skeletal Muscle by Immunofluorescent Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hodson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The branch chain amino acid leucine is a potent stimulator of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. Leucine rapidly enters the cell via the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT1; however, little is known regarding the localisation and distribution of this transporter in human skeletal muscle. Therefore, we applied immunofluorescence staining approaches to visualise LAT1 in wild type (WT and LAT1 muscle-specific knockout (mKO mice, in addition to basal human skeletal muscle samples. LAT1 positive staining was visually greater in WT muscles compared to mKO muscle. In human skeletal muscle, positive LAT1 staining was noted close to the sarcolemmal membrane (dystrophin positive staining, with a greater staining intensity for LAT1 observed in the sarcoplasmic regions of type II fibres (those not stained positively for myosin heavy-chain 1, Type II—25.07 ± 5.93, Type I—13.71 ± 1.98, p < 0.01, suggesting a greater abundance of this protein in these fibres. Finally, we observed association with LAT1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, suggesting LAT1 association close to the microvasculature. This is the first study to visualise the distribution and localisation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle. As such, this approach provides a validated experimental platform to study the role and regulation of LAT1 in human skeletal muscle in response to various physiological and pathophysiological models.

  1. Detection of antibodies to Plasmodium vivax by indirect immunofluorescence: influence of the geographic origin of antigens and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerroug, E H; Demedts, P; Wéry, M

    1986-03-01

    The results of a double-blind serological study of 15 sera sampled in a residual focus of vivax malaria transmission in Algeria, and of 7 sera from patients with slide-proven P. vivax infections acquired in India, are analyzed. The reactivity of each of these serum samples was tested by indirect immunofluorescence using 6 different batches of antigen, including 3 batches of P. vivax antigen prepared with isolates from Zaire (Africa), India and the Solomon Islands, respectively. The geometric mean of reciprocal titers (GMRT) calculated on the 7 sera from proven vivax infections fell from 289.8 using the homologous antigen from the same geographic origin (India) to 48.7 using a homologous (vivax) antigen originating from a different continent (Africa). Among the 15 samples from Algeria, the percentage of seropositives decreased from 100% using the homologous P. vivax antigen originating from the same continent (Africa) to 53.3% using a homologous antigen from India. Two aspects are included in the discussion: in seroepidemiological studies, sensitivity could be improved by the use of a homologous antigen from the same geographic origin; in detection of clinical cases of malaria and species identification based on serology, our results stress the need for caution in interpreting serological titers and for taking into account the geographic origin of the isolates used as antigen.

  2. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. Qureshi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  3. Integration of co-localized glandular morphometry and protein biomarker expression in immunofluorescent images for prostate cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard; Khan, Faisal M.; Zeineh, Jack; Donovan, Michael; Fernandez, Gerardo

    2015-03-01

    Immunofluorescent (IF) image analysis of tissue pathology has proven to be extremely valuable and robust in developing prognostic assessments of disease, particularly in prostate cancer. There have been significant advances in the literature in quantitative biomarker expression as well as characterization of glandular architectures in discrete gland rings. However, while biomarker and glandular morphometric features have been combined as separate predictors in multivariate models, there is a lack of integrative features for biomarkers co-localized within specific morphological sub-types; for example the evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression within Gleason 3 glands only. In this work we propose a novel framework employing multiple techniques to generate integrated metrics of morphology and biomarker expression. We demonstrate the utility of the approaches in predicting clinical disease progression in images from 326 prostate biopsies and 373 prostatectomies. Our proposed integrative approaches yield significant improvements over existing IF image feature metrics. This work presents some of the first algorithms for generating innovative characteristics in tissue diagnostics that integrate co-localized morphometry and protein biomarker expression.

  4. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Omar S; Bon, Hélène; Twomey, Breda; Holdsworth, Gill; Ford, Kirsty; Bergin, Marianne; Huang, Linghong; Muzylak, Mariusz; Healy, Louise J; Hurdowar, Vanessa; Johnson, Timothy S

    2017-10-15

    Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunofluorescence assay and a hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of antibodies to K-papovavirus in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.W.J. Broeders; H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe sensitivity of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody to K virus was compared with the sensitivities of an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA). Specific pathogen-free BALB/c RIVM mice, 5 weeks

  6. Longitudinal study of the indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation tests for diagnosis of chagas' disease in immunosuppressed patients submitted to renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando de Castro Figueiredo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and serological follow-up of 7 patients submitted to renal transplantation and presenting positive serological reactions to Chagas 'disease before immunossupression did not show significant changes in indirect immunofluorescence and complement fixation titres for Chagas ' disease, or signs and symptoms indicating exacerbation of the disease during follow- up. In addition, 18 of 66 recipients of renal transplants considered to be non-chagasic before immunosuppression showed at least one positive result to the indirect immunofluorescence test for Chagas ' disease during the study period. The results suggest that the immunosuppression State induced in chagasic patients submitted to renal transplant did notpromoted exacerbation of the chronic infection in these patients and not interfere with the serological response of chronic chagasics, thus permitting the use of these serologic reactions for diagnostic purposes in these cases. However, the positive results ofthe indirect immunofluorescence test in non- chagasic patients indicate the needforjudicious interpretation ofthe indirect immunofluorescence test for the diagnosis of Chagas' disease in renal transplanted patients.

  7. Immunofluorescence Microscopy and mRNA Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) Including Primary Cilia Associated Signaling Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maj Linea; Awan, Aashir; Warzecha, Caroline Becker

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the procedures for immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) grown specifically under feeder-free conditions. A detailed protocol is provided outlining the steps from initially growing the cells, passaging...

  8. HEMORRHAGIC-FEVER VIRUS-INFECTIONS IN AN ISOLATED RAIN-FOREST AREA OF CENTRAL LIBERIA - LIMITATIONS OF THE INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE SLIDE TEST FOR ANTIBODY SCREENING IN AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waals, F. W.; Pomeroy, K. L.; Goudsmit, J.; Asher, D. M.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples from 119 healthy individuals and 106 epilepsy patients inhabiting Grand Bassa County, Liberia, were tested for antibodies to hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV) by indirect immunofluorescence. E6 Vero cells infected with Lassa fever virus (LAS), Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), Congo

  9. Multiplex RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays for detection and subtyping of human influenza virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben M'hadheb, Manel; Harrabi, Myriam; Souii, Amira; Jrad-Battikh, Nadia; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2015-03-01

    Influenza viruses are negative stranded segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. They are classified into three types A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes according to the antigenic characters of the surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable multiplex RT-PCR technique for detecting simultaneously the subtypes A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 of influenza virus. Our study included 398 patients (mean age 30.33 ± 19.92 years) with flu or flu-like syndromes, consulting physicians affiliated with collaborating teams. A multiplex RT-PCR detecting A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses and an examination by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) were performed. In the optimized conditions, we diagnosed by IFI a viral infection in 90 patients (22.6 %): 85 cases of influenza type A, four cases of influenza type B, and only one case of coinfection with types A and B. An evaluation of the technique was performed on 19 clinical specimens positive in IFI, and we detected eight cases of A/H3N2, five cases of A/H1N1, one case of influenza virus type A which is not an H1N1 nor H3N2, and five negative cases. Multiplex RT-PCR is a sensitive technique allowing an effective and fast diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in which the optimization often collides with problems of sensibility.

  10. Immunofluorescent visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4qq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Molgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of excitatory neurons is controlled by a highly diverse population of inhibitory interneurons. These cells show a high level of physiological, morphological and neurochemical heterogeneity, and play highly specific roles in neuronal circuits. In the mammalian hippocampus, these are divided into 21 different subtypes of GABAergic interneurons based on their expression of different markers, morphology and their electrophysiological properties. Ideally, all can be marked using an antibody directed against the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but parvalbumin, calbindin, somatostatin, and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies on the market directed against these four markers. Searches in the literature databases allowed us to narrow it down to a subset of antibodies most commonly used in publications. However, in our hands the most cited ones did not work for immunofluorescence stainings of formaldehyde fixed tissue sections and cultured hippocampal neurons, and we had to immunostain our way through thirteen different commercial antibodies before finally finding a suitable antibody for each of the four markers. The antibodies were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratios as well as if positive cells were found in layers of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, an antibody review database, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location of the immunostained cells in accordance with the literature could be obtained, making these antibodies suitable choices for

  11. Composite biomarkers defined by multiparametric immunofluorescence analysis identify ALK-positive adenocarcinoma as a potential target for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Hélène; De Guillebon, Eléonore; Biard, Lucie; Mandavit, Marion; Gibault, Laure; Fabre, Elisabeth; Antoine, Martine; Hofman, Paul; Beau-Faller, Michèle; Blons, Hélène; Danel, Claire; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Gey, Alain; Granier, Clémence; Wislez, Marie; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Oudard, Stéphane; Bruneval, Patrick; Badoual, Cécile; Cadranel, Jacques; Tartour, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors have been successfully developed for non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) displaying chromosomal rearrangements of the ALK gene, but unfortunately resistance invariably occurs. Blockade of the PD-1-PD-L1/2 inhibitory pathway constitutes a breakthrough for the treatment of NSCLC. Some predictive biomarkers of clinical response to this therapy are starting to emerge, such as PD-L1 expression by tumor/stromal cells and infiltration by CD8+ T cells expressing PD-1. To more effectively integrate all of these potential biomarkers of clinical response to immunotherapy, we have developed a multiparametric immunofluorescence technique with automated immune cell counting to comprehensively analyze the tumor microenvironment of ALK-positive adenocarcinoma (ADC). When analyzed as either a continuous or a dichotomous variable, the mean number of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 (p = 0.012) and the percentage of tumor cells expressing PD-L1 were higher in ALK-positive ADC than in EGFR-mutated ADC or WT (non-EGFR-mutated and non-KRAS-mutated) NSCLC. A very strong correlation between PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and intratumoral infiltration by CD8+ T cells was observed, suggesting that an adaptive mechanism may partly regulate this expression. A higher frequency of tumors combining positive PD-L1 expression and infiltration by intratumoral CD8+ T cells or PD-1+CD8+ T cells was also observed in ALK-positive lung cancer patients compared with EGFR-mutated (p = 0.03) or WT patients (p = 0.012). These results strongly suggest that a subgroup of ALK-positive lung cancer patients may constitute good candidates for anti-PD-1/-PD-L1 therapies.

  12. Comparison of a rapid immunochromatographic assay with an immunofluorescent antibody test for detection of Leishmania infantum antibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Baggiani, Luciana; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Migliazzo, Antonella; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Identification of Leishmania infantum-infected dogs is crucial for control of canine leishmaniosis. In particular, in areas where access to specialized laboratories is limited, the availability of reliable and rapid in-clinic serologic tests may support immediate diagnosis in suspected cases and permit detection of asymptomatic canine carriers of L infantum infection. The purpose of the study was to validate the immunochromatographic test (ICT) Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit for detection of L infantum antibodies in naturally exposed dogs in comparison with the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Serum samples from 66 dogs, including 20 healthy control dogs and 46 dogs suspected or confirmed with canine leishmaniosis, were measured by both tests. Anti-Leishmania IgG titers ≥ 1:40 by IFAT were considered positive. Kappa statistic with a 95% CI was calculated to evaluate agreement between the 2 testing methods, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated. Anti-L infantum IgG antibodies were found in 35 of 66 samples using the IFAT test (titers 1:40-1:5120). Thirty-one out of 66 samples tested positive with the qualitative ICT. Four IFAT-positive (titers ICT-negative. The Kappa value of 0.853 demonstrated very good agreement between the 2 tests. The Anigen Rapid Leishmania Ab Test kit reliably identified canine sera with anti-L infantum IgG antibody titers ≥ 1:40. The ICT requires neither special preparation of the serum nor specialized equipment and can be stored at ambient temperature. The test is applicable as a field test because it is easy to use and provides rapid results. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Evaluation of a Direct Immunofluorescent Assay and/or Conjunctival Cytology for Detection of Canine Distemper Virus Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Kantere, Maria C; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Pardali, Dimitra; Adamama Moraitou, Katerina; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2017-11-29

    Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR. For the direct FA, samples were stained with anti-CDV polyclonal antiserum conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and imaged using a fluorescent microscope. Out of 57 dogs tested, 19 were PCR positive (15 positive in direct FA and 4 positive in cytology, including one that was negative by PCR), whereas 37 dogs were negative in all methods. A good agreement was observed between the FA and PCR, with a κ-value of 0.833 (95% CI: 0.678-0.989). Meanwhile, there was poor agreement between cytology and PCR (κ-value of 0.164; 95% CI: -0.045 to 0.373) and a fair agreement between FA and cytology (κ-value of 0.231; 95% CI: -0.026 to 0.487). Our results indicated a poor performance of cytology for the detection of CDV antigen. In contrast, FA is a 100% specific and an adequately sensitive assay (sensitivity: 78.95%, negative likelihood ratio: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09-0.50) for antemortem diagnosis of canine distemper.

  14. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S.; Worthington, Philip L.; Shepherd, Sam O.; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increases in insulin‐mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4‐containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans‐Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes. PMID:25052490

  15. Relationship of Serum Levels of Anti-Desmoglein Antibodies and Direct Immunofluorescence Findings with Clinical Activity of Pemphigus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediha Yılmaz

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that results in blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. In this study, we investigated the relationship between disease activity and remission with ELISA scores and direct immunofluorescence (IF - two methods used for the detection of antibodies against desmoglein-1 (dsg-1 and desmoglein-3 (dsg-3 that are responsible for blister formation. Material and Method: Twenty-three pemphigus vulgaris patients and two pemphigus foliaceus patients were enrolled in the study. The serum levels of anti-dsg-1 and anti-dsg-3 antibodies were measured with ELISA before therapy and at 3, 6, and 12 month of clinical remission. Concurrently, direct IF was performed on perilesional skin during active disease and on normal buttock skin/lower lip mucosa in remission. The tests were repeated if relapse has occured. Results: Anti-dsg-1 was detected in 17 (73.9% pemphigus vulgaris patients and anti-dsg-3 in 23 (100% pemphigus vulgaris patients. In two pemphigus foliaceus patients, anti-dsg-1 values were positive, while anti-dsg-3 values were negative. A statistically significant correlation was seen between anti-dsg-1 antibody serum levels and skin severity scores (r: 0.577; p: 0.003, as well as between anti-dsg-3 antibody serum levels and oral mucosa severity scores (r: 0.539; p: 0.008. Direct IF results in 16 patients (84.2% who achieved complete remission were negative. In 9 patients who relapsed, elevated serum values of anti-dsg-1 and/or anti-dsg-3 were also found. Increase in serum antibody levels was detected 1-4 months before the relapse in three of them. Conclusion: In this study, we observed that serum desmoglein antibody levels correlated with disease severity and activity. In clinical remission, serial measurements of desmoglein antibodies can provide a guide for clinical follow-up and treatment modification.

  16. Safety, Tolerability, Systemic Exposure, and Metabolism of CRS3123, a Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitor Developed for Treatment of Clostridium difficile, in a Phase 1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Seema U; Griffiss, J McLeod; Blumer, Jeffrey; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Gray, Wesley; McKenzie, Robin; Jurao, Robert A; An, Amanda T; Le, Melissa; Bell, Stacie J; Ochsner, Urs A; Jarvis, Thale C; Janjic, Nebojsa; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and is a major public health concern. Current therapies disrupt the protective intestinal flora, do not reliably prevent recurrent infections, and will be decreasingly effective should less susceptible strains emerge. CRS3123 is an oral agent that inhibits bacterial methionyl-tRNA synthetase and has potent activity against C. difficile and aerobic Gram-positive bacteria but little activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including anaerobes. This first-in-human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study evaluated the safety and systemic exposure of CRS3123 after a single oral dose in healthy adults. Five cohorts of eight subjects each received CRS3123 or placebo in a 3:1 ratio. Doses for the respective active arms were 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, and 1,200 mg. Blood and urine were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. CRS3123 concentrations were measured with validated LC-MS/MS techniques. There were no serious adverse events or immediate allergic reactions during administration of CRS3123. In the CRS3123-treated groups, the most frequent adverse events were decreased hemoglobin, headache, and abnormal urine analysis; all adverse events in the active-treatment groups were mild to moderate, and their frequency did not increase with dose. Although CRS3123 systemic exposure increased at higher doses, the increase was less than dose proportional. The absorbed drug was glucuronidated at reactive amino groups on the molecule, which precluded accurate pharmacokinetic analysis of the parent drug. Overall, CRS3123 was well tolerated over this wide range of doses. This safety profile supports further investigation of CRS3123 as a treatment for C. difficile infections. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01551004.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Cardiac reactivity during the ascending phase of acute intravenous alcohol exposure and association with subjective perceptions of intoxication in social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  19. Human exposure assessment to a large set of polymer additives through the analysis of urine by solid phase extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouech, Charlène; Kiss, Agneta; Lafay, Florent; Léonard, Didier; Wiest, Laure; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Vulliet, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-04

    Polymer items are extensively present in the human environment. Humans may be consequently exposed to some compounds, such as additives, incorporated in these items. The objective of this work is to assess the human exposure to the main additives such as those authorized in the packaging for pharmaceutical products. The urinary matrix was selected to optimally answer this challenge because it has already been proven that the exposure to chemicals can be revealed by the analysis of this biological matrix. A multi-residue analytical method for the trace analysis at ng/mL in human urine was developed, and consisted of an extraction of analytes from urine by solid phase extraction (SPE) and an analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). Even if the quantification of these compounds was an analytical challenge because of (i) the presence of these substances in the analytical process, (ii) the diversity of their physicochemical properties, and (iii) the complexity of the matrix, the optimized method exhibited quantification limits lower than 25ng/mL and recoveries between 51% and 120% for all compounds. The method was validated and applied to 52 human urines. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first study allowing the assessment of the occurrence of more than twenty polymer additives at ng/mL in human urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytokeratin patterns in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium. An immunofluorescence study with PKK-1, 8.12, 8.60, and 4.62 anticytokeratin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, M I; Weinreb, R N

    1990-11-01

    The authors examined immunofluorescently the specific cytokeratin staining patterns of corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium with PKK-1, 8.12, 4.62, and 8.60 monoclonal anticytokeratin antibodies. Observations were made on unfixed frozen postmortem human tissue. The PKK-1 antibody stain was observed in all layers of corneal epithelium but only in suprabasal layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. By contrast, the 8.12 antibody stain was observed only in the superficial layer of corneal epithelium but through all layers of limbal and conjunctival epithelium. The 4.60 antibody stain was seen in focal areas of corneal and limbal epithelium and through all layers of conjunctival epithelium. The 8.60 antibody stain was not present in the three epithelia. These immunofluorescence studies showed unique cytokeratin patterns among layers in corneal, limbal, and conjunctival epithelium.

  1. Wood-smoke exposure as a response and survival predictor in erlotinib-treated non-small cell lung cancer patients: an open label phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Oscar; Martinez-Barrera, Luis; Treviño, Sergio; Guzman, Enrique; Castillo-Gonzalez, Patricia; Rios-Trejo, Miguel Angel; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Téllez, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Cesar; de la Cruz Vargas, Johny; Gonzalez-De la Rosa, Claudia Haydee; Hernandez-Pedro, Norma; Morales-Barrera, Rafael; De la Garza, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has improved survival and quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first- or second-line chemotherapy. Asian origin, adenocarcinoma histology, female gender, lack of tobacco use, and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor are significant independent predictors of response to Erlotinib. Although tobacco use is considered a major cause of NSCLC, other risk factors such as wood-smoke exposure (WSE) are associated. Almost 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid fuels as their primary source of domestic energy for cooking and heating. In this study, 150 consecutive unselected patients with histologically proven NSCLC with progression after prior first- or second-line chemotherapy and/or poor performance status were treated with Erlotinib 150 mg/d. Clinical and pathologic characteristics were associated with response. Overall response to Erlotinib was observed in 51 patients [34%; 95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 29.9-37.6]. In multivariate analysis, clinical features associated with response to Erlotinib were adenocarcinoma (35 versus 20%; p = 0.05) and WSE (83 versus 13%; p < 0.001). Factors associated with longer progression-free survival in Cox analysis included adenocarcinoma (7.9 versus 2.3 months; p = 0.009), female gender (8.4 versus 5.3 months; p = 0.04), and WSE (17.6 versus 5.3 months; p = 0.006). WSE is associated with better response to Erlotinib and improved progression-free survival in patients with NSCLC. Additional studies in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway in WSE-associated NSCLC are warranted.

  2. Heterogeneity of antimitochondrial antibodies with the M2-M4 pattern by immunofluorescence as assessed by Western immunoblotting and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusconi, M; Ghadiminejad, I; Bianchi, F B; Baum, H; Bottazzo, G F; Pisi, E

    1988-01-01

    Seventy seven sera with antimitochondrial antibody exhibiting the M2-M4 pattern in immunofluorescence (56 from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), 21 from non-primary biliary cirrhosis patients) were studied by the combined use of Western immunoblotting with beef heart mitochondria and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with beef heart submitochondrial particles. Forty seven sera (10 without autoantibodies and 37 with different auto-antibodies) were included as controls. By immunoblotting, seven mitochondrial peptides reacting with antimitochondrial antibody positive sera were detected. These were of molecular weight 74 kD, 58 kD, 55 kD, 52 kD, 51 kD, 46 kD, and 43 kD. All primary biliary cirrhosis sera and 71% of antimitochondrial antibody-positive non-primary biliary cirrhosis sera reacted with one or more of these peptides, while none of the 47 antimitochondrial antibody negative sera reacted in immunoblotting. The 74 kD band was the most frequently detected (84% of primary biliary cirrhosis and 57% of non-primary biliary cirrhosis cases). All the primary biliary cirrhosis sera which failed to react with this peptide, showed a positive reaction with that of molecular weight 52 kD. 67/77 (87%) immunofluorescence antimitochondrial antibody positive sera reacted in the ELISA test (93% of primary biliary cirrhosis and 71% of non-primary biliary cirrhosis cases). All the 47 immunofluorescence antimitochondrial antibody negative sera were confirmed negative by ELISA. The ELISA values correlated with the immunofluorescence titres (p less than 0.05). By comparison of the results obtained by these two techniques, it emerged that the ELISA test (using our preparation of submitochondrial particles) was not able to detect the antibody directed against the mitochondrial peptide of 52 kD, which thus seems to be different from the other specificities. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2453397

  3. The investigation of exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX with Solid Phase Microextr action Method in gas station in Yazd province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mosaddegh Mehrjerdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are volatile organic compounds which their physical and chemical characteristics are similar. Evaporation of BTEX from gasoline in petrol station into the air causes gasoline station attendants expose to them. A new extraction method of volatile organic compounds is solid phase microextraction (SPME. The aim of this study is to optimize extraction conditions of BTEX from air samples and then determination of gasoline station air contamination with BTEX in Yazd. Material and Methods: In this study air samples were collected using Tedlar bags and then extracted and analyzed with SPME fiber and gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. Results: Our results indicate that PDMS/CAR has the best peak area in comparison with two other fibers The Optimized extraction and desorption times are estimated 3 and 1 minutes, respectively Mean concentration of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene in gas station’s air were 1932±807, 667±405, 148±89, 340±216 µg/m3 respectively. Conclusion: Benzene mean concentration is above threshold limit value (0.5PPM. Whereas, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene mean concentration are lower than threshold limit values.

  4. Comparison of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Incidence Between Women With Infertility and Healthy Women in Iran Using PCR and Immunofluorescence Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Mahmoud Amin; Moulana, Zahra; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mashhadi Karim, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, infertility has been one of the most sequels in medical sciences with microbial agents as one group of its causes. The possible etiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis in infertility was suggested years ago, but it has not yet been proved completely. To decrease the severe involvements of C. trachomatis infections, screening by efficient diagnostic methods are necessary. In this study we attempted to determine the incidence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and compared this with healthy women. This case-control study was performed on 150 infertile women with unknown causes and without physiological deficiency for infertility. The control group consisted of 200 fertile safe and impregnated women. Presence of C. trachomatis in the two groups was examined by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and PCR. C. trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence method in 23 (15.3%) infertile women compared and 7 (3.5%) healthy controls. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, a positive test titer of 1:16 as well as the above results were detected in 34 (22.6%) of the infertile cases and 9 (4.5%) of the controls. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR method in 48 (32%) infertile women and 13 (8.7%) among the controls. The results of our study suggest that there is a significant association between C. trachomatis infection and female infertility.

  5. Antigen-based immunofluorescence analysis of B-cell targeting: advanced technology for the generation of novel monoclonal antibodies with high efficiency and selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masahiro; Fukuda, Takatomi; Ozu, Akira; Kimura, Kei-ichi; Tsong, Tian Yow; Yoshimura, Tetsuro

    2006-10-01

    On the basis of immunofluorescence analysis, an entire pathway of B-cell targeting was successfully identified, which can drive selective production of monoclonal antibodies with high efficiency and selectivity. The technique comprises three critical steps, antigen-based preselection of B lymphocytes, formation of antigenselected B lymphocyte and myeloma cell complexes, and selective fusion of B-cell-myeloma cell complexes with electrical pulses. Intriguingly, expression of surface immunoglobulin receptors on B lymphocytes was recognized even after immunization in vitro. The number of the antigen-selected B lymphocytes after in vitro immunization was in fact higher than that obtained after in vivo immunization, suggesting that such shortterm immunization is applicable for B-cell targeting. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed the targeting technique to demonstrate fivefold to tenfold higher efficiency for formation of hybridoma cells than a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated method. This efficiency is in good agreement with production of hybridoma cells secreting desired monoclonal antibodies determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The addition of a low concentration of PEG brought about enhanced fusion efficiency and reduced cell damage at even electric intensities as high as 4.0 kV/cm and 5.0 kV/cm. Here we demonstrate that immunofluorescence analysis can successfully clarify an entire pathway of B-cell targeting and provide advantages over the PEG-mediated method. This advanced technology may be applicable for rapid production of monoclonal antibodies based on in vitro immunization.

  6. Patterns of glomerular disease based on 4-year kidney biopsy material analyzed by light microscopy and immunofluorescence: a retrospective single-center analysis in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olewicz-Gawlik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiology of different patterns of chronic glomerular diseases based on clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescent findings of glomerulonephritis patients hospitalized in the Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases in Poznan between January 2009 and December 2012. We retrospectively studied 418 patients who had been subjected to renal biopsies. Data on serum creatinine concentration, 24 h proteinuria, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and histological and immunofluorescent findings were collected. The patients’ mean age was 42 ±15. The male sex prevailed (53.1%. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy was the most common finding (18.9%, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (16.3%, membranous glomerulonephritis (10.1%, lupus nephritis (8.4%, extracapillary glomerulonephritis (3.3% and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (2.6%. In 69 (16.5% patients the biopsy was non-informative or non-diagnostic. Patients with membranous nephropathy presented the highest frequency of nephrotic syndrome (71.4%, followed by membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Combined analysis of the clinical, histopathological and immunofluorescent findings in glomerulonephritis patients based on a single center’s data can provide important epidemiological findings.

  7. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  8. Symptomatology and diagnosis in connective tissue disease. Antibodies to extractable ribonucleoprotein in 123 patients reacting with cell nuclei in the immunofluorescence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J

    1976-01-01

    Sera with an antinuclear immunofluorescence titre of 1/000 were taken consecutively from the diagnostic routine flow and examined for agglutinating antibodies against desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). Passive haemagglutination tests with antigen-coated tanned erythrocytes were used and the specificity of the reactions was corroborated by testing against enzyme-treated cells. After the exclusion of the DNA-reacting 15%, three major groups and one minor could be distinguished on a serological basis. The largest group (41%) contained cases with a speckled immunofluorescence pattern and a RNase-trypsin sensitive agglutination reaction with ENA coated cells (sRNP). Nearly all cases of mixed connective tissue disease and scleroderma fell into this group which also contained 44% of the SLE cases. Symptomatically the group was characterized by remarkably high incidences of Raynaud's syndrome and myositis. The major group next in size comprised cases with a homogeneous immunofluorescence pattern but no reaction against DNA or ENA. Half of the cases within this group had the diagnosis SLE; they also constituted 42% of all SLE cases. The only other diagnosis of significant frequency within the group was unspecified collagenosis (23%). The symptomatology of the group was rather uncharacteristic, with the exception of the low incidence of Raynaud's syndrome. The third major group comprised cases with a speckled immunofluorescence pattern but no agglutination reaction against ENA or DNA. This group had a very high incidence of rheumatoid factor and also the highest incidence of visceral lesions among the groups. Yet the group contained only a small proportion (14%) of the SLE cases and the rheumatoid arthritis cases were about equally shared between this and the first group. The most common diagnosis in the group was unspecified collagenosis (40%). A fourth, small but homogeneous group contained cases with a speckled immunofluorescence pattern

  9. A serum-free, purified vero cell rabies vaccine is safe and as immunogenic as the reference vaccine Verorab for pre-exposure use in healthy adults: results from a randomized controlled phase-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Sylvie; Guinet-Morlot, Françoise; Minutello, Maria; Donazzolo, Yves; Rouzier, Regine; Chassard, Didier; Fitoussi, Serge; Hou, Victor

    2013-04-26

    Verorab was licensed in 1985 for both pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies. The next generation purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV-NG) is a highly purified vaccine. We performed a phase II clinical study in adults in France to assess its immunological non-inferiority and clinical safety for pre-exposure prophylaxis. In a randomized phase-II trial, 384 healthy adult subjects were randomized (2:1) to receive a three-dose primary series of PVRV-NG or Verorab. One year later, the PVRV-NG group received a PVRV-NG booster while the Verorab group participants were randomized to receive a booster of PVRV-NG or Verorab for. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) were evaluated on days 0, 28 (subgroup), 42, months 6, 12 and 12+14 days. Safety was evaluated for seven days after each dose. Adverse event between doses, until 28 days after the final dose was recorded. Serious adverse events were recorded up to 6 months after the last dose. The criterion for non-inferiority was met in the per-protocol analysis set and confirmed in the full analysis set (FAS). In the FAS, 99.6% and 100% of subjects had RVNA titers ≥0.5 IU/mL in PVRV-NG and Verorab groups, respectively. While RVNA levels gradually decreased over the 12-month period, at 6 and 12 months after vaccination >89% and >77%, respectively, in both groups had RVNA titers ≥0.5 IU/mL. The PVRV-NG booster induced a strong response, irrespective of the vaccine given for the primary series. PVRV-NG was safe and well tolerated and its safety profile was similar to Verorab for unsolicited adverse events and solicited systemic reactions. The incidence of solicited injection-site reactions was lower with PVRV-NG than with Verorab after the primary series and the booster dose. PVRV-NG was shown to be at least as immunogenic as Verorab and to present a similar safety profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dew drops on spider web appearance: a newly named pattern of IgG4 deposition in pemphigus with direct immunofluorescence

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    Marian Dmochowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel appearances in cutaneous pathology as well as mucocutaneous clinical signs are being described which indicate that this is still an attractive area for exploration. The H + E histology terms of “decorated tomb stoning” and “undecorated tomb stoning”, advocated by some pathologists, are misleading and as such should be avoided. Here, an appearance of IgG4 pemphigus deposits examined cost-effectively with direct immunofluorescence and suggested to be called “dew drops on spider web” is depicted in depth.

  11. FISH Detection of X and Y Chromosomes in Combination with Immunofluorescence to Study Contribution of Transplanted Cells to Skeletal Muscle Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, Anna; Jansson, Monika

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, several studies in animals have displayed the ability of cells from the bone marrow (BM) to participate in regeneration of various tissues including skeletal muscle tissue. Studies in mice have demonstrated that regular physical activity is sufficient to induce contribution of BM derived cells to the skeletal muscle tissue, suggesting that this is part of the physiological remodeling of skeletal muscle. To analyze whether BM-derived cells participate in skeletal muscle remodeling in human, we developed a protocol of immunofluorescence in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that enables the detection of male donor bone marrow cell contribution to female skeletal muscle tissue.

  12. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and anti-p200 pemphigoid as major subepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases diagnosed by floor binding on indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using human salt-split skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we report three cases of anti-p200 pemphigoid from India. These cases, though indistinguishable clinically from bullous pemphigoid, revealed a floor-binding pattern on indirect immunofluorescence using salt-split skin.

  13. Construction of iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites with low nonspecific adsorption and strong quenching ability for competitive immunofluorescent detection of biomarkers in GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifei; Liu, Anran; Shangguan, Li; Mi, Li; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yuanjian; Zhao, Yuewu; Li, Ying; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

    2017-04-15

    We developed a new immunofluorescent biosensor by utilizing a novel nanobody (Nb) and iron-polymer-graphene nanocomposites for sensitive detection of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Agrobacdterium tumefaciens strain CP4 (CP4-EPSPS), which considered as biomarkers of genetically modified (GM) crops. Specifically, we prepared iron doped polyacrylic hydrazide modified reduced graphene nanocomposites (Fe@RGO/PAH) by in-situ polymerization approach and subsequent a one-pot reaction with hydrazine. The resulting Fe@RGO/PAH nanocomposites displayed low nonspecific adsorption to analytes (11% quenching caused by nonspecific adsorption) due to electrostatic, energetic and steric effect of the nanocomposites. After Nb immobilizing, the as-prepared Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs showed good selectivity and high quenching ability (92% quenching) in the presence of antigen (Ag) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified CdTe QDs (Ag/QDs@PEG), which is a nearly 4 fold than that of the unmodified GO in same condition. The high quenching ability of Fe@RGO/PAH/Nbs can be used for detection of CP4-EPSPS based on competitive immunoassay with a linearly proportional concentration range of 5-100ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.34ng/mL. The good stability, reproducibility and specificity of the resulting immunofluorescent biosensor are demonstrated and might open a new window for investigation of fluorescent sensing with numerous multifunctional graphene based materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of slot blot nucleic acid hybridization, immunofluorescence, and virus isolation techniques to detect bluetongue virus in blood mononuclear cells from cattle with experimentally induced infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Concha-Bermejillo, A; Schore, C E; Dangler, C A; de Mattos, C C; de Mattos, C A; Osburn, B I

    1992-12-01

    A slot blot hybridization technique was applied for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) in blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) obtained from cattle with experimentally induced infection. This technique lacked sensitivity to detect the viral nucleic acid directly in clinical specimens. When aliquots of mononuclear cells from these cattle were cultivated in vitro for 10 days to amplify virus titer, only 33.3% of the samples collected during viremia gave a positive signal in the slot blot hybridization format. By contrast, results for 34.3% of noncultured and 63.3% of cultured mononuclear cell samples collected during viremia were positive by immunofluorescence. The average number of infected cells, as detected by immunofluorescence in the noncultured mononuclear cell samples, was 1 to 5/300,000, and was usually > 10/300,000 in the cultured cell samples. Virus was isolated from all postinoculation blood samples obtained from 4 heifers that were seronegative at the time of inoculation, but was not isolated from any of the preinoculation samples, or from any of the postinoculation samples obtained from 2 heifers that were seropositive at the time of inoculation. When virus isolation was attempted from separated mononuclear cells in 2 heifers, 43.7% of the noncultured and 87.5% of the cultured samples had positive results.

  15. Specificity of granular IgM deposition in folliculosebaceous units and sweat gland apparatus in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Amira; Zhou, Cheng; Valdebran, Manuel; Yu, Yan; Gad, AbdAllah; Kwon, Eun Ji; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE) in direct immunofluorescence testing is based on the finding of positive immunofluorescence at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ). We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of IgM deposition at the DEJ and adnexal structures in the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus. We conducted a retrospective study of 100 previously diagnosed cases of lupus erythematosus and 158 cases of other immune-mediated dermatosis. Deposition of IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 at the DEJ, follicular units, and sweat glands were recorded. Presence or absence of adnexal structures was documented. The immunoreactant deposition was documented as linear, coarse granular, or stippled. The most frequently deposited immunoreactant in lupus erythematosus cases was IgM along the DEJ and stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands. IgM deposition along the stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands was strongly associated with a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus compared with other immune-mediated diseases collectively (P value < .001). The pattern of IgM in lupus and dermatomyositis is granular, in contrast to the linear deposition in the other disorders evaluated. This was a retrospective study of archived material. Granular IgM deposition at the stromal-epithelial junction of cutaneous adnexal structures suggests a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  17. Concentração salina e fases de exposição à salinidade do meloeiro cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco Salt concentration and phases of exposure tosalinity of melon grown in coconut fiber substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo da Silva Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available No semiárido, a escassez de água de boa qualidade faz com que os produtores utilizem água salobra para preparar a solução nutritiva. Com o objetivo de investigar a utilização de água salobra na irrigação de meloeiro (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 cultivado em substrato de fibra de coco em casa de vegetação, plantas foram nutridas com soluções salinas de condutividades elétricas (CEs 1,1 (testemunha; 2,5; 4,0 e 5,5 dS m-1 aplicadas durante as fases: crescimento vegetativo (10-30 dias após o transplantio-DAT; florescimento (31-50 DAT e frutificação e maturação (51-70 DAT. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos arranjados em um esquema fatorial 4x3 (níveis de salinidade x tempo de exposição dos sais, com três repetições. Houve correlação na perda relativa por incremento de CEs das variáveis de crescimento e de produção do meloeiro em função da salinidade da solução nutritiva para cada fase de exposição. As soluções nutritivas preparadas com água salobra podem ser utilizadas no cultivo do meloeiro em substrato de fibra de coco com o mínimo de perdas relativas de massa média de frutos por incremento de CEs, quando aplicadas na fase de florescimento.Scarcity of good water quality in semiarid region causes producers to use brackish water to prepare the nutrient solution. In order to investigate the use of brackish water in irrigation of greenhouse-melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. AF 015 grown in coconut fiber substrate, plants were irrigated with saltine nutrient solutions of electrical conductivities (ECs of 1.1 (control, 2.5, 4.0 and 5.5 dS m-1, applied during the phases of vegetative growth (10-30 days after transplanting, DAT, flowering (31-50 DAT and fruiting and ripening (51-70 DAT. The design was completely randomized, with 12 treatments arranged in a 4x3 factorial design (salinity levels x exposure time of the salts, with three replications. There was a correlation in

  18. Simple sensitive rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples by label-free immunofluorescence strip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunmei; Li, Jianwu; Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Qing

    2016-08-15

    A simple, one-step, rapid method to detect Escherichia coli O157: H7 (E. coli O157: H7) using a label-free immunofluorescence strip sensor is presented. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was added to the sample culture medium to prepare the fluorescent probe for the label-free strip sensor. With the presence of E. coli O157: H7 in the samples, the bacteria could emit a yellow-green fluorescence after incubation and maintain good affinity to the monoclonal antibodies (McAb) against E. coli O157: H7. The direct-type immunofluorescence strip sensor was based on the binding between fluorescent bacteria and the unlabeled McAb immobilized at the test line in nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) reaction zone. The visual limit of detection (LOD) of the strip for qualitative detection was 10(6)cells/mL while the LOD for semi-quantitative detection could go down to 10(5)cells/mL by using scanning reader. The LOD was substantially improved to 1cells/mL of the original bacterial content after pre-incubation of the bread, milk and jelly samples in broth for 10, 10 and 8h respectively, which was competitive to some current rapid E. coli O157: H7 detection methods. Besides the obvious advantages, including reduced detection time and operation procedures, the results of this method meet the various detection requirements for E. coli O157: H7 and are comparable to the traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double antibody sandwich gold-labeled strips. This is the first report of semi-quantitative immunofluorescence strip for directly detecting foodborne pathogen using only one unlabeled antibody. All detections could be achieved in less than 5min. In addition, this simple, low-cost and easy to be popularized method served as a significant step towards the development of monitoring foodborne pathogens in food-safety testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical significance of positive immunoblotting but negative immunofluorescence for antimitochondrial antibodies in patients with liver diseases other than primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jun-Ichi; Omagar, Katsuhisa; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Hazama, Hiroaki; Ohba, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Matsuo, Isao; Isomoto, Hajime; Murata, Ikuo; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    The serum reaction to anti-2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (2-OADC) enzymes, the antigens recognized by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA), can be detected by immunoblotting in patients with liver diseases other than primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), who are negative for AMA by conventional indirect immunofluorescence. Whether the presence of anti-2-OADC is related to PBC or represents preclinical PBC in such patients is obscure at present. We examined the immunoreactivity of AMA by immunofluorescense, immunoblotting, and enzyme inhibition assay in serum samples from 59 patients with liver diseases other than PBC and 71 healthy subjects. We also examined the clinical course of the patients in whom a positive result was obtained to elucidate whether such reaction was a "true" or "false" phenomenon. None of the 130 sera was positive for AMA by indirect immunofluorescence or for anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by enzyme inhibition assay. However, seven of 71 (10%) sera from healthy subjects contained weak IgG class antibody to PDC-E2 (four sera) or E2 subunit of branched-chain oxo-acid dehydrogenase complex (BCOADC-E2) (three sera). Of the 59 sera from patients with liver diseases other than PBC, four (7%) reacted against 2-OADC by immunoblotting. Of these, three sera were from patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and contained IgG class autoantibody to BCOADC-E2. The serum reactivity to BCOADC-E2 detected by immunoblotting in these three patients diminished after absorption with recombinant BCOADC-E2 fusion protein. During the 3-5 year follow-up period, AMA by immunofluorescence and anti-PDC activity by enzyme inhibition assay were always negative in these three patients. The other one serum was from patient with alcoholic cirrhosis, and contained IgM class autoantibody to E3 binding protein (E3-BP). This patient did not develop PBC during the following 2 years. Our results showed that anti-2-OADC antibodies could be detected in some

  20. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  1. Differentiating antiepiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid from epidermolysis bullosa acquisita by indirect immunofluorescence of skin substrates lacking Type VII collagen or laminin 332: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Pin Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiepiligrin cicatricial pemphigoid (AECP is a chronic autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease characterized by clinical features of cicatricial pemphigoid and circulating IgG antibasement membrane autoantibodies directed against laminin 332. There is growing evidence of an increased relative risk for solid cancers and lymphomas in AECP patients, especially in the 1st year after the onset of blisters. However, it is difficult to distinguish patients with initially skin-predominant AECP from similar findings of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita merely based on clinical, histopathologic, and immuno-pathologic examinations. This is a report on a case of AECP confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence of type VII collagen- and laminin 332-deficient skin as substrates to differentiate it from epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  2. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.

  3. Comparison of Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV PCR with Cytospin-Immunofluorescence and Laboratory-Developed TaqMan PCR in Predominantly Adult Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV PCR with cytospin-immunofluorescence and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR methods, 445 nasopharyngeal samples were tested. Of these, 199 were positive (46 for respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], 120 for influenza A, and 33 for influenza B) and 246 were negative. The direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) detected 132 (66.3%) positive samples, Simplexa direct detected 162 (81.4%), Simplexa using extracts detected 177 (88.9%), and lab-developed TaqMan PCR reference methods detected 199 (100%). The specificities were 99.6%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The two Simplexa methods were more sensitive than the DFA (P = 0.0001) but less sensitive than the TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR (P = 0.0001). PMID:24850350

  4. Improved Risk Analysis by Dual Direct Detection of Total and Infectious Cryptosporidium Oocysts on Cell Culture in Combination with Immunofluorescence Assay▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Di Giovanni, George D.; Prévost, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    The inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocysts is a main driver in the selection of water treatment disinfection strategies, and microbial risk analysis provides a sound basis for optimizing water treatment processes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1622/23 provides an estimate of the total oocyst count; however, it cannot be used directly for risk assessment, as it does not determine the fraction of infectious oocysts. Improved assessment of the risk for designated sources or in treated water requires evaluation of the total number of oocysts and an estimate of their infectivity. We developed a dual direct detection method using differential immunofluorescent staining that allows detection of both oocysts and cell culture infection foci for each sample. Using Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, various pH levels, proteases, and gastroenteric compounds and substrates were assessed to determine their abilities to enhance the number of infection foci. The results showed that the key trigger for oocyst stimulation was acidification. Addition of a low concentration of d-glucose (50 mM) to the infection media increased rates of infectivity, while a higher dose (300 mM) was inhibitory. The total number of oocysts in each sample was determined by counting the oocysts remaining on a cell monolayer and the oocysts recovered from cell monolayer washes during processing using a simple filtration technique. With the dual direct detection on cell culture with immunofluorescence assay method, it is now possible to determine the numbers of total and infectious oocysts for a given sample in a single analysis. Direct percentages of infectivity are then calculated, which allows more accurate assessments of risk. PMID:19933339

  5. Immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis as a diagnostic criterion in antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid: immunopathological findings and clinical experience in 10 Dutch patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, J B; Pas, H H; Hertl, M; Dikkers, F G; Kamminga, N; Jonkman, M F

    2011-10-01

    Antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid (anti-LN-332 MMP) is a chronic subepidermal blistering disease characterized by IgG anti-epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) autoantibodies against laminin-332 (LN-332). with anti-LN-332 MMP have an increased relative risk of malignancy. Laboratory techniques that are difficult to obtain are needed for diagnosis of anti-LN-332 MMP. Objectives  To incorporate direct immunofluorescence (DIF) serration pattern analysis of IgG depositions in the diagnostic criteria of anti-LN-332 MMP. Patients who met our revised inclusion criteria for anti-LN-332 MMP were selected from our biobank over the period 1997-2009. Inclusion criteria were clinical symptoms, DIF serration pattern analysis, indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on salt-split skin, and antigen-specificity analysis of the serum including immunoblotting and/or immunoprecipitation and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against native LN-332. Ten patients met the inclusion criteria. A malignancy was found in two patients (20%). In all patients in whom it was performed (n = 9), DIF showed linear IgG deposition along the BMZ in an n-serrated pattern. Nine sera reacted by salt-split skin analysis and bound to the dermal side of the split skin. ELISA against native LN-332 was positive in 78% of the tested sera. Anti-LN-332 MMP can clinically resemble other forms of pemphigoid. Although state-of-the-art laboratory diagnostics are necessary for definite diagnosis, the combination of simple DIF serration pattern and IIF salt-split skin analysis will exclude other forms of MMP and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita from the differential diagnosis. Because of the increased risk for malignancy patients should be thoroughly oncologically screened. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  6. Immunofluorescence reveals unusual patterns of labelling for connexin43 localized to calbindin-D28K-positive interstitial cells in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, D D; Wang, S G; Lynn, B D; Nagy, J I

    2017-06-01

    Gap junctions between cells in the pineal gland have been described ultrastructurally, but their connexin constituents have not been fully characterized. We used immunofluorescence in combination with markers of pineal cells to document the cellular localization of connexin43 (Cx43). Immunofluorescence labelling of Cx43 with several different antibodies was widely distributed throughout the pineal, whereas another connexin examined, connexin26, was not found in pineal but only in surrounding leptomeninges. Labelling apparently associated with plasma membranes was visualized either as fine Cx43-puncta (1-2 μm) or as unusually large pools of Cx43 ranging up to 4-7 μm in diameter or length. These puncta and pools were highly concentrated in perivascular spaces, where they were associated with numerous cells devoid of labelling for markers of pinealocytes (e.g. tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin), and where they were minimally associated with blood vessels and lacked association with resident macrophages. Astrocytes labelled for glial fibrillary acidic protein were largely restricted to the anterior pole of the pineal gland, where they displayed only fine and sparse Cx43-puncta along their processes. Labelling for Cx43 was localized largely though not exclusively to the somata and long processes of a subpopulation of perivascular interstitial cells that were immunopositive for calbindin-D28K. These cells were often located among dense bundles or termination areas of sympathetic fibres labelled for tyrosine hydroxylase or serotonin. The results indicate that interstitial cells form abundant gap junctions composed of Cx43, and suggest that gap junction-mediated intracellular communication by these cells supports the activities of pinealocytes. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Challenge Strain of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus of Chickens and Their Use in an Indirect Immunofluorescent Diagnostic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Abbas*, James Andreasen1, Rockey Becker1, Masroor Ahmed, M Arif Awan, Abdul Wadood and Anita Sonn1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to produce monoclonal antibodies (MCAs against the USDA challenge strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus and to perform an initial investigation of their use in an indirect immunofluorescence diagnostic test. Fourteen-day old chicken embryo liver cells were grown in tissue culture plates. Confluent monolayers were obtained after 48 hours. Monolayers were infected with the USDA challenge strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV. Cytopethic effect of the virus in the form of syncytial formation and clumping of cells was observed after 24 hours. The virus from the tissue culture flasks was collected and purified using discontinuous sucrose gradient. A clear band of the virus from sucrose gradient was obtained. The refractory index and the density measured were 1.410 and 1.20 g/cm3, respectively. Spectrophotometry of the purified virus showed 68.117 ug/ml of protein and 9.8948 ug/ml of nucleic acid concentration. Spleen cells from immunized mice with pure virus were fused with myeloma cells and hybridomas were obtained after 10 days. Screening was performed using indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT using rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulins as secondary antibodies. Three hybridomas, 2D1D8, 2E11G2 and 2C6C7 were found producing antibodies against ILTV. All monoclonal antibodies were of isotype IgM and reacted with different strains of ILTV (ILTV USDA, S 88 00224, 86-1169 in IFAT. None of the monoclonals reacted with Parrot herpesvirus and avian adenovirus 301 in IFAT.

  8. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    have the potential for exposure to infectious material, for example blood ... body fluid; wound causing bleeding and produced by sharp instrument ... Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test. HIV screening. Pregnancy test if EFV is considered. Two weeks. Full blood count. Liver function test. Renal function test.

  9. The mere exposure effect for visual image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Yagi, Yoshihiko; Sato, Nobuya

    2017-08-30

    Mere exposure effect refers to a phenomenon in which repeated stimuli are evaluated more positively than novel stimuli. We investigated whether this effect occurs for internally generated visual representations (i.e., visual images). In an exposure phase, a 5 × 5 dot array was presented, and a pair of dots corresponding to the neighboring vertices of an invisible polygon was sequentially flashed (in red), creating an invisible polygon. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, participants visualized and memorized the shapes of invisible polygons based on different sequences of flashed dots, whereas in Experiment 3, participants only memorized positions of these dots. In a subsequent rating phase, participants visualized the shape of the invisible polygon from allocations of numerical characters on its vertices, and then rated their preference for invisible polygons (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). In contrast, in Experiment 4, participants rated the preference for visible polygons. Results showed that the mere exposure effect appeared only when participants visualized the shape of invisible polygons in both the exposure and rating phases (Experiments 1 and 2), suggesting that the mere exposure effect occurred for internalized visual images. This implies that the sensory inputs from repeated stimuli play a minor role in the mere exposure effect. Absence of the mere exposure effect in Experiment 4 suggests that the consistency of processing between exposure and rating phases plays an important role in the mere exposure effect.

  10. Short-Term Immunogenicity and Safety of an Accelerated Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Regimen With Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine in Combination With a Rabies Vaccine: A Phase III, Multicenter, Observer-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Tomas; Burchard, Gerd D; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Bühler, Silja; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Nothdurft, Hans D; Reisinger, Emil; Ahmed, Khaleel; Bosse, Dietrich; Meyer, Seetha; Costantini, Marco; Pellegrini, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The current Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination regimen requires two doses and 4 weeks to complete, which may not always be feasible for travelers on short notice. One of the primary endpoints of this phase III study was to demonstrate noninferiority of immune responses to a JE vaccine following an accelerated 1-week JE vaccination regimen administered concomitantly with a rabies vaccine as compared to a standard 4-week JE regimen alone. In addition, the immunogenicity of concomitant administration of JE and rabies vaccines following standard regimens was evaluated, as well as the tolerability and safety profile of each regimen under study. Healthy adults aged 18 to ≤65 years were randomized to regimens with an accelerated or standard schedule: JE+rabies-standard (n = 167), JE+rabies-accelerated (n = 217) or JE-standard (n = 56). Immunogenicity against JE antigen was assessed by a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50 ) titer of ≥1 : 10, measured 28 days after last active vaccine (LAV) administration. Solicited reactions were collected 7 days after each vaccination; spontaneously reported adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were monitored up to day 57. This paper reports results until day 57. Noninferiority of immune responses was established for JE+rabies-accelerated compared to the JE-standard regimen 28 days after LAV administration. Overall, 99% and 100% of subjects in the JE+rabies-accelerated and JE-standard groups, respectively, achieved PRNT50 titers of ≥1 : 10 at 28 days after LAV administration. No impact of concomitant rabies vaccination was observed either on immune responses or on the safety profile of the JE vaccine. This was the first randomized, controlled trial that demonstrated the strong short-term immunogenicity of a new, accelerated, 1-week JE-regimen, which was noninferior to that of the standard regimen, with a satisfactory tolerability and safety profile and no impact of concomitant rabies vaccination. This accelerated

  11. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  12. DNA Methylation Changes in Valproic Acid-Treated HeLa Cells as Assessed by Image Analysis, Immunofluorescence and Vibrational Microspectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana M B Veronezi

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA, a well-known histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been reported to affect the DNA methylation status in addition to inducing histone hyperacetylation in several cell types. In HeLa cells, VPA promotes histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling. However, DNA demethylation was not checked in this cell model for standing effects longer than those provided by histone acetylation, which is a rapid and transient phenomenon. Demonstration of VPA-induced DNA demethylation in HeLa cells would contribute to understanding the effect of VPA on an aggressive tumor cell line. In the present work, DNA demethylation in VPA-treated HeLa cells was assessed by image analysis of chromatin texture, the abundance of 5-methylcytosine (5mC immunofluorescence signals and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy centered on spectral regions related to the vibration of-CH3 groups. Image analysis indicated that increased chromatin unpacking promoted by a 4-h-treatment with 1.0 mM VPA persisted for 24 h in the absence of the drug, suggesting the occurrence of DNA demethylation that was confirmed by decreased 5mC immunofluorescence signals. FT-IR spectra of DNA samples from 1 mM or 20 mM VPA-treated cells subjected to a peak fitting analysis of the spectral window for-CH3 stretching vibrations showed decreased vibrations and energy of these groups as a function of the decreased abundance of 5mC induced by increased VPA concentrations. Only the 20 mM-VPA treatment caused an increase in the ratio of -CH3 bending vibrations evaluated at 1375 cm-1 in relation to in-plane vibrations of overall cytosines evaluated at 1492 cm-1. CH3 stretching vibrations showed to be more sensitive than-CH3 bending vibrations, as detected with FT-IR microspectroscopy, for studies aiming to associate vibrational spectroscopy and changes in DNA 5mC abundance.

  13. A retrospective study comparing agar plate culture, indirect immunofluorescence and real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Perandin, Francesca; Formenti, Fabio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2017-05-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite that can cause death in immunocompromised people. A proper diagnosis is hence essential. The real-time polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a novel, promising diagnostic method, that detects the DNA of the parasite in stool samples. In this retrospective study, we compared the sensitivity of agar plate coproculture (APC), an in-house immunofluorescence test (IFAT) and an in-house RT-PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The study sample was composed by 223 samples. Samples resulting positive to APC, IFAT and RT-PCR were 20, 140 and 25, respectively. When sensitivity was calculated against a composite reference standard, serology confirmed the best performance (sensitivity 95%), followed by RT-PCR (57%) and APC (45%). In conclusion, in a non-endemic setting, serology is the best screening method, while the combination of APC and RT-PCR does not seem a reasonable approach to increase sensitivity. Both methods can have a role as confirmatory tests for selected cases.

  14. Comparison of antibody capture radio- and enzyme immunoassays with immunofluorescence for detecting IgM antibody in infants with congenital rubella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantler, S.; Evans, C.J. (Wellcome Research Lab., Beckenham (UK)); Mortimer, P.P. (Virus Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, Colindale Avenue, London, (UK)); Cradock-Watson, J.E.; Ridehalgh, M.K.S. (Withington Hospital, Manchester (UK))

    1982-08-01

    IgM antibody capture radioimmunoassay (MACRIA) and enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) were compared with immunofluorescence (IF) for detecting specific IgM antibody in 99 sera from 76 infants with confirmed congenital rubella, and 61 sera from a comparative group of 59 infants who had miscellaneous abnormalities but in whom congenital rubella was not confirmed. All of 35 specimens collected from confirmed cases within 12 weeks of birth were positive by all three methods and all but one of 17 specimens collected after the age of 18 months were uniformly negative. At intermediate ages discrepancies occurred in 18 specimens, of which eight were positive and 10 negative by IF. Three of these 18 specimens were negative by both antibody capture procedures but showed weak fluorescence; the other 15 were negative by MACEIA, but positive by MACRIA which appears to be the more sensitive of the antibody capture methods. Sera from five infants in the comparative group were clearly positive by all three methods. These five infants were probably congenitally infected with rubella. Sera from the other 54 infants were negative, except for one that gave a weakly positive result by MACRIA alone. Antibody capture procedures offer several advantages over previous methods for detecting IgM antibody. Although MACRIA was found to be slightly more sensitive than MACEIA, the greater stability of the enzyme label, together with the possibility of both visual and quantitative assessment, could make MACEIA the method of choice for detecting rubella-specific IgM.

  15. Detection of herpes simplex virus-related antigens in the nuclei and cytoplasm of biochemically transformed cells with peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchak, M; Dubbs, D R; Kit, S

    1977-09-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related antigens have been demonstrated in the nuclei and cytoplasm of human and mouse cells biochemically transformed by ultraviolet light-irradiated HSV. This was accomplished by using peroxidase/anti-peroxidase immunological staining and indirect immunofluorescence with rabbit antisera that had high neutralizing titers against the HSV-specific thymidine kinase activity and virus infectivity. HSV-1 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by type 1 HSV, but not with those of cells biochemically transformed by type 2 HSV. Similarly, HSV-2 antisera reacted with antigens in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-2, but not with those in cells biochemically transformed by HSV-1. In contrast, herpes virus-related antigens were detected in cells cytolytically infected with HSV-1 and with HSV-2 by either type 1 or type 2 HSV antisera. These observations suggest that the antigens detected in the biochemically transformed cells were a type-specific subset of the HSV-related antigens synthesized in cells undergoing productive infection by HSV-1 and HSV-2.

  16. Development of a Recombinant Cell-Based Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for the Determination of Autoantibodies against Soluble Liver Antigen in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Radzimski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies against soluble liver antigen (SLA are specific markers for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH type 1. In contrast to the determination of other AIH-associated autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, detection of anti-SLA relied up to now on ELISA or immunoblot based on bacterially expressed recombinant protein. In order to develop a complementary IFA substrate, SLA isoform 1 was recombinantly produced in the human cell line HEK293 and controlled by a rabbit hyperimmune serum against SLA. The recombinant cells were used in IFA (RC-IFA to analyze sera from 20 AIH patients with anti-SLA positivity predetermined by ELISA together with 80 controls (20 anti-SLA negative AIH, 15 primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 HCV, and 30 healthy blood donors. Using RC-IFA, anti-SLA was detected in all ELISA positive AIH sera but in none of the controls. Furthermore, a cytosolic fraction of HEK293 containing SLA was able to neutralize the autoantibodies in all positive sera in a dose-dependent manner. HEK293 cells expressing SLA are a valid substrate for the serodiagnosis of AIH relevant autoantibodies by IFA. In concert with cryosections of primate liver, rat kidney, rat liver, rat stomach, and HEp-2 cells, they enable the parallel determination of all autoantibodies associated with autoimmune liver diseases.

  17. Tyrosine phosphorylation on capacitated human sperm tail detected by immunofluorescence correlates strongly with sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding but not with the ZP-induced acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D Y; Clarke, G N; Baker, H W G

    2006-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) of human sperm is related to sperm capacitation and zona pellucida (ZP) binding. The aim of this study was to determine whether the TP of capacitated sperm is a useful marker for the ability of sperm to bind to the ZP and undergo the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (AR). Semen samples were obtained from 115 subfertile men with sperm count > or =20 x 10(6)/ml, motility > or =25% and variable morphology. Motile sperm (2 x 10(6)/ml) selected by swim-up were incubated with four oocytes for 2 h, and the number of sperm bound to the ZP and the ZP-induced AR was examined. TP of sperm tail was assessed by immunofluorescence (IF) with anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody. The time course and effects of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on TP were also studied. TP was stimulated more by dbcAMP (P ZP binding but not with the ZP-induced AR. Sperm TP detected by IF correlates strongly with sperm-ZP binding capacity but not with the ZP-induced AR. This simple IF assay of TP may be a clinically useful test of sperm function that is predictive of normal sperm ZP-binding capacity.

  18. Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. dissemination during wastewater treatment and comparative detection via immunofluorescence assay (IFA), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Plutzer, Judit; Noack, Michael J; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-06-01

    Environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany were investigated via immunofluorescence assays (IFAs), nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to detect the presence of Giardia spp. (n=185) and Cryptosporidium spp. (n=227). The samples were concentrated through filtration or flocculation, and oocysts were purified via centrifugation through a sucrose density gradient. For all samples, IFA was performed first, followed by DNA extraction for the nested PCR and LAMP assays. Giardia cysts were detected in 105 samples (56.8%) by IFA, 62 samples (33.5%) by nested PCR and 79 samples (42.7%) by LAMP. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (30.4%) by IFA, 95 samples (41.9%) by nested PCR and 99 samples (43.6%) by LAMP. According to these results, the three detection methods are complementary for monitoring Giardia and Cryptosporidium in environmental waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence assay performance of Bartonella henselae antigens obtained by co-cultivation in Vero and HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Cağrı; Akkaya, Yüksel; Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Yılmaz, Cansev

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection is mainly based on serological testing by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Cell line co-cultivation with B.henselae and agar derivated antigens are the two major procedures used for evaluation of anti-Bartonella antibodies. Vero and Hep-2 cell lines are the most commonly used media for co-cultivation both in-house and commercial diagnostic kits production. However, HeLa cells which are easily supplied and grown, also can easily be infected by B.henselae. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of antigens obtained by co-cultivation of B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1) in Vero and HeLa Cells in IFA serology. Out of 381 sera samples, 127 (33.3%) were found positive and 195 (51.2%) were found negative by IFA performed by both cell line co-cultivations. The total agreement between the methods were found as 84.5% (322/381), and Cohen kappa value was calculated as 0.68 (strong, coherent). As a result, He-La cells were found to be useful for the preparation of B.henselae antigens to be used in IFA for the serologic diagnosis of B.henselae infections. However different genotype strains and cross reactions with other infectious agents should be investigated by further studies before routine applications of HeLa cell co-cultivations procedure is established.

  20. Comparative immunofluorescence and ultrastructural analysis of microtubule organization in Uronema sp., Klebsormidium flaccidum, K. subtilissimum, Stichococcus bacillaris and S. chloranthus (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, Christos I; Varvarigos, Vasilios; Gachon, Claire M M; Brand, Jerry; Motomura, Taizo; Nagasato, Chikako; Küpper, Frithjof C

    2011-04-01

    A detailed comparative examination of microtubule (MT) organization in interphase and dividing cells of Uronema sp., Klebsormidium flaccidum, K. subtilissimum, Stichococcus bacillaris and S. chloranthus was made using tubulin immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During interphase all the species bear a well-organized cortical MT system, consisting of parallel bundles with different orientations. In Uronema sp. the cortical MT bundles are longitudinally oriented, whereas in the other species they are in transverse orientation to the axis of the cells. Considerable differences in MT organization were also observed during stages of mitosis, mainly preprophase, as well as cytokinesis. In Uronema sp., a particular radial MT assembly is organized during preprophase-early prophase, which was not observed in the other species. In Stichococcus a fine MT ring surrounded the nucleus during preprophase and prophase. An MT ring, together with single cytoplasmic MTs, was also found associated with the developing diaphragm during cytokinesis in Stichococcus. A phycoplast participates in cytokinesis in Uronema sp., but not in the other species. In Uronema sp. the centrosome functions as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) during mitosis, but not during interphase and cytokinesis. The phylogenetic significance of these differences is discussed in combination with SSU/ITS sequencing and other, existing molecular data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the Seeplex reverse transcription PCR assay with the R-mix viral culture and immunofluorescence techniques for detection of eight respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Jeeyong; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Yoon, Sooyung; Lee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Kapno; Yoo, Young; Kim, Min Ja; Cho, Yunjung

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of a newly introduced multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay (Seeplex RV; Seegene, Inc., Seoul, Korea) in patients with respiratory symptoms. Fifty clinical respiratory specimens (45 from children, 5 from adults) were tested for 8 viruses (influenza virus type A and B, parainfluenza virus type 1, 2, 3, respiratory syncytial virus type A and B, and adenovirus) by Seeplex RV (S-RV) and R-mix viral culture with immunofluorescence (VC-IF). Forty (80%) of the 50 samples showed concordant results between S-RV and VC-IF; 24 of these showed the same positive and 16 showed the same negative results. Among the 10 discrepant samples, 9 were S-RV-positive and VC-IF-negative. Six were obtained in patients with lower respiratory tract infection. Only 1 sample was VC-IF-positive and S-RV-negative. This patient had pneumonia. In 3 cases, more than 1 virus was identified by S-RV. The total running time of S-RV was 6 hr, which shortens the detection time for the viral presence by 2 workdays compared to VC-IF. In conclusion, S-RV is reliable, rapid, relatively easy to perform, and able to detect more than 1 virus simultaneously. Therefore, implementation of the S-RV assay in clinical laboratories will aid rapid diagnosis and treatment of major viral infections of the respiratory tract.

  2. Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jared M; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Ndase, Patrick; Thomas, Katherine K; Campbell, James D; Wangisi, Jonathan; Tappero, Jordan W; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; John-Stewart, Grace; Kidoguchi, Lara; Coombs, Robert W; Hendrix, Craig; Marzinke, Mark A; Frenkel, Lisa; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David; Celum, Connie

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination with emtricitabine, has been shown to be efficacious for HIV-1 prevention. Although the use of more than one antiretroviral agent is essential for effective HIV-1 treatment, more than one agent might not be required for effective prophylaxis. We assessed the efficacy of single-agent tenofovir disoproxil fumarate relative to combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled three-group phase 3 trial of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate PrEP in HIV-1 uninfected individuals in heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Kenya and Uganda. After an interim review, the trial's placebo group was discontinued and thereafter the active groups were continued, and participants initially randomly assigned to placebo were offered rerandomisation in a 1:1 ratio to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as PrEP. The primary endpoints were HIV-1 seroconversion and safety. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00557245. 4410 (99·6%) of 4427 couples received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and were followed up for HIV-1 acquisition. Of 52 incident HIV-1 infections, 31 occurred in individuals assigned tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (incidence 0·71 cases per 100 person-years) and 21 were in those assigned emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (0·48 cases per 100 person-years); HIV-1 incidence in the placebo group until discontinuation was two cases per 100 person-years. HIV-1 prevention efficacy with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was not significantly different from that of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate alone (hazard ratio [HR] 0·67, 95% CI 0·39-1·17; p=0·16

  3. Easy labeling of proliferative phase and sporogonic phase of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are eukaryotic, unicellular parasites that have been studied for more than 150 years. These organisms are extraordinary in their ability to invade a wide range of hosts including vertebrates and invertebrates, such as human and commercially important animals. A lack of appropriate labeling methods has limited the research of the cell cycle and protein locations in intracellular stages. In this report, an easy fluorescent labeling method has been developed to mark the proliferative and sporogonic phases of microsporidia Nosema bombycis in host cells. Based on the presence of chitin, Calcofluor White M2R was used to label the sporogonic phase, while β-tubulin antibody coupled with fluorescence secondary antibody were used to label the proliferative phase by immunofluorescence. This method is simple, efficient and can be used on both infected cells and tissue slices, providing a great potential application in microsporidia research.

  4. Rockfall exposures in Montserrat mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontquerni Gorchs, Sara; Vilaplana Fernández, Joan Manuel; Guinau Sellés, Marta; Jesús Royán Cordero, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    This study shows the developed methodology to analyze the exposure level on a 1:25000 scale, and the results obtained by applying it to an important part of the Monataña de Montserrat Natural Park for vehicles with and without considering their occupants. The development of this proposal is part of an ongoing study which focuses more in-depth in the analysis of the rockfall risk exposure in different scales and in different natural and social contexts. This research project applies a methodology to evaluate the rockfall exposure level based on the product of the frequency of occurrence of the event by an exposure function of the vulnerable level on a 1:25,000 scale although the scale used for the study was 1:10,000. The proposed methodology to calculate the exposure level is based on six phases: 1- Identification, classification and inventory of every element potentially under risk. 2- Zoning of the frequency of occurrence of the event in the studied area. 3- Design of the exposure function for each studied element. 4- Obtaining the Exposure index, it can be defined as the product of the frequency of occurrence by the exposure function of the vulnerable element through SIG analysis obtained with ArcGis software (ESRI) 5- Obtaining exposure level by grouping into categories the numerical values of the exposure index. 6- Production of the exposition zoning map. The different types of vulnerable elements considered in the totality of the study are: Vehicles in motion, people in vehicles in motion, people on paths, permanent elements and people in buildings. Each defined typology contains all elements with same characteristics and an exposure function has been designed for each of them. For the exposure calculation, two groups of elements have been considered; firstly the group of elements with no people involved and afterwards same group of elements but with people involved. This is a first comprehensive and synthetic work about rockfall exposure on the Montserrat

  5. Phase Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  6. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  7. The mode of lymphoblastoid cell death in response to gas phase cigarette smoke is dose-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltatzis George E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoke (CS is the main cause in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, the pathogenesis of which is related to an extended inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of low and high doses of gas phase cigarette smoke (GPS on cultured lymphocyte progenitor cells, using techniques to assess cell viability and to elucidate whether cells die of apoptosis or necrosis upon exposure to different doses of GPS. Methods In our approach we utilised a newly-established system of exposure of cells to GPS that is highly controlled, accurately reproducible and simulates CS dosage and kinetics that take place in the smokers' lung. This system was used to study the mode of cell death upon exposure to GPS in conjunction with a range of techniques widely used for cell death studies such as Annexin V staining, activation of caspase -3, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome C, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation. Results Low doses of GPS induced specific apoptotic indexes in CCRF-CEM cells. Specifically, cytochrome C release and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by immunofluorescence, upon treatment with 1-3 puffs GPS. At 4 h post-exposure, caspase-3 activation was observed in western blot analysis, showing a decreasing pattern as GPS doses increased. Concomitant with this behaviour, a dose-dependent change in Δψm depolarization was monitored by flow cytometry 2 h post-exposure, while at 4 h Δψm collapse was observed at the higher doses, indicative of a shift to a necrotic demise. A reduction in DNA fragmentation events produced by 5 puffs GPS as compared to those provoked by 3 puffs GPS, also pointed towards a necrotic response at the higher dose of GPS. Conclusion Collectively, our results support that at low doses gas phase cigarette smoke induces apoptosis in cultured T-lymphocytes, whereas at high doses GPS leads to necrotic death, by-passing the characteristic

  8. IgA anti-Actin antibodies in children with celiac disease: comparison of immunofluorescence with Elisa assay in predicting severe intestinal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Stefano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of serum IgA antibodies against actin filaments (AAA in patients with celiac disease (CD is strongly associated with mucosal damage and severe degrees of villous atrophy. The aims of the present study were (1 to verify the effectiveness of IgA-AAA in newly diagnosed CD patients in a clinical setting (2 to compare the immunofluorescence assay with ELISA assay; (3 to compare the correlation of our IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-Ab class with mucosal intestinal lesions. Methods 90 patients underwent endoscopy and multiple biopsies for suspected CD on the basis of symptoms, in presence of positive tTG-Ab tests. Twenty biopsied and 25 not-biopsied subjects with negative tTG-Ab were tested as control groups. IgA-AAA assays were performed by indirect immunofluorescence using rat epithelial intestinal cells, and by ELISA with a commercial kit. tTG-Ab assay was a radio-binding assay. Intestinal specimens were collected by upper endoscopy and the histological study was done according to the Marsh's classification modified by Oberhuber (M/O. Auto-antibodies assays and histological evaluation have been performed blindly by skilled operators. Results CD diagnosis was confirmed in 82 patients (type I M/O in 2 patients, IIIA in 18 patients, IIIB in 29 patients and IIIC in 33 patients. Two patients with type 1 lesion in presence of positive tTG-Ab and abdominal complaints, started a gluten free diet. The rate of IgA-AAA positivity (sensitivity by IFI and ELISA in histologically proven celiac disease patients, were 5.5% and 25% patients in IIIA, 27.5% and 34.4% patients in IIIB, 78.8% and 75% in IIIC patients, respectively. Patients with normal or nearly normal mucosa, regardless of tTG-Ab status, presented negative IgA-AAA IFI assay. On the other hand, 1 patient with normal mucosa but positive tTG-Ab, also presented positive IgA-AAA ELISA. All healthy non biopsied

  9. Eliminating the mere exposure effect through changes in context between exposure and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zilva, Daniel; Mitchell, Chris J; Newell, Ben R

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which increased liking of exposed stimuli--the mere exposure effect--is dependent on experiencing the stimuli in the same context in exposure and on test. Participants were repeatedly exposed to pairs of cues (nonsense words) and target stimuli (faces and shapes), and were asked to rate the pleasantness of the target stimuli in a subsequent test phase. Familiar targets were preferred to novel targets-a mere exposure effect was obtained. This preference for familiar targets was disrupted, however, when the cue-target pairings were rearranged between exposure and test, or a novel cue was introduced at test. Overall, the study suggests that the context of exposure and test moderates the mere exposure effect. Liking of stimuli due to exposure is specific to the context of exposure and does not apply to new or familiar but different contexts.

  10. Immunofluorescence assay in India for confirmation of HIV-1 infection using a T-cell line infected with defective HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Arias, Juan F; Deb, Monorama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2010-12-01

    In India, the enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/rapid test is used for screening and confirmatory antibody testing of HIV infection, and all HIV reactive samples are further confirmed by two other rapid tests working on different principles; however, Western blotting (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF) assays are not routinely performed in this country. A total of 2104 sera from Indian subjects were tested for the presence of HIV-1 antibody using EIA/rapid tests, according to the guidelines of the National AIDS Control Organization of India, and were also subjected to IF test using L-2 cells persistently infected with defective HIV-1. WB and a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed on discrepant samples. IF results were 100% concordant with EIA/rapid tests for 212 HIV-1-positive samples and 1889 HIV-1-negative samples. Interestingly, three (0.14%) samples negative by EIA/rapid tests were weakly or moderately positive (1+/2+) by IF test. All three of these samples were confirmed to be negative by WB (reactive with Gag/Pol, but not with Env), but positive by RT-PCR with primers targeting the C2-V5 fragment of the env gene. These three samples were from individuals who voluntarily reported for HIV testing because of high-risk practices, and they may have been at an early stage of HIV infection. These results confirm that the IF test using L-2 cells is a sensitive and specific alternative method for confirmation of HIV-1 infection and could be included in the diagnostic algorithm in reference laboratories in developing countries. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-reactive antibodies in convalescent SARS patients' sera against the emerging novel human coronavirus EMC (2012) by both immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tse, Herman; Chen, Honglin; Lau, Candy Choi-Yi; Cai, Jian-Piao; Tsang, Alan Ka-Lun; Xiao, Xincai; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Zheng, Bo-Jiang; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has emerged recently. HCoV-EMC is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-HKU4 and Pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-HKU5 in Hong Kong. We conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food animal handlers at a wild life market, 28 SARS patients, and 152 healthy blood donors in Southern China to assess the zoonotic potential and evidence for intrusion of HCoV-EMC and related viruses into humans. Anti-HCoV-EMC and anti-SARS-CoV antibodies were detected using screening indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and confirmatory neutralizing antibody tests. Two (2.1%) animal handlers had IF antibody titer of ≥ 1:20 against both HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV with neutralizing antibody titer of SARS patients had significant IF antibody titers with 7/28 (25%) having anti-HCoV-EMC neutralizing antibodies at low titers which significantly correlated with that of HCoV-OC43. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated a significant B-cell epitope overlapping the heptad repeat-2 region of Spike protein. Virulence of SARS-CoV over other betacoronaviruses may boost cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against other betacoronaviruses. Convalescent SARS sera may contain cross-reactive antibodies against other betacoronaviruses and confound seroprevalence study for HCoV-EMC. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Immunofluorescence Antibody Test Used for the Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean Basin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Adel

    Full Text Available With an expected sensitivity (Se of 96% and specificity (Sp of 98%, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT is frequently used as a reference test to validate new diagnostic methods and estimate the canine leihmaniasis (CanL true prevalence in the Mediterranean basin. To review the diagnostic accuracy of IFAT to diagnose CanL in this area with reference to its Se and Sp and elucidate the potential causes of their variations, a systematic review was conducted (31 studies for the 26-year period. Three IFAT validation methods stood out: the classical contingency table method, methods based on statistical models and those based on experimental studies. A variation in the IFAT Se and Sp values and cut-off values was observed. For the classical validation method based on a meta-analysis, the Se of IFAT was estimated in this area as 89.86% and 31.25% in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, respectively. The Sp of IFAT was estimated in non-endemic and endemic areas as 98.12% and 96.57%, respectively. IFAT can be considered as a good standard test in non-endemic areas for CanL, but its accuracy declines in endemic areas due to the complexity of the disease. Indeed, the accuracy of IFAT is due to the negative results obtained in non-infected dogs from non-endemic areas and to the positive results obtained in sera of symptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. But IFAT results are not unequivocal when it comes to determining CanL infection on asymptomatic dogs living in endemic areas. Statistical methods might be a solution to overcome the lack of gold standard, to better categorize groups of animals investigated, to assess optimal cut-off values and to allow a better estimate of the true prevalence aiming information on preventive/control measures for CanL.

  13. Evaluation of a direct immunofluorescent antibody (difma test using Leishmania genus - specific monoclonal antibody in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Chico

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A direct immunofluorescent antibody (DIFMA test using a Leishmania genus- specific monoclonal antibody was evaluated in the routine diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador. This test was compared with the standard diagnostic techniques of scrapings, culture and histology. Diagnostic samples were taken from a total of 90 active dermal ulcers from patients from areas of Ecuador known to be endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DIFMA was positive in all lesions. It was shown to be significantly superior to standard diagnostic methods either alone or in combination. The sensitivity of DIFMA did not diminish with chronicity of lesions. This test proved to be extremely useful in the routine diagnosis of CL because it is highly sensitive, is easy to use and produces rapid results.O método de imunofluorescência direta (DIFMA, com anticorpos monoclonais gênero- específicos para Leishmania, foi avaliado na rotina diagnostica da leishmaniose cutânea no Equador. O método foi comparado com técnicas diagnosticas de rotina: o esfregaço, a cultura e o exame histopatolôgico. As amostras para o diagnóstico foram obtidas de um total de 90 lesões cutâneas ativas, de doentes das ãreas do Equador, endêmicas para leishmaniose cutânea. O DIFMA foi positivo em todas as lesões, com resultados significativamente superior aos métodos diagnósticos de rotina, isolado ou em combinação. A sensibilidade do DFIMA não diminui em lesões crônicas. O método mostra-se muito útil no diagnóstico de leishmaniose cutânea, pela sua sensibilidade, rapidez e facilidade de execução.

  14. The inter-observer reading variability in anti-nuclear antibodies indirect (ANA) immunofluorescence test: A multicenter evaluation and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, A; Infantino, M; Merone, M; Iannello, G; Tincani, A; Cavazzana, I; Carabellese, N; Radice, A; Manfredi, M; Soda, P; Afeltra, A

    2017-12-01

    Recently there has been an increase demand for Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) tools to support clinicians in the field of Indirect ImmunoFluorescence (IIF), as the novel digital imaging reading approach can help to overcome the reader subjectivity. Nevertheless, a large multicenter evaluation of the inter-observer reading variability in this field is still missing. This work fills this gap as we evaluated 556 consecutive samples, for a total of 1679 images, collected in three laboratories with IIF expertise using HEp-2 cell substrate (MBL) at 1:80 screening dilution according to conventional procedures. In each laboratory, the images were blindly classified by two experts into three intensity classes: positive, negative, and weak positive. Positive and weak positive ANA-IIF results were categorized by the predominant fluorescence pattern among six main classes. Data were pairwise analyzed and the inter-observer reading variability was measured by Cohen's kappa test, revealing a pairwise agreement little further away than substantial both for fluorescence intensity and for staining pattern recognition (k=0.602 and k=0.627, respectively). We also noticed that the inter-observer reading variability decreases when it is measured with respect to a gold standard classification computed on the basis of labels assigned by the three laboratories. These data show that laboratory agreement improves using digital images and comparing each single human evaluation to potential reference data, suggesting that a solid gold standard is essential to properly make use of CAD systems in routine work lab. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stable expression of human muscle-specific kinase in HEp-2 M4 cells for automatic immunofluorescence diagnostics of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sandra; Paulick, Silvia; Knütter, Ilka; Röber, Nadja; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Küpper, Jan-Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex which is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies causing Myasthenia gravis. While up to 95% of patients with generalized Myasthenia gravis were shown to be positive for acetylcholine receptor-specific autoantibodies, up to 70% of the remaining patients develop autoantibodies against MuSK. Discrimination of the autoantibody specificity is important for therapy of Myasthenia gravis. Recently, the new automatic fluorescence assessment platform AKLIDES has been developed for immunofluorescence-based diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. In order to establish an AKLIDES procedure for the detection of MuSK-specific autoantibodies (anti-MuSK), we developed a recombinant HEp-2 cell clone expressing the human MuSK cDNA. Here we show at the mRNA and protein level that the cell clone HEp-2 M4 stably expresses human MuSK. We provide evidence for a localization of MuSK at the cell membrane. Using cell clone HEp-2 M4 on the AKLIDES system, we investigated 34 patient sera that were previously tested anti-MuSK positive by radioimmunoassay as positive controls. As negative controls, we tested 29 acetylcholine receptor-positive but MuSK-negative patient sera, 30 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient sera and 45 blood donors. HEp-2 M4 cells revealed a high specificity for the detection of MuSK autoantibodies from 25 patient sera assessed by a specific pattern on HEp-2 M4 cells. By using appropriate cell culture additives, the fraction of cells stained positive with anti-MuSK containing sera can be increased from 2-16% to 10-48%, depending on the serum. In conclusion, we provide data showing that the novel recombinant cell line HEp-2 M4 can be used to screen for anti-MuSK with the automatic AKLIDES system.

  16. Stable expression of human muscle-specific kinase in HEp-2 M4 cells for automatic immunofluorescence diagnostics of myasthenia gravis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra George

    Full Text Available Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK belongs to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex which is targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies causing Myasthenia gravis. While up to 95% of patients with generalized Myasthenia gravis were shown to be positive for acetylcholine receptor-specific autoantibodies, up to 70% of the remaining patients develop autoantibodies against MuSK. Discrimination of the autoantibody specificity is important for therapy of Myasthenia gravis. Recently, the new automatic fluorescence assessment platform AKLIDES has been developed for immunofluorescence-based diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. In order to establish an AKLIDES procedure for the detection of MuSK-specific autoantibodies (anti-MuSK, we developed a recombinant HEp-2 cell clone expressing the human MuSK cDNA. Here we show at the mRNA and protein level that the cell clone HEp-2 M4 stably expresses human MuSK. We provide evidence for a localization of MuSK at the cell membrane. Using cell clone HEp-2 M4 on the AKLIDES system, we investigated 34 patient sera that were previously tested anti-MuSK positive by radioimmunoassay as positive controls. As negative controls, we tested 29 acetylcholine receptor-positive but MuSK-negative patient sera, 30 amytrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patient sera and 45 blood donors. HEp-2 M4 cells revealed a high specificity for the detection of MuSK autoantibodies from 25 patient sera assessed by a specific pattern on HEp-2 M4 cells. By using appropriate cell culture additives, the fraction of cells stained positive with anti-MuSK containing sera can be increased from 2-16% to 10-48%, depending on the serum. In conclusion, we provide data showing that the novel recombinant cell line HEp-2 M4 can be used to screen for anti-MuSK with the automatic AKLIDES system.

  17. Immunofluorescent analysis of testicular biopsies with germ cell and Sertoli cell markers shows significant MVH negative germ cell depletion with older age at orchiopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jorgen; Sun, Cong; Cortes, Dina; Southwell, Bridget; Hutson, John

    2014-02-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in male newborns. This condition is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in the testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. We analyzed germ cell development vs age at orchiopexy using a germ cell marker and a Sertoli cell marker on testicular biopsies. A total of 22 testicular biopsies at orchiopexy in 20 patients 5 to 24.5 months old were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Sections were processed and labeled with AMH antibody for Sertoli cells and MVH antibody for germ cells for immunofluorescent histochemical analysis. Confocal images were counted using ImageJ (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland) for germ cells and testicular tubules. The data were analyzed using linear regression. Sertoli cells were clearly distinguished from MVH positive and negative germ cells located centrally or on basement membranes of tubules. Percentage of tubules with MVH negative germ cells significantly decreased with increasing age at orchiopexy (β = -0.03, p = 0.03). Total tubular numbers and "empty" tubules without germ cells significantly increased with age at orchiopexy (β = 1.15, p = 0.02 and β = 0.44, p = 0.04, respectively). AMH antibody distinguished Sertoli cells from germ cells, and MVH antibody distinguished 2 types of germ cells at different developmental stages. Biopsy at orchiopexy in older patients showed significant germ cell depletion. These results lend support to early surgery to optimize germ cell number. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemical detection of EGFR gene mutations in the non-small cell lung cancers using mutation-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Gang; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Qi; Zhao, Xian-Da; Huang, Yan-Hua; Chen, Fu-Chun; Chen, Hong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status plays an important role in therapeutic decision making for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Since EGFR mutation-specific antibodies (E746-A750del and L858R) have been developed, EGFR mutation detection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a suitable screening test. On this basis, we want to establish a new screening test, quantum dots immunofluorescence histochemistry (QDs-IHC), to assess EGFR gene mutation in NSCLC tissues, and we compared it to traditional IHC and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). EGFR gene mutations were detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS in 65 cases of NSCLC composed of 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and ten pleural effusion cell blocks, including 13 squamous cell carcinomas, two adenosquamous carcinomas, and 50 adenocarcinomas. Positive rates of EGFR gene mutations detected by QDs-IHC, IHC, and ADx-ARMS were 40.0%, 36.9%, and 46.2%, respectively, in 65 cases of NSCLC patients. The sensitivity of QDs-IHC when detecting EGFR mutations, as compared to ADx-ARMS, was 86.7% (26/30); the specificity for both antibodies was 100.0% (26/26). IHC sensitivity was 80.0% (24/30) and the specificity was 92.31% (24/26). When detecting EGFR mutations, QDs-IHC and ADx-ARMS had perfect consistency (κ  =0.882; Pmutations (κ  =0.826; Pmutations with its high sensitivity and specificity, as compared with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, the development of specific antibodies against EGFR mutation proteins might be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  19. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Azari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differen...

  20. Phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for the fabrication of complex computer-generated phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by means of partial-exposure e-beam lithography and subsequent carefully controlled partial development. Following the development, the pattern appears (rendered in relief) in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 3 mm square, and consisted of up to 10 millions of 0.3-2.0-micron square pixels. Data files were up to 60 Mb-long, and the exposure times ranged to several hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated with a diffraction-limited optical performance of 83-percent efficiency.

  1. SIMRAC, silicosis control programme - phase 1

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stanton, WD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available . There is current international debate on these exposure levels. ? At the national level, laws and regulations; enforcement of occupational exposure limits and technical standards; governmental advisory services; an effective system of inspection; a well...-06-03). Phase 1 of this project was to scope the Phase 2 research required to work towards eliminating silicosis and included two regional workshops on silicosis elimination and a National Workshop. Research efforts aimed at the elimination of silicosis...

  2. Exposure to welding fumes activates DNA damage response and redox-sensitive transcription factor signalling in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, Jayaraman; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Sebastian, Robin; Raghavan, Sathees C; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-05-15

    Occupational exposure to welding fumes containing a complex mixture of genotoxic heavy metals, radiation, gases and nanoparticles poses a serious health hazard to welders. Since their categorization as possible carcinogens, welding fumes have gained increasing attention as high priority agents for risk assessment. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of welding fume inhalation on oxidative stress, DNA damage response (DDR), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signalling in the lung tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats . METHODS: Animals were divided into five groups. Group 1 animals served as control. Rats in groups 2-5 were exposed to 50mg/m 3 stainless steel (SS) welding fumes for 1h for 1day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) and antioxidants were analysed. DNA damage sensors, DNA repair enzymes, inflammatory mediators, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and key players in Nrf2 and NFκB signalling were assessed by flow cytometry, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Rats exposed to welding fumes showed increased levels of chromium and ROS in lung tissues associated with accumulation of 8-oxodG and enhanced expression of XMEs and antioxidants. This was accompanied by upregulation of DNA damage sensors, cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase, overexpression of a multitude of DNA repair enzymes and caspase-mediated apoptosis. In addition, exposure to welding fumes induced activation of Nrf2 and NFκB signalling with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators. The results of the present study unequivocally demonstrate that exposure of rats to SS welding fumes alters the expression of 37 genes involved in oxidative stress, detoxification, inflammation, DNA repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis

  3. Liking and Memory for Musical Stimuli as a Function of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Karl K.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Pliner, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments examined changes in liking and memory for music as a function of number of previous exposures, the ecological validity of the music, and whether the exposure phase required focused or incidental listening. After incidental listening, liking ratings were higher for music heard more often in the exposure phase and this association…

  4. Análise de exames de imunofluorescência direta para o diagnóstico de tracoma Analysis of direct immunofluorescence exams for trachoma diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma H. Medina

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Para confirmação de foco de tracoma em locais onde não existiam casos anteriormente relatados, a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde preconiza a realização de exames laboratoriais principalmente pelo fato da doença ter sido considerada erradicada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, na década de 70. Foram colhidas, durante investigações epidemiológicas, lâminas de raspado conjuntival de indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de tracoma inflamatório (TF/TI. Analisaram-se os resultados dos exames laboratoriais por imunofluorescência direta (IFD, quanto à freqüência de exames adequados para análise e sua positividade segundo a quantidade de corpúsculos elementares (EBs encontrados (sensibilidade do teste. Foram estudadas 385 lâminas, sendo que 241 (62,6% foram consideradas adequadas para análise. Considerando-se o critério de positividade de 5 ou + EBs, a sensibilidade do teste foi de 19,9%. O teste de IFD apesar de ser o melhor teste laboratorial para ser utilizado em trabalhos de campo, não apresenta sensibilidade suficiente para confirmar todos os casos clínicos diagnosticados de tracoma, mas pode confirmar a circulação do agente etiológico em uma comunidade. Portanto, em zonas endêmicas o diagnóstico clínico de tracoma continua sendo o critério para confirmação de casos.For the confirmation of trachoma foci in places where no previous cases had been reported, the State Health Secretariat of S. Paulo makes provision for the realization of laboratory exams, particularly because the disease was considered to have been eradicated from the State in the seventies. During the epidemiological investigations, conjuntival scrapings were collected from the subjects with inflamatory trachoma (TF/TI, clinically diagnosed. The results of the immunofluorescence (DFA exams were analysed in the light of the frequency of the appropriate exams and their positive results, by the quantity of elementary bodies (EB found. A total of 385 slides

  5. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources.

  6. Venus Phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents a science activity designed to introduce students to the geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe. Helps students discover why phase changes on Venus knocked Earth out of the center of the universe. (DKM)

  7. Clementine auto exposure control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The primary mission of the Clementine program was to test technology developed under the auspices of BMDO (the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization). A secondary goal of the program was to provide astronomical data to the scientific and educational community. The mission plan developed to accomplish these goals included complete mapping of the lunar surface and a close fly-by of a near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. Exposure control for the Clementine mission was driven by mission phase requirements and sensor characteristics. Thus, there were a total of twelve algorithms developed for three primary mission phases and the four imaging sensors (two additional sensors operated as star trackers). The three mission phases in question were lunar mapping, distant observation of the asteroid for the purpose of tracking, and close-up viewing (as close as 100 Km) of Geographos. The four non-star tracker sensors consisted of an Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) camera, a High Resolution (HiRes) camera with a built-in LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) unit, a Near Infrared (NIR) camera, and a Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) camera. Due to lack of test time and uncertainties about the imaging environment, numerous input parameters were provided in the algorithms to allow extensive tuning of the exposure control during the mission.

  8. Minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin lightening cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H L; Chu, K H; Mak, Y F; Lee, W; Cheuk, A; Yim, K F; Fung, K S; Chan, H Wh; Tong, K L

    2006-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman developed nephrotic syndrome after using a skin lightening cream that contained an extremely high level of mercury. Blood and urine mercury levels were elevated and a renal biopsy revealed minimal change disease. Membranous nephropathy was excluded using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Her proteinuria remitted 9 months after she stopped using the cosmetic cream. This is the first reported case in the English literature of proven minimal change disease secondary to mercury exposure. It is important that mercury poisoning due to cosmetic cream is considered in the differential diagnoses for any woman who presents with nephrotic syndrome.

  9. Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Orfeu M; Lee, Calvin W; L'Hermite-Baleriaux, Mireille; Turek, Fred W; Van Cauter, Eve

    2003-03-01

    To examine the immediate phase-shifting effects of high-intensity exercise of a practical duration (1 h) on human circadian phase, five groups of healthy men 20-30 yr of age participated in studies involving no exercise or exposure to morning, afternoon, evening, or nocturnal exercise. Except during scheduled sleep/dark and exercise periods, subjects remained under modified constant routine conditions allowing a sleep period and including constant posture, knowledge of clock time, and exposure to dim light intensities averaging (+/-SD) 42 +/- 19 lx. The nocturnal onset of plasma melatonin secretion was used as a marker of circadian phase. A phase response curve was used to summarize the phase-shifting effects of exercise as a function of the timing of exercise. A significant effect of time of day on circadian phase shifts was observed (P exercise to the first onset after exercise, circadian phase was significantly advanced in the evening exercise group by 30 +/- 15 min (SE) compared with the phase delays observed in the no-exercise group (-25 +/- 14 min, P evening exercise exposure were attenuated on the second day after exercise exposure and no longer significantly different from phase shifts observed in the absence of exercise. Unanticipated transient elevations of melatonin levels were observed in response to nocturnal exercise and in some evening exercise subjects. Taken together with the results from previous studies in humans and diurnal rodents, the current results suggest that 1) a longer duration of exercise exposure and/or repeated daily exposure to exercise may be necessary for reliable phase-shifting of the human circadian system and that 2) early evening exercise of high intensity may induce phase advances relevant for nonphotic entrainment of the human circadian system.

  10. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phase Vocoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Flanagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vocoder technique is described in which speech signals are represented by their short-time phase and amplitude spectra. A complete transmission system utilizing this approach is simulated on a digital computer. The encoding method leads to an economy in transmission bandwidth and to a means for time compression and expansion of speech signals.

  12. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  13. Assessment of human exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebret, E. [RIVM-National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    This article describes some of the features of the assessment of human exposure to environmental pollutants in epidemiological studies. Since exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiology studies typically involve professionals from various backgrounds, interpretation of a concepts like `exposure` may vary. A brief descriptions is therefore given by way of introduction

  14. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  15. A comparison of the immunofluorescent localization of collagen types I, III, and V with the distribution of reticular fibers on the same liver sections of the snow monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, E; Hayashi, T; Hashimoto, P H

    1991-04-01

    Localizations of collagen types I, III, and V in monkey liver, as determined by the indirect immunofluorescence method, were photographically superimposed on the fibers revealed by silver-staining in the same tissue sections. Immunofluorescence for type I collagen was found to correspond with the brown collagen fibers and with some of the coarse reticular fibers, while that for type III collagen was found to correspond with most, but not all, reticular fibers of the liver as well as with the brown collagen fibers. The distribution of type V collagen coincides not only with the collagen fibers in the stroma of portal triads and around the central veins, but also with the coarse and fine reticular fibers in the liver lobules. By immuno-electron microscopy, reaction products with anti-type III and V collagens antibodies were demonstrated on cross-striated collagen fibrils, about 45 nm in diameter, in the space of Disse. From these observations, it is concluded that: (1) the fine reticular fibers are mainly composed of type III and type V collagens, and (2) the collagen fibers and coarse reticular fibers in the periphery of liver lobules are composed of type I, type III and type V collagens.

  16. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  17. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  18. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AND COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Else Toft

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease. The main risk factor is smoking although 15% of the COPD cases are expected to be preventable if the occupational exposures from vapour, gas, dust, and fume were eliminated; the population attributable fraction (PAF). The thesis...... addresses the association between occupational exposure and COPD in a population-based cohort of Danes aged 45-84-years. 4717 participants were included at baseline and 2624 at the four year follow-up. COPD was defined by spirometry and the occupational exposure was based on specialist defined jobs...... and questionnaires. The main occupational exposure was organic dust and 49% reported no lifetime occupational exposure. The results suggest occupational exposures to be associated to COPD also in never smokers and women. We found an exposure-response relation in the cross sectional analyses. The results...

  19. Biomarkers of exposure in Monday morning urine samples as a long-term measure of exposure to aromatic diisocyanates.

    OpenAIRE

    Tinnerberg, Håkan; Broberg, Karin; Lindh, Christian; Jönsson, Bo A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exposure to diisocyanates is a known occupational hazard. One method for monitoring occupational exposure is by analyzing biomarkers in hydrolyzed urine and plasma. The half-life of the biomarkers in plasma is about 3 weeks, and the urinary elimination is divided into one fast (hours) and one slow phases (weeks). Polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GST) is earlier shown to modify the metabolism. The aim of the study was to assess whether biomarkers of exposure in urine...

  20. Influence of Different Antioxidants on X-Ray Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs Using γ-H2AX Immunofluorescence Microscopy in a Preliminary Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brand

    Full Text Available Radiation exposure occurs in X-ray guided interventional procedures or computed tomography (CT and γ-H2AX-foci are recognized to represent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs as a biomarker for radiation induced damage. Antioxidants may reduce the induction of γ-H2AX-foci by binding free radicals. The aim of this study was to establish a dose-effect relationship and a time-effect relationship for the individual antioxidants on DSBs in human blood lymphocytes.Blood samples from volunteers were irradiated with 10 mGy before and after pre-incubation with different antioxidants (zinc, trolox, lipoic acid, ß-carotene, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC and Q 10. Thereby, different pre-incubation times, concentrations and combinations of drugs were evaluated. For assessment of DSBs, lymphocytes were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX.For zinc, trolox and lipoic acid regardless of concentration or pre-incubation time, no significant decrease of γ-H2AX-foci was found. However, ß-carotene (15%, selenium (14%, vitamin E (12%, vitamin C (25%, NAC (43% and Q 10 (18% led to a significant reduction of γ-H2AX-foci at a pre-incubation time of 1 hour. The combination of different antioxidants did not have an additive effect.Antioxidants administered prior to irradiation demonstrated the potential to reduce γ-H2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes.

  1. Influence of Different Antioxidants on X-Ray Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) Using γ-H2AX Immunofluorescence Microscopy in a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael; Sommer, Matthias; Ellmann, Stephan; Wuest, Wolfgang; May, Matthias S.; Eller, Achim; Vogt, Sabine; Lell, Michael M.; Kuefner, Michael A.; Uder, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure occurs in X-ray guided interventional procedures or computed tomography (CT) and γ-H2AX-foci are recognized to represent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) as a biomarker for radiation induced damage. Antioxidants may reduce the induction of γ-H2AX-foci by binding free radicals. The aim of this study was to establish a dose-effect relationship and a time-effect relationship for the individual antioxidants on DSBs in human blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods Blood samples from volunteers were irradiated with 10 mGy before and after pre-incubation with different antioxidants (zinc, trolox, lipoic acid, ß-carotene, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin C, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Q 10). Thereby, different pre-incubation times, concentrations and combinations of drugs were evaluated. For assessment of DSBs, lymphocytes were stained against the phosphorylated histone variant γ-H2AX. Results For zinc, trolox and lipoic acid regardless of concentration or pre-incubation time, no significant decrease of γ-H2AX-foci was found. However, ß-carotene (15%), selenium (14%), vitamin E (12%), vitamin C (25%), NAC (43%) and Q 10 (18%) led to a significant reduction of γ-H2AX-foci at a pre-incubation time of 1 hour. The combination of different antioxidants did not have an additive effect. Conclusion Antioxidants administered prior to irradiation demonstrated the potential to reduce γ-H2AX-foci in blood lymphocytes. PMID:25996998

  2. phase V

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equinet : réappropriation des ressources aux fins de la santé - phase V. Le Réseau régional pour l'équité en santé en Afrique australe (Equinet) est constitué de professionnels, de chercheurs, de membres de la société civile et de responsables des politiques qui se sont réunis pour promouvoir l'équité en santé et la justice ...

  3. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Biological electron cryomicroscopy is limited by the radiation sensitivity of the samples and the consequent need to minimize exposure to the beam. This, in turn, results in low-contrast images with a poor signal-to-noise ratio. The current practice to improve phase contrast by defocusing results in contrast transfer functions necessitating image restoration to provide interpretable data. Phase plates enable in-focus phase contrast, but the existing ones, including the thin film Zernike-type ...

  4. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute ...

  5. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  6. Ecological Exposure Research: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ecological exposure water research, including invasive species, Functional Process Zones (FPZs), biomarkers, pharmaceuticals in water, headwater streams, DNA barcoding, wetland ecosystem services, and sediment remediation.

  7. Exposure assessment of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Schaum, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews exposure information available for trichloroethylene (TCE) and assesses the magnitude of human exposure. The primary sources releasing TCE into the environment are metal cleaning and degreasing operations. Releases occur into all media but mostly into the air due to its volatility. It is also moderately soluble in water and can leach from soils into groundwater. TCE has commonly been found in ambient air, surface water, and groundwaters. The 1998 air levels in microg/m(3) across 115 monitors can be summarized as follows: range = 0.01-3.9, mean = 0.88. A California survey of large water utilities in 1984 found a median concentration of 3.0 microg/L. General population exposure to TCE occurs primarily by inhalation and water ingestion. Typical average daily intakes have been estimated as 11-33 microg/day for inhalation and 2-20 microg/day for ingestion. A small portion of the population is expected to have elevated exposures as a result of one or more of these pathways: inhalation exposures to workers involved in degreasing operations, ingestion and inhalation exposures occurring in homes with private wells located near disposal/contamination sites, and inhalation exposures to consumers using TCE products in areas of poor ventilation. More current and more extensive data on TCE levels in indoor air, water, and soil are needed to better characterize the distribution of background exposures in the general population and elevated exposures in special subpopulations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10807565

  8. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  9. Immunofluorescence localization of levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase in methyl jasmonate treated stems of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) shows activation of diterpenoid biosynthesis in cortical and developing traumatic resin ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulak, Katherine G; Dullat, Harpreet K; Keeling, Christopher I; Lippert, Dustin; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    Conifers produce terpenoid-rich oleoresin in specialized resin ducts as a main line of defence against pests and pathogens. In spruce species (Picea spp.), axial resin ducts are either present constitutively in the cortex tissue (cortical resin ducts, CRDs) or are formed de novo as traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) in the cambial zone upon attack by insects, fungi or treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Using immunofluorescence localization we tested if previously formed CRDs respond to MeJA treatment with increased capacity for diterpenoid biosynthesis. We also tested the dynamics of diterpene synthase localization in the cambial zone. Immunofluorescence localization was performed using an antibody against a diterpene synthase, levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase (LAS), in stem cross-sections of untreated and 0.1% MeJA-treated 4-year old Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis) trees. No fluorescence signal was observed in untreated stem cross-sections; however, signal was present 2 days after treatment with MeJA exclusively in the epithelial cells of CRDs. Fluorescence steadily increased in the CRD epithelial cells 4 and 8 days after treatment. At 8days, additional fluorescence was observed in developing epithelial cells of traumatic resin ducts TRDs in the cambial zone. These results confirm that resin duct epithelial cells are the main site of diterpene biosynthesis in Sitka spruce, diterpenoid biosynthesis is induced in CRD epithelial cells early upon treatment with MeJA, and immature developing TRD epithelial cells produce diterpene synthase enzyme. Overall, the results of this work improve our understanding of spatial and temporal patterns of induced diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in conifers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  11. Indirect immunofluorescence(IgG and IgM tests for toxoplasmosis on 203 persons, with no symptomatology suggesting the disease, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Serological follow up one to two years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Reis Amendoeira

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and serological follow up examinations were performed on 203 persons, from three to twenty years of age, from the otolaryngology department of a hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, with no symptomatology suggesting toxoplasmosis, but suffering from chronic tonsillitis. According to results obtained during the first indirect immunofluorescence tests, the patients were divided into following groups: Group I (non-reactive IgG and IgM, 98 persons (48.3%; Group II (1:16 ≤ IgG ≤ 1:256 and non-reactive IgM, 74 persons (36.5%; Group III (IgM ≥ 1:1024 and non-reactive IgM, 18 persons (8.8%, and Group IV (IgG and IgM reactive, 13 persons (6.4%. One to two years later, 131 (64.5% of the 203 persons were reexamined by a second indirect immunofluorescence test. In the case of 66 persons (Group I whose serum was non-reactive in the IgG and IgM classes during the first indirect immunofluorescence test, serum conversion was observed in aproximately 21.2%. in 65 individuals (49.6%, (Groups II, III and IV,with reactive serum in the IgG classes during the first indirect immunofluorescence test, the second reaction showed an increase in titres in 20% of the cases, a decrease in 67.7% of the cases, or no alterations in 12.3 of the cases. In the IgM class, all 131 sera were non-reactive at 116 dilution the second immunofluorescence test, including the 13 cases that had previously been reactive in the immunoglobulin class, Symptomatology suggesting toxoplasmosis was only observed in one case during the second testing, this patient's principal physical sign being hypertrophied lymph nodes. during this period, the Toxoplasma antibodies showed titres of IgG 1:32000 and non-reactive IgM, whilst one year previously, during the first test, these titres were IgG 1:1024 and IgM 1:64. Differences in the age, sex and skin coloring of patients were not statistically significant as regards alterations in the indirect immunofluorescence test titres.Foi feito o

  12. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  13. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring of human exposure to mercury is important due to its adverse health effects. This study aimed to determine the extent of mercury exposure among mothers and their children in Ireland, and to identify factors associated with elevated levels. It formed part of the Demonstration...

  14. Aggregate Exposure Pathway Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the growing demands for conducting rapid, cost-effective, and reliable exposure assessment on the thousands of chemicals in commerce, a committee convened by the National Research Council (NRC) developed its vision for exposure science in the 21st century. A necessary...

  15. Dermal exposure assessment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, R A

    1993-12-01

    Exposure of the skin to chemical substances can contribute significantly to total dose in many workplace situations, and its relative importance will increase when airborne occupational exposure limits are reduced, unless steps to reduce skin exposure are undertaken simultaneously. Its assessment employs personal sampling techniques to measure skin loading rates, and combines these measurements with models of percutaneous absorption to estimate absorbed dose. Knowledge of dermal exposure pathways is in many cases fundamental to hazard evaluation and control. When the skin is the primary contributor to absorbed dose, dermal exposure measurements and biological monitoring play complementary roles in defining occupational exposures. Exposure normally occurs by one of three pathways: (i) immersion (direct contact with a liquid or solid chemical substance); (ii) deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapour through the skin; or (iii) surface contact (residue transfer from contaminated surfaces). Sampling methods fall into three categories: surrogate skin; chemical removal; and fluorescent tracers. Surface sampling represents a supplementary approach, providing an estimate of dermal exposure potential. Surrogate skin techniques involve placing a chemical collection medium on the skin. Whole-body garment samplers do not require assumptions relating to distribution, an inherent limitation of patch sampling. The validity of these techniques rests on the ability of the sampling medium to capture and retain chemicals in a manner similar to skin. Removal techniques include skin washing and wiping, but these measure only what can be removed from the skin, not exposure: laboratory removal efficiency studies are required for proper interpretation of data. Fluorescent tracer techniques exploit the visual properties of fluorescent compounds, and combined with video imaging make quantification of dermal exposure patterns possible, but the need to introduce a chemical substance (tracer

  16. Ultrasonic Coating and Holographic Exposure Technology. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    distribution of droplet number density across the width of spray. The central droplets coalesce , but the boundary droplets do not. The coating...some aspects, including atomization process, dynamics of mechanical deformation/ coalescence of droplets and their size distribution, this type of...examination. More droplet coalescence was observed for AZB coating, which suggested that the liquid might contain slower evaporating solvent. Figure 91-93

  17. Gamma-H2AX-based dose estimation for whole and partial body radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Horn

    Full Text Available Most human exposures to ionising radiation are partial body exposures. However, to date only limited tools are available for rapid and accurate estimation of the dose distribution and the extent of the body spared from the exposure. These parameters are of great importance for emergency triage and clinical management of exposed individuals. Here, measurements of γ-H2AX immunofluorescence by microscopy and flow cytometry were compared as rapid biodosimetric tools for whole and partial body exposures. Ex vivo uniformly X-irradiated blood lymphocytes from one donor were used to generate a universal biexponential calibration function for γ-H2AX foci/intensity yields per unit dose for time points up to 96 hours post exposure. Foci--but not intensity--levels remained significantly above background for 96 hours for doses of 0.5 Gy or more. Foci-based dose estimates for ex vivo X-irradiated blood samples from 13 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered to the targeted samples. Flow cytometric dose estimates for X-irradiated blood samples from 8 volunteers were in excellent agreement with the actual dose delivered at 1 hour post exposure but less so at 24 hours post exposure. In partial body exposures, simulated by mixing ex vivo irradiated and unirradiated lymphocytes, foci/intensity distributions were significantly over-dispersed compared to uniformly irradiated lymphocytes. For both methods and in all cases the estimated fraction of irradiated lymphocytes and dose to that fraction, calculated using the zero contaminated Poisson test and γ-H2AX calibration function, were in good agreement with the actual mixing ratios and doses delivered to the samples. In conclusion, γ-H2AX analysis of irradiated lymphocytes enables rapid and accurate assessment of whole body doses while dispersion analysis of foci or intensity distributions helps determine partial body doses and the irradiated fraction size in cases of partial body

  18. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exp...

  19. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Receptors and Exposure Factors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  20. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Exposure Pathways - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Variability in endotoxin exposure levels and consequences for exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.; Schinkel, J.; Wouters, I.M.; Preller, L.; Tielemans, E.; Nij, E.T.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Workers in many industries are exposed to endotoxins, which may cause adverse health effects. In exposure assessment, information about exposure variability is essential. However, variability in exposure has rarely been investigated for biological agents and more specifically for

  2. Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab, lapatinib, and paclitaxel neoadjuvant treatment with or without prolonged exposure to anti-HER2 therapy, and with or without hormone therapy for HER2-positive primary breast cancer: a randomised, five-arm, multicentre, open-label phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, N; Toi, M; Yamamoto, N; Iwata, H; Kuroi, K; Bando, H; Ohtani, S; Takano, T; Inoue, K; Yanagita, Y; Kasai, H; Morita, S; Sakurai, T; Ohno, S

    2018-02-14

    Dual blockade of HER2 promises increased pathological complete response (pCR) rate compared with single blockade in the presence of chemotherapy for HER2-positive (+) primary breast cancer. Many questions remain regarding optimal duration of treatment and combination impact of endocrine therapy for luminal HER2 disease. We designed a randomised phase II, five-arm study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lapatinib and trastuzumab (6 weeks) followed by lapatinib and trastuzumab plus weekly paclitaxel (12 weeks) with/without prolongation of anti-HER2 therapy prior to chemotherapy (18 vs. 6 weeks), and with/without endocrine therapy in patients with HER2+ and/or oestrogen receptor (ER)+ disease. The primary endpoint was comprehensive pCR (CpCR) rate. Among the secondary endpoints, pCR (yT0-isyN0) rate, safety, and clinical response were evaluated. In total, 215 patients were enrolled; 212 were included in the full analysis set (median age 53.0 years; tumour size = T2, 65%; and tumour spread = N0, 55%). CpCR was achieved in 101 (47.9%) patients and was significantly higher in ER- patients than in ER+ patients (ER- 63.0%, ER+ 36.1%; P = 0.0034). pCR with pN0 was achieved in 42.2% of patients (ER- 57.6%, ER+ 30.3%). No significant difference was observed in pCR rate between prolonged exposure groups and standard groups. Better clinical response outcomes were obtained in the prolongation phase of the anti-HER2 therapy. No surplus was detected in pCR rate by adding endocrine treatment. No major safety concern was recognised by prolonging the anti-HER2 treatment or adding endocrine therapy. This study confirmed the therapeutic impact of lapatinib, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel therapy for each ER- and ER+ subgroup of HER2+ patients. Development of further strategies and tools is required, particularly for luminal HER2 disease.

  3. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  4. Nanotechnology and Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIOY, PAUL J.; NAZARENKO, YEVGEN; HAN, TAE WON; LIOY, MARY JEAN; MAINELIS, GEDIMINAS

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the gaps in our understanding of human exposures to nanoparticles stemming from the use of nanotechnology-based consumer products by the general public. It also describes a series of steps that could be taken to characterize such exposures. The suggested steps include classification of the nanotechnology-based products, simulation of realistic exposure patterns, characterization of emissions, analysis of the duration of activities resulting in exposures, and consideration of the bioaccessibility of nanoparticles. In addition, we present a preliminary study with nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders where particle release was studied under realistic powder application conditions. The data demonstrated that when nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders were used, there was a potential for inhaling airborne particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers. PMID:21222382

  5. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  6. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  7. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  8. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies are characterizing the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and/or permethrin (PM...

  9. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  10. Insecticide Exposure in Parkinsonism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloomquist, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Behavioral, neurochemical, and immunocytochemical studies characterized the possible role of insecticide exposure in the etiology of Parkinson's disease as it may relate to Gulf War Syndrome. Chlorpyrifos (CP) and permethrin (PM...

  11. Radiation exposure and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented.

  12. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy The birth of a child ... experience. It is In addition to unavoidable background radiation, one hard to prepare yourself for the joys— ...

  13. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  14. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  15. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean C. Pfau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA, a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b exposure misclassification, (c latency of clinical disease, (d mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease.

  16. Induction, immunochemical identity and immunofluorescence localization of an 80000-molecular-weight peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80) and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase of mouse liver and renal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Narendra D.; Reddy, M. Kumudavalli; Mangkornkanok-Mark, Mai; Reddy, Janardan K.

    1981-01-01

    The hypolipidaemic drugs methyl clofenapate, BR-931, Wy-14643 and procetofen induced a marked proliferation of peroxisomes in the parenchymal cells of liver and the proximal-convoluted-tubular epithelium of mouse kidney. The proliferation of peroxisomes was associated with 6–12-fold increase in the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidizing capacity of the mouse liver. Enhanced activity of the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation system was also found in the renal-cortical homogenates of hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. The activity of enoyl-CoA hydratase in the mouse liver increased 30–50-fold and in the kidney cortex 3–5-fold with hypolipidaemic-drug-induced peroxisome proliferation in these tissues, and over 95% of this induced activity was found to be heat-labile peroxisomal enzyme in both organs. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of large-particle and microsomal fractions obtained from the liver and kidney cortex of mice treated with hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators demonstrated a substantial increase in the quantity of an 80000-mol.wt. peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80). The heat-labile peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase was purified from the livers of mice treated with the hypolipidaemic drug methyl clofenapate; the antibodies raised against this electrophoretically homogeneous protein yielded a single immunoprecipitin band with purified mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with liver and kidney cortical extracts of normal and hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. These anti-(mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase) antibodies also cross-reacted with purified rat liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with the polypeptide PPA-80 obtained from rat and mouse liver. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-(polypeptide PPA-80) and anti-(peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase) provided visual evidence for the localization and induction of polypeptide PPA-80 and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase in the liver and kidney

  17. Fiber exposure reassessed with the new indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Skotte, J. (Danish National Institute of Occupational Health, Copenhagen (Netherland))

    1990-02-01

    The concentration of airborne fibers longer than 5 microns, thinner than 3 microns, and with an aspect ratio exceeding 3 as counted by phase contrast optical microscopy is the most widely used fiber exposure index. Recently, more adequate, specific exposure indices for asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma risk have been suggested by Lippmann. The consequences of using these indices are examined on the basis of calculations for a broad range of theoretical and published size distributions. Optical microscopy appears to be a good predictor of the exposure indices for asbestosis and for lung cancer after scaling. Only fibers longer than about 3 microns need to be counted in a transmission electron microscope. The lung cancer index still cannot explain the large differences of risk among chrysotile exposures. Both the mesothelioma exposure index and the ratio mesothelioma to lung cancer index ranks in order of increasing risk: wollastonite, glass and mineral wool, amosite, glass microfibers, chrysotile, and crocidolite. Amosite is thus not ranked according to epidemiological evidence. Detailed size information should be made available so that the size criteria can be adjusted. It may still prove necessary to use fiber type specific concentration limits.

  18. Fiber exposure reassessed with the new indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Skotte, J

    1990-02-01

    The concentration of airborne fibers longer than 5 microns, thinner than 3 microns, and with an aspect ratio exceeding 3 as counted by phase contrast optical microscopy is the most widely used fiber exposure index. Recently, more adequate, specific exposure indices for asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma risk have been suggested by Lippmann (1988, Environ. Res., 46, 86-106). The consequences of using these indices are examined on the basis of calculations for a broad range of theoretical and published size distributions. Optical microscopy appears to be a good predictor of the exposure indices for asbestosis and for lung cancer after scaling. Only fibers longer than about 3 microns need to be counted in a transmission electron microscope. The lung cancer index still cannot explain the large differences of risk among chrysotile exposures. Both the mesothelioma exposure index and the ratio mesothelioma to lung cancer index ranks in order of increasing risk: wollastonite, glass and mineral wool, amosite, glass microfibers, chrysotile, and crocidolite. Amosite is thus not ranked according to epidemiological evidence. Detailed size information should be made available so that the size criteria can be adjusted. It may still prove necessary to use fiber type specific concentration limits.

  19. NEW INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY AS A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    HIV-1) infection is based on the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in plasma or serum. Antibodies against various viral structure proteins are measured by a number of simple and sensitive screening tests. These assays include ...

  20. Immunofluorescence in cytogenetic analysis: method and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppesen Peter

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the genetic information encoded by DNA in mammalian chromosomes is mediated by proteins, some of which are only transiently attached, although others are intrinsically associated with nucleic acid in the complex mixture known as chromatin. Chromatin-associated proteins range from the ubiquitous and abundant histones down to the most specific and rare of transcription factors. Although many chromatin proteins are probably excluded from highly condensed mitotic chromosomes, a number are retained throughout the cell cycle and can be detected on chromosomes in metaphase spreads. Comparing the distribution of a chromosomal protein with known cytogenetic markers on metaphase chromosomes can provide an important and potentially highly informative first source of data on the function of the protein under consideration. The aim of the present study is to summarize some of the principles involved in obtaining suitable chromosome preparations for subsequent immunolocalization of protein antigens. Some applications of the method will be included to illustrate how this approach has increased our understanding of chromosome structure and genetic regulation.

  1. Phase-shifting structures for isolated features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Joseph G.; Kostelak, Robert L.; Yang, Tungsheng

    1991-07-01

    The technique for improving optical projection-system resolution by phase-shifting alternate apertures of a periodic grating was introduced in 1982. This halves the frequency content of the image passing through the optics and should therefore double the effective resolution of such patterns. Unfortunately, as feature separation increases, the efficacy of this method diminishes. Previous work applying a similar approach to isolated features involves introducing minute, non-printable, phase-shifted assist slots around the desired feature. The diffraction side-lobes of these slots constructively interfere with the center lobe of the primary aperture. The resolution enhancement afforded be this technique is limited by the printability of the assist slots. This restraint also dictates 1X-size reticle feature dimensions and the employment of high contrast imaging resists. A new approach entails significantly oversizing the desired feature and introducing a phase-shifting region around the periphery. This type of structure affords substantial focus-exposure improvements and may either be fabricated in a single-level, self-aligned scheme or by a two-level exposure with conventional e-beam tools since the phase-shifting regions are on the order of 1 micrometers (reticle dimensions). Extensive modeling of this structure for isolated contact holes and spaces explores the myriad of trade- offs involved in an optimum design. Mask-fabrication tolerances, such as phase-shift uniformity, are also investigated. It is shown that the focus-exposure window enlarges as the overall structure dimensions increase. The degree of enhancement must therefore by weighed against packing density restrictions. Also, the structure suffers, to some degree, from the effect of side-lobes. However, for a given side-lobe intensity, this technique yields enhancements superior to the assist-slot approach. As is typical of phase-shifted systems, performance is improved as the partial coherence ((sigma

  2. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  3. Alcohol exposure induces chick craniofacial bone defects by negatively affecting cranial neural crest development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Guang; Lin, Zhuangling; Wu, Yushi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Meng; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Chuai, Manli; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-11-05

    Excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, the molecular mechanism leading to craniofacial abnormality, a feature of FAS, is still poorly understood. The cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute to the formation of the craniofacial bones. Therefore, NCCs exposed to ethanol was investigated - using chick embryos and in vitro explant culture as experimental models. We demonstrated that exposure to 2% ethanol induced craniofacial defects, which includes parietal defect, in the developing chick fetus. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that ethanol treatment downregulated Ap-2ɑ, Pax7 and HNK-1 expressions by cranial NCCs. Using double-immunofluorescent stainings for Ap-2ɑ/pHIS3 and Ap-2ɑ/c-Caspase3, we showed that ethanol treatment inhibited cranial NCC proliferation and increased NCC apoptosis, respectively. Moreover, ethanol treatment of the dorsal neuroepithelium increased Laminin, N-Cadherin and Cadherin 6B expressions while Cadherin 7 expression was repressed. In situ hybridization also revealed that ethanol treatment up-regulated Cadherin 6B expression but down-regulated slug, Msx1, FoxD3 and BMP4 expressions. In summary, our experimental results demonstrated that ethanol treatment interferes with the production of cranial NCCs by affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of these cells. In addition, ethanol affected the delamination, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration of cranial NCCs, which may have contributed to the etiology of the craniofacial defects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Comparison of a commercial qualitative real-time RT-PCR kit with direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and cell culture for detection of influenza A and B in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharabaghi, Farhad; Tellier, Raymond; Cheung, Rose; Collins, Carol; Broukhanski, George; Drews, Steven J; Richardson, Susan E

    2008-06-01

    Institutional pandemic planning prompted a study of the molecular detection of influenza virus from respiratory specimens in children, compared to conventional diagnostics. To evaluate the performance of a commercial qualitative real-time RT-PCR kit (rRT-PCR), the artus Influenza LC RT-PCR (Qiagen). STUDY DESIGN (METHODS): Specimens were pre-selected to include a high percentage of positives by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) or culture. The sensitivity and specificity of the kit for detection of influenza A and B in children were determined against the gold standard, DFA and culture. Specimens yielding discordant results between artus and the gold standard were tested against a reference rRT-PCR assay (Centers for Disease Control) to create an "expanded gold standard". When compared to DFA or cell culture, the sensitivity of the rRT-PCR artus kit was 96.2% and the specificity was 94%. It detected influenza RNA in 6.0% of clinical samples negative by DFA or culture. Using the expanded gold standard, the revised sensitivity was 98.7% (98.6% for influenza A and 97.6% for influenza B) and the specificity was 100%. The artus Influenza LC RT-PCR kit is an effective alternative to virus isolation and DFA for the detection of influenza A and B in pediatric clinical specimens.

  5. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodekær, M; Philipsen, P A; Petersen, B; Heydenreich, J; Wulf, H C

    2016-08-31

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been associated with "intermittent UVR exposure", which in previous studies has mainly been assessed by retrospective questionnaire data. Further, there is no uniform definition of the term "intermittent UVR exposure". We aimed to define and quantify "intermittent UVR exposure" by an objective measure. A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of "intermittent days" was derived, sun behaviour diaries and retrospective questionnaires. Two definitions of intermittent UVR exposure were tested: (1) days when UVR dose exceeded 3 times individual average daily UVR dose, and (2) days when UVR dose exceeded individual constitutive skin type. Measures of nevi and lentigines were used as surrogates for CMM. Using the first definition based solely on UVR dosimetry data we found 1241 "intermittent days" out of a total of 17 277 days (7.2%) among 148 participants. The numbers for nevi and lentigo density were significantly predicted by the number of intermittent days (R(2) = 0.15 and R(2) = 0.40, p intermittent UVR exposure. This measure may provide a better prediction of solar skin damage and CMM than retrospective questionnaire data.

  6. Phased arrays '85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglitz, M. R.

    1985-11-01

    The conference Phased Arrays '85 was held in Bedford, MA, on October 15-18, 1985. It is pointed out that the 15 years between the 1970 and 1985 conferences dedicated to phased array antennas have seen many technological advances. Attention is given to the principle of operation, monolithic phased arrays, active arrays of monopole elements, scan compensated active element patterns, microstrip arrays, time delay technologies for phased array systems, ferrite materials for mm-wave phase shifters, phase-only optimization of phased array excitation by B-quadratic programming, a nearly frequency-independent sidelobe suppression technique for phased arrays, and active impedance effects in low sidelobe and ultrawideband phased arrays.

  7. Metastable phases and 'metastable' phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.

    2006-10-01

    The work discusses the qualitative nature of phase transitions for metastable states of substances. The objects of the physics of condensed media are primarily the equilibrium states of substances with metastable phases viewed as an exception, while in chemistry the overwhelming majority of organic substances under investigation are metastable. It turns out that at normal pressure many simple molecular compounds based on light elements (these include: most hydrocarbons; nitrogen oxides, hydrates, and carbides; carbon oxide (CO); alcohols, glycerin) are metastable substances too, i.e. they do not match the Gibbs free energy minimum for a given atomic chemical composition. At moderate temperatures and pressures, the phase transitions for particular metastable phases are reversible throughout the entire experimentally accessible time period with the equilibrium thermodynamics laws obeyed. At sufficiently high pressures (1-10 GPa), most molecular phases irreversibly transform to more energy efficient polymerized phases. These transformations are not consistent with the equality of the Gibbs free energies between the phases before and after transition, i.e. they are not phase transitions in the 'classical' meaning. The resulting polymeric phases at normal pressure can exist at temperatures above the melting one for an initial metastable molecular phase. Striking examples of such polymers are polyethylene and a polymerized modification of CO. Many energy-intermediate polymeric phases can apparently be synthesized by the 'classical' chemistry techniques at normal pressure. At higher pressures (10-100 GPa) polymerized modifications transform to a mixture of simple stable phases.

  8. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...

  9. Incidental acquisition of foreign language vocabulary through brief multi-modal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marie-Josée; van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Tunney, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here we tested the impact of exposure to foreign language words presented with pictures in an incidental learning phase on subsequent explicit foreign language learning. In the explicit learning phase, we asked adults to learn translation equivalents of foreign language words, some of which had appeared in the incidental learning phase. Results revealed rapid learning of the foreign language words in the incidental learning phase showing that informal exposure to multi-modal foreign language leads to foreign language vocabulary acquisition. The creation of form-meaning links during the incidental learning phase is discussed.

  10. Cryptic exposure to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, Kathleen M; Janusz, Christopher A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is an odorless, colorless and tasteless element long linked with effects on the skin and viscera. Exposure to it may be cryptic. Although human intake can occur from four forms, elemental, inorganic (trivalent and pentavalent arsenic) and organic arsenic, the trivalent inorganic arsenicals constitute the major human hazard. Arsenic usually reaches the skin from occupational, therapeutic, or environmental exposure, although it still may be employed as a poison. Occupations involving new technologies are not exempt from arsenic exposure. Its acute and chronic effects are noteworthy. Treatment options exist for arsenic-induced pathology, but prevention of toxicity remains the main focus. Vitamin and mineral supplementation may play a role in the treatment of arsenic toxicity.

  11. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  12. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tes...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  13. Mobile phone radiofrequency exposure has no effect on DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Benati, Marco; Bovo, Chiara; Bonaguri, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Montagnana, Martina

    2017-07-01

    The use of mobile phones has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain type of cancer, especially in long term users. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the potential genotoxic effect of mobile phone radiofrequency exposure on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The study population consisted in 14 healthy volunteers. After collection of two whole blood samples, the former was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a commercial mobile phone (900 MHz carrier frequency), which was activated by a 30-min call. The second blood sample was instead maintained far from mobile phones or other RF sources. The influence of mobile phone RF on DNA integrity was assessed by analyzing γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes using immunofluorescence staining kit on AKLIDES. No measure of γ-H2AX foci was significantly influenced by mobile phone RF exposure, nor mobile phone exposure was associated with significant risk of genetic damages in vitro (odds ratio comprised between 0.27 and 1.00). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that exposure of human lymphocytes to a conventional 900 MHz RF emitted by a commercial mobile phone for 30 min does not significantly impact DNA integrity.

  14. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  15. Asbestos exposure during routine brake lining manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Sameti, Mahmod; Kakooei, Ali Akbar

    2007-12-01

    Occupational exposure to asbestos fiber and total dust of workers of a major brake lining manufacture plant in a developing country were examined and compared with those in developed countries. Time weighted average of total dust and asbestos fiber concentration in the potential sources of exposure were monitored. All personal air sampling were collected on membrane filters and analyzed by phase contrast optical microscopy (PCM) for comparison with the occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cc, 8-h time--weighted average. This study demonstrates that routine mixing, polishing and beveling process in the brake lining production can result in elevated levels of airborne asbestos. Greater releases of airborne asbestos were observed during mixing process and mixer machine. The results also showed that the employees working in the process had the exposure to total dust concentrations ranging from 2.08 to 16.32 mg/m(3) that is higher than OSHA, recommendation. According to OSHA definition of fibers, it has been indicated that from 3,000 counted particles, 90% of particles are in the form of non-fiber and reaming have fiber-shaped. The particle analyze gives the geometric mean diameter as 6.02 mum, and also indicated that the arithmetic mean of the number distribution for the particle population was 8.4 mum. Approximately 60.4% of the counted fibers were lower than 10 mum in length, from which only 8% consists of fibers (>5 mum in length). In conclusion, the analysis showed a presence in the air of only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of other types of asbestos. During an 8-h shift, the average asbestos fiber exposure (0.78 f/cc) were 7.8 time in excess of OSHA PEL. Additional studies in occupational exposure to asbestos are needed.

  16. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  17. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 121-128 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 121-128

  18. Liquid sulfur mustard exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Jonathan; Langer, Janice M; Capacio, Benedict; Barr, John; McIntosh, Roger G

    2007-02-01

    A 35-year-old active duty service member sustained a 6.5% body surface area burn as a result of exposure to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, which is the most severe mustard exposure of a U.S. military member since World War II that is known to us. New techniques were used to demonstrate the detectable persistence of mustard metabolites in the patient's blood for at least 41 days after exposure, validating these techniques for the first time for a human mustard patient; they were also used for the first time with human mustard blister fluid. The techniques extend eightfold the period of time that mustard exposure can be definitively diagnosed, compared with previous techniques. Although this patient's lesions were never life-threatening, he required 2 weeks of intensive burn care. He has been left with ongoing posttraumatic stress disorder and has had an incomplete dermatological recovery. In a major terrorist attack involving many patients exposed to sulfur mustard, care resources would be depleted quickly.

  19. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  20. Co-Localization of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-1, Casein Kinase-2β, and Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells as Demonstrated by Dual Immunofluorescence and in Situ Proximity Ligation Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Sahil S; Nygard, Karen; Dhruv, Manthan R; Biggar, Kyle; Abu Shehab, Majida; Shun-Cheng Li, Shawn; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2017-10-14

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 influences fetal growth by modifying insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) bioavailability. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation, which markedly increases its affinity for IGF-I, is regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and casein kinase (CSNK)-2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. We examined the cellular localization and potential interactions of IGFBP-1, CSNK-2β, and mTOR as a prerequisite for protein-protein interaction. Analysis of dual immunofluorescence images indicated a potential perinuclear co-localization between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β and a nuclear co-localization between CSNK-2β and mTOR. Proximity ligation assay (PLA) indicated proximity between IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β but not between mTOR and IGFBP-1. Three-dimensional rendering of the PLA images validated that IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β interactions were in the perinuclear region and mTOR and CSNK-2β interactions were predominantly perinuclear rather than nuclear as indicated by mTOR and CSNK-2β co-localization. Compared with control, hypoxia and rapamycin treatment showed markedly amplified PLA signals for IGFBP-1 and CSNK-2β (approximately 18-fold, P = 0.0002). Stable isotope labeling with multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry demonstrated that hypoxia and rapamycin treatment increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at Ser98/Ser101/Ser119/Ser174 but most considerably (106-fold) at Ser169. We report interactions between CSNK-2β and IGFBP-1 as well as mTOR and CSNK-2β, providing strong evidence of a mechanistic link between mTOR and IGF-I signaling, two critical regulators of cell growth via CSNK-2. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eucaryotic expression of the nucleocapsid protein gene of porcine circovirus type 2 and use of the protein in an indirect immunofluorescence assay for serological diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sébastien; Kheyar, Ali; Gagnon, Carl A; Charbonneau, Benoît; Dea, Serge

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using a recombinant porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) nucleocapsid protein for the serological detection of PCV2-specific antibodies in pig sera. The viral nucleocapsid protein encoded by the PCV2 ORF2 gene has recently been identified as the most immunoreactive viral protein that carries type-specific antigenic determinants. The ORF2 sequence of the IAF-2897 strain of PCV2 has been cloned into a pCEP5 eucaryotic expression vector under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter, downstream of a polyhistidine sequence tag. The recombinant plasmid was used in transfection experiments with human epithelial kidney 293 cells that were further tested, and positive expression of the viral nucleocapsid protein was confirmed by IFA and Western blotting. Strong, specific fluorescence was observed in the nuclei of transfected cells. Test specificity to PCV2 was verified with several related infectious agents. Sensitivity was compared to that of standard IFA using PCV2-infected cells by evaluating the reactivities of 44 field serum samples from pigs on farms with a porcine population suffering from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. The recombinant nucleocapsid-based test was able to detect 15 more positive-testing pigs than the PCV2-based IFA. Therefore, the relative sensitivity of the latter test was estimated at only 57.1% compared to that of the recombinant nucleocapsid-based test. The recombinant fusion protein has been purified by affinity chromatography and is being used to develop further sensitive serological tests.

  2. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  3. The Multispot rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation assay is comparable with the Western blot and an immunofluorescence assay at confirming HIV infection in a prospective study in three regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandori, Mark W; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cindy; Moss, Nicholas; Fu, Jie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Craw, Jason; Hall, Laura; Giancotti, Francesca R; Mak, Mae Ling; Madayag, Carmela; Tsoi, Benjamin; Louie, Brian; Patel, Pragna; Owen, S Michele; Peters, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    A new HIV diagnostic algorithm has been proposed which replaces the use of the HIV-1 Western blot and HIV-1 immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the supplemental test with an HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay. To compare an FDA-approved HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation test (Multispot) as a confirmatory test with the HIV-1 Western blot and IFA. Participants were screened with an HIV-1/HIV-2 combination Antigen/Antibody (Ag/Ab) screening assay. Specimens with repeatedly reactive results were tested with Multispot and either Western blot or IFA. Specimens with discordant screening and confirmatory results were resolved with HIV-1 RNA testing. Individuals (37,876) were screened for HIV infection and 654 (1.7%) had a repeatedly reactive Ag/Ab assay result. On Multispot, 554 (84.7%) were HIV-1 reactive, 0 (0%) were HIV-2 reactive, 1 (0.2%) was reactive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 (undifferentiated), 9 (1.4%) were HIV-1 indeterminate, and 90 (13.8%) were non-reactive. HIV-1 RNA was detected in 47/90 Multispot non-reactive (52.2%) specimens. Among specimens confirmed to have HIV infection (true positives), Multispot and Western blot detected HIV-1 antibody in a similar proportion of cases (93.7% vs. 94.4% respectively) while Multispot and IFA also detected HIV-1 antibody in a similar proportion of cases (84.5% vs. 83.4% respectively). In this study, Multispot confirmed HIV infections at a similar proportion to Western blot and IFA. Multispot, Western blot, and IFA, however, did not confirm all of the reactive Ag/Ab assay results and underscores the importance of HIV NAT testing to resolve discordant screening and confirmatory results. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping of phase singularities with spiral phase contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Ruth; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2013-07-15

    In spiral phase contrast (SPC) microscopy the edge-enhancement is typically independent of the helicity of the phase vortex filter. Here we show that for layered specimens containing screw-dislocations, as are e.g. present in mica or some crystallized organic substances, the intensity distribution in the filtered image acquires a dependence on the rotational direction of the filter. This allows one to map the distribution of phase singularities in the topography of the sample, by taking the intensity difference between two images recorded with opposite handedness. For the demonstration of this feature in a microscopy set-up, we encode the vortex filter as a binary off-axis hologram displayed on a spatial light modulator (SLM) placed in a Fourier plane. Using a binary grating, the diffraction efficiencies for the plus and minus first diffraction orders are equal, giving rise to two image waves which travel in different directions and are Fourier filtered with opposite helicity. The corresponding two images can be recorded simultaneously in two separate regions of the camera chip. This enables mapping of dislocations in the sample in a single camera exposure, as was demonstrated for various transparent samples.

  5. Phased array observations with infield phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudale, Sanjay; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2017-10-01

    We present results from pulsar observations using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) as a phased array with infield phasing. The antennas were kept in phase throughout the observation by applying antenna based phase corrections derived from visibilities that were obtained in parallel with the phased array beam data, and which were flagged and calibrated in real time using a model for the continuum emission in the target field. We find that, as expected, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) does not degrade with time. In contrast observations in which the phasing is done only at the start of the observation show a clear degradation of the SNR with time. We find that this degradation is well fit by a function of the form SNR(τ ) = α + β e^{-(τ /τ 0)^{5/3}}, which corresponds to the case where the phase drifts are caused by Kolmogorov type turbulence in the ionosphere. We also present general formulae (i.e. including the effects of correlated sky noise, imperfect phasing and self noise) for the SNR and synthesized beam size for phased arrays (as well as corresponding formulae for incoherent arrays). These would be useful in planning observations with large array telescopes.

  6. Phase I xenobiotic metabolic systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Tamas; Gullner, Gábor

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation uses living higher plants for the removal and biochemical decomposition of environmental pollutants. In this paper Phase I metabolic pathways in the biotransformation reactions of organic pollutants in plants are reviewed. These reactions result in the introduction of functional groups in the xenobiotic molecule or the exposure of preexisting functional groups and lead to the formation of more polar, more water-soluble, chemically more reactive and sometimes biologically more active derivatives. Phase I type reactions are most important in the phytoremediation of hydrophobic, chemically stable organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and (poly)chlorinated aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Although Phase I reactions involve a wide range of chemical transformations from hydrolysis to reduction, oxidative processes catalyzed by cytochrome P450 containing monooxygenases are the most important. Transgenic plants with tailored Phase I enzymatic activities may play major roles in the removal of environmentally stable organic pollutants from contaminated fields.

  7. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  8. Doses from radiation exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Practical implementation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) system of protection requires the availability of appropriate methods and data. The work of Committee 2 is concerned with the development of reference data and methods for the assessment of internal and external radiation exposure of workers and members of the public. This involves the development of reference biokinetic and dosimetric models, reference anatomical models of the human body, and reference anatomical and physiological data. Following ICRP's 2007 Recommendations, Committee 2 has focused on the provision of new reference dose coefficients for external and internal exposure. As well as specifying changes to the radiation and tissue weighting factors used in the calculation of protection quantities, the 2007 Recommendations introduced the use of reference anatomical phantoms based on medical imaging data, requiring explicit sex averaging of male and female organ-equivalent doses in the calculation of effecti...

  9. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN EXPOSURE SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure is the contact between a stressor and a human or ecological receptor. Risk analysis step in which receptor interaction with the exposure stressor of concern is evaluated. To assess exposure to a particular stressor we need to know - Properties of the stressor; Sources, p...

  10. SVOC exposure indoors: fresh look at dermal pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper critically examines indoor exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) via dermal pathways. First, it demonstrates that - in central tendency - an SVOC's abundance on indoor surfaces and in handwipes can be predicted reasonably well from gas-phase concentrations, assumi...

  11. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The objectives of the second phase are linked to specific measures in the management plan. They include an environment surveillance system; an official manganese air quality standard; information on manganese exposure and neurological effects in children; and a community network of environmental health promoters ...

  12. Lead Concentrations and Risk Exposure Assessment in Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Lead is included in the formulation of several motor oils. Leaded gasoline has been phased out, but is still used in ... Human exposure to motor garage chemicals has been suggested to induce genotoxic effects (Oktem et al., ... by adding hydrogen peroxide and sodium hexametaphosphate and the resulting soil analysed by.

  13. Human Exposure Database System (HEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Human Exposure Database System (HEDS) provides public access to data sets, documents, and metadata from EPA on human exposure. It is primarily intended for...

  14. The Promise of Exposure Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure science is the bedrock for protection of public health. It fundamentally informs decisions that relate to smart and sustainable design, prevention and mitigation of adverse exposures, and ultimately health protection.

  15. Exposure to airborne asbestos in thermal power plants in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Naransukh; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Frank, Arthur L; Lkhasuren, Oyuntogos; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPPs) in Mongolia use various types of asbestos-containing materials (ACMs) in thermal insulation of piping systems, furnaces, and other products. To investigate the occupational exposure of insulation workers to airborne asbestos in Mongolian power plants. Forty-seven air samples were collected from four power plants in Mongolia during the progress of insulation work. The samples were analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average phase contrast microscopy equivalent (PCME) asbestos fiber concentration was 0·93 f/cm(3). Sixteen of the 41 personal and one of the area samples exceeded the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US OSHA) short-term exposure limit of 1·0 f/cm(3). If it is assumed that the short-term samples collected are representative of full-shift exposure, then the exposures are approximately 10 times higher than the US OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure limit of 0·1 f/cm(3). Power plant insulation workers are exposed to airborne asbestos at concentrations that exceed the US OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit. Action to mitigate the risks should be taken in Mongolia.

  16. Phase Field Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  17. Total imprecision of exposure biomarkers: implications for calculating exposure limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the imprecision of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Unrecognized imprecision leads to underestimation of the true toxicity of the exposure. We have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers and the implications for calculation...... of exposure limits. METHODS: In a birth cohort study, mercury concentrations in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair were used as biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral outcome variables at age 7...... years. With at least three exposure parameters available, factor analysis and structural equation modeling could be applied to determine the total imprecision of each biomarker. The estimated imprecision was then applied to adjust benchmark dose calculations and the derived exposure limits. RESULTS...

  18. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Listen, Learn, Like! Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Involved in the Mere Exposure Effect in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Anders C.; Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of the mere exposure effect in music listening, which links previous exposure to liking. Prior to scanning, participants underwent a learning phase, where exposure to melodies was systematically varied. During scanning, participants rated liking for each melody and, later, their recognition of them. Participants showed learning effects, better recognising melodies heard more often. Melodies heard most often were mos...

  20. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Jewett, Megan E.; Cajochen, Christian; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker is differentially sensitive to the resetting effects of retinal light exposure, depending upon the circadian phase at which the light exposure occurs. Previously reported human phase response curves (PRCs) to single bright light exposures have employed small sample sizes, and were often based on relatively imprecise estimates of circadian phase and phase resetting. In the present study, 21 healthy, entrained subjects underwent pre- and post-stimulus constant routines (CRs) in dim light (approximately 2-7 lx) with maintained wakefulness in a semi-recumbent posture. The 6.7 h bright light exposure stimulus consisted of alternating 6 min fixed gaze (approximately 10 000 lx) and free gaze (approximately 5000-9000 lx) exposures. Light exposures were scheduled across the circadian cycle in different subjects so as to derive a PRC. Plasma melatonin was used to determine the phase of the onset, offset, and midpoint of the melatonin profiles during the CRs. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in phase between the pre- and post-stimulus CRs. The resultant PRC of the midpoint of the melatonin rhythm revealed a characteristic type 1 PRC with a significant peak-to-trough amplitude of 5.02 h. Phase delays occurred when the light stimulus was centred prior to the critical phase at the core body temperature minimum, phase advances occurred when the light stimulus was centred after the critical phase, and no phase shift occurred at the critical phase. During the subjective day, no prolonged 'dead zone' of photic insensitivity was apparent. Phase shifts derived using the melatonin onsets showed larger magnitudes than those derived from the melatonin offsets. These data provide a comprehensive characterization of the human PRC under highly controlled laboratory conditions.

  1. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs......Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five......-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment...

  2. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  3. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  4. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  5. Digital quadrature phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  6. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  7. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we...

  8. Cubatic phase for tetrapods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, R.; Mulder, B.M.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the phase behavior of tetrapods, hard nonconvex bodies formed by four rods connected under tetrahedral angles. We predict that, depending on the relative lengths of the rods these particles can form a uniaxial nematic phase, and more surprisingly they can exhibit a cubatic phase, a

  9. Cardiovascular change during encoding predicts the nonconscious mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Sandra L; Toscano, William B; Cowings, Patricia S; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    These studies examined memory encoding to determine whether the mere exposure effect could be categorized as a form of conceptual or perceptual implicit priming and, if it was not conceptual or perceptual, whether cardiovascular psychophysiology could reveal its nature. Experiment 1 examined the effects of study phase level of processing on recognition, the mere exposure effect, and word identification implicit priming. Deep relative to shallow processing improved recognition but did not influence the mere exposure effect for nonwords or word identification implicit priming for words. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the effect of study-test changes in font and orientation, respectively, on the mere exposure effect and word identification implicit priming. Different study-test font and orientation reduced word identification implicit priming but had no influence on the mere exposure effect. Experiments 4 and 5 developed and used, respectively, a cardiovascular psychophysiological implicit priming paradigm to examine whether stimulus-specific cardiovascular reactivity at study predicted the mere exposure effect at test. Blood volume pulse change at study was significantly greater for nonwords that were later preferred than for nonwords that were not preferred at test. There was no difference in blood volume pulse change for words at study that were later either identified or not identified at test. Fluency effects, at encoding or retrieval, are an unlikely explanation for these behavioral and cardiovascular findings. The relation of blood volume pulse to affect suggests that an affective process that is not conceptual or perceptual contributes to the mere exposure effect.

  10. Asbestos exposure during uncontrolled removal of sprayed-on asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Pascal; De Vuyst, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials in place in buildings, especially sprayed-on asbestos, are still an important health threat. Clearance of these materials has to be operated by specifically trained workers wearing specific individual protection suits after containment of the contaminated area. Good work practices are, however, not always applied. We report the case of two workers hired for ∼1 week to remove sprayed-on amosite asbestos during the remodeling of a former industrial hall. Regulatory protective equipments were not used. A legal action was initiated after disclosure of the working conditions. Medical examinations were performed 18 and 22 months after exposure. Workers denied any other asbestos exposure. Lung function tests and chest computed tomography scans were normal. Very high levels of asbestos fibers and bodies were discovered on mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by phase contrast light microscopy and analytical electron microscopy. All fibers were amosite. An extrapolation considering duration of exposure, breathing pattern, and BALF fiber content suggests that the workers were exposed to airborne fiber concentrations in the range from several tens to about a hundred World Health Organization fibers per milliliter air. In conclusion, exposures to historical airborne fiber levels prevailing half a century ago may still occur today when the work regulations are not applied. In these conditions, even very short exposures may result in considerable lung fiber retention in case of amphibole exposure with the subsequent risk for developing asbestos-related diseases. Fiber analysis in BALF is useful to clarify such exposures.

  11. Differential Phase Detector for Precise Phase Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Olexa, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a differential phase detector circuit, whose phase-to-voltage characteristic has an extremum when its two input signals are exactly in phase. In this condition all its digital signals are of 50 % duty cycle so that the circuit characteristic does not have a dead zone. This feature allows a precise indication of the zero-phase condition, which is independent of the detector power supply and the offset of its ADC readout. Such a detector is used for a phase alignment of two reference clock signals with frequency about 11 kHz in front-ends processing signals from beam position monitors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The detector output voltage is digitized with a 24-bit ADC at the rate of the reference signals. The resulting samples are processed in the front-end FPGA and transmitted to the control system using an Ethernet data stream. After a detailed description of the differential phase detector its performance is demonstrated with laboratory measurements. The results show tha...

  12. Rapid Quantification of the Toxic Alga Prymnesium parvum in Natural Samples by Use of a Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Solid-Phase Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, N. J.; Bacchieri, R.; Hansen, G.; Tomas, C.; Lebaron, P.; Moreau, H.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing incidence of harmful algal blooms around the world and their associated health and economic effects require the development of methods to rapidly and accurately detect and enumerate the target species. Here we describe use of a solid-phase cytometer to detect and enumerate the toxic alga Prymnesium parvum in natural samples, using a specific monoclonal antibody and indirect immunofluorescence. The immunoglobulin G antibody 16E4 exhibited narrow specificity in that it recognized several P. parvum strains and a Prymnesium nemamethecum strain but it did not cross-react with P. parvum strains from Scandinavia or any other algal strains, including species of the closely related genus Chrysochromulina. Prymnesium sp. cells labeled with 16E4 were readily detected by the solid-phase cytometer because of the large fluorescence signal and the signal/noise ratio. Immunofluorescence detection and enumeration of cultured P. parvum cells preserved with different fixatives showed that the highest cell counts were obtained when cells were fixed with either glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde plus the cell protectant Pluronic F-68, whereas the use of formaldehyde alone resulted in significantly lower counts. Immunofluorescence labeling and analysis with the solid-phase cytometer of fixed natural samples from a bloom of P. parvum occurring in Lake Colorado in Texas gave cell counts that were close to those obtained by the traditional method of counting using light microscopy. These results show that a solid-phase cytometer can be used to rapidly enumerate natural P. parvum cells and that it could be used to detect other toxic algae, with an appropriate antibody or DNA probe. PMID:16391128

  13. Research of protocols for optimization of exposure dose in abdominopelic CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Far East University, Eumseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study measured the exposure dose during abdominal-pelvic CT exam which occupies 70% of CT exam and tried to propose a protocol for optimized exposure dose in abdomen and pelvis without affecting the imagery interpretation. The study scanned abdomen-pelvis using the current clinical scan method, the 120 kVp, auto exposure control(AEC), as 1 phase. As for the newly proposed 2 phase scan method, the study divided into 1 phase abdomen exam and 2 phase pelvis exam and each conducted tube voltage 120 kVp, AEC for abdomen exam, and fixed tube current method in 120 kVp, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 mA for pelvis exam. The exposure dose value was compared using CTDIVOL, DLP value measured during scan, and average value of CT attenuation coefficient, noise, SNR from each scan image were obtained to evaluate the image. As for the result, scanning of 2 phase showed significant difference compared to 1 phase. In CTDIVOL value, the 2 phase showed 26% decrease in abdomen, 1.8∼59.5% decrease in pelvis for 100∼250 mA, 12.7%∼30% increase in pelvis for 300∼400 mA. Also, DLP value showed 53% decrease in abdomen and 41∼81% decrease in pelvis when scanned by 2 phase compared to 1 phase, but it was not statistically significant. As for the SNR, when scanning 2 phase close to heart, scanning 1 phase close to pelvis, scanning and scanning 1 phase at upper and lower abdomen, it was higher when scanning 2 phase for 200∼ 250 mA. Also, the CT number and noise was overall similar, but the noise was high close to pelvis. However, when scanning 2 phase for 250 mA close to pelvis, the noise value came out similar to 1 phase, and did not show statistically significant difference. It seems when separating pelvis to scan in 250 mA rather than 400 mA in 1 phase as before, it is expected to have reduced effect of exposure dose without difference in the quality of image. Thus, for patients who often get abdominal-pelvic CT exam, fertile women or children, this study proposes 2

  14. Geometric phases in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shapere, Alfred D

    1989-01-01

    During the last few years, considerable interest has been focused on the phase that waves accumulate when the equations governing the waves vary slowly. The recent flurry of activity was set off by a paper by Michael Berry, where it was found that the adiabatic evolution of energy eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics contains a phase of geometric origin (now known as 'Berry's phase') in addition to the usual dynamical phase derived from Schrödinger's equation. This observation, though basically elementary, seems to be quite profound. Phases with similar mathematical origins have been identified

  15. Solution phase combinatorial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, A T

    1998-06-01

    Combinatorial chemistry and parallel array synthesis techniques are now used extensively in the drug discovery process. Although published literature has been dominated by solid phase chemistry approaches, the use of solution phase techniques has also been widely explored. This review considers the advantages and disadvantages of choosing solution phase approaches in the various stages of drug discovery and optimisation, and assesses the practical issues related to these approaches. The uses of standard solution chemistry, the related liquid phase approach, and of supported materials to enhance solution phase chemistry are all illustrated by a comprehensive review of the published literature over the past three years.

  16. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  17. Phase contrast imaging with polycapillary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hassan; Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

    2012-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic radiography is limited by the similarity between x-ray absorption coefficients of normal tissue and carcinoma, which results in poor inherent subject contrast. Differences in x-ray refractive indices are much larger, so phase imaging has the potential for higher contrast. Unfortunately, the spatial coherence necessary for simple in-line phase contrast requires small sources at large distances, and hence excessive exposure times. Other schemes such as grating techniques require multiple images and complex alignment. In this work, polycapillary optics were employed to increase the intensity of the x-ray beam for simple propagation in-line imaging. Focusing through pinhole apertures created a small virtual source of high intensity from which phase contrast edge effects were observed with tissueequivalent phantoms.

  18. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light...

  19. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  20. Defining "intermittent UVR exposure"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Petersen, Bibi Øager

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been associated with “intermittent UVR exposure”, which in previous studies has mainly been assessed by retrospective questionnaire data. Further, there is no uniform definition of the term “intermittent UVR exposure”. Objectives: We aimed...... to define and quantify “intermittent UVR exposure” by an objective measure. Methods: A broad study population of adults and children had data collected during a summer period. Data were personal UVR dosimetry measurements, from which the number of “intermittent days” was derived, sun behaviour diaries...... and retrospective questionnaires. Two definitions of intermittent UVR exposure were tested: (1) days when UVR dose exceeded 3 times individual average daily UVR dose, and (2) days when UVR dose exceeded individual constitutive skin type. Measures of nevi and lentigines were used as surrogates for CMM. Results...

  1. An immunofluorescence test for diagnosis of ophthalmic herpes in a mouse corneal model Imunofluorescência para diagnóstico de herpes oftálmico usando como modelo córneas de camundongos infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Regina Ferreira Gonçalves Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 ophthalmic disease is the most common cause of corneal blindness in humans world-wide. Current culture techniques for HSV take several days and commercially available HSV laboratory based diagnostic techniques vary in sensitivity. Our study was conducted to evaluate the use of a quicker and simpler method to herpes ophthalmic diagnosis. Corneal smears were made by firm imprints of infected mouse eyes to glass slides, after smears were fixated with cold acetone, and an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF method was performed using monoclonal antibodies in a murine model of ophthalmic herpes. Eye swabs from infected mice were inoculated in Vero cells for virus isolation. Cytology and histology of the eye were also performed, using hematoxylin-eosin routine. Mouse eyes were examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy for evidence of herpetic disease at various times postinoculation. We made a comparative evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and speed of methods for laboratory detection of HSV. Our results indicate that this IIF method is quick, sensitive, specific and can be useful in the diagnosis of ophthalmic herpes as demonstrated in an animal model.A doença oftálmica do vírus herpes simplex do tipo 1 (HSV-1 é a causa mais comum de cegueira córnea em humanos mundialmente. Técnicas de cultura atuais para HSV levam vários dias e laboratórios de HSV comercialmente disponíveis estabelecem que as técnicas diagnósticas variam em sensibilidade. Nosso estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a aplicação prática de um método mais rápido e simples para diagnosticar o herpes oftálmico. Decalques córneos foram feitos por impressões firmes de olhos de camundongos a lâminas de vidro, depois os decalques foram fixados com acetona fria, e um método de imunofluorescência indireta (IIF foi executado empregando anticorpos monoclonais no modelo murino de herpes oftálmico. Swabs de córnea foram inoculados em células Vero

  2. Desarrollo de improntas para el diagnóstico del virus Epstein-Barr por inmunofluorescencia indirecta Development of slides for Epstein-Barr virus diagnosis by indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán R. Pérez

    2005-08-01

    mononucleosis. Detection of anti-viral capside antigen (VCA antibodies indicates previous or present EBV infection. Moreover, high titles of anti-VCA antibodies are observed in EBV-associated neoplasic disorders, such as lymphomas in AIDS patients. The objective of this study was the development and optimization of P3HR1 cell slides for the EBV serologic detection by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assay. P3HR1 exponential growth culture cells were stimulated with phorbol-12-mirystoil-13-acetate, collected at different time points and used for slide preparation. IIF assay was performed in each slide using an anti-EBV positive serum as primary antibody. An 11% increase in VCA expression was observed at 40 hours post-stimulation. Data was confirmed by western blot and immunodetection. Intra- and inter-lot precisions of the developed slides were evaluated for IgG and IgM antibodies using EBV-positive sera and positive samples for other members of the Herpesviridae family. Neither false-positive or false negative results were obtained for EBV detection nor cross-reaction was observed with other members of the Herpesviridae family with the developed slides. In conclusion, the slides here presented can be a useful instrument for acute EBV infection diagnosis and for the serologic detection of IgG anti-VCA antibodies in EBV-associated neoplastic disorders.

  3. Quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachdev, S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place atthe ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase

  4. Short-term oral exposure to white wine transiently lowers serum free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Graaf, C. de; Rietman, A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    In humans little is known as to whether oral sensory stimulation with alcohol elicits cephalic phase responses. This study sought to determine whether oral alcohol exposure, in the form of white wine, provokes cephalic phase responses in normal-weight and overweight women. In a semi-randomized,

  5. Opportunity structures for selective exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Shehata, Adam; Strömbäck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    is to investigate the two types of selective exposure in a country—Sweden—where the opportunity structures for selective exposure differ from the American context. This study investigates both types of selective exposure in relation to televised party-leader interviews. Based on panel survey data, the findings show...... interest. Evidence for both has been found primarily in an American context, while there is less research on European countries. This is problematic, as the opportunity structures for different forms of selectivity vary across media environments. Against this background, the purpose of this study...... that selective exposure based on political interest is substantially more important than selective exposure based on ideological preferences in explaining exposure to party-leader interviews. To substantiate this finding, the results are replicated with partisan learning as the dependent variable....

  6. Continuous animal exposure to dichloromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.; Haun, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Continuous exposures of dogs, monkeys, rats and mice to 5000 ppm and 1000 ppm of dichloromethane vapor (CH2Cl2) produced severe toxic effects on dogs, rats and mice. Dogs died after 3 weeks exposure to 1000 ppm and after 6 weeks exposure to 5000 ppm. Thirty percent of the mice also succumbed during four weeks exposure to 5000 ppm CH2Cl2. Although rats survived 14 weeks exposure to 5000 ppm, they experienced subnormal weight gains. Significant gross and histopathological hepatic lesions were noted in all 3 species at death or experimental termination in 14 weeks. In addition, rats showed abnormal kidney histopathology. Fat stains disclosed mild fatty increase in monkey livers after 14 weeks exposure to 1000 ppm CH2Cl2.

  7. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Goswami

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12 of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13. This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners. The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6, though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2. Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3, during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1 or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5 of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6 were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically.

  8. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  9. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  10. Children's exposure to community violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, T G

    2001-01-01

    To analyze the effects of exposure to chronic community violence on children and adolescents. An integrative review of the literature was conducted on reports of studies about children's exposure to community violence. Studies for analysis were identified through a literature search of relevant topics in Medline, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. Exposure to community violence is related to significant stress and depression in children. Evidence on how exposure to violence affects children's growth patterns, intellectual growth, school performance, decision-making ability, or their hope for a future is needed.

  11. An acetylcholinesterase-independent mechanism for neurobehavioral impairments after chronic low level exposure to dichlorvos in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suresh Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2009-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore an alternate mechanism of action other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the chronic, low-level exposure to dichlorvos, an organophosphate, in vivo. Dichlorvos, at dose of 1.0 as well as 6.0 mg/kg b. wt. for 12 weeks to rats showed impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests. Though higher dose of dichlorvos had a detrimental effect on acetylcholinesterase activity, no significant inhibition was seen with lower dose of dichlorvos for the same period of exposure i.e. 12 weeks. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding studies revealed a decrease in the number of binding sites (B(max)) in low as well as high dose groups but the dissociation constant (K(d)) value was unaffected with both doses of dichlorvos. Use of selective ligands against M(1), M(2) and M(3) receptor subtypes indicated that M(2) is the major receptor subtype being affected by chronic low-level exposure to dichlorvos. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence studies also confirmed these biochemical findings. Thus, the present study suggests that M(2) receptors may play a major role in the development of neurobehavioral impairments after chronic exposure to dichlorvos.

  12. Exposure effects on music preference and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, I; Gaudreau, D; Bonnel, A M

    1998-09-01

    In three experiments, the effects of exposure to melodies on their subsequent liking and recognition were explored. In each experiment, the subjects first listened to a set of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in a study phase. In the subsequent test phase, the melodies were repeated, along with a set of distractors matched in familiarity. Half the subjects were required to rate their liking of each melody, and half had to identify the melodies they had heard earlier in the study phase. Repetition of the studied melodies was found to increase liking of the unfamiliar melodies in the affect task and to be best for detection of familiar melodies in the recognition task (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). These memory effects were found to fade at different time delays between study and test in the affect and recognition tasks, with the latter leading to the most persistent effects (Experiment 2). Both study-to-test changes in melody timbre and manipulation of study tasks had a marked impact on recognition and little influence on liking judgments (Experiment 3). Thus, all manipulated variables were found to dissociate the memory effects in the two tasks. The results are consistent with the view that memory effects in the affect and recognition tasks pertain to the implicit and explicit forms of memory, respectively. Part of the results are, however, at variance with the literature on implicit and explicit memory in the auditory domain. Attribution of these differences to the use of musical material is discussed.

  13. Enfermedades transmisibles, salud mental y exposición a contaminantes ambientales en población aledaña al proyecto minero Las Bambas antes de la fase de explotación, Perú 2006 Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, Peru 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Astete

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de enfermedades transmisibles, salud mental y exposición a contaminantes ambientales en la población aledaña al proyecto minero Las Bambas antes de la fase de explotación. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 453 personas (niños y adultos residentes en tres distritos de la región Apurímac: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho y Progreso. Se evaluó el desarrollo psicomotor, coeficiente intelectual y niveles de ansiedad y depresión, así como la presencia de enfermedades transmisibles (sífilis, VIH, hepatitis viral B, C y Delta, metales pesados (nivel de plomo en sangre, nivel de cadmio, arsénico y mercurio, en orina y colinesterasa sérica. Resultados. La edad promedio fue de 29,0 ± 17,3 años, 59,2% fueron mujeres y el tiempo de residencia fue de 6 a 15 años. No se encontraron casos de VIH, hepatitis C y Delta, 1,4% fueron positivos a sífilis y en relación con hepatitis B se encontró 1,7% positivos a anti HBc total y 0,5% positivos a HBs Ag. Se encontraron valores por encima de lo permitido de mercurio en 1,8% de la población, arsénico en 4,6%, plomo en 24,3% y cadmio en 43,9%. Además, el 29,1% de la población tuvo valores de colinesterasa inferiores al rango referencial. En la población infantil, 12,5% presentaba riesgo en su desarrollo psicomotor; 2,1% y 3,1% presentaba retardo mental leve y fronterizo, respectivamente; 34,3% de los mayores de 12 años sufrían de ansiedad y 17,5% de depresión. Conclusiones. Existen evidencias de contaminación ambiental por metales pesados y presencia de enfermedades transmisibles en esta población. Una futura explotación minera irresponsable podría agravar dicha situación epidemiológica.Objective. To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Material and methods. Cross sectional study

  14. Parental Perceptions and Misconceptions of Child Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura J; Lev, Eimi; Guttman, Nurit; Tillinger, Efrat; Rosenblat, Shira; Zucker, David M; Myers, Vicki

    2017-09-13

    exposure can occur even in situations where they are unable to sense it. The scientific information summarized here about exposure in common situations should be useful in persuading parents to protect their children. This study is registered as a Phase I study which is part of a larger research endeavor entitled: A program to protect young children from tobacco smoke exposure. Registration number: NCT01335178.

  15. Residential Exposure to Plasticizers and Its Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øie, Leif; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1997-01-01

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phtlalate (DEHP) is widely used in building materials. DEHP is identified as the major plasticizer exposure in dwellings. We provide evidence that inhalation exposure to DEHP as aerosols adsorbed to particulate matter is as important, or more important, than vapor...... phase exposure. The particulate inhalaton exposure to DEHP is considered to be significant due to its low clearance and extensive penetration into the pulmonary region. DEHP is capable of creating high local concentrations in the airways at the deposition site with subsequent local effects. The proposed...

  16. Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

    1992-10-01

    Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols.

  17. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  18. Pediatric Exposures to Veterinary Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B

    2017-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Chicago Univ., IL (United States)

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions.

  20. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Samiko Miyazaki Onuma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9% showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7% for S. neurona, and seven (63.6% for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  1. Thermodynamically Stable Blue Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, F.; Morris, S. M.; Terentjev, E. M.; Coles, H. J.

    2010-04-01

    We show theoretically that flexoelectricity stabilizes blue phases in chiral liquid crystals. Induced internal polarization reduces the elastic energy cost of splay and bend deformations surrounding singular lines in the director field. The energy of regions of double twist is unchanged. This in turn reduces the free energy of the blue phase with respect to that of the chiral nematic phase, leading to stability over a wider temperature range. The theory explains the discovery of large temperature range blue phases in highly flexoelectric “bimesogenic” and “bent-core” materials, and predicts how this range may be increased further.

  2. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  3. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  4. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  5. Instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Isaac; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-11-28

    An instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry measurement method is presented and implemented by measuring a time varying deformable mirror with an iPhone ® 6. The instantaneous method is based on multiplexing phase shifted fringe patterns with color, and decomposing them in x and y using Fourier techniques. Along with experimental data showing the capabilities of the instantaneous deflectometry system, a quantitative comparison with the Fourier transform profilometry method, which is a distinct phase measuring method from the phase shifting approach, is presented. Sources of error, nonlinear color-multiplexing induced error correction, and hardware limitations are discussed.

  6. Phase space and phase space transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alefeld, B.

    1985-03-01

    For neutron scattering instrumentation Liouville's theorem plays a similar role as the second law of thermodynamics at least in the sense that from time to time 'ingenious' devices are discussed seriously, which are meant to increase the phase space density, these devices are analogous to a perpetuum mobile of the second kind.

  7. Integrating population dynamics into mapping human exposure to seismic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Freire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk is not fully characterized without taking into account vulnerability and population exposure. Assessment of earthquake risk in urban areas would benefit from considering the variation of population distribution at more detailed spatial and temporal scales, and from a more explicit integration of this improved demographic data with existing seismic hazard maps. In the present work, "intelligent" dasymetric mapping is used to model population dynamics at high spatial resolution in order to benefit the analysis of spatio-temporal exposure to earthquake hazard in a metropolitan area. These night- and daytime-specific population densities are then classified and combined with seismic intensity levels to derive new spatially-explicit four-class-composite maps of human exposure. The presented approach enables a more thorough assessment of population exposure to earthquake hazard. Results show that there are significantly more people potentially at risk in the daytime period, demonstrating the shifting nature of population exposure in the daily cycle and the need to move beyond conventional residence-based demographic data sources to improve risk analyses. The proposed fine-scale maps of human exposure to seismic intensity are mainly aimed at benefiting visualization and communication of earthquake risk, but can be valuable in all phases of the disaster management process where knowledge of population densities is relevant for decision-making.

  8. Lead Exposure and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarillo, William G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Provides evidence of detrimental effects of lead exposure on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. Behavior and lead-blood level were examined for 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. A standardized parent report measure and consideration of maternal morale are features of study methodology. (SLD)

  9. Emerging exposures of developmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S; Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; McConnell, Rob S; Barr, Dana B

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify emerging developmental toxicants that are understudied in children's health. Exposures may arise from new products designed to improve utility, to reduce toxicity, or to replace undesirable chemicals. Exposures to less-toxic chemicals may also be significant if they are very commonly used, thereby generating widespread exposure. Sources of exposure include the workplace, personal, home, and office products; food, water, and air. We describe eight exposure categories that contain numerous potential developmental toxicants. References are discussed if reported in PubMed during the past decade at least 10 times more frequently than in 1990-2000. Examples included phthalates, phenols, sunscreens, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl coatings, nanoparticles, e-cigarettes, and dietary polyphenols. Replacements are often close structural homologs of their precursors. We suggest biomonitoring as preferred means of exposure assessment to emerging chemicals. Some existing analytic methods would require minimal modification to measure these exposures, but others require toxicokinetic and analytic investigation. A deliberate strategy for biomonitoring of emerging replacement chemicals is warranted, especially in view of concerns regarding developmental toxicity. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to characterize such exposures before they become widely disseminated.

  10. Radiation exposure during intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hak, David J

    2017-06-01

    Surgeons should aim to keep radiation exposure "As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)" during intramedullary nailing and other minimally invasive surgical procedures. This requires understanding the principles of ionizing radiation and methods for minimizing exposure risk. The main source of radiation exposure to surgical personnel during fluoroscopy is from scattered radiation. Since radiation scatter is mainly directed towards the fluoroscopy source, the best configuration during surgery to reduce radiation dose to the surgeon is to position the fluoroscopic source below the operating room table and the image collector above the table. During cross table imaging, the surgeon should stand on the side with the image collector to minimize their exposure to radiation scatter. To reduce scattered radiation the patient must be placed as close to the image collector and as far away from the x-ray tube as possible. Standing farther away from the patient can exponentially reduce radiation exposure. The hands usually have the greatest dose exposure to radiation during surgical procedures, but they are far less radiosensitive than the eyes or thyroid. To minimize exposure to the hands, a surgeon should use the hands-off technique taking fluoroscopic images only when his or her hands are farthest from the radiographic field. Lead gowns, lead thyroid shields, and lead glasses, further reduces an individual's exposure to radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Noise exposure and public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier-Vermeer, W.; Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and

  12. Mercury exposure in chloralkali plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, W.B. III; McGill, C.M.; Barber, T.E.; Cromer, J.W. Jr.; Goldwater, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    The employees of two chloralkali plants were studied to correlate the signs and symptoms of mercury toxicity with levels of exposure. For purposes of comparison, the workers were divided into three groups. These groups were selected on the basis of hours worked in the mercury cell room or in other areas of mercury exposure. The population of the first plant was studied from 1957-1978, and preliminary findings were published in 1964. The second plant's population was studied for 3.5 years beginning in 1976. Time-weighted average exposure levels to mercury vapor in the high exposure group generally ranged between 0.05 to 0.10 mg/m3. No significant differences in the frequency of objective or subjective findings were noted among the three groups except for a lower post exposure systolic and post exposure diastolic blood pressure in the high exposure group in the second plant's population. There was no correlation of mercury vapor exposure with subjective or objective weight loss.

  13. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  14. The effects of magnetic fields exposure on relative permittivity of saline solutions measured by a high resolution SPR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhao, Xinyuan; Fei, Yue; Yu, Dongdong; Qian, Jun; Tong, Jinguang; Chen, Guangdi; He, Sailing

    2016-04-28

    A measurement system for the relative permittivity of a physiological solution under 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) is presented. It is based on a phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system. Relative permittivity was analyzed for different solute concentrations of sodium chloride under various MF exposure parameters. We found that MF exposure at 0.2-4.0 mT step-wise decreased significantly the SPR phase signal of a 0.9% sodium chloride solution while 0.1 mT of MF exposure did not. The decreases in the SPR phase signal depended on the duration of MF exposure, and the signal reached a plateau after 15 min of exposure. Interestingly, the decreased SPR phase signal showed a gradual increase and approached the background level when the exposure was drawn off. In addition, we found that the response of the sodium chloride solution to MF also depended on its concentration. In brief, the relative permittivity of sodium chloride in solutions appears to be practically affected by 50 Hz MF exposure. Our data indicates that the relative permittivity of the saline solution influenced by MF exposure should be considered when investigating the biological effects of MF exposure on organisms in experimental study.

  15. Time course of airway remodelling after an acute chlorine gas exposure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Stephanie A; Ramos-Barbón, David; Campbell, Holly; McGovern, Toby; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Martin, James G

    2008-01-01

    Accidental chlorine (Cl2) gas inhalation is a common cause of acute airway injury. However, little is known about the kinetics of airway injury and repair after Cl2 exposure. We investigated the time course of airway epithelial damage and repair in mice after a single exposure to a high concentration of Cl2 gas. Mice were exposed to 800 ppm Cl2 gas for 5 minutes and studied from 12 hrs to 10 days post-exposure. The acute injury phase after Cl2 exposure (≤ 24 hrs post-exposure) was characterized by airway epithelial cell apoptosis (increased TUNEL staining) and sloughing, elevated protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and a modest increase in airway responses to methacholine. The repair phase after Cl2 exposure was characterized by increased airway epithelial cell proliferation, measured by immunoreactive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), with maximal proliferation occurring 5 days after Cl2 exposure. At 10 days after Cl2 exposure the airway smooth muscle mass was increased relative to controls, suggestive of airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and there was evidence of airway fibrosis. No increase in goblet cells occurred at any time point. We conclude that a single exposure of mice to Cl2 gas causes acute changes in lung function, including pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine challenge, associated with airway damage, followed by subsequent repair and airway remodelling. PMID:18702818

  16. Time course of airway remodelling after an acute chlorine gas exposure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGovern Toby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accidental chlorine (Cl2 gas inhalation is a common cause of acute airway injury. However, little is known about the kinetics of airway injury and repair after Cl2 exposure. We investigated the time course of airway epithelial damage and repair in mice after a single exposure to a high concentration of Cl2 gas. Mice were exposed to 800 ppm Cl2 gas for 5 minutes and studied from 12 hrs to 10 days post-exposure. The acute injury phase after Cl2 exposure (≤ 24 hrs post-exposure was characterized by airway epithelial cell apoptosis (increased TUNEL staining and sloughing, elevated protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and a modest increase in airway responses to methacholine. The repair phase after Cl2 exposure was characterized by increased airway epithelial cell proliferation, measured by immunoreactive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, with maximal proliferation occurring 5 days after Cl2 exposure. At 10 days after Cl2 exposure the airway smooth muscle mass was increased relative to controls, suggestive of airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and there was evidence of airway fibrosis. No increase in goblet cells occurred at any time point. We conclude that a single exposure of mice to Cl2 gas causes acute changes in lung function, including pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine challenge, associated with airway damage, followed by subsequent repair and airway remodelling.

  17. Chronic toluene exposure induces cell proliferation in the mice SVZ but not migration through the RMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ireri; Valdez-Tapia, Mariana; Sanchez-Serrano, Sinthia L; Cruz, Silvia L; Lamas, Monica

    2014-07-11

    Abuse of toluene-containing inhalants is associated to various cognitive impairments that have been partly associated to deviation of the hippocampal neurogenesis processes during adulthood. In the present study we analyzed the effect of chronic toluene exposure (6000ppm) on cell proliferation and migration in the other selected area of the rodent brain where neurogenesis persist throughout adulthood, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ). We used an anti-Ki67 antibody to evaluate SVZ cell proliferation, BrdU to evaluate cell survival and double-staining with BrdU and the migration marker doublecortin (DCX) to evaluate migration, by immunofluorescence 2h, 1, 5, 10 or 15 days after 20 sessions of toluene exposure. We found that toluene induced an initial burst of cell proliferation in the SVZ but not a significant increase in migration toward the rostral migratory stream (RMS) or the number of cells that migrate to the olfactory bulb. In addition, we detected a small number of new migrating cells in the corpus callosum and striatum of control mice that was similar in toluene-exposed brains. These results may underline the homeostatic capabilities of the populations of dividing cells, previously demonstrated using other drugs of abuse and demonstrate that toluene misuse can alter cellular proliferation in the postnatal brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Two Cities of Northwestern Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elhamiani Khatat

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis with extensive increased interest. Epidemiological data are available in several regions of the USA, Europe and Asia in contrast to other parts of the world such as North Africa. Blood samples of 261 healthy individuals divided in two groups i.e., dog handlers and blood donors were analysed. Indirect immunofluorescent assay using a commercial kit was performed to detect specific A. phagocytophilum IgG. Two dilutions were used to assess the prevalence of seroreactive samples. Demographic variables were assessed as potential risk factors using exact logistic regression. Seropositivity rates reached 37% and 27% in dog handlers and 36% and 22% in blood donors. No statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence rates between the two groups. Analysis of risk factors such as gender, age groups, outdoor activities, self-reported previous exposure to ticks, or contact with domestic animals (dogs, cats, ruminants and horses did not shown any significant difference. A. phagocytophilum exposure was common in both high-risk population and blood donors in Morocco.

  19. Biomarkers of exposure in Monday morning urine samples as a long-term measure of exposure to aromatic diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnerberg, Håkan; Broberg, Karin; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates is a known occupational hazard. One method for monitoring occupational exposure is by analyzing biomarkers in hydrolyzed urine and plasma. The half-life of the biomarkers in plasma is about 3 weeks, and the urinary elimination is divided into one fast (hours) and one slow phases (weeks). Polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GST) is earlier shown to modify the metabolism. The aim of the study was to assess whether biomarkers of exposure in urine collected after two non-exposed days correlate with levels in plasma and whether they can be used as a measure for long-term exposure to aromatic diisocyanates and further whether polymorphisms in GST influenced the correlations. Biomarkers of exposure was analyzed in urine and blood samples collected from 24 workers, exposed to at least one of toluene-, methylenediphenyl- or naphthalene diisocyanate, on a Monday morning after at least two unexposed days. Moreover, genotype was determined for 19 of the workers. The corresponding specific gravity-adjusted biomarkers in urine and plasma levels for the different diisocyanates correlated well (r between 0.689 and 0.988). When taking all samples together, the correlation coefficient was 0.926. Polymorphism in the GSTM1 genotype seemed to modify the association. Urine collected after two unexposed days can possibly be used as long-term biomarker of exposure for aromatic diisocyanates.

  20. Di (2-ethylhexyl Phthalate Exposure Impairs Growth of Antral Follicle in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Li

    Full Text Available Di (2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is a widely used plastic additive. As an environmental endocrine disruptor, it has been shown to be harmful to the mammalian reproductive system. Previous studies indicated that DEHP inhibited the development of mouse ovarian follicles. However, the mechanisms by which DEHP affects ovarian antral follicle development during the pre-puberty stage are poorly understand. Thus, we investigated the effects of direct DEHP exposure on antral follicle growth in pre-pubescent mice by use of intraperitoneal injection. Our results demonstrated that the percentage of large antral follicles was significantly reduced when mice were exposed to 20 or 40 μg/kg DEHP every 5 days from postnatal day 0 (0 dpp to 15 dpp. In 20 dpp, we performed microarray of these ovaries. The microarray results indicated that mRNA levels of apoptosis related genes were increased. The mRNA levels of the apoptosis and cell proliferation (negative related genes Apoe, Agt, Glo1 and Grina were increased after DEHP exposure. DEHP induced the differential gene expression of Hsp90ab1, Rhoa, Grina and Xdh which may play an important role in this process. In addition, TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence showed that DEHP exposure significantly increased the number of TUNEL, Caspase3 and γH2AX positive ovarian somatic cells within the mouse ovaries. Flow cytometer analyses of redox-sensitive probes showed that DEHP caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the mRNA expression of ovarian somatic cell antioxidative enzymes was down-regulated both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data here demonstrated that DEHP exposure induced oxidative stress and ovarian somatic cell apoptosis, and thus may impact antral follicle enlargement during the pre-pubertal stage in mice.

  1. Three-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vasquez, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a nonlinear negativefeedback control system that synchronizes its output in frequency as well as in phase with its input. PLLs are now widely used for the synchronization of power electronics-based converters and also for monitoring and control purposes in different...

  2. the intermediate phase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research methods. The empirical investigation was divided into two phases: developmental and implementation. Method in the developmental phase. The action plan for the design of a new multiple-choice measuring instrument, proposed by Nunnally and Bernstein (1994), was considered appropriate for this study. First ...

  3. Optical phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Robert A

    1983-01-01

    This book appears at a time of intense activity in optical phase conjugation. We chose not to await the maturation of the field, but instead to provide this material in time to be useful in its development. We have tried very hard to elucidate and interrelate the various nonlinear phenomena which can be used for optical phase conjugation.

  4. UPVG phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG), supported by member dues and a grant from the US Department of Energy, has as its mission the acceleration of the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging large-scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. Formed in October, 1992, with the support of the American Public Power Association, Edison Electric Institute, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, the UPVG currently has 90 members from all sectors of the electric utility industry. The UPVG`s efforts as conceived were divided into four phases: Phase 0--program plan; Phase 1--organization and strategy development; Phase 2--creating market assurance; and Phase 3--higher volume purchases. The Phase 0 effort developed the program plan and was completed early in 1993. The Phase 1 goal was to develop the necessary background information and analysis to lead to a decision as to which strategies could be undertaken by utilities to promote greater understanding of PV markets and achieve increased volumes of PV purchases. This report provides the details of the UPVG`s Phase 2 efforts to initiate TEAM-UP, its multiyear, 50-MW hardware initiative.

  5. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of {sup 241} Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL{sup -1} and 1.0 mBqL{sup -1}. The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  6. Low-dose and fast grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Faiz; Wang, Shenghao; Han, Huajie; Gao, Kun; Wu, Zhao; Zhu, Peiping; Tian, Yangchao

    2017-09-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has experienced rapid development over the last few decades, and, in this technology, the phase modulation strategy of phase stepping (PS) is used most widely to measure the sample's phase signal. However, because of its discontinuous nature, PS has the defects of worse mechanical stability and high exposure dose, which greatly hinder its wide use in dynamic phase measurement and potential clinical applications. We demonstrate preliminary research on the use of integrating-bucket (IB) phase modulation method to retrieve the phase information in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Experimental results show that our proposed method can be well employed to extract the differential phase-contrast image, compared with the commonly used PS strategy, the advantage of the IB phase modulation technique is that fast measurement and low dose are promising.

  7. Palestinian Adolescents Coping with Trauma (PACT) - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the first phase of the project (101323), researchers combined standardized research instruments with qualitative field enquiry to understand youth exposure to trauma, symptoms of psychological distress, coping mechanisms, socioeconomic ... Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement.

  8. A study on Z-phase nucleation in martensitic chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golpayegani, Ardeshir; Andrén, Hans-Olof; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2008-01-01

    9–12% chromium martensitic steels are liable to the precipitation of Z-phase, Cr(V,Nb)N, after long time exposure at 550–650 ◦C. This complex nitride consumes vanadium nitrides and causes the creep strength of the material to fall drastically after several thousand hours of exposure. In this work...

  9. Quantum Phase Liquids-Fermionic Superfluid without Phase Coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ya-Jie; Zhou, Jiang; Kou, Su-Peng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the two dimensional generalized attractive Hubbard model in a bipartite lattice, and and a "quantum phase liquid" phase, in which the fermions are paired but don't have phase coherence at zero temperature, in analogy to quantum spin liquid phase. Then, two types of topological quantum phase liquids with a small external magnetic field-Z2 quantum phase liquids and chiral quantum phase liquids-are discussed.

  10. Upregulation of gelatinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in small airway remodeling associated with chronic exposure to wood smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peribronchiolar fibrosis is an important feature of small airway remodeling (SAR in cigarette smoke-induced COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gelatinases (MMP9, MMP2 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in SAR related to wood smoke (WS exposure in a rat model. METHODS: Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the WS group, the cigarette smoke (CS group and the clean air control group. After 4 to 7 months of smoke exposure, lung tissues were examined with morphometric measurements, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Serum MMP9 and TIMP1 concentrations were detected by ELISA. In vitro, primary rat tracheal epithelial cells were stimulated with wood smoke condensate for 7 days. RESULTS: The COPD-like pathological alterations in rats exposed chronically to WS were similar to those exposed to CS; the area of collagen deposition was significantly increased in the small airway walls of those exposed to WS or CS for 7 months. The expression of gelatinases in rats induced by WS or CS exposure was markedly increased in whole lung tissue, and immunohistochemistry showed that MMP9, MMP2 and TIMP1 were primarily expressed in the airway epithelium. The serum levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were significantly higher in rats secondary to WS or CS exposure. Few cells that double immunostained for E-cadherin and vimentin were observed in the airway subepithelium of rats exposed to WS for 7 months (only 3 of these 8 rats. In vitro, the expression of MMP9 and MMP2 proteins was upregulated in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells following exposure to wood smoke condensate for 7 days by Western blotting; positive immunofluorescent staining for vimentin and type I collagen was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the upregulation of gelatinases and EMT might play a role in SAR in COPD associated with chronic exposure to wood smoke.

  11. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to arsenite, nickel, chromium and cadmium increases cancer incidence in individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to transform cells remain largely unknown. Carcinogenic metals are typically weak mutagens, suggesting that genetic-based mechanisms may not be primarily responsible for metal-induced carcinogenesis. Growing evidence shows that environmental metal exposure involves changes in epigenetic marks, which may lead to a possible link between heritable changes in gene expression and disease susceptibility and development. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of metal exposure affecting epigenetic marks and discuss establishment of heritable gene expression in metal-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21610324

  12. DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 results and perspectives of the phase2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabei R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained with the total exposure of 1.04 ton × yr collected by DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS of the I.N.F.N. during 7 annual cycles are summarized. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles give evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of Dark Matter (DM particles in the galactic halo, on the basis of the exploited model independent DM annual modulation signature by using highly radio-pure NaI(Tl target. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. The same data of DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 have also been analyzed searching for possible DM second-order diurnal effect; at present, the DM diurnal modulation amplitude – expected because of the Earth diurnal motion – evaluated on the basis of the DAMA Dark Matter annual modulation results is below the reached experimental sensitivity. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 are outlined.

  13. Decreased IDE and IGF2 expression but increased Aβ40 in the cerebral cortex of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Yang, Guojun; Wang, Yueying; Qiao, Mingwu; Zhang, Pingan; Shao, Jianfeng; Yang, Guoyu

    2016-03-01

    As the abbreviation of plumbum and a chemical symbol for lead, Pb produces neurotoxic effects, which result into an impairment of learning and memory and other neurological dysfunctions. However, the mechanism of neurotoxicity of Pb exposure is unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on expression of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE),insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and beta amyloid protein 40 (Aβ40) in the cerebral cortex of mice offspring. Lead exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Lead acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% groups respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, On the PND21, the learning and memory ability were tested by water maze test and the Pb levels were also determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The expression of IDE, IGF2 and Aβ40 in cerebral cortex was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. The lead levels in blood and cerebral cortex of all lead exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (Plead exposure groups were worse than that of the control group (Plead exposed groups than that of the control group (Pexposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blue LED light exposure develops intracellular reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and subsequent cellular injuries in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi-Ueda, T; Majima, H J; Watanabe, K; Ueda, T; Indo, H P; Suenaga, S; Hisamitsu, T; Ozawa, T; Yasuhara, H; Koide, R

    2013-10-01

    The effects of blue light emitter diode (LED) light exposure on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) were examined to detect cellular damage or change and to clarify its mechanisms. The RPE cells were cultured and exposed by blue (470 nm) LED at 4.8 mW/cm(2). The cellular viability was determined by XTT assay and cellular injury was determined by the lactate dehydrogenase activity in medium. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was determined by confocal laser microscope image analysis using dihydrorhodamine 123 and lipid peroxidation was determined by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal protein-adducts immunofluorescent staining (HNE). At 24 h after 50 J/cm(2) exposures, cellular viability was significantly decreased to 74% and cellular injury was significantly increased to 365% of control. Immediately after the light exposure, ROS generation was significantly increased to 154%, 177%, and 395% of control and HNE intensity was increased to 211%, 359%, and 746% of control by 1, 10, and 50 J/cm(2), respectively. These results suggest, at least in part, that oxidative stress is an early step leading to cellular damage by blue LED exposure and cellular oxidative damage would be caused by the blue light exposure at even lower dose (1, 10 J/cm(2)).

  15. Ocular injury by transient formaldehyde exposure in a rabbit eye model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ju Lai

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is frequently used in sterilizing surgical instruments and materials. Exposure to FA is highly concerned for eye tissues. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were examined for changes after FA exposure. Our results showed that cell survival decreased 7 days after transient 3 min exposure to more than 100 ppm FA by trypan blue staining while MTT assay detected significant decrease at 20 ppm at 24 hours observation. The decrease of cell survival rate was concentration (up to 600 ppm- and observation time (1-7 day- dependent. The cell number decreased after 100 ppm FA exposure for more than 10 min at 7-day observation. The FA treated cells showed increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle accumulation at sub G1 phase as well as mitochondria clustering around nucleus. The in vivo rabbit eye exposure for tear production by Schirmer's test revealed that the FA-induced overproduction of tear also exhibited observation time (1-10 day- and FA concentration (20-300 ppm for 5 min exposure-dependent. Activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK2 in cornea explants by western blotting was reduced and increased c-Jun amino - terminal kinase (JNK activation (pJNK in cornea and conjunctiva was evident at 2 month after exposure to 50-200 ppm FA for 5 min. In conclusion, injury to the eye with transient exposure of up to 100 ppm FA for 3 min decreased corneal cell survival while a more sensitive MTT test detected the cell decrease at 20 ppm FA exposure. Morphology changes can be observed even at 5 ppm FA exposure for 3 min at 7 days after. The FA exposure also increased apoptotic/necrotic cells and sub-G1 phase in cell cycle. Long term effect (2 months after exposure on the eye tissues even after the removal of FA can be observed with persistent JNK activation in cornea and conjunctiva.

  16. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  17. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  18. Martensitic phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.

  19. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  20. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  1. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  2. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  5. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  6. Dietary Arsenic Exposure in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Molly L. Kile; E. Andres Houseman; Carrie V. Breton; Thomas Smith; Quazi Quamruzzaman; Mahmuder Rahman; Golam Mahiuddin; David C. Christiani

    2007-01-01

    Background: Millions of people in Bangladesh are at risk of chronic arsenic toxicity from drinking contaminated groundwater, but little is known about diet as an additional source of As exposure. Methods...

  7. Microenvironmental exposure to mercury vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, W.; Bundy, S.D.; Goldwater, L.J.; Bittikofer, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    Work area and breathing zone samples were collected in a factory utilizing metallic mercury and analyzed for mercury vapor content. Breathing zone samples averaged several fold higher in concentration than concurrent area samples, reflecting a ''microenvironmental'' exposure to mercury vapor, presumably from contaminated clothing and hands. Blood and corrected total urine mercury values correlated well with the average microenvironmental exposure level for each worker. Measurements of unbound mercury in urine samples were sensitive at picking up minimal exposures. Excessive amounts of unbound mercury were not found in the urine, even with wide day-to-day swings in microenvironmental mercury vapor levels, suggesting that the human body can adapt to a chronic, moderate exposure to mercury vapor.

  8. Modeled population exposures to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population exposures to ozone from APEX modeling for combinations of potential future air quality and demographic change scenarios. This dataset is not publicly...

  9. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Stressors - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. ECO Exposure Assessment Tools by Effects - References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  11. From dermal exposure to internal dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Dellarco, M.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Exposure scenarios form an essential basis for chemical risk assessment reports under the new EU chemicals regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals). In case the dermal route of exposure is predominant, information on both exposure and dermal

  12. Patrol Officer Daily Noise Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Lynn R; Vosburgh, Donna J H

    2015-01-01

    Previous research shows that police officers are at a higher risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Little data exists on the occupational tasks, outside of the firing range, that might lead to the increased risk of NIHL. The current study collected noise dosimetry from patrol officers in a smaller department and a larger department in southern Wisconsin, United States. The noise dosimeters simultaneously measured noise in three virtual dosimeters that had different thresholds, criterion levels, and exchange rates. The virtual dosimeters were set to: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hearing conservation criteria (OSHA-HC), the OSHA permissible exposure level criteria (OSHA-PEL), and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). In addition to wearing a noise dosimeter during their respective work days, officers completed a log form documenting the type of task performed, the duration of that task, if the task involved the use of a siren, and officer characteristics that may have influenced their noise exposure, such as the type of dispatch radio unit worn. Analysis revealed that the normalized 8-hour time weighted averages (TWA) for all officers fell below the recommended OSHA and ACGIH exposure limits. The tasks involving the use of the siren had significantly higher levels than the tasks without (p = 0.005). The highest noise exposure levels were encountered when patrol officers were assisting other public safety agencies such as a fire department or emergency medical services (79 dBA). Canine officers had higher normalized 8-hr TWA noise exposure than regular patrol officers (p = 0.002). Officers with an evening work schedule had significantly higher noise exposure than the officers with a day or night work schedule (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences in exposure levels between the two departments (p = 0.22). Results suggest that this study population is unlikely to experience NIHL as

  13. Biological indicators of chrysotile exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, B W

    1994-08-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is retained in lung tissue, where it may be used as a marker of exposure. Studies include analysis of sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but principally lung parenchyma from autopsy or surgically resected specimens. Asbestos bodies form on chrysotile fibres but are generally not a good indicator of human exposure to chrysotile because of their greater probability of formation on amphiboles. Chrysotile fibre analyses in lung have advantages and limitations. Chrysotile concentration is related to the level of environmental and occupational exposure, but in the latter situation owing to deposition, fibre alteration and clearance cumulative exposure and interval between end-exposure and death clearly affect results. Autopsy case series are biased toward increased proportions of asbestos-related diseases as compared to epidemiological cohort data. Analytical problems include potential contamination by chrysotile at autopsy, from fixatives, from post-fixative processing and in the analytical laboratory itself. These may have greatest effect in studies of individuals with low exposure, for tissue other than lung, and for short chrysotile fibres. Selection of control subjects should be contemporaneous with that of cases, and control subjects should fully reflect the hospital population at the time of case death. Limited data are available on fibre analysis in pleural tissue. More are needed. Issues requiring attention include avoidance of contamination, selection of controls, and sample site selection (parietal pleura, or tumour or plaque). For mesothelioma, two case-control studies of lung fibre burden show the principal relationship to be with long amphiboles, but some methodological problems exist. Lung cancer shows no such fibre-type differences. Asbestosis seems to be associated with long-fibre chrysotile and tremolite in one study and short fibres in others. Overall, lung retained dose is a useful indicator of chrysotile exposure if used

  14. Mathematical modeling of inhalation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiserova-Bergerova, V.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of inhalation exposure in which uptake, distribution and excretion are described by exponential functions, while rate constants are determined by tissue volumes, blood perfusion and by the solubility of vapors (partition coefficients). In the model, tissues are grouped into four pharmokinetic compartments. The model is used to study continuous and interrupted chronic exposures and is applied to the inhalation of Forane and methylene chloride.

  15. Severe hearing loss and outer hair cell death in homozygous Foxo3 knockout mice after moderate noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilels, Felicia; Paquette, Stephen T; Beaulac, Holly J; Bullen, Anwen; White, Patricia M

    2017-04-21

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a disease that affects millions of Americans. Identifying genetic pathways that influence recovery from noise exposure is an important step forward in understanding NIHL. The transcription factor Foxo3 integrates the cellular response to oxidative stress and plays a role in extending lifespan in many organisms, including humans. Here we show that Foxo3 is required for auditory function after noise exposure in a mouse model system, measured by ABR. Absent Foxo3, outer hair cells are lost throughout the middle and higher frequencies. SEM reveals persistent damage to some surviving outer hair cell stereocilia. However, DPOAE analysis reveals that some function is preserved in low frequency outer hair cells, despite concomitant profound hearing loss. Inner hair cells, auditory synapses and spiral ganglion neurons are all present after noise exposure in the Foxo3KO/KO fourteen days post noise (DPN). We also report anti-Foxo3 immunofluorescence in adult human outer hair cells. Taken together, these data implicate Foxo3 and its transcriptional targets in outer hair cell survival after noise damage. An additional role for Foxo3 in preserving hearing is likely, as low frequency auditory function is absent in noise exposed Foxo3KO/KOs even though all cells and structures are present.

  16. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Azari, Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices.

  17. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  18. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hansen, J. S.; Elfving, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is increasing due to a growing use in a variety of products across several industries. Thus, occupational exposure is also of increasing concern, particularly since airway exposure to MWCNTs can induce sustained pulmonary acute phase...

  19. Airway exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes disrupts the female reproductive cycle without affecting pregnancy outcomes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hansen, J. S.; Elfving, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is increasing due to a growing use in a variety of products across several industries. Thus, occupational exposure is also of increasing concern, particularly since airway exposure to MWCNTs can induce sustained pulmonary acute phase res...

  20. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.