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Sample records for export control guide

  1. Uranium enrichment export control guide: Gaseous diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document was prepared to serve as a guide for export control officials in their interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws that relate to the Zangger International Trigger List for gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment process components, equipment, and materials. Particular emphasis is focused on items that are especially designed or prepared since export controls are required for these by States that are party to the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty.

  2. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  3. Export control guide: Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and preparation of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The international Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also referred to as the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), states in Article III, paragraph 2(b) that open-quotes Each State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to provide . . . equipment or material especially designed or prepared for the processing, use or production of special fissionable material to any non-nuclear-weapon State for peaceful purposes, unless the source or special fissionable material shall be subject to the safeguards required by this Article.close quotes This guide was prepared to assist export control officials in the interpretation, understanding, and implementation of export laws and controls relating to the international Trigger List for irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, components, and materials. The guide also contains information related to the production of plutonium metal. Reprocessing and its place in the nuclear fuel cycle are described briefly; the standard procedure to prepare metallic plutonium is discussed; steps used to prepare Trigger List controls are cited; descriptions of controlled items are given; and special materials of construction are noted. This is followed by a comprehensive description of especially designed or prepared equipment, materials, and components of reprocessing and plutonium metal processes and includes photographs and/or pictorial representations. The nomenclature of the Trigger List has been retained in the numbered sections of this document for clarity

  4. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  5. Nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    One approach to describing the multilateral nuclear export controls is to do it according to time. This led to an interesting discovery, i.e. multilateral export controls have been defined by four distinct periods, the forst two of abut five years each, the second two about twice as long. These time periods have another interesting property. The two suppliers groups, which we will discuss in detail, have alternated in dominance over nearly thirty years. After describing the historical developments, the status of the present situation in multilateral nuclear export controls is examined, with the strengths and weaknesses. The future of multilateral nuclear export controls and possible ways that might be taken are considered

  6. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    in export controls over the last five years, and in particular to address the question of standards and their implementation by Member States. This will be an opportunity for the Zangger Committee to present its report to the Conference and also to seek guidance for its future work. Since 2000, in line with the NPT's 'enhanced review mechanism', the Committee has been reviewing its understandings in order to include all standards described above. It will present the status of this review to the Conference. The Conference should guide the Committee in order to make sure that its understandings comprise the most recent state of the art of export control requirements. As the Committee wishes to meet its function as 'faithful interpreter' of the NPT export control provisions, it takes account of such guidance by the NPT States

  7. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  8. Export controls on high technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    A overview of the Export Administration Act of 1979 and subsequent regulations and amendments focuses on how licensing requirements and restrictions against boycott affect high technology exports. The purpose of these controls is to limit the export of technology with possible military applications, as well as to advance US foreign policy and protect the economy without imposing too great a restriction on the principles of free trade. Thus, the act encompasses political, economic, and security goals. Problems of predictability arise when embargoes or other controls are imposed for political or foreign policy reasons without regard to economic impacts. Amendments have attempted to streamline the exporting process, particularly in the area of computer and software licensing.

  9. Nuclear technology and the export control laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, J.L.; Pankratz, M.C.; Hogsett, V.H.; Lundy, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Three basic US laws regulate the export of commodities, services, and technical data. People working in nuclear fields need to know of these laws and their impact on professional endeavors. Export of technical data means the communication of any information by oral, written, or any other means to foreign nationals within or outside the US. The medium for the communication may be a model, blueprint, sketch, or any other device that can convey information. If the data relates to items on one of the control lists, a license must be sought from the appropriated federal agency. The Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL), though not itself a control list, plays a major role in determining what technical data will require a validated license. The US Department of Energy (DOE), through Technical Working Gorup (TWG) 11, is responsible for the Nuclear Technology chapter of the MCTL. TWG 11 also prepares the Nuclear Technology Reference Book (NTRB), a classified guide to sensitive nuclear technology

  10. 78 FR 45168 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952 and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... (78 FR 35195) to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export control... ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal...

  11. 78 FR 35195 - Acquisition Regulations: Export Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 48 CFR Parts 925, 952, and 970 RIN 1991-AB99 Acquisition Regulations: Export... Energy (DOE) is proposing to amend the Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) to add export... comments, identified by ``DEAR: Export Control and RIN 1991-AB99,'' by any of the following methods...

  12. Nuclear safeguards and export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely from the perspective of the two most important nonnuclear weapons states, Japan and Germany, the safeguards and arms control agendas have not been finally dealt with. Because of their central position in the nonproliferation regime as nuclear suppliers and states with large nuclear energy industries, both countries are compelled to take a leading role in pursuing future reforms. In the dialogue with the nonaligned, this leadership position is helped by their nonnuclear status. In fact, Japan and Germany have some interests in common with the nonaligned states, such as the expansion of safeguards in the nuclear weapons states. To be sure, both Japan and Germany will pursue such interests with due regard to the interests of their friends and allies. For Japan, maintaining a close relationship with the United States is as important as shaping viable relations with China. Initiatives and controversies on nuclear policy must be weighed against this interest. By the same token, Germany must take into account the dense network of relations with its allies and with Russia, in addition to the German-French friendship. This will always set limits to Germany's readiness to confront the nuclear weapons states on nuclear issues. This, however, does not mean that both countries must shut up when the P 5 speak. The nuclear weapons register and the extension of the ''erga omnes'' rule in export controls, for example, should not be relegated to the dustbin of history, just because some friendly nuclear powers don't like these ideas. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear export controls and nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevini, F.

    2013-01-01

    The export control of dual use goods has developed since the early seventies to counter nuclear proliferation. The paper provides an overview of dual-use export control issues also in relation with the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, which requires States to provide declarations of the export of the controlled items listed in its Annex II, derived from the Nuclear Suppliers Group Trigger list. Recommendations for improvement are proposed. On the EU level, the paper summarises the framework set by the European Council Regulation 428/2009, requiring Member States to impose control on exports, brokering and transit of dual use goods. The Regulation includes the so-called 'EU dual-use control list' integrating the lists of dual-use items defined by the international regimes and requires also the control on intangible technology transfers as foreseen by U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540. ESARDA has recently launched a new sub-Working Group on export control, which raised large interest and may evolve to a full-fledged working group. Export control may provide an opportunity of technical collaboration between ESARDA and INMM. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  14. The NPT and nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1992-01-01

    Controls on the export of nuclear materials and technology were originally imposed in wartime and under the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to restrict the supply of uranium. But there was no international agreement until the mid 1960s; before that the United States, Canada, France and the Soviet Union imposed export controls on a national basis. The Non-Proliferation Treaty, especially Articles I-IV, set out the first world wide controls on the nuclear trade. These articles are explained in the context of the relevant Committees (the Zangger Committee, the Committee on the Assurance of Supply, the National Export Committee and the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Control) and Guidelines (the Nuclear Suppliers Guidelines and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation). Recent developments which have a bearing on nuclear trade, such as the single European market, the emergence of new supplies and the break-up of the Soviet Union, are considered. (UK)

  15. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  16. Export Control in the AREVA Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero, S.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War the nuclear technology was mostly considered inappropriate for the export. It remains strictly regulated today, but the development of the civil applications urged states to facilitate the peaceful uses while establishing a strict control in the domains of the internal security and the nuclear proliferation. AREVA decided to set up an Export Control program applied to all the products and in all the countries where the group operates. AREVA can export products or make transfer of technology considered as sensitive for the non-proliferation and the risks linked to the terrorism. This sensitiveness results from the nature of the products or from the country of destination and in certain cases both of them. AREVA has set up an Export Control program and an interactive e-learning training within the Group to make exports of sensitive products, raw materials and technologies more secure. The subject is rather complex, the regulations are constantly evolving, and becoming familiar with them is necessarily a gradual process, but it must be made in-depth, hence the idea of regular training sessions. The implementation of the Export Control in the AREVA Group declines in four fundamental stages: -) Policy and procedure; -) Appointment of Export Control Officers (ECO); -) Training; and -) Audit and Self Assessment. The training program is composed by the following elements: Ethics (Value Charter) of the Group, Non-proliferation, international regulations and more particularly those that are applicable in Europe (Germany and France) and in the United States. Particular attention is devoted to the Export Control practice in China, Japan and India. (A.C.)

  17. 48 CFR 1825.1103-70 - Export control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Export control. 1825.1103...-70 Export control. (a) Background. (1) NASA contractors and subcontractors are subject to U.S. export... 120 through 130, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), 15 CFR parts 730 through 799. The...

  18. Challenges to nuclear export controls today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Sevini, F.; Janssens, W.; Michel, Q.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear energy and nuclear proliferation programs are potentially inter-twinned, which is a point to be taken into account when analysing the development of civil nuclear energy, both domestically and as foreign investment. International agreements ensure that the adhering countries fulfil their obligations and do not abuse civil nuclear programs for the production of nuclear weapons. Uranium enrichment is the process currently most focused on in this respect by recent news and recent technological and commercial developments. But also the so-called reactor-based pathway, with extraction of plutonium from spent nuclear fuel by reprocessing remains in the spotlight of inspectors. Two of the main and complementary pillars on which the prevention of such diversion relies, are Strategic Export Control and International Safeguards. Strategic export control is a key barrier against nuclear proliferation. In many countries including the EU, it is set by a legal framework, envisaging implementation, enforcement and prosecution. The goods that can exported only with authorisations are those identified by the international export control regimes; primarily the Nuclear Suppliers Group in the case of nuclear items. It is complemented by nuclear safeguards measures, and especially in the past few years, by the IAEA State Level concept, which looks at the overall country's potential, including its industrial structure to derive conclusions on the absence of undeclared activities. However, the strict control of goods and knowledge is a moving target, since technological developments, globalisation and the intensifying exchange of information via the worldwide web offer increasing opportunities to proliferators to acquire sensitive items and competencies, and create bigger challenges to enforcement, calling for new responses. Research and development programmes must be directed towards supporting the adaptation of current proliferation containment systems to these new

  19. NPT, export controls and nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Savita

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear trade has by and large remained unhampered vis-a-vis both the NPT as well as export control regulations. The NPT rules are regarded as insufficient, the guidelines appear to contravene the spirit of cooperation in trade and development between suppliers and recipients and there is no agreement among leading suppliers themselves on what constitutes the proper conduct of trade. Export control regimes are more or less too informal to be able to be implemented. The supplier states have to invariably depend on national legislations which again vary from country to country. The only common formal basis on which action can be taken is, therefore, the NPT, its loopholes notwithstanding. The idea of transparency, and supplier-recipient dialogue continues to be a myth and will continue to be so long as these regimes remain discriminatory, so long as some nations are more powerful than others by virtue of retaining nuclear weapons and superiority in nuclear technology and trade

  20. Export control training - Experience and pedagogical lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, P.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides draws a picture of the training offerings in export control within the framework of the International Nonproliferation Export Control Program. These courses are organized around 3 topics: licensing, enterprise outreach and enforcement. There are about 10 courses, a brief content of their curricula is given. The goal of these courses is not to make participants into export control experts or trade analysts, but enable them to properly take export controls into account. (A.C.)

  1. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  2. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Sun Do; Yang, Seung Hyo

    2011-01-01

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  3. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  4. 77 FR 37523 - Proposed Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ...), respectively, that would implement various aspects of what has become known as the Export Control Reform... spirit and substance. BIS issued a notice soliciting public comment on streamlining its regulations...

  5. 77 FR 22191 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Export Control Classification Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ..., Director, Office of National Security and Technology Transfer Controls, by phone at (202) 482-0092 or by... Administrative practice and procedure, Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR...

  6. EXPORT CONTROLS: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, F

    1997-01-01

    This report examines the jurisdiction shift of two items, previously controlled by the State Department to the Department of Commerce, and the implications of this change to export licensing jurisdiction...

  7. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  8. Nuclear export criteria and controls in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the export licensing procedure and the modifications made to it under the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act (NNPA) to achieve greater control over exports of nuclear material and facilities. Export licences from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are now required for certain items connected with nuclear plant construction and the procedure for obtaining the views of the Executive Branch have been formalised. The President is enabled to override the denial of an export licence by the NRC. Amongst the new criteria on the export licensing procedure added to the 1954 Atomic Energy Act, the NNPA provides that the IAEA Safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty are applicable to exported nuclear material or facilities, together with adequate physical protection measures. (NEA) [fr

  9. Implementation of the Nuclear Export Control at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jo; Lee, Byung-Doo; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Korea has joined multilateral export control regimes which include Wassenaar Arrangement(WA), Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG), Missile Technology Control Regime(MTCR) and Australian Group(AG), and their guideline and control lists are reflected in domestic legislation. Also, Catch-all control entered into force on 1 January 2003 in Korea. The frequency of the exports of product as a result of R and D and cooperation with other countries has been increased at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Therefore, this report describes the implementation status of a nuclear export control at KAERI and points out the practical issues

  10. Hydrology and landscape structure control subalpine catchment carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent Jerald Pacific

    2009-01-01

    Carbon export from high elevation ecosystems is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Ecosystems in northern latitudes have become the focus of much research due to their potential as large sinks of carbon in the atmosphere. However, there exists limited understanding of the controls of carbon export from complex mountain catchments due to strong spatial and...

  11. A Study on the Export Control System at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. C.; Lee, B. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Jung, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The current non-proliferation regime requires strengthening the export control from Korea to foreign countries. This means that the ministries related to export control deeply emphasize the prohibition of the illegal proliferation in the domestic society as well as international society. The principle of export control for non-proliferation of WMD is to control the transfer of the strategic items/technology to the countries which intend to develop the WMD in accordance with the multilateral agreements of the Nuclear Supply Group (NSG), Wassenaar Agreement (WA), Austrian Group (AG) and Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Among them, export controls at KAERI are deeply related to the guidelines of the NSG, an international nuclear export control regime. Since the new concept of an export system was launched in Jan. 2014, KAERI needs to consider new approaches to meet the requirement of the revised domestic law and regulation. To cope with this environmental change, this paper suggests new approaches to effectively conduct the export control at KAERI

  12. Export Controls: Controls Over the Export Licensing Process for Chemical and Biological Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... foreign policy should read this report. The report discusses the effectiveness of the DoD review process for export license applications and updates to Federal export regulations to prevent the proliferation of items that could pose...

  13. 78 FR 18814 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: List of Items Classified Under Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Controls Division, Office of Nonproliferation and Treaty Compliance by phone at (202) 482-3343 or by email... significant military or intelligence advantage to the United States. Immediate imposition of a license... accelerate orders of these items or attempt to have the items exported prior to the imposition of the control...

  14. An evaluation of Kazakhstan nuclear export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeligbayeva, G.; Masenov, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    A system to control the export nuclear materials and technologies is a natural part of creating a self-sustaining government. The government of Kazakhstan has made a great deal of progress in building such a system. Control of export and import of nuclear materials and technologies and dual-use materials, related to nuclear activity, became one of the important part of mechanism of Non-Proliferation conditions realization in Kazakhstan. The system of export control has developed well over the 10 years. Kazakhstan is in the midst of a long process of building a functional export control system consistent with World standards. The state system of export control currently exists in Kazakhstan on the legislative base, and is based on efficient cooperation of the KAEC with a number of competent state bodies (Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Customs Committee) each of them has its own specific functions, duties and rights. The export is carried out using licenses, issued by the Ministry of Economy of the RK, according to applications of certain standard which are previously agreed with the KAEC under decision of the RK Government. The KAEC, acting on the base of export control principles and observance of international obligations on non-proliferation matter, makes decisions, only after thorough evaluation of ways of export and reliability of an end-user of the commodity, to agree the application for a license. The most fully developed aspect is the licensing process. General politics of export regulation in Kazakhstan are based on normative acts and rules, which are wholly appropriate (complementary) to the managing principles of nuclear export. There exists a full legal basis for the licensing system. But the process is going, some provisions is changing: in 2000 Kazakhstan corrected the export control law and approved the national control list very similar with EU control list, in 2002 the rules of the process of licensing the export and import

  15. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.193 Arms Export Control Act. For provisions relating to...

  16. 12 Ministries Control Rare Earth Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>"It is very natural to reserve rare earth as a strategic resource.Many countries do this,including China."On April 8,Sun Lihui,Vice Director of Metal Section of Chemicals Import & Export Commerce Chamber of China Minmetals Corporation told a reporter that as early as 2006,China has launched a strategic plan for rare earth,"but it was interrupted by the subsequent financial crisis."

  17. Agencies Should Assess Vulnerabilities and Improve Guidance for Protecting Export-Controlled Information at Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Commerce's and State's export control requirements and processes provide physical checkpoints on the means and methods companies use to export-controlled goods to help them ensure such exports...

  18. The status and latest issues on KAERI export control implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Park, Ho Jun; Kim, Hyun Jo; Ko, Han Suk; Lee, Byung Doo

    2010-01-01

    There are four informal non-proliferation arrangements which seek to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their missile delivery systems and the transfer of conventional weapons and dual-use technologies. The four arrangements are Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) on export controls for conventional arms and dual use goods and technologies, Nuclear Supplies Group(NSG), Missile Technology Control Regime(MTCR) and Australia Group(AG) on chemical and biological weapons materials. ROK participates in four arrangements to seek to encourage responsible practice in the trade of strategic goods and technologies. It is achieved through the implementation of export control list. MKE Notification (Ministry of Knowledge Economy Notification No. 2009-250) specifies those items and technologies subject to control. In this paper, the status and latest issues on KAERI export control implementation are described

  19. Nuclear Export Control Policy in Korea - Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsook

    2008-01-01

    The International community has been facing with the continued challenges for possession and proliferation of WMD over the past years. In addition, it is known that the terrorist groups are interested in acquiring WMD. The black market of WMD related materials and technologies show also the one of seriousness of our challenges. A number of international treaties, agreements and initiatives to control the proliferation of weapons of N, B, C and their delivery system have been existed to deal with these challenges, but their missions are challenged greatly in recent a series of nuclear issues by Iran and North Korea. The paper reviews the current international export control status and Korea export control system and policy. It also addresses some agenda to be done as future export control policy in Korea

  20. Application of U.S. export controls to DOE technical exchanges: New guidelines on export control and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisann, E.G.; Hollander, Z.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    As the Department of Energy's nuclear weapon's complex shrinks, concern regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology through the release of export-controlled equipment, materials and information has come to the fore. In November, 1994 Under Secretary Charles Curtis issued new guidelines on export control and nonproliferation. The new policies and procedures are designed to help Department of Energy Headquarters Offices, Operations Offices, Area Offices, laboratories and contractors implement a consistent and technologically sound policy regarding DOE transfers of unclassified equipment, materials and information that could adversely affect US nuclear nonproliferation objectives or national security. The DOE Export Control Division has developed a multi-faceted program of guidelines and training materials to sensitize DOE and DOE-contractors to their responsibilities and to teach them how to evaluate the proliferation risks of their activities

  1. A Study on Improvement of Export Control law's understanding for nuclear control items' exporters in Rep. of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Sun Do; Yang, Seung Hyo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    According to export of UAE commercial reactor and JRTR(Jordan Research and Training Reactor) in 2009, Korea's international prestige has enhanced and it has been more important for researcher in charge of export control to understand and carry out duties on export control by obeying Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) Guidelines. Currently, the NSG tries to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons by harmonising export control systems of participating countries in relation to trade with nuclear commodities and nuclear-related dual-use materials, equipment, software and technology. In addition, through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports, the NSG aims to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, and that international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field is not hindered unjustly in the process. However, there is still not a little confusion of export businesses owing to lack of understanding of nuclear items in Korea. Therefore, by correctly understanding export control systems, permits and licenses, ITT and persistingly communicating with export businesses, Researchers in charge of export control are able to eliminate confusion of production businesses regarding export and establish a export control culture

  2. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control.

  3. The Role of Text Mining in Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae-woong; Son, Choul-woong; Shin, Dong-hoon

    2015-01-01

    Korean government provides classification services to exporters. It is simple to copy technology such as documents and drawings. Moreover, it is also easy that new technology derived from the existing technology. The diversity of technology makes classification difficult because the boundary between strategic and nonstrategic technology is unclear and ambiguous. Reviewers should consider previous classification cases enough. However, the increase of the classification cases prevent consistent classifications. This made another innovative and effective approaches necessary. IXCRS (Intelligent Export Control Review System) is proposed to coincide with demands. IXCRS consists of and expert system, a semantic searching system, a full text retrieval system, and image retrieval system and a document retrieval system. It is the aim of the present paper to observe the document retrieval system based on text mining and to discuss how to utilize the system. This study has demonstrated how text mining technique can be applied to export control. The document retrieval system supports reviewers to treat previous classification cases effectively. Especially, it is highly probable that similarity data will contribute to specify classification criterion. However, an analysis of the system showed a number of problems that remain to be explored such as a multilanguage problem and an inclusion relationship problem. Further research should be directed to solve problems and to apply more data mining techniques so that the system should be used as one of useful tools for export control

  4. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo Llatas, M

    1995-07-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Martin; Martinez Laso, L.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and use in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the os-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author)

  6. Exporting Variables in a Hierarchically Distributed Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamizo Llatas, M.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the Remote Variable Access Service (RVAS), a network service developed and used in the distributed control and monitoring system of the TJ-II Heliac, which is under construction at CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) and devoted to plasma studies in the nuclear fusion field. The architecture of the TJ-II control system consists of one central Sun workstation Sparc 10 and several autonomous subsystems based on VME crates with embedded processors running the OS-9 (V.24) real time operating system. The RVAS service allows state variables in local control processes running in subsystems to be exported to remote processes running in the central control workstation. Thus we extend the concept of exporting of file systems in UNIX machines to variables in processes running in different machines. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Quality control and disinfestation of spices for export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices in the world. Other than a few, all spices are grown in this country. The production is estimated at 2.6 million tonnes with an export of about 0.22 million tonnes valued around US $ 333 million. India's share in the world trade is over 40 % in quantity and 20 % in value. Many spices produced in India face quality problems as in other countries. For identifying quality produce, grade specifications have been introduced for all the important spices. With the liberalization of government controls, compulsory pre-shipment inspection has been withdrawn unless insisted by the buyer abroad. To meet the sanitary and phytosanitary requirements, the Spices Board has taken up a massive programme for upgradation of quality of Indian spices. Logo mark and Spice House Certificates are awarded to those spice exporting units having necessary infrastructure for assuring quality. By now, 6 units have been accredited to ISO 9000. Though different chemical and non-chemical treatments are available for improving hygienic quality, irradiation appears to be a reliable method. However, its wide application in the spice industry depends upon the conviction of the consumers of its safety. Because of the comprehensive programmes taken up for quality improvement of spices, India is confident of exporting spices meeting quality specifications prescribed by the importing countries. (author)

  8. US Export Controls and Technology Transfer Requirements: A UK Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    34 (La Franchi , 2006). Such requirements make it difficult for partners to participate and generate a large administrative burden on team members, who...if this critical impediment to enhanced cooperation is to be removed. The U.S. export control system is broken; its technology transfer rules ...Retrieved April 3, 2009, from http://www.jsf.mil/news/news2009.htm La Franchi , P. (2006, July 4). Australia demands JSF resolution. Flight International

  9. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  10. 76 FR 36986 - Export Controls for High Performance Computers: Wassenaar Arrangement Agreement Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... and export control standards. Croatia is a member of the Australia Group, the Nuclear Suppliers Group..., Exports, Inventions and patents, Research science and technology. 15 CFR Part 740 Administrative practice...

  11. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Rok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries` experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan`s Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new.

  12. An analysis on the export license criteria for NSG control items in the US and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Rok

    1995-06-01

    Korea has taken steps to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) which is a major part of the international nuclear export control regime. In this connection, it is an urgent task to build a new Korean nuclear export control system that includes NSG guidelines and control items. In addition, it is necessary to review the developed supplier countries' experience in the field of export control. The main purpose of this study is to analyze how the US and Japan have controlled the items listed in NSG part 1 and 2 guidelines. To this end, various relevant regulations of the US and Japan were studied. Among those regulations, the US Export Administration Regulation, US 10 CFR 110 and 810, and the Japan's Export Administration Order are included. Through the review process, this study identified NSG items which are controlled in the export control systems of the US and Japan. Furthermore, this study summarized and compared the export license criteria that must be satisfied before exporting each NSG item in the two countries. The export license criteria consist of permitted destinations, document requirements, and types of license. The results of this study are expected to contribute to establishing an appropriate Korean nuclear export control system and could be used as references to the practical export licensing policies of the US and Japan. 6 tabs., 13 refs., (Author) .new

  13. Radiological control implementation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamley, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A manual is being developed to explain to line managers how radiological controls are designed and implemented. The manual also fills a gap in the Health Physics literature between textbooks and on-the-floor procedures. It may be helpful to new Health Physicists with little practical experience and to those wishing to improve self-assessment, audit, and appraisal processes. Many audits, appraisals, and evaluations have indicated a need for cultural change, increased vigor and example, and more effective oversight by line management. Inadequate work controls are a frequent and recurring problem identified in occurrence reports and accident investigations. Closer study frequently indicates that many line managers are willing to change and want to achieve excellence, but no effective guidance exists that will enable them to understand and implement a modern radiological control program

  14. Control rod guide tube assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly including sleeves telescoped over end portions of control rod guide tubes which bear against internal shoulders of the sleeves. Upper ends of the sleeves protrude beyond a control rod guide tube spider and are locked in place by means of a resilient cellular lattice or lock that is seated in mating grooves in the outer surfaces of the sleeves. A grapple is provided for disengaging the entire lock structure spider and associated washers, springs and a grill from the end of the fuel assembly in order to enable these components to be removed and subsequently replaced on the fuel assembly after inspection and repair. (UK)

  15. Import/Export Control for ITT in KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, In Cheol; Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Mun Ja [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The representatives of I/E (Import/Export) control in international society are NSG of nuclear fields, MTCR of missile fields, WA of conventional weapon fields and AG of bio-chemical fields. One of recent issues of the international I/E organizations is to strengthen ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer or Intangible Transfer of Technology). According to the ITT policy, ROK governments reinforced domestic I/E control for the non-proliferation of WMD through the Foreign Trade Law recently modified. There are international transfers of various kinds of items and technologies produced in KAERI as an integrated R and D institute in nuclear fields. In this study, KAERI is to develop a reasonable implementation methodology for the establishment of KAERI I/E control system to meet the requirements of the law. The main purpose of methodology development is to establish a frame of I/E control including ITT in KAERI. According to the methodology, KAERI held seminars twice for the public relations and education and prepared the regulation for I/E control. At present, KAERI is making a provision to check whether each R and D activity is related to the strategic item or technology. In the near future, KAERI will make efforts to get the CP license for effective implementation of I/E control of dual-use item/technology and follow up the changes of I/E control in nuclear field.

  16. 77 FR 72917 - Editorial Corrections to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AF62 Editorial Corrections to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration... corrects reference and typographical errors in the Commerce Control List (CCL) in the Export Administration... seven categories of the Commerce Control List (CCL) to correct spelling and typographical errors and...

  17. Export Controls: Export-Controlled Technology at Contractor, University, and Federally Funded Research and Development Center Facilities (D-2004-061)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The report discusses the steps DoD needs to take to identify unclassified export-controlled technology and to ensure that DoD contractors, universities, and Federally Funded Research and Development...

  18. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition

  19. A comparative study on export control systems of nuclear technology in ROK and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Perfect removal of transferred technology is impossible because it is impossible to find all copies of technologies such as files and documents. International community concerns about Terrorists' acquirement of nuclear technologies related to nuclear reactors, enrichment and reprocessing Facilities and heavy water production facilities, which can be used for production of nuclear weapons. Non-state actors as well as concerning countries have tried to possess nuclear technology for developing nuclear weapons. Non-state actors' activities threaten global nuclear security. Korea exported four nuclear power plants to UAE and a research reactor to Jordan. Non-state actors may try to procure nuclear equipment and technology from Korean nuclear industries. Therefore, the export control system should be enhanced for national nuclear security and safety. In this study, the export control system of Korea and the United States were compared concerning to nuclear technology. In summary, controlled activities related to nuclear technology are treated more variously and more diverse activities are controlled in the United States than In Korea. Catch-all control will lose its effectiveness without this. Related to the control of ITT (Intangible Technology Transfer), Korea and the United States are trying to amend the export control regulation. Both of them are trying to control intangible technology transfers effectively. Revised Foreign Trade Act in Korea is expected to introduce a more rigorous system of nuclear technology controls. It focuses on nationality rather than residence. The revised law may face into other problems such as dual nationals like as the United States. However, this satisfies legislative requirements for control of a deemed export. The revised law will enter into force in 2014. Accurate meanings of technology and export will be defined soon in the enforcement decree and the public notice before 2014. However, it is hard to revise the definition of export

  20. Cavitation guide for control valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.P. [Tullis Engineering Consultants, Logan, UT (United States)

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation.

  1. Cavitation guide for control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    This guide teaches the basic fundamentals of cavitation to provide the reader with an understanding of what causes cavitation, when it occurs, and the potential problems cavitation can cause to a valve and piping system. The document provides guidelines for understanding how to reduce the cavitation and/or select control valves for a cavitating system. The guide provides a method for predicting the cavitation intensity of control valves, and how the effect of cavitation on a system will vary with valve type, valve function, valve size, operating pressure, duration of operation and details of the piping installation. The guide defines six cavitation limits identifying cavitation intensities ranging from inception to the maximum intensity possible. The intensity of the cavitation at each limit Is described, including a brief discussion of how each level of cavitation influences the valve and system. Examples are included to demonstrate how to apply the method, including making both size and pressure scale effects corrections. Methods of controlling cavitation are discussed providing information on various techniques which can be used to design a new system or modify an existing one so it can operate at a desired level of cavitation

  2. Export Controls: Observations on Selected Countries’ Systems and Proposed Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    suspected violators of arms Investigates suspected criminal viol including potential export control v and dual-use export control lawse Source: GAO...those that present a strategic military conc substances, biological agents , and related items that could be used in the producti chemical and

  3. The formation of nuclear export control in Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The controlling process of exporting and importing on Azerbaijan borders is being carried out by two state organizations. 1.Border Guard Department; 2.Azerbaijan State Customs Committee. The officers of these organizations have no enough necessary experience and knowledge dealing with the legal and illegal trafficking. There were not special educational institutions in order to train personals for both of these organizations made newly. So there's difference between the professions of the majority of the employees, that's why some of the employees follow the instructions linking to the normative documents while passing the border. When trafficking nuclear and dual-use items officially the controller and other employees should look through the list of all and know them how to behave and to make official, the characteristic parameters of the materials, and the instruction of monitoring. In order to realize all works pointed, the employees of Border Guard Department and Customs Control Check Points have to attend special courses. The employees of both organizations are frequently changed that's why studying courses are to be organized. The analysis of studying considered that will be realized shows mainly there may be two student groups. Mainly, the Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS (Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences) as the expert laboratory takes part in. On the borders of Azerbaijan Republic the dual-use items and equipment having the type of isotope sources being utilized in the technological process are mainly being transported. In the materials presented the results and the solution of the problems dealing with realizing the controlling expert system of nuclear materials in the existing control checkpoints due to the international standards have been given

  4. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  5. On The Export Control Of High Speed Imaging For Nuclear Weapons Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Scott Avery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Altherr, Michael Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Since the Manhattan Project, the use of high-speed photography, and its cousins flash radiography1 and schieleren photography have been a technological proliferation concern. Indeed, like the supercomputer, the development of high-speed photography as we now know it essentially grew out of the nuclear weapons program at Los Alamos2,3,4. Naturally, during the course of the last 75 years the technology associated with computers and cameras has been export controlled by the United States and others to prevent both proliferation among non-P5-nations and technological parity among potential adversaries among P5 nations. Here we revisit these issues as they relate to high-speed photographic technologies and make recommendations about how future restrictions, if any, should be guided.

  6. Control rod guide tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fuel assembly is described as consisting of a sleeve that engages one end of a control rod guide tube essentially fixing the guide tube to one of the fuel assembly end structures. The end of the sleeve protrudes above the surface of the end fitting. The outer surface of the sleeve has a peripheral groove that engages the resilient sides of a cellular grid or lattice shaped lock. This lock fixes the sleeve in position between the various elements that comprise the end fitting, thereby eliminating a profusion of costly and potentially troublesome nuts, threaded studs and the like that are frequently employed in the fuel assemblies that are presently in use

  7. Act of 18 December 1987 relating to the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Act controls the export of nuclear material and equipment and sensitive nuclear technology and services. In particular, it provides for strict controls and verification of certain exports. (NEA) [fr

  8. Synergy between Security and Safeguards in Uranium Concentrate Export Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soumana, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a proposal to the government of Niger and all national institutions involved in the ISSAS and INSSERV Missions held in Niger to optimally coordinate they activities in nuclear field. It is essential to notice that Niger has significant nuclear activities, mainly in uranium prospecting, mining, milling, and export. In Niger, there are also many radioactive sources in non nuclear use. The safeguards agreement of Niger, infcirc/664, is in force since 16 February 2005 and its relating additional protocol since 2 May 2007. For the safeguards implementation in Niger, Government has requested to the IAEA an ISSAS Mission which was completed in February 2008. A main recommendation of this mission is to consider an overall plan for security measures and in this regards, an INSSERV Mission was completed in December 2008. Nuclear safeguards conclusions focus on correctness and completeness of declarations provided by operators. Nuclear security activities (prevention, detection and response) are useful contributions to confirm safeguards conclusions specially, a good detection strategy at national level can help to confirm the absence of undeclared activities in a country like Niger. Many governmental institutions are involved in nuclear activities and there are lacks of communication between them. Creating a synergy between safeguards and security can federate the mechanisms of control at national level and have impact in many aspects specially in (i) awareness of decision makers (ii) optimal use of the equipments (iii) organizing training activities and human resource management and (iv) designing national strategic plans. The institution which hosted the two IAEA consultative missions (Directorate of Peaceful Use of Nuclear Techniques-DUPTN for the ISSAS Mission and Civil Defence for INSSERV Mission) in consultation with other national institutions had to create a framework for this synergy. This framework must be submitted to the IAEA for observation and

  9. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  10. Scale and legacy controls on catchment nutrient export regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T.; Worrall, F.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient dynamics in river catchments are complex: water and chemical fluxes are highly variable in low-order streams, but this variability declines as fluxes move through higher-order reaches. This poses a major challenge for process understanding as much effort is focussed on long-term monitoring of the main river channel (a high-order reach), and therefore the data available to support process understanding are predominantly derived from sites where much of the transient response of nutrient export is masked by the effect of averaging over both space and time. This may be further exacerbated at all scales by the accumulation of legacy nutrient sources in soils, aquifers and pore waters, where historical activities have led to nutrient accumulation where the catchment system is transport limited. Therefore it is of particular interest to investigate how the variability of nutrient export changes both with catchment scale (from low to high-order catchment streams) and with the presence of legacy sources, such that the context of infrequent monitoring on high-order streams can be better understood. This is not only a question of characterising nutrient export regimes per se, but also developing a more thorough understanding of how the concepts of scale and legacy may modify the statistical characteristics of observed responses across scales in both space and time. In this paper, we use synthetic data series and develop a model approach to consider how space and timescales combine with impacts of legacy sources to influence observed variability in catchment export. We find that: increasing space and timescales tend to reduce the observed variance in nutrient exports, due to an increase in travel times and greater mixing, and therefore averaging, of sources; increasing the influence of legacy sources inflates the variance, with the level of inflation dictated by the residence time of the respective sources.

  11. Development of a Prototype for the Export Control List Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, GwanYoung

    2011-01-01

    The international society has concerned the possibility of a diversion with strategic items into the nuclear weapon development. So they have regulated those, and our country also has done it. Following a accomplishment of a UAE nuclear power plant export contraction in December, 2009 and a Jordan research reactor export contraction in March, 2010, thousands upon thousands of the strategic goods include the strategic technology will be supposed to transfer to UAE and Jordan. A lot of manpower in the government and the company concerned in addition to an enormous amount of time are needed so as to manage transferred items to UAE and Jordan efficiently. Accordingly, the Export Control List Management System has developed 1) to decrease the administrative time required about implementations such as the classification, the export license 2) and to plan the practical use of manpower 3) and to enhance a convenience of businesses, the government and a company concerned by the KINAC and the KOSTI. That system is scheduled to complete after June, and now a management of export items has done manually. This inconvenience can be solved by developing a prototype of the Export Control List Management System. Also an understanding of the Export Control List Management will be enhanced by doing it. A procedure of a system development and results will be presented in this paper

  12. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose.

  13. Development of Export Control Comprehensive Management Model for Nuclear Power Plants and Others Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chansuh; Seo, Hana; Choi, Sundo

    2014-01-01

    It is required that there are lots of managements of care and concern if the project contains strategic items such as NPPs. The Korean nuclear industry and its related companies, such as the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), are promoting greater exports of NPPs. It is likely that Korea will export more this technology to newcomer states in the future. As a result, the ROK has been improving its export control management system for NPPs. In keeping with this national effort, Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control (KINAC) developed comprehensive export control management model for NPPs and other projects, in preparation for this projected growth in the industry. This model also applies to the nuclear export case of the UAE, aims to manage the project from bidding to the end of the contract. The recent Export Licensing of Nuclear Facility Technology was reflected in the Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items in January 2014. Through this license, the large-scale project legislation framework was established. It can also minimize nonproliferation concerns of the international community through strict management. It is expected that the Korea will be able to enhance transparency and secure the nuclear use, while meeting nonproliferation purpose

  14. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... failure to comply with a collection of information, subject to the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction... extension tubes; complete breech mechanisms; buckshot shotgun shells; except equipment used exclusively to...: 8A918 Marine Boilers. License Requirements Reason for Control: * * * Control(s) Country chart...

  15. Korean system of export control to support the commercial nuclear transfer to UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009, the Republic of Korea won the contract to build 4 1,400 MW nuclear power reactors worth USD 20 billion in the UAE. The states-owned KEPCO will complete the turnkey project to the UAE including design, engineering, construction, nuclear fuel, operations, maintenance and technical support. Since sensitive nuclear technologies convertible to military purpose can be spread by the transfer of commercial nuclear power plant, it is essential prerequisite to implement nuclear export control tenaciously and effectively. About twenty years have passed since the Republic of Korea introduced export control system in domestic laws and regulations. Marking a major historical milestone in 2009 by ranking among global nuclear suppliers, the Korean government made a major step forward in export control framework to support its next nuclear export goal. (orig.)

  16. 78 FR 61743 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Initial Implementation of Export Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    .... Munitions List (USML) on the Commerce Control List (CCL), specifically aircraft, gas turbine engines, and... Controlled section, ``Hydraulic and fuel hoses, straight and unbent lines, fittings, clips, couplings, nutplates, and brackets;'' is corrected to read ``Hydraulic and fuel hoses, straight and unbent lines...

  17. Nuclear reactor internals with control elements guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, J.; Chevereau, G.

    1991-01-01

    The internals have a lower plate, a superior plate, support columns and guide tubes for the control rods displacements. The lower section of the control rod guide tube have a base that fits into a bevelled seat in the lower plate. The guide tube is held into the seat by a spring, compressed between the base of the upper section of the tube and the lower plate

  18. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we've been and challenges ahead - Views of an engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ''dual-use'' controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective

  19. Nuclear export controls and the CTBT: Where we`ve been and challenges ahead -- Views of an engineer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, A.S.

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: the importance of export controls; the uniqueness of nuclear weapons and their export control requirements; ``dual-use`` controls; and recent developments in nonproliferation beyond export control. Also discussed are some non-obvious challenges which include computer modeling and visualization, and fissile material availability and instant nukes. The author concludes by asking the Nuclear Suppliers Group to consider whether there are ways to make its controls more effective.

  20. Precipitation Pattern Controls on the Dynamics and Subsequent Export of Large Wood from River Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J.; Nakamura, F.; Chun, K.; Grant, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    In-stream large wood (LW) has a critical impact on the geomorphic and ecological character in river catchments, yet relatively little is known about variations in its dynamics and subsequent export in relation to different precipitation patterns and intensities. To understand these variations we used the annual volume of LW removed from 42 reservoirs in Japan and daily precipitation at or near the reservoir sites. Daily precipitation data were transformed into effective precipitation to evaluate trends in both current and antecedent precipitation, and these data were then used to explain basin variation in LW export. Model selection with generalized linear mixed models revealed that the precipitation pattern and intensity controlling LW export in small, intermediate, and large watersheds differed with latitude along the Japanese archipelago. LW export in small watersheds was well explained by effective precipitation greater than 120 mm, and showed little latitudinal variation. In contrast, LW export in intermediate and large watersheds was well explained by daily precipitation greater than 40 mm and 60 mm, respectively, and varied with latitude. In small watersheds with narrow channels and low stream discharges, mass movements (such as landslides and debris flows) are major factors in the production and transport of LW. Thus LW export in small watersheds appears to be regulated by the effective precipitation required to initiate mass movements, and shows little latitudinal change. In intermediate and large watersheds with wide channels and high stream discharges, heavy rainfall and subsequent floods regulate buoyant depth influencing the initiation of LW mobility, and thus control the amount of LW exported. In southern and central Japan, intense rainfall accompanying typhoons or localized torrential downpours lead to geomorphic disturbances, which produce massive amounts of LW delivery into channels. However, these pieces are constantly removed by high streamflows

  1. Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Control Pocket Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This technical guide consolidates information and procedures for surveillance and control of mosquitoes that transmit dengue and chikungunya viruses. The guide focuses on mosquitoes that transmit dengue but also makes reference to chikungunya and yellow fever because the pathogens that cause these ...

  2. The National Implementation of Nuclear Export Controls: Developing a Best Practices Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viski, Andrea [European University Institute, Department of Law, Badia Fiesolana, S.Domenico di Fiesole, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The nuclear renaissance promises significant benefits to the international community, but also raises security challenges, particularly relating to the trade of nuclear materials and equipment. The objective of this paper is to examine how supply-side non-proliferation efforts can be strengthened by developing a best practices model for national nuclear export control implementation. In order to achieve this goal, nuclear export control measures identified by the 1540 Committee will be used as a framework from which a best practices model can be formed. Such a model concentrates specifically on national legislation and enforcement measures delineated by the Committee in order to bring countries in accordance with international law. Developing a best practices model seeks to deliver an ideal process for national export control law actualization in order to encourage the peaceful development of nuclear energy and develop the infrastructure and framework for precluding nuclear proliferation.

  3. Impacts of U.S. Export Control Policies on Science and Technology Activities and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    coffee table. However, under the current export control regime, the stand was considered ‘ITAR hardware’ and we were required to have two security...should survive without an effective method for pruning items from the control lists when they no longer serve a significant definable national

  4. Export Controls and the Tensions between Academic Freedom and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel A. W.; Valdivia, Walter D.

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S.A., advocates of academic freedom--the ability to pursue research unencumbered by government controls--have long found sparring partners in government officials who regulate technology trade. From concern over classified research in the 1950s, to the expansion of export controls to cover trade in information in the 1970s, to current…

  5. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Control in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.; Prah, M.; Mikec, N.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with its internationally accepted obligations, the Republic of Croatia is actively implementing principles of non-proliferation and export control of nuclear materials and/or equipment. The article deals with treaties, conventions, agreements and other international arrangements that are creating certain obligation for Republic of Croatia related to nuclear non-proliferation. The most important are the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Protocol, the Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the NSG Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and NSG Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In addition the article describes a national regulative framework, the basis for conducting activities in nuclear material control, export control of dual-use items as well as non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction. Details are given about the Nuclear Safety Act, the Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, the Act on Export of Dual-Use Items, the Decree on the List of Dual-Use Items, the Law on Production, Repair and Trade in Arms and Military Equipment and the Decree specifying goods subject to export and import licenses. (author)

  6. Analysis of nuclear export control system and implementing international nonproliferation regime in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, J. S.; Ahn, J. S.; Kim, B. G.; Min, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    China's exporting behaviour of nuclear items had been disconnected from the international non-proliferation regime such as IAEA safeguards and export control related with peaceful use of nuclear energy since 1970s. Especially, China had been one of principle suppliers of nuclear facility and technologies to Pakistan and Iran which had developed nuclear weapon programs. On the other hand, according to the rapid growth of economic scale after China began to open to the world, an active program for nuclear power plant as an electricity source had established. This means that China have surfaced as a big market to Korean nuclear industries. Regarding this, the paper dealt with the nuclear export control matters, i.e. the history of nuclear export control system and analyzed on background of enforcement of U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement that had been apolitical issue between U.S. and China. Prospects toward conforming its nuclear export policies, laws and regulations to international standards also analyzed in results

  7. Conceptual Design on the System Architecture of Intellectual Export Control System(IXCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seung Ho; Yang, Seung Hyo; Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The commodity classification is for identifying strategic commodity, and the export license is for verifying that exports have met the requirement by the national legislation following international obligations (i. e. NSG guidelines) Since 2008, the 'Nuclear Export Promotion Service (NEPS)' System has been used as a total IT system providing various functions for exporters and reviewers. However, reviewers who make the decisions for commodity classification and export license, may have difficulties caused by ambiguity of criteria. For example, it is not sure whether a CVCS (Chemical Volume Control System) of a certain nuclear reactor plant belongs to strategic commodity or not. The NEPS is a useful system helping users save their time, but it cannot provide solutions reducing ambiguity of each classification or license case. To solve these problems and provide more efficient ways to their decisions, various intelligent IT solutions are searched and studied. A functional architecture of IXCS is defined and designed conceptually. This conceptual design will be utilized to make database specification and to find the optimized artificial algorithm for review processes

  8. Role of Non-Government Organizations in strengthening Kazakstan nuclear export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibaeva, L.; Prokhodtseva, T.

    2002-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGO) are the structures that were born by the time, the time when deep changes in our society led us to new trends in the all spheres of society development, to new decisions and, as a consequence, to new structural findings that where able to govern, to support and put into reality the new ideas the could not be inserted in the structure assemblies of the former society. All non-governmental organizations in Kazakhstan are younger than ten years old, but they already could be considered highly experienced, for intensity of their activity is rather high. The main advantages of NGOs are flexibility and independent source of ideas, basic data and policy assessment. There are several non-government organizations that are working in the field of non-proliferation and export control. Kazakhstan Nuclear Technology Safety Center (NTSC) is among them. Non-proliferation and export control is only a small part of activity that NTSC is involved in. Non-governmental organizations could be of several types: NGOs that are affiliated with university or institute, independent associations, quasi-governmental structures and various foundations. NTSC complementing efforts of Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (KAEC) in the field of non-proliferation and export control. The activity of NTSC in the field of non-proliferation includes: Holding conferences, seminars and workshops; Creating databases and reports; Develop proposal for legislation; Provide specialized training; Analyze data. NTSC is involved in a number of projects devoted to non-proliferation and export control. The following projects are supported by the US Department of Energy cooperation program on nuclear export controls for Russia and the Newly Independent States: System to review Kazakhstan exports (STROKE); Computerization of historical licensing data; Export control reference materials for Kazakhstan organizations; Additional Protocol. STROKE is a technical analysis database for

  9. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  10. Effect of International Standards Certification on Firm-Level Exports: An Application of the Control Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsunehiro Otsuki

    2011-01-01

    Growing number of firms in developing countries have earned certifications such as International Standards Organization (ISO) as it enhances reputation of their company or brand and attract buyers particularly in export market. This study evaluates the effect of international standards certification on firm's export performance in Europe and Central Asia by applying the control function approach with endogenous treatment effect to firm-level data. Certification is found to increase export sha...

  11. Control rod guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kunio.

    1994-01-01

    Zr having a residual tensile stress of 3 to 10kg/mm 2 in a circumferential direction is used for the main ingredient of a control guide tube of a nuclear reactor. For this purpose, an appropriate correction method such as a roll-correction, tension-correction and press-correction method is applied to an existent Zr-base alloy tube with no substantial residual stress. If the residual tensile stress in the circumferential direction is smaller than 3kg/mm 2 , an effect sufficient to suppress irradiation growth is not obtainable, if it exceeds 10kg/mm 2 , dimensional changes, cracks or the like occurs locally since the wall thickness of the control rod guide tube is small and, accordingly, this often results in failed products as the control guide tube. (N.H.)

  12. A radiological control implementation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamley, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A manual is being developed to explain to line managers how radiological controls are designed and implemented. The manual also fills a gap in the Health Physics literature between textbooks and on-the-floor procedures. It may be helpful to new Health Physicists with little practical experience and to those wishing to improve self-assessment, audit, and appraisal processes. Many audits, appraisals, and evaluations have indicated a need for cultural change, increased vigor and example, and more effective oversight by line management. Inadequate work controls are a frequent and recurring problem identified in occurrence reports and accident investigations. Closer study frequently indicates that many line managers are willing to change and want to achieve excellence, but no effective guidance exists that will enable them to understand and implement a modern radiological control program. The manual is now in draft form and includes information that will be of use to line managers dealing with improving radiological performance and the practical aspects of radiological controls implementation. The manual is expected to be completed by the fall of 1993 and to be used in conjunction with a performance-based self-assessment training program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  13. Control rod guide tube cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Tadashi; Shiota, Yoshiaki.

    1990-01-01

    Since there was no exclusive device for cleaning control rods, no effective cleaning could not be conducted and there was a possibility that obstacles may not be recovered. Then, there are disposed a first pump for supplying pressurized water, a spray nozzle for forming a swirling flow in a control rod guide tube, a second pump for pressurizing water introduced by a sucking pipeline and a collecting device for recovering obstacles intruding to water from the second pump. The pressurized water supplied from the first pump is introduced to a head passing through a blowing pipe and jetted from the spray nozzle to the control rod guide tube. In this case, a swirling stream occurs and obstacles in the control guide tube are mixed into water. The water containing the obstacles passes from the sucking port through a pipeline, introduced to the second pump and recovered to the collecting device. Since there is no water staying portion upon cleaning operation, the obstacles accumulating over the entire region of the bottom of the guide tube can be recovered reliably and efficiently. (N.H.)

  14. Dose calibrator user and quality control guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchis, Philippe; Amiot, Marie-Noelle; Moune, Muriel; Bellanger, Anne-Christine; Chauvenet, Bruno; Verdeau, Eric; Gardin, Isabelle; Martineau, Antoine; Ricard, Marcel; Caselles, Olivier; Guilhem, Marie-Therese; Hapdey, Sebastien; Lisbona, Albert; Bonnot-Lours, Sophie; Dumont, Agnes; Lemercier, Valerie; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie

    2006-06-01

    This document is a practical guide for the use and control of dose calibrators which are instruments used for radioactivity measurements. After a recall of the calibrator operation principle, the authors describe all the operations performed on this apparatus all along its lifetime: controls to be performed for device acceptance, aspects to be addressed during installation, controls to be performed before any use, daily controls, more detailed controls, and operations to be performed for maintenance, in case of dysfunctions or for re-calibration

  15. A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A Proven Method for Meeting Export Control Objectives in Postal and Shipping Sectors Gregory Crabb, U.S. Postal Inspection Service Julia H...mail fraud, mail theft, identity theft, child exploitation, and prohibited mailings such as bombs and biological and chemical threats...April 2012. http://resources.sei.cmu.edu/library/asset-view.cfm?assetid=10085 [Allen 2014a] Allen, Julia H., Crabb, Gregory; Curtis, Pamela D

  16. Reforming U.S. Export Controls Reforms: Advancing U.S. Army Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The author wishes to thank several anonymous and peer re- viewers as well as Alex Barnes, Rachel Bauman, Justin Blaszczyk, William Cardon ...is worth noting in that it requires, pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act, that: certification be provided to Congress prior to the granting of...security. Otherwise, approval cannot be granted until 15 days after Congress has re- ceived the certification for the manufacturing license or technical

  17. Removable control rod drive shaft guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales, M.W.; Brown, S.K.; Dixon, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    A removable control rod drive shaft guide is described for a control rod ''guide'' structure card, comprising: a. a substantially annular shaped main body portion having a central axial bore for receiving a control rod drive shaft and an upper exterior groove for receiving removal tooling; b. the main body portion having a reduced outer diameter at its lower section; c. a shoulder portion integral with the main body portion for supporting the main body portion on the guide structure card; d. the shoulder portion having a substantially radial bore and the reduced outer diameter lower section having a slot in alignment with the radial bore; e. a locking arm ''pivotaly'' mounted in the radial bore which protrudes into the slot and is movable between a first normal locking position for engaging the guide structure card and a second release position; f. a spring received within a second axial bore in the main body portion and biased against the locking arm for urging and locking arm into the first normal locking position; and g. a release tab at one end of the locking arm for moving the locking arm into the second release position

  18. Protective guide structure for reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Minoru; Umeda, Kenji; Kubo, Noboru; Ito, Tomohiro.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved protective guide structure for control rods, which does not cause swirling of coolants and resonance even though a slit is formed on a protective tube which surrounds a control rod element in a PWR type reactor. Namely, a reactor control rod is constituted with elongated control elements collectively bundled in the form of a cluster. The protective guide structure protectively guides the collected constituent at the upper portion of a reactor container. The protective structure comprises a plurality of protective tubes each having a C-shaped cross section disposed in parallel for receiving control rod elements individually in which the corners of the opening of the cross section of the protective tube are chamfered to an appropriate configuration. With such a constitution, even if coolant flows in a circumferential direction along the protective tubes surrounding the control rod elements, no shearing stream is caused to the coolants flow since the corners of the cross sectional opening (slit) of the tube are chamfered. Accordingly, occurrence of swirlings can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  19. Analysis of streamflow distribution of non-point source nitrogen export from long-term urban-rural catchments to guide watershed management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.

    2017-12-01

    Discharge, land use, and watershed management practices (stream restoration and stormwater control measures) have been found to be important determinants of nitrogen (N) export to receiving waters. We used long-term water quality stations from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study Long-Term Ecological Research (BES LTER) Site to quantify nitrogen export across streamflow conditions at the small watershed scale. We calculated nitrate and total nitrogen fluxes using methodology that allows for changes over time; weighted regressions on time, discharge, and seasonality. Here we tested the hypotheses that a) while the largest N stream fluxes occur during storm events, there is not a clear relationship between N flux and discharge and b) N export patterns are aseasonal in developed watersheds where sources are larger and retention capacity is lower. The goal is to scale understanding from small watersheds to larger ones. Developing a better understanding of hydrologic controls on nitrogen export is essential for successful adaptive watershed management at societally meaningful spatial scales.

  20. A study on improvement of export control system for the nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Joo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yang, Seung Hyo

    2012-01-01

    The Republic of Korea joined Nuclear Suppliers Group(NSG) in 1995 and became a major nuclear supplier both in name and reality by contracting the Project of UAE Braka Nuclear Power Plant(BNPP) in 2009 and the Project of Jordan Research and Training Reactor(JRTR) in 2010. And ROK is currently negotiating with several countries such as Finland and Vietnam for more projects, so it is expected to obtain more orders of commercial and research reactor. At this point of time, we found that it is difficult to apply individual export licensing system as it is for the big nuclear project such as BNPP and JRTR Project. Because the nuclear project in foreign country contains transfer of thousands of items and technical documents, including a considerable number of strategic items, issuing individual licenses for all items and documents can cause the inefficiency of the project. So, an appropriate export control system which can support such a project is necessary. In this study, we focused on how to improve the export control system to guarantee not only time efficiency but careful management of strategic goods

  1. A Study on the cooperation policy in multilateral nuclear control regimes and the advancing of national export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2004-08-01

    This study carried out the analysis of trends of the multilateral nuclear control in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the past trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Second, this study establishes the multilateral cooperation strategies for the effective cooperation in the process of strengthening the nuclear control regimes. Third, this study reviews the major agenda of nuclear control regimes and establishes national positions on each agenda. Fourth, this study also analyzes outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derives some factors to reflect national nuclear control system

  2. EXPORT CONTROLS: Rapid Advances in China's Semiconductor Industry Underscore Need for Fundamental U.S. Policy Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The United States controls the export of certain technology, including some of the equipment and materials used to make semiconductors, to sensitive destinations such as China for national security...

  3. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  4. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control

  5. A study on the revision of nuclear safety act to build the foundation of nuclear export and import control system in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Choi, Sun Do [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear related items require export and import control beyond the multilateral export control system according to Safeguard Agreement, Additional Protocol and bilateral agreements. Besides Korea as a nuclear supplier is needed to actively cope with its export control system, which is being reinforced internationally. In regard to this trend, this study drew the revision plan of present Nuclear Safety Act to found the nuclear export and import control system in Korea by examining the related legislations and analyzing the implementation status of nuclear export and import control.

  6. Competitiveness, export control and export promotion of dual-use goods. European and German balancing exercises; Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit, Exportkontrolle und Exportfoerderung von Dual-Use-Guetern. Europaeische und deutsche Spagatuebungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2014-08-15

    The EU Commission Communication of 24 April 2014 to the Council and the European Parliament ''The review of export control policy: Ensuring Security and Competitiveness in a changing world'' as well as the increasingly number of inquiries and applications to the German Federal Government (e.g. the rejection of Hermes guarantees and state funding of nuclear export and termination of bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear technologies) once again reason to discuss the current tension between the principle of free movement of goods, competitiveness and export promotion on the one hand and the export control on the other.

  7. Correlations-Adjusted Export Market Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Joo La

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new export market diversification indices incorporated with correlations of business cycles among export partners to identify the actual effects of export market diversification on export instability. Three existing export market diversification indices reflect the dispersion level in terms of the number of export partners and their export shares, without a clear control for correlations among export earnings from export partners. In addition, they are underestimated or ...

  8. Study on the efficient export control for the Intangible Transfer of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung-ho; Choi, Sun-do; Lee, Chansuh; Kim, Jong-sook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Technical Data may take forms such as document, drawing, description, report, manual and instruction. And, it can be written or recorded on storage medium such as disk, tape and read-only memories. Technical assistance may take forms such as instruction, skill, training, working knowledge and consulting services. Technical data or assistance can be transferred by intangible manners such as an electronic means (e.g. email, internet, telephone or fax) and through the oral (e.g. seminar, meeting or workshop). Currently, ROK's export control regulation is not classified between the transfer of listed items (or general technology) and intangible transfer of technology (ITT). It may make a loop hole or cause inefficient implementation of export control. The purpose of this study is to suggest the efficient control method for ITT independent from item control method. From the result of this study, several main feathers in regulations of developed countries are drawn. First, they define that technical assistance (or support) is the object of permission. And, they have a clear distinction between resident and non-resident. Second, The UK and Germany do not control the technical assistance related to construction and operation of nuclear facilities for peaceful use, as long as technology does not transfer to recipient that has a nuclear proliferation concerns such as the DPRK, Iran or Pakistan.

  9. Nuclear exports. Parliamentary control and confidentiality; Parlamentarische Kontrolle und Geheimhaltungsbeduerftigkeit bei Nuklearexporten. Zum Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 21. Oktober 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2015-03-15

    With its decision taken on 21. October 2014 (Az.: 2 BvE 5/11) the Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) decided during court proceedings between administrative bodies on the scope and limits of the parliamentary right of information. Even though the proceeding did not deal with nuclear exports but arm exports, foreign trade law, however, does not only designate an export licence obligation for military weapons but also for so called dual-use goods meaning goods, which can be used both for friendly as well as for military purposes. The export of these goods requires according to the so-called Dual-Use Regulation (EG) 428/2009 a licence. Annex I category 0 of the regulation (EG) 428/2009 lists a variety of nuclear materials, plants and equipment items for which this licence applies. In the same manner as arm exports, also exports of nuclear dual-use goods are being discussed in a special cabinet committee, the Federal Security Council (BSR), which shall coordinate cross-departmentally the German security and defence policy under consideration of economic interests and which categorises its results, according to the rules of procedure, as confidential. Also legally not regulated but common ''preliminary enquiries'' at the responsible Federal Ministry or rather Federal Office of Economics and Export Control by companies which plan an export and want to affirm the general approval for their export business prior to conclusion of contract take not only place for arm exports but also for nuclear dual-use goods. The decision by the Federal Constitutional Court can be applied to consultations about the authorisation of nuclear dual-use goods.

  10. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  11. Interactions between mRNA export commitment, 3'-end quality control, and nuclear degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libri, Domenico; Dower, Ken; Boulay, Jocelyne

    2002-01-01

    Several aspects of eukaryotic mRNA processing are linked to transcription. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, overexpression of the mRNA export factor Sub2p suppresses the growth defect of hpr1 null cells, yet the protein Hpr1p and the associated THO protein complex are implicated in transcriptional el...... results show that several classes of defective RNPs are subject to a quality control step that impedes release from transcription site foci and suggest that suboptimal messenger ribonucleoprotein assembly leads to RNA degradation by Rrp6p....

  12. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O; Capote F, E; Carrazana G, J A; Zerquera, J T; Ramos V, O; Alonso A, D; Fernandez, I M; Caveda R, C A; Madrazo M, S; Barroso P, I [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  13. Irradiation to control insects in fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follett, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Phytosanitary or quarantine treatments are often required to disinfest host commodities of economically important arthropod pests before they are moved through market channels to areas where the pest does not occur. Irradiation is an accepted treatment to control quarantine pests in 10 fruits and five vegetables for export from Hawaii to the US mainland. Irradiation is the ideal technology for developing generic quarantine treatments because it is effective against most insect and mite pests at dose levels that do not affect the quality of most commodities. A generic dose of 150 Gy has been proposed for tephritid fruit flies. Contrary to the 150 Gy dose, approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Mediterranean fruit fly, melon fly, and oriental fruit fly in Hawaii are 210-250 Gy. Irradiation studies were conducted to determine if the approved doses were unnecessarily high and could be reduced. Irradiation is also a viable alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest Hawaii sweetpotatoes, and studies are in progress to identify an effective dose for two key sweetpotato insect pests. Results indicate that irradiation doses <150 Gy will control Hawaii's fruit flies, which supports the proposed generic dose. The idea of generic doses is appealing because it would greatly accelerate the process of approving irradiation quarantine treatments for specific crops, and thereby rapidly expand exports. Preliminary results show that 250-300 Gy will control Hawaii's sweetpotato pests

  14. Regulating the Academic “Marketplace of Ideas”: Commercialization, Export Controls, and Counterintelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Krige

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two revolutions, not one, are transforming the research enterprise in American academia. One is the commercialization of research. The other is the regulation of research by the national security state that was accelerated by the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and focuses increasingly on the risk of sensitive knowledge leaking to China and other countries of concern. Commercialization temporarily restricts knowledge circulation to secure a patent for personal and institutional gain. Regulation controls the flow of knowledge to select foreign nationals using multiple instruments, including export controls, along with informal surveillance by the FBI. Ironically, the neoliberal urge to roll back the state and commercialize research in a competitive global knowledge economy exposes the American academic research system to the risk of “industrial” espionage and rolls out the regulatory apparatus of the national security state. Alongside offices of technology transfer on campus we now have offices of export control and compliance. Faculty and graduate students have accommodated themselves to this new situation, even while they regret it; many are concerned by the challenge that it poses to academic freedom, intellectual dynamism and political openness.

  15. Export Controls and Industry Outreach Mutual Benefits of Business - Government Partnerships (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation is intended to acquaint one and all with the strategy and benefits for developing a mutually contributory relationship between government and industry as a means to support and strengthen an effective nonproliferation export control regime. The study will provide background into the basis for development of multilateral regimes for export controls along with an overview covering the historical involvement of industry and their responsibility in dual-use research and development. The paper will then offer an examination of the unique composition and status of the dual-use industry which makes them vulnerable to the illicit diversion of their products and identify and discuss the recognized indicators of that process. The focus will then move toward explaining justification for establishing a close working relationship or partnership between industry and government and how the process of that partnership can deter access and opportunity for the illicit diversion of dual-use goods. Finally, in summation the presentation will highlight the mutual benefits that result from that relationship.(author)

  16. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  17. Export Control Requirements for Tritium Processing Design and R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, William Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maynard, Sarah-Jane Wadsworth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This document will address requirements of export control associated with tritium plant design and processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working in the area of tritium plant system design and research and development (R&D) since the early 1970’s at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). This work has continued to the current date with projects associated with the ITER project and other Office of Science Fusion Energy Science (OS-FES) funded programs. ITER is currently the highest funding area for the DOE OS-FES. Although export control issues have been integrated into these projects in the past a general guidance document has not been available for reference in this area. To address concerns with currently funded tritium plant programs and assist future projects for FES, this document will identify the key reference documents and specific sections within related to tritium research. Guidance as to the application of these sections will be discussed with specific detail to publications and work with foreign nationals.

  18. A peptide export-import control circuit modulating bacterial development regulates protein phosphatases of the phosphorelay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, M

    1997-08-05

    The phosphorelay signal transduction system activates developmental transcription in sporulation of Bacillus subtilis by phosphorylation of aspartyl residues of the Spo0F and Spo0A response regulators. The phosphorylation level of these response regulators is determined by the opposing activities of protein kinases and protein aspartate phosphatases that interpret positive and negative signals for development in a signal integration circuit. The RapA protein aspartate phosphatase of the phosphorelay is regulated by a peptide that directly inhibits its activity. This peptide is proteolytically processed from an inactive pre-inhibitor protein encoded in the phrA gene. The pre-inhibitor is cleaved by the protein export apparatus to a putative pro-inhibitor that is further processed to the active inhibitor peptide and internalized by the oligopeptide permease. This export-import circuit is postulated to be a mechanism for timing phosphatase activity where the processing enzymes regulate the rate of formation of the active inhibitor. The processing events may, in turn, be controlled by a regulatory hierarchy. Chromosome sequencing has revealed several other phosphatase-prepeptide gene pairs in B. subtilis, suggesting that the use of this mechanism may be widespread in signal transduction.

  19. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Infrasound Sensors to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration Regulations, and Related... control passive infrasound sensors because of their military and commercial utility. Items under this new... Thompson, Sensors and Aviation Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Telephone: (202) 482-4252...

  20. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes

  1. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes.

  2. 75 FR 18029 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Export-Controlled Items (DFARS Case 2004-D010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... regulations and prescribes a contract clause to address those responsibilities. DATES: Effective Date: April 8... activities and communication between the parties to a potential contract, and to have the resulting contract... Government needs to convey to the universities the information that certain work is export-controlled. DoD...

  3. Variable flushing mechanisms and landscape structure control stream DOC export during snowmelt in a set of nested catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Kelsey G. Jencso; Brian L. McGlynn

    2010-01-01

    Stream DOC dynamics during snowmelt have been the focus of much research, and numerous DOC mobilization and delivery mechanisms from riparian and upland areas have been proposed. However, landscape structure controls on DOC export from riparian and upland landscape elements remains poorly understood. We investigated stream and groundwater DOC dynamics across three...

  4. Export Control and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base - Revised. Volume 1: Summary Report and Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    differentiating their products as “ITAR-free”, in the hopes that this can give them a leg up on US producers. To date this “marketing campaign” has...Inspectorate of Strategic Products Slovenia Ministry of Defence Slovakia Ministry of Economy United DTI Export Control Organization [Check] E-41

  5. GABAB receptor cell surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doly, Stéphane; Shirvani, Hamasseh; Gäta, Gabriel; Meye, Frank; Emerit, Michel-Boris; Enslen, Hervé; Achour, Lamia; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana; Kwon, Yang Seung; Armand, Vincent; Gardette, Robert; Giros, Bruno; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard; Mameli, Manuel; Darmon, Michèle; Marullo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), are tightly regulated. For GABAB receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gate-keepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function. PMID:26033241

  6. The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

  7. Regular Workflow of the Customs on the Supervision and Control over the Import & Export Goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Declaration & Management Article 25 of Customs Law prescribes that paper declaration form and electronic declaration form must be adopted in the Customs declaration formalities for the import & export goods.

  8. Export Controls: Implementation of the 1998 Legislative Mandate for High Performance Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    We found that most of the 938 proposed exports of high performance computers to civilian end users in countries of concern from February 3, 1998, when procedures implementing the 1998 authorization...

  9. European Union's Arms Control Regime and Arms Exports to China: Background and Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F; Papademetriou, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    In recent months, discussions have been held within the European Union (EU) on the question of lifting the embargo on arms exports to the People's Republic of China that was imposed on China on June 27, 1989...

  10. Through Internal Control System, Jatirogo Organic Coconut Sugar Farmers Gained Access to the Export Market

    OpenAIRE

    Setyowati, Theresia Eko

    2014-01-01

    By founding Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS, 1,554 farmer members now have stronger bargaining power in marketing organic coconut sugar. Jatirogo organic coconut sugar ICS has succeeded to export its organic gula semut. By obtaining international certifications (EU Regulation, NOP-USDA, and JAS), KSU Jatirogo sends organic gula semut to various countries, such as the United States, Australia, and European and Asian countries, by collaborating with KSU Jatirogo and exporting companies. ...

  11. Guide Actor-Critic for Continuous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Tangkaratt, Voot; Abdolmaleki, Abbas; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Actor-critic methods solve reinforcement learning problems by updating a parameterized policy known as an actor in a direction that increases an estimate of the expected return known as a critic. However, existing actor-critic methods only use values or gradients of the critic to update the policy parameter. In this paper, we propose a novel actor-critic method called the guide actor-critic (GAC). GAC firstly learns a guide actor that locally maximizes the critic and then it updates the polic...

  12. Terminal Sliding Mode Tracking Controller Design for Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    Based on sliding mode variable structure control theory, the path tracking problem of automatic guided vehicle is studied, proposed a controller design method based on the terminal sliding mode. First of all, through analyzing the characteristics of the automatic guided vehicle movement, the kinematics model is presented. Then to improve the traditional expression of terminal sliding mode, design a nonlinear sliding mode which the convergence speed is faster than the former, verified by theoretical analysis, the design of sliding mode is steady and fast convergence in the limited time. Finally combining Lyapunov method to design the tracking control law of automatic guided vehicle, the controller can make the automatic guided vehicle track the desired trajectory in the global sense as well as in finite time. The simulation results verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control law.

  13. Hydrologic control of nitrogen removal, storage, and export in a mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.O.; Baker, M.A.; Arp, C.D.; Kocha, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient cycling and export in streams and rivers should vary with flow regime, yet most studies of stream nutrient transformation do not include hydrologic variability. We used a stable isotope tracer of nitrogen (15N) to measure nitrate (NO3) uptake, storage, and export in a mountain stream, Spring Creek, Idaho, U.S.A. We conducted two tracer tests of 2-week duration during snowmelt and baseflow. Dissolved and particulate forms of 15N were monitored over three seasons to test the hypothesis that stream N cycling would be dominated by export during floods, and storage during low flow. Floods exported more N than during baseflow conditions; however, snowmelt floods had higher than expected demand for NO{3 because of hyporheic exchange. Residence times of benthic N during both tracer tests were longer than 100 d for ephemeral pools such as benthic algae and wood biofilms. Residence times were much longer in fine detritus, insects, and the particulate N from the hyporheic zone, showing that assimilation and hydrologic storage can be important mechanisms for retaining particulate N. Of the tracer N stored in the stream, the primary form of export was via seston during periods of high flows, produced by summer rainstorms or spring snowmelt the following year. Spring Creek is not necessarily a conduit for nutrients during high flow; hydrologic exchange between the stream and its valley represents an important storage mechanism.

  14. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  15. Guide for the control and recording of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This guide present the aspects related to the control and recording of radioactive wastes in their points of origin. Then it is of great importance to fulfill these instructions so as to achieve a successful management of radioactive waste

  16. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    OpenAIRE

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We inv...

  17. Recent developments for the Large Binocular Telescope Guiding Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.

  18. AKT3 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy via regulation of the major nuclear export protein CRM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corum, Daniel G; Tsichlis, Philip N; Muise-Helmericks, Robin C

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that Akt3 is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in primary human endothelial cells (ECs) and in Akt3-null mice; Akt3 affects subcellular localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), the master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanism by which Akt3 controls the subcellular distribution of PGC-1α and to explore the effect on mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover during angiogenesis. Here we use standard biochemical analyses and Akt3-knockdown strategies to show that Akt3 controls the stabilization of chromosome maintenance region-1 (CRM-1), the major nuclear export receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis and association analyses show that PGC-1α nuclear export is CRM-1 dependent. Akt3 knockdown and CRM-1 overexpression cause 3-fold reductions in PGC-1α target gene expression, compared to control levels. Akt3 inhibition causes autophagy, as measured by autophagosome formation, in a CRM-1-dependent, Akt1/mTOR-independent pathway. In vivo, Akt3-null and heterozygous mice show dose-dependent decreases in angiogenesis compared to wild-type littermates (~5- and 2.5-fold decreases, respectively), as assessed by Matrigel plug assays. This correlates with an ~1.5-fold decrease in mitochondrial Cox IV expression. Our studies suggest that Akt3 is a regulator of mitochondrial dynamics in the vasculature via regulation of CRM-1-dependent nuclear export.

  19. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  20. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  1. 76 FR 35275 - Export Control Reform Initiative: Strategic Trade Authorization License Exception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... (c)(2) destinations are: Albania, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Malta, Singapore, South Africa, and... Exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA) authorizes, with conditions, the export, reexport and transfer... BIS's workload and, without adequate preparation, could result in backlogs and delays. BIS is working...

  2. 76 FR 76072 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Gas Turbine Engines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... intelligence advantage to the United States, and are almost exclusively available from the United States. If an...--other than ``build-to-print technology''-- for the production or development of any types of the listed... not available for the export or reexport of software and technology (other than ``build-to- print...

  3. Machine Shop. Module 8: CNC (Computerized Numerical Control). Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswhite, Dwight

    This document consists of materials for a five-unit course on the following topics: (1) safety guidelines; (2) coordinates and dimensions; (3) numerical control math; (4) programming for numerical control machines; and (5) setting and operating the numerical control machine. The instructor's guide begins with a list of competencies covered in the…

  4. Export strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2002-01-01

    It is argued here that traditional export strategy research (encompassing the study of internationalization processes and export performance) is characterized by weak theoretical foundations and could benefit from a reorientation towards a dynamic capabilities perspective (DCP). We seek to draw...... on insights from DCP in order to devise a theoretical basis that could enrich export strategy research. Although our development of DCP insights builds on previous work, it also adds a crucial distinction between knowledge stocks and informational architecture. Changes in architecture are of greater...... importance. Following this elaboration of the dynamic capabilities perspective, we outline some implications and guidelines for future export strategy research....

  5. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  6. Memory-guided attention: Control from multiple memory systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    Attention is strongly influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this useful dichotomy does not readily capture the ubiquitous and often automatic contribution of past experience stored in memory. We review recent evidence about how multiple memory systems control attention, consider how such interactions are manifested in the brain, and highlight how this framework for ‘memory-guided attention’ might help systematize previous findings and guide future research.

  7. The Export Administration Act of 1979 and Computer Exports to China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    .... The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes...

  8. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  9. Precipitation patterns control the distribution and export of large wood at the catchment scale

    OpenAIRE

    Il Seo, Jung; Nakamura, Futoshi; Chun, Kun Woo; Kim, Suk Woo; Grant, Gordon E.

    2015-01-01

    Large wood (LW) plays an important role in river ecosystems, but LW-laden floods may cause serious damage to human lives and property. The relationship between precipitation patterns and variations in LW distribution and export at the watershed scale is poorly understood. To explore these linkages, we examined differences in LW distribution as a function of channel morphologies in six watersheds located in southern and northern Japan and analysed the impacts of different precipitation pattern...

  10. Hydroclimatic control of sediment and metal export from a rural catchment in Northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    L. Palleiro; M. L. Rodríguez-Blanco; M. M. Taboada-Castro; M. T. Taboada-Castro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines sediment and metal (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) exportation at different time scales (annual, seasonal and event) during a three-year period (2005–2008) in the Mero River headwater, a rural catchment under humid temperate climate. Inter-annual differences were found both in annual loads and their distributions throughout the year. At annual scale, sediment and particulate metal loads followed the same trend as streamflow, while dissolved metals showed differe...

  11. Hydroclimatic control of sediment and metal export from a rural catchment in northwestern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palleiro, L.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. L.; Taboada-Castro, M. M.; Taboada-Castro, M. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines sediment and metal (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) exportation at different timescales (annual, seasonal and event) during a 3-year period (2005–2008) in the Mero River headwater, a rural catchment under humid temperate climate. Interannual differences were found both in annual loads and their distributions throughout the year. At annual scale, sediment and particulate metal loads followed the same trend as streamflow, while dissolved metals showed different pat...

  12. Geomorphic controls on fluvial carbon exports and emissions from upland swamps in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kirsten; Looman, Arun; Maher, Damien T; Fryirs, Kirstie

    2018-03-15

    Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone (THPSS) are upland wetlands, similar to fens in the Northern Hemisphere and are found at the headwaters of low-order streams on the plateaus of Eastern Australia. They are classified as endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. Previous works have identified particular geomorphic characteristics that are important to carbon storage in these low energy sediment accumulation zones. Changes in the geomorphic structure of THPSS, such as channelisation, may have profound implications for carbon storage. To assess the effect of channelisation on carbon budgets in these ecosystems it is essential to identify and quantify differences in carbon export, emissions and stocks of carbon of intact swamps and those that have become channelised. We undertook seasonal sampling of the perched swamp aquifers and surface waters of two intact swamps and two channelised fills in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia, to investigate differences in carbon exports and emissions between the two swamp types. We found that channelised fills' mean CO 2 emissions were almost four times higher than intact swamps with mean CH 4 emissions up to five times higher. Annual fluvial carbon exports for channelised fills were up to 18 times that of intact swamps. Channelised fill exports and emissions can represent up to 2% of the total swamp carbon stocks per annum which is 40 times higher than the intact swamps. This work clearly demonstrates that changes in geomorphic structure brought about by incision and channelisation results in profound changes to the carbon storage function of THPSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This volume is a study guide for training Radiological Control Technicians. Provided herein are support materials for learning radiological documentation, communication systems, counting errors and statistics, dosimetry, contamination control, airborne sampling program methods, respiratory protection, radiological source control, environmental monitoring, access control and work area setup, radiological work coverage, shipment and receipt for radioactive material, radiological incidents and emergencies, personnel decontamination, first aid, radiation survey instrumentation, contamination monitoring, air sampling, and counting room equipment

  14. Implementation Guide for Approaching Ship Floor Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folz, Darrold; Diedrick, Karen

    1992-01-01

    .... Since the shipbuilding job shop environment revolves around the assembly of a single product, it is difficult to bring in "off the shelf" production control software which will speak to shipbuilding's unique needs...

  15. Control Strategies for Guided Collective Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    J.K. Parrish , “Oscillator models and collective motion,” IEEE Control Systems Magzine, Vol. 27, 2007, pp. 89-105. [18] S. H. Strogatz , “From Kuramoto...Automatic Control, 54(2), 2009, pp. 353-357. [21] H. Hong and S. H. Strogatz , “Kuramoto Model of Coupled Oscillators with Positive and Negative...2013) provided similar results by utilizing a modified Kuramoto model ( Strogatz (2000)). Paley (2008) proposed a Lyapunov-based design methodology to

  16. Markups and Exporting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to estimate markups using plant-level production data. Our approach relies on cost minimizing producers and the existence of at least one variable input of production. The suggested empirical framework relies on the estimation of a production function and provides...... estimates of plant- level markups without specifying how firms compete in the product market. We rely on our method to explore the relationship be- tween markups and export behavior. We find that markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity; that exporters charge......, on average, higher markups and that markups increase upon export entry....

  17. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  18. Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    To effectively suppress the external disturbances and parameter perturbation problem of the maglev guiding system, and improve speed and robustness, the electromagnetic guiding system is exactly linearized using state feedback method, Fractional calculus theory is introduced, the order of integer order PID control was extended to the field of fractional, then fractional order PIλDμ Controller was presented, Due to the extra two adjustable parameters compared with traditional PID controller, fractional order PIλDμ controllers were expected to show better control performance. The results of the computer simulation show that the proposed controller suppresses the external disturbances and parameter perturbation of the system effectively; the system response speed was increased; at the same time, it had flexible structure and stronger robustness.

  19. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  20. Uranium enrichment using gas centrifugation. An analysis focusing export control; Urananrikning med gascentrifugering. En analys med fokus paa exportkontroll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defense Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, has performed a study on uranium enrichment by gas centrifugation. The theory and principles of gas centrifugation is described in this report and relevant equipment used in the process has been identified. Different aspects of operating a gas centrifuge facility - and its indicators - are also presented. The separation efficiency and the flow of material through a centrifuge are very small, and therefore, a large number of centrifuges in cascades is needed to produce a larger amount of enriched uranium within a reasonable time. Countries with nuclear weapons ambitions often show an interest in gas centrifuges to produce weapons grade uranium - if they have managed to acquire the technology - because of the efficiency of the process and since it is relatively easy to conceal. Most equipment used in gas centrifuge facilities is under export control to prevent clandestine uranium enrichment. The Nuclear Suppliers' Group has compiled lists of nuclear related equipment and components that are of importance to export control. The control lists have also been included in the EU legislation.

  1. 21 CFR 1312.22 - Application for export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for export permit. 1312.22 Section... EXPORTATION OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.22 Application for export permit. (a) An application for a permit to export controlled substances shall be made on DEA Form 161...

  2. Cognitive Control Network Contributions to Memory-Guided Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2016-05-01

    Visual attentional capacity is severely limited, but humans excel in familiar visual contexts, in part because long-term memories guide efficient deployment of attention. To investigate the neural substrates that support memory-guided visual attention, we performed a set of functional MRI experiments that contrast long-term, memory-guided visuospatial attention with stimulus-guided visuospatial attention in a change detection task. Whereas the dorsal attention network was activated for both forms of attention, the cognitive control network(CCN) was preferentially activated during memory-guided attention. Three posterior nodes in the CCN, posterior precuneus, posterior callosal sulcus/mid-cingulate, and lateral intraparietal sulcus exhibited the greatest specificity for memory-guided attention. These 3 regions exhibit functional connectivity at rest, and we propose that they form a subnetwork within the broader CCN. Based on the task activation patterns, we conclude that the nodes of this subnetwork are preferentially recruited for long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. 78 FR 61873 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... entitled Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations: Military Vehicles; Vessels of War; Submersible...'' references by this rule will require exporters to spend substantially more time to determine the scope of the...

  4. Sensitive products and services in the light of the law of the European Union. Chances and limits of common EU export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, M.

    1995-01-01

    The invasion of Kuwait by the Iraq has made it very clear to the world at large that international exports of sensitive products and services is an urgent international problem. This war demonstrated the absurdity of the fact that the troups of the allied coalition under the roof of the UN had to fight against a military potential of Iraq that these nations themselves had been building up by trade with the Iraq in the years before, having sold not only weaponry but also other technical systems and equipment and technologies to which the term ''sensitive products and services'' applies. Having become aware of the international dimension of this problem, the approach to solutions starts from the following questions: How can the international community prevent unwanted support of political regimes or groups judged to be potentially aggressive in their efforts towards building up a dangerous military potential? What are the instruments to be implemented at an international level, and to which foreign relations, as for example trade relations, and to which objects of trade, shall these instruments and controls apply? These questions show the essential importance of the definition of ''dual-use products''. The book analyses and explains the current legal framework within the EU and the approaches elaborated by working groups and bodies of the EU for the purpose of establishing a Single European exports control system, presenting the survey in five main chapters entitled as follows: Rationale, outline conditions and characteristic features of export controls; Legal basis of export controls for sensitive products and services; Admissibility of national controls of the export of sensitive products and services within the EU; Common EU controls of exports to third countries; EU action and means for harmonization of controls of exports of dual-use products to countries not members of the EU. (orig./CB) [de

  5. Organizing export strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Lojacono; M. Venzin

    2014-01-01

    The article unfolds as follows: after a brief introduction on the relevance of international trade and the characteristics of export strategies, we describe four distinct archetypes: export manager, centralistic export developer, export skimmer, integrated export developer.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. These materials include: (1) unit overview; (2) lesson plans; (3) lecture outlines; (4) student worksheets for each lesson (with answers); and (5) two copies of a final quiz (with and without answers). Lesson 1 is a review of the theory of…

  7. Quieting: A Practical Guide to Noise Control. NBS Handbook 119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendt, Raymond D.; And Others

    This guide describes the ways in which sounds are generated, travel, and affect the listener's hearing and well-being. Recommendations are given for controlling noise at the source and along its path of travel, and for protecting the listener. Remedies are given for noise commonly encountered in homes, work environments, schools, while traveling,…

  8. Regulations of 10 January 1989 relating to the implementation of control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology, laid down by the ministry of foreign affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These Regulations were made by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in pursuance of Act No. 93 of 18 December 1987 on the control of the export of strategic goods, services and technology, in particular nuclear material, equipment, technology and services. The Regulations entered into force on 15 February 1989. That Ministry compiles lists of goods requiring an export licence or permission which also cover nuclear installations, material and equipment. The Regulations provide that the Ministry may require that an application for export of such goods, etc. be accompanied by a statement on the final use of the goods concerned (end-use statement) ascertaining that they will not be re-exported without the consent of the Norwegian authorities [fr

  9. Humidity Control System In The Neutron Detector Of Guide Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibasya Harahap, Sentot

    2001-01-01

    The probable symptom neutron detector damage as cause decrease resistivity and corrosion in the electrical terminal, further more occasion to voltage failure and leak current in the isolation. The prevent of voltage failure in detector a needed humidity controller's with dry air supply to guide tube with 2 kg/cm exp.2 air pressure and 7 l/min, air flow as soon as continuity dryer process in the guide tube. Reactor shutdown and operation condition of diffusion rate is 0,476 cm exp.3/year and 6,46 cm exp.3/year

  10. Nonlinear and threshold-dominated runoff generation controls DOC export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, C.; Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2017-03-01

    We used a relatively simple two-layer, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model to simultaneously simulate streamflow and stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small lead and arsenic contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. The model procedure was informed by an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC, and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC processing based on stream DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. The parsimonious model (i.e., few calibrated parameters) showed the importance of nonlinear and rapid near-surface runoff generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time—as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity but exported less DOC (115 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 11 kg C ha-1 yr-1) compared to the equivalent but wetter period in 2014 (189 kg C ha-1 yr-1 ± 38 kg C ha-1 yr-1). The exceedance of a critical water table threshold (-10 cm) triggered a rapid near-surface runoff response with associated higher DOC transport connecting all available DOC pools and subsequent dilution. We conclude that the combination of detailed experimental work with relatively simple, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry models not only allowed the model to be internally constrained but also provided important insight into how DOC and tightly coupled pollutants or trace elements are mobilized.

  11. Ultrasound-controlled neuronavigator-guided brain surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, J; Louhisalmi, Y; Alakuijala, J; Oikarinen, J

    1993-07-01

    The development of a unique neurosurgical navigator is described and a preliminary series of seven cases of intracerebral lesions approached with the assistance of this neuronavigation system under ultrasound control is presented. The clinical series included five low-grade astrocytomas, one chronic intracerebral hematoma, and one porencephalic cyst. Management procedures included biopsy in all cases, drainage of the hematoma, and endoscopy and fenestration for the cyst. The features of the neuronavigation system are interactive reconstructions of preoperative computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data, corresponding intraoperative ultrasound images, versatility of the interchangeable end-effector instruments, graphic presentation of instruments on the reconstructed images, and voice control of the system. The principle of a common axis in the reconstructed images served to align the navigational pointer, biopsy guide, endoscope guide, ultrasound transducer, and surgical microscope to the brain anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound imaging helped to verify the accuracy of the neuronavigator and check the results of the procedures. The arm of the neuronavigation system served as a holder for instruments, such as the biopsy guide, endoscope guide, and ultrasound transducer, in addition to functioning as a navigational pointer. Also, the surgical microscope was aligned with the neuronavigator for inspection and biopsy of the hematoma capsule to rule out tumor etiology. Voice control freed the neurosurgeon from manual exercises during start-up and calibration of the system.

  12. Cost Control Guide For Decommissioning Of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This cost control guide was prepared in response to the request from the OECD/NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) - Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) to offer the industry guidance in preparing and implementing cost and schedule controls during decommissioning. The DCEG sent out a survey questionnaire in 2010 soliciting comments from OECD member states on their use of cost controls during decommissioning. While the response was limited, the consensus was to proceed with the preparation of this guide. Cost and schedule control systems have been in use for more than 30 years, and in the last 10 years or so have evolved into a more formalised earned value management system (EVMS). This guide is based on the internationally recognised standard, Earned Value Management Systems (ANSI, 2007). The EVMS is built on a work breakdown structure (WBS) of decommissioning activities, and a defined process for controlling a project. The EVMS not only provides measurement of project status and future performance, but also builds a structure and culture for accountability on project performance. This guide describes the performance metrics used to determine the value earned based on what was planned to be done, what was actually accomplished and what it actually cost. Variances measured monthly at a minimum indicate where potential problems are arising and raise a flag for the project manager to implement corrective actions for the next reporting period. The success of the EVMS programme depends on management commitment to implement a culture change for its employees, and to impose the EVMS on potential future contractors performing decommissioning work at a facility. Formal training is required to ensure all elements of the process are understood and put into action. It is recommended to begin with a small project, and graduate to larger projects as the staff learns how to use the system. The EVMS process has been used internationally for small

  13. 21 CFR 1312.23 - Issuance of export permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of export permit. 1312.23 Section 1312.23... CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exportation of Controlled Substances § 1312.23 Issuance of export permit. (a) The... regulation in § 1312.30 of this part be exported only pursuant to the issuance of an export permit. The...

  14. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    and export behavior using plant-level data. We find that i) markups are estimated significantly higher when controlling for unobserved productivity, ii) exporters charge on average higher markups and iii) firms' markups increase (decrease) upon export entry (exit).We see these findings as a first step...... in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  15. Accelerator-driven subcritical systems - An analysis with a focus on non-proliferation and export control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Per; Nielsen, Fredrik; Sunhede, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Weapons Related Issues at The Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, as commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM, conducted a study concerning Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems, ADS, with emphasis on non-proliferation and export control. An ADS looks at first glance like a traditional nuclear reactor, but the nuclear core is designed to always remain subcritical, both during normal and off-normal conditions. Neutrons are instead supplied by an external source in the form of an proton accelerator and a spallation target. This report gives a short walk-through to the physical processes that governs the neutron flux and reactivity in the core and how they are affected by the design of the core including the accelerator and spallation target. Furthermore is the results from reactor core simulations presented, where the isotopic nuclear fuel inventory has been studied as a function of burn up and initial configuration. Finally the report contains an analysis of the potential risks involved from the perspective of nuclear proliferation and exports. This study shows that ADS in the future could constitute a proliferation concern. The subsystems and components in question share design and materials with the equivalent components in traditional reactors with the exception of the proton accelerator and spallation target, which is unique for accelerator driven systems

  16. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  17. 75 FR 47548 - President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security President's Export Council Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Recruitment of Private-Sector Members SUMMARY: The President's Export... their services. The PECSEA is seeking private-sector members with senior export control expertise and...

  18. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  19. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  20. Heme exporter FLVCR1a regulates heme synthesis and degradation and controls activity of cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-05-01

    The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1a(fl/fl);alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heme Exporter FLVCR1a Regulates Heme Synthesis and Degradation and Controls Activity of Cytochromes P450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinchi, Francesca; Ingoglia, Giada; Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Turco, Emilia; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The liver has one of the highest rates of heme synthesis of any organ. More than 50% of the heme synthesized in the liver is used for synthesis of P450 enzymes, which metabolize exogenous and endogenous compounds that include natural products, hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C cellular receptor 1a (FLVCR1a) is plasma membrane heme exporter that is ubiquitously expressed and controls intracellular heme content in hematopoietic lineages. We investigated the role of Flvcr1a in liver function in mice. Methods We created mice with conditional disruption of Mfsd7b, which encodes Flvcr1a, in hepatocytes (Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice). Mice were analyzed under basal conditions, after phenylhydrazine-induced hemolysis, and after induction of cytochromes P450 synthesis. Livers were collected and analyzed by histologic, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblot analyses. Hepatic P450 enzymatic activities were measured. Results Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice accumulated heme and iron in liver despite up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1, ferroportin, and ferritins. Hepatic heme export activity of Flvcr1a was closely associated with heme biosynthesis, which is required to sustain cytochrome induction. Upon cytochromes P450 stimulation, Flvcr1afl/fl;alb-cre mice had reduced cytochrome activity, associated with accumulation of heme in hepatocytes. The expansion of the cytosolic heme pool in these mice was likely responsible for the early inhibition of heme synthesis and increased degradation of heme, which reduced expression and activity of cytochromes P450. Conclusions In livers of mice, Flvcr1a maintains a free heme pool that regulates heme synthesis and degradation as well as cytochromes P450 expression and activity. These findings have important implications for drug metabolism. PMID:24486949

  2. Export regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Australia is a major uranium supplier. Uranium is exported under conditions laid down to avoid any nuclear proliferation. On 24 May 1977 the Prime Minister had stated the main elements of Australian policy: the strengthening of the system of international safeguards and the selection of importing countries. (Non-nuclear weapon states must be Contracting Parties to the NPT. Nuclear weapon states must undertake not to use Australian uranium for this purpose). Australia retains property of the uranium up to the UF 6 stage (uranium hexafluoride) in the fuel cycle; it reserves the right to stop any export if the importing country no longer complies with AIEA Safeguards. Any transfer to a third country, any irradiated fuel reprocessing, requires Australia's prior agreement. Finally, importing countries must satisfy physical protection conditions. (NEA) [fr

  3. 685. Order amending the Order concerning the definition of goods whose export requires a permit in accordance with the Security Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The list of goods which may not be exported without a permit, in accordance with the Act of 1972 on security control, was amended by this Order. The amendment includes numerous items or equipment involving radiation or radioactive materials. It came into effect on 1 December 1990. (NEA)

  4. 77 FR 35310 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Training Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... for foreign made ``military commodities'' that incorporate more than 10% U.S.-origin ``600 series... Military Training Equipment and Related Items the President Determines No Longer Warrant Control Under the... longer warrant control under Category IX (Military Training Equipment and Training) of the United States...

  5. 77 FR 25932 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Energetic Materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... 1B608 that is ``specially designed'' for the ``production'' of rocket propellants; oxidizers or mixtures... would control equipment for the ``production'' of explosives and solid propellants, currently controlled...), this rule would move ``equipment'' for the ``production'' of explosives and solid propellants...

  6. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... that are generally: a. Characterized by high nickel, very low carbon content and use substitutional... the ``development'' of fly-by-wire control systems), 0E521 No. 6 (for ``technology'' for the...

  7. Engaging China in the International Export Control Process: Options for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldman, Charles

    1995-01-01

    This documented briefing is intended to provide options for U.S. policy that will enhance China's participation in the control of international transfers of destabilizing military or dual use technology...

  8. High contrast sensitivity for visually guided flight control in bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Aravin; Kelber, Almut; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-12-01

    Many insects rely on vision to find food, to return to their nest and to carefully control their flight between these two locations. The amount of information available to support these tasks is, in part, dictated by the spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity of their visual systems. Here, we investigate the absolute limits of these visual properties for visually guided position and speed control in Bombus terrestris. Our results indicate that the limit of spatial vision in the translational motion detection system of B. terrestris lies at 0.21 cycles deg -1 with a peak contrast sensitivity of at least 33. In the perspective of earlier findings, these results indicate that bumblebees have higher contrast sensitivity in the motion detection system underlying position control than in their object discrimination system. This suggests that bumblebees, and most likely also other insects, have different visual thresholds depending on the behavioral context.

  9. Hydrologic controls on the export dynamics of dissolved and particulate phosphorus in a lowland, headwater agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2014-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability controls eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, since P is generally the limiting nutrient to algal development. The contribution of diffuse P emission to surface waters is significant in intensively livestock farmed catchments as a result of high application rates of P-rich animal waste and subsequent enrichment of soils. This study investigates the transport dynamics of particulate phosphorus (PP), suspended sediments (SS), and dissolved phosphorus (DP) with the aim of elucidating the relationship between PP and DP transport mechanisms and water dynamics in lowland, headwater catchments. The selected catchment (Kervidy-Naizin catchment, France) is particularly suitable for this purpose as it benefits of a 5 years, high-frequency monitoring of PP and DP concentrations at its outlet, including data recovered both during base flow and storm periods, with the monitoring of more than 50 storm flow events. The data analysis includes interpretation of concentration-discharge relationships at the annual time scale and on an event basis, seasonal analysis of flood characteristics and empirical modeling. Annual DP and PP concentration-discharge relationships of interflood samples display a hysteretic pattern, with higher concentrations during the autumn and spring periods, and progressive decrease during winter. No hysteretic pattern is visible for interflood SS concentration, which follows a classical C=a*Qb relationship. During floods, the dynamic of PP export is similar to that of SS during most of the events: the concentration peak occurs during the rising limb of the hydrogram (clockwise hysteresis), suggesting a source close to or within the stream. The amplitude and the hysteresis' loop size for SS and PP are a function of maximum discharge and rate of change in discharge. On the contrary, there is a strong decoupling between DP and SS (and thus PP) during most of the floods (no significant correlation), with DP concentration peaks

  10. 78 FR 45026 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Military Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... ECCN 3A611.c and .d should cover microwave monolithic integrated circuits and discrete microwave... and are not controlled. One commenter noted that placing monolithic microware integrated circuit power...: One commenter recommended removing the technical parameters for microwave monolithic integrated...

  11. 76 FR 80291 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Submersible Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... rule and to avoid, to the extent possible, situations where transactions would require licenses from... align the CCL with the WAML and the Missile Technology Control Regime Equipment, Software and Technology..., which currently impose a license requirement for five countries. A license also would be required, in...

  12. Mercury exports from a High-Arctic river basin in Northeast Greenland (74°N) largely controlled by glacial lake outburst floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.; Elberling, Bo

    2015-01-01

    .025 mg kg(-1). Temporal variations in river Hg were mainly associated with snowmelt, sudden erosion events, and outburst floods from a glacier-dammed lake in the upper part of the ZRB. Annual Hg exports from the 514 km(2) ZRB varied from 0.71 to >1.57 kg and the majority (86-96 was associated...... with sediment-bound Hg. Hg yields from the ZRB varied from 1.4-3.1 g Hg km(-2) yr(-1) and were among the highest yields reported from Arctic river basins. River exports of Hg from ZRB were found to be largely controlled by the frequency, magnitude and timing of the glacial lake outburst floods, which occurred...... in four of the five years in July-August. Floods accounted for 5 to >10% of the annual water discharge, and up to >31% of the annual Hg export. Also, the winter snowfall and the summer temperatures were found to be important indirect controls on the annual Hg export. The occurrence and timing of glacial...

  13. A study on strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime through the export control system of sensitive materials, equipment and technology related to nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Mitsuru; Komizo, Yasuyoshi

    2004-01-01

    The strengthened safeguards caused from safeguards experiences to Iraq and DPRK leads to the expansion of the IAEA's activities for verification of all nuclear activities as well as verification of nuclear material in the States. The purpose of the activities, of course, includes detection of undeclared exports and imports of specified equipment and non-nuclear material. The Additional Protocol to the agreements between States and the IAEA for the application of safeguards requires to the States to declare the exports and imports information regarding specified equipment and non-nuclear material corresponding to the export control list that is established by the nuclear suppliers group. The Additional Protocol also insists the IAEA's right to access to the location identified by the State to resolve a question related to the declarations. Recently, the IAEA detected the black market group of the sensitive materials, equipment and technologies relevant to the nuclear proliferation through the safeguards activities to Iran and Libya. International community stated deeply concerns to the indecent facts. This paper would discuss and propose the supplemental strengthening measures of non-proliferation regime by effective combination of the safeguards activities under additional protocol and the export control regime. (author)

  14. Safeguarding America's Critical Technologies (and Avoiding Personal Risk) An Introduction to Export Control and Critical Technology Restrictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babcock, Wade

    2002-01-01

    .... Use of safes, secure buildings and rooms, proper handling, labeling and storage are all part of the day-to-day world of dealing with classified information but how much do you know about export...

  15. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  16. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  17. Development of the automatic control rod operation system for JOYO. Verification of automatic control rod operation guide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terakado, Tsuguo; Suzuki, Shinya; Kawai, Masashi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Ohkubo, Toshiyuki

    1999-10-01

    The automatic control rod operation system was developed to control the JOYO reactor power automatically in all operation modes(critical approach, cooling system heat up, power ascent, power descent), development began in 1989. Prior to applying the system, verification tests of the automatic control rod operation guide system was conducted during 32nd duty cycles of JOYO' from Dec. 1997 to Feb. 1998. The automatic control rod operation guide system consists of the control rod operation guide function and the plant operation guide function. The control rod operation guide function provides information on control rod movement and position, while the plant operation guide function provide guidance for plant operations corresponding to reactor power changes(power ascent or power descent). Control rod insertion or withdrawing are predicted by fuzzy algorithms. (J.P.N.)

  18. On-stream analysis of iron ore and its potential for improving export quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An on-stream iron ore analyser has been developed in collaboration with Hamersley Iron Pty. Limited for determining the iron content of both lump (-30+6 mm particle size) and fines (-6 mm particle size) on conveyor belts. The analyser, which is called IRONSCAN, is based on pair production, and is now commercially available from Mineral Control Instrumentation Limited (MCI) in Adelaide. It can be mounted under existing conveyor belts with minimal modifications to the conveyor structure, and the presence of steel cables in the belt does not interfere once the analyser has been correctly calibrated. The analyser has been extensively tested on both lump and fines on the shiploading conveyor at Dampier, and typically the root mean square (r.m.s.) deviation between single IRONSCAN measurements and conventional chemical analyses is better than 0.5% Fe. It is currently being evaluated on - 150 mm ore from the primary crusher at Mount Tom Price, and initial results are encouraging. The principal advantage of IRONSCAN is that it provides rapid information on ore grades. But perhaps its greatest potential is at the primary crusher where conventional sampling and analysis is very expensive to implement. 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. US exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the past, present, and future of US coal exports. It is expected that in the 1990's, the following factors will be evident: Significant increases in coal production and port capacity in Australia and South Africa, but little in Canada; Potentially significant increase in coal production and port capacity in Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia; Continued movement away from subsidized indigenous coal production in Europe and Japan. A substantial growth in world coal trade; Stronger growth in energy demand in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Significantly fewer additions to nuclear generating capacity in the 1990s than in the 1980s; Reduced coal production in Eastern Europe from that of the 1980s; Greater caution will be exercised in putting in new coal production capacity

  20. Remote-controlled vision-guided mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ande, Raymond; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of the remote controlled emergency stop and vision systems for an autonomous mobile robot. The remote control provides human supervision and emergency stop capabilities for the autonomous vehicle. The vision guidance provides automatic operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The mobile robot (Bearcat) was built for the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS) 1997 competition. The mobile robot has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and an obstacle avoidance system using ultrasonic sensors systems. Vision guidance is accomplished using two CCD cameras with zoom lenses. The vision data is processed by a high speed tracking device, communicating with the computer the X, Y coordinates of blobs along the lane markers. The system also has three emergency stop switches and a remote controlled emergency stop switch that can disable the traction motor and set the brake. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results that show that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles.

  1. The Impact of U.S. Export Control and Technology Transfer Regime on the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Project'A UK Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    David Moore; Peter Ito; Stuart Young; Kevin Burgess; Peter Antill

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) The research assessed the international impact of the U.S. export control and technology transfer regime, with a focus on the UK experience with the U.S. requirements as they relate to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and the impact on logistical support for the JSF fleet. UK government and industry representatives indicated agreement with the goals of U.S. policy, skepticism regarding the impact of those policies on effective project man...

  2. Export insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    These notes are intended as a general guide for the use of members of the Canadian Nuclear Association who are, or may become, involved in supplying goods or services or contracting/ erecting as part of a contract to supply a nuclear facility to an overseas country. They give information to the type of insurances needed and available, the parties normally responsible for providing the coverages, the intent and operation of the various policies, general methods of charging premiums, and main exclusions

  3. 77 FR 71213 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) To Make the Commerce Control List (CCL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... correct a grammatical error in 6C992 by removing the word ``which'' and adding in its place the word... introductory portion of Category 2, Product Group E, and the introductory Notes to Category 5, Parts I and II... exporters, reexporters and transferors, stating the following: ``See Categories V and XIV of the United...

  4. Communication from the Permanent Mission of Israel to the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter dated 13 July 2004 from the Permanent Mission of Israel providing information on Israel's nuclear export policies and practices. As requested by the Permanent Mission, the letter and document attached to it are reproduced herein for the information of Member States

  5. 75 FR 7548 - Amendments to the Select Agents Controls in Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) 1C360 on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Commerce Control List (CCL) to reflect changes that the Animal Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs (PPQ... Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS), U.S. Department of Agriculture, recently made to the Plant...

  6. Long-Term Observations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Paired-Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, M D; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Craiovan, E; Topp, E; Que, Z; Seidou, O; Frey, S K; Lapen, D R

    2015-09-01

    Controlled tile drainage (CTD) regulates water and nutrient export from tile drainage systems. Observations of the effects of CTD imposed en masse at watershed scales are needed to determine the effect on downstream receptors. A paired-watershed approach was used to evaluate the effect of field-to-field CTD at the watershed scale on fluxes and flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) of N and P during multiple growing seasons. One watershed (467-ha catchment area) was under CTD management (treatment [CTD] watershed); the other (250-ha catchment area) had freely draining or uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) (reference [UCTD] watershed). The paired agricultural watersheds are located in eastern Ontario, Canada. Analysis of covariance and paired tests were used to assess daily fluxes and FWMCs during a calibration period when CTD intervention on the treatment watershed was minimal (2005-2006, when only 4-10% of the tile-drained area was under CTD) and a treatment period when the treatment (CTD) watershed had prolific CTD intervention (2007-2011 when 82% of tile drained fields were controlled, occupying >70% of catchment area). Significant linear regression slope changes assessed using ANCOVA ( ≤ 0.1) for daily fluxes from upstream and downstream monitoring sites pooled by calibration and treatment period were -0.06 and -0.20 (stream water) (negative values represent flux declines in CTD watershed), -0.59 and -0.77 (NH-N), -0.14 and -0.15 (NO-N), -1.77 and -2.10 (dissolved reactive P), and -0.28 and 0.45 (total P). Total P results for one site comparison contrasted with other findings likely due to unknown in-stream processes affecting total P loading, not efficacy of CTD. The FWMC results were mixed and inconclusive but suggest physical abatement by CTD is the means by which nutrient fluxes are predominantly reduced at these scales. Overall, our study results indicate that CTD is an effective practice for reducing watershed scale fluxes of stream water, N, and P

  7. Winter Ground Temperatures Control Snowmelt DOC Export From a Discontinuous Permafrost Watershed: A Multi-Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    For discontinuous and continuous permafrost watersheds, the largest mass flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) occurs during the snowmelt period. During this time, available allochtonous organic carbon that has accumulated over the winter in frozen organic soils is rapidly flushed to the basin outlet. While this process has been observed now in many river systems of different size and location, there have been few inter-annual reports on the mass of DOC loss and the factors controlling its variability during freshet. Hydrological and DOC fluxes were recorded for the 2002, 2003 and 2006 snowmelt season with supplementary over-winter data for an 8 square kilometer sub-basin (Granger Basin) of the Wolf Creek Research Basin, Yukon Territory, Canada. Granger Basin is an alpine catchment above treeline underlain with discontinuous permafrost (approximately 70 %) and has widespread surface organic soils up to 0.4 m in thickness. Pre-melt snow water equivalent varied widely throughout the basin, yet was greatest in 2006, followed by 2002 and 2003. Ground temperatures were notably colder throughout the 2003 winter compared with 2006 and 2002. For all years, discharge began in mid-May, and was a continuous event in 2002 and 2006. In 2003 four distinct melt-periods were observed due to rising and falling temperatures. During freshet, stream DOC concentration increased rapidly from 15 mg C/L on the first ascending limb of the hydrograph in each year. In 2003, DOC was largely flushed from the catchment several weeks prior to peak freshet. DOC concentration in wells and piezometers followed a similar pattern to streamflow DOC, with 2003 groundwater DOC concentrations less than 2002 and 2006. The total mass flux of DOC during freshet was 0.85, 0.45 and 1.01 g C/m2 for 2002, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Despite differences in pre-melt snow accumulation, the timing of melt and the volume of discharge, it appears that spring DOC export is largely controlled by over-winter ground

  8. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  9. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the…

  10. Hydrological Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Export in a Coastal River System in Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Osburn, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from river catchments can influence the biogeochemical processes in coastal environments with implications for water quality and carbon budget. High flow conditions are responsible for most DOM export ("pulses") from watersheds, and these events reduce DOM transformation and production by "shunting" DOM from river networks into coastal waters: the Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC). Subsequently, the source and quality of DOM is also expected to change as a function of river flow. Here, we used stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations ([DOC]) along with DOM optical properties, such as absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and fluorescence excitation and emission matrices modeled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to characterize DOM source, quality and fluxes under variable flow conditions for the Neuse River, a coastal river system in the southeastern US. Observations were made at a flow gauged station above head of tide periodically between Aug 2011 and Feb 2013, which captured low flow periods in summer and several high flow events including Hurricane Irene. [DOC] and a350 were correlated and varied positively with river flow, implying that a large portion of the DOM was colored, humic and flow-mobilized. During high flow conditions, PARAFAC results demonstrated the higher influx of terrestrial humic DOM, and lower in-stream phytoplankton production or microbial degradation. However, during low flow, DOM transformation and production increased in response to higher residence times and elevated productivity. Further, 70% of the DOC was exported by above average flows, where 3-4 fold increases in DOC fluxes were observed during episodic events, consistent with PSC. These results imply that storms dramatically affects DOM export to coastal waters, whereby high river flow caused by episodic events primarily shunt terrestrial DOM to coastal waters, whereas low flow promotes in-stream DOM transformation and amendment with microbial DOM.

  11. Political risk and export promotion: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Christoph; Nestmann, Thorsten; Wedow, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Political risk represents an important hidden transaction cost that reduces international trade. This paper investigates the claim that German public export credit guarantees (Hermes guarantees) mitigate this friction to trade flows and hence promote exports. We employ an empirical trade gravity model, where we explicitly control for political risk in the importing country in order to evaluate the effect of export guarantees. The idea behind export promotion through public export credit agenc...

  12. Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deirmendjian, Loris; Loustau, Denis; Augusto, Laurent; Lafont, Sébastien; Chipeaux, Christophe; Poirier, Dominique; Abril, Gwenaël

    2018-02-01

    We studied the export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from forested shallow groundwater to first-order streams, based on groundwater and surface water sampling and hydrological data. The selected watershed was particularly convenient for such study, with a very low slope, with pine forest growing on sandy permeable podzol and with hydrology occurring exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff). A forest plot was instrumented for continuous eddy covariance measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and net ecosystem exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as CO2 fluxes. Shallow groundwater was sampled with three piezometers located in different plots, and surface waters were sampled in six first-order streams; river discharge and drainage were modeled based on four gauging stations. On a monthly basis and on the plot scale, we found a good consistency between precipitation on the one hand and the sum of evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater storage and drainage on the other hand. DOC and DIC stocks in groundwater and exports to first-order streams varied drastically during the hydrological cycle, in relation with water table depth and amplitude. In the groundwater, DOC concentrations were maximal in winter when the water table reached the superficial organic-rich layer of the soil. In contrast, DIC (in majority excess CO2) in groundwater showed maximum concentrations at low water table during late summer, concomitant with heterotrophic conditions of the forest plot. Our data also suggest that a large part of the DOC mobilized at high water table was mineralized to DIC during the following months within the groundwater itself. In first-order streams, DOC and DIC followed an opposed seasonal trend similar to groundwater but with lower concentrations. On an annual basis, leaching of carbon to streams occurred as DIC and DOC in similar proportion, but DOC export occurred in

  13. Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Deirmendjian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC from forested shallow groundwater to first-order streams, based on groundwater and surface water sampling and hydrological data. The selected watershed was particularly convenient for such study, with a very low slope, with pine forest growing on sandy permeable podzol and with hydrology occurring exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff. A forest plot was instrumented for continuous eddy covariance measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and net ecosystem exchanges of sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as CO2 fluxes. Shallow groundwater was sampled with three piezometers located in different plots, and surface waters were sampled in six first-order streams; river discharge and drainage were modeled based on four gauging stations. On a monthly basis and on the plot scale, we found a good consistency between precipitation on the one hand and the sum of evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater storage and drainage on the other hand. DOC and DIC stocks in groundwater and exports to first-order streams varied drastically during the hydrological cycle, in relation with water table depth and amplitude. In the groundwater, DOC concentrations were maximal in winter when the water table reached the superficial organic-rich layer of the soil. In contrast, DIC (in majority excess CO2 in groundwater showed maximum concentrations at low water table during late summer, concomitant with heterotrophic conditions of the forest plot. Our data also suggest that a large part of the DOC mobilized at high water table was mineralized to DIC during the following months within the groundwater itself. In first-order streams, DOC and DIC followed an opposed seasonal trend similar to groundwater but with lower concentrations. On an annual basis, leaching of carbon to streams occurred as DIC and DOC in similar proportion, but DOC export

  14. Markups and Firm-Level Export Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Loecker, Jan; Warzynski, Frederic

    We derive an estimating equation to estimate markups using the insight of Hall (1986) and the control function approach of Olley and Pakes (1996). We rely on our method to explore the relationship between markups and export behavior using plant-level data. We find significantly higher markups when...... we control for unobserved productivity shocks. Furthermore, we find significant higher markups for exporting firms and present new evidence on markup-export status dynamics. More specifically, we find that firms' markups significantly increase (decrease) after entering (exiting) export markets. We...... see these results as a first step in opening up the productivity-export black box, and provide a potential explanation for the big measured productivity premia for firms entering export markets....

  15. Evaluation of friction forces between control bars and guide tubes of CAREM fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Fiori, Jose M.; Yedros, Pablo A.

    2003-01-01

    The design of the MSAC (Mecanismo del Sistema de ajuste y control, Mechanism of the Adjustment and control system, MACS) for CAREM reactor shall consider all loads that the reactor shall support during its operation. Several charges are originated by friction forces produced on contact points of the control Bars/Guide tubes assembly against other components. A test facility was designed and manufactured for the determination of friction components and the damping characteristics of the assembly formed by guide tubes fuel element, the control bars and the guide of the bar of the MACS. In this work a description of the test performed and the results obtained is presented. (author)

  16. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Le-Anh, Tuan; Koster, René

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict resolution. We discuss and classify important models and results from key publications in literature on automated guided vehicle systems, including often-neglected areas, such as idle-vehicle positionin...

  17. Pain and anxiety control: an online study guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover pain theories and dentin hypersensitivity, referred pain, oral pain not of dental origin, barodontalgia, local anesthetics, long-acting local anesthetics, intrapulpal anesthesia, intraligamentary anesthesia, intraosseous anesthesia, inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia, Gow-Gates anesthesia technique, Vazirani-Akinosi anesthesia technique, second-division block anesthesia technique, endodontic postoperative pain, effect of occlusal adjustment on endodontic pain, paresthesia associated with periradicular pathosis, analgesics, sedation, and endodontic flare-ups.

  18. Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base. Volume 1. Summary Report, and Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    el que se aprueba el reglamento del comercio exterior de material de defensa y de doble uso • Ley Orgánica 12...export restrictions. A-63 S T P I 60 Supplying Other Primes • India (ISRO), Israel ( El -Opt, Israel Aircraft Industries), Japan...200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 A lg er ia Ar ge nt in a A us tra lia B el ar us Br az il C an ad a C hi le Eg yp t In do ne si a Ira n Is ra el

  19. Ultrasound guided versus landmark guided corticosteroid injection in patients with rotator cuff syndrome: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayana, Himanshu; Mishra, Puneet; Tandon, Anupama; Pankaj, Amite; Pandey, Rohit; Malhotra, Raskesh

    2018-03-01

    Impingement syndrome is the most common differential in a patient presenting to an orthopaedic OPD with shoulder pain. Impingement syndrome is often managed with subacromial corticosteroid injection, which can be instilled using either landmark guided (LMG) approach or with the assistance of ultrasound (US). This study was envisaged to enquire whether ultrasound assistance improves the accuracy, efficacy or safety profile of the injection. 60 patients of rotator cuff syndrome underwent diagnostic ultrasound. They were randomly assigned to receive subacromial injection of 2 ml (40 mg/ml) methylprenisolone and 2 ml of 1% lignocaine combination either by US assistance (n = 30) or using LMG assistance (n = 30). The patients were evaluated before injection and on follow up visits at day 5, week 3, week 6 and 3rd month by a single assessor. The assessor was blinded of the treatment group to which patient belonged. Clinical assessment included demographic and clinical data, accuracy of injection, VAS (0-100) for pain, Constant score with goniometer evaluation of range of motion, patient's self assessment proforma and post injection side effects if any. Initial demographic, clinical and US findings in the groups exhibited no significant differences. The accuracy of US guided injections (100%) was more when compared from LMG injection (93.3%). Both VAS and Constant score showed significant improvement following steroid injection up to 3 months of follow up. However the differences in the two groups were not significant suggesting comparable efficacy of the two approaches. (Mean VAS score decrease: 27.23 for US and 25.16 for LMG, p guided injections have a higher accuracy of drug placement in the subacromial bursa, there is no difference in terms of clinical outcomes or safety profile of either of the method. Hence US guided injections seems to be unjustified, when compared to equally efficacious and cost effective LMG steroid injection.

  20. Pace-capture-guided ablation after contact-force-guided pulmonary vein isolation: results of the randomized controlled DRAGON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Fujita, Masashi; Iida, Osamu; Okamoto, Shin; Ishihara, Takayuki; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Sunaga, Akihiro; Tsujimura, Takuya; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Takuya; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2017-11-17

    Before the discovery of contact-force guidance, eliminating pacing capture along the pulmonary vein (PV) isolation line had been reported to improve PV isolation durability and rhythm outcomes. DRAGON (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000015332) aimed to elucidate the efficacy of pace-capture-guided ablation following contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. A total of 156 paroxysmal AF patients with AF-trigger ectopies from any of the four PVs induced by isoproterenol were randomly assigned to undergo pace-capture-guided ablation along a contact-force-guided isolation line around AF-trigger PVs (PC group, n = 76) or contact-force-guided PV isolation ablation alone (control group, n = 80). Follow-up of at least 1 year commenced with serial 24 h Holter and symptom-triggered ambulatory monitoring. There was no significant difference in acute PV reconnection rates during a 20 min waiting period after the last ablation or adenosine infusion testing between the PC and the control groups (per patient, 21% vs. 27%, P = 0.27; per AF-trigger PV, 5.9% vs. 7.3%, P = 0.70; and per non-AF-trigger PV, 7.1% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.92). Atrial tachyarrhythmia-free survival rates off antiarrhythmic drugs after the initial session were comparable at 19.3 ± 6.2 months between the two groups (82% vs. 80%, P = 0.80). Among 22 patients who required a second ablation procedure, there was no difference between the PC and the control groups in the PV reconnection rates at both previously AF-trigger (29% vs. 43%, P = 0.70) and non-AF-trigger PVs (18% vs. 19%, P = 0.88). Pace-capture-guided ablation performed after contact-force-guided PV isolation demonstrated no improvement in PV isolation durability or rhythm outcome. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Analyzing Crime and Crime Control: A Resource Guide. Economics-Political Science Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Ruth I.; And Others

    This document, the fourth in a series of resource guides emphasizing economic-political analysis of contemporary public policies and issues, focuses on crime control. Designed as a three-week unit for secondary school students, the guide is presented in three sections. The introduction presents an economic and a political science framework for…

  2. A Review Of Design And Control Of Automated Guided Vehicle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Anh (Tuan); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review on design and control of automated guided vehicle systems. We address most key related issues including guide-path design, estimating the number of vehicles, vehicle scheduling, idle-vehicle positioning, battery management, vehicle routing, and conflict

  3. Computer tomography guided lung biopsy using interactive breath-hold control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Krag-Andersen, Shella; Naqibullah, Matiullah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interactive breath-hold control (IBC) may improve the accuracy and decrease the complication rate of computed tomography (CT)-guided lung biopsy, but this presumption has not been proven in a randomized study. Methods: Patients admitted for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomized...

  4. Aerobic Digestion. Biological Treatment Process Control. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This unit on aerobic sludge digestion covers the theory of the process, system components, factors that affect the process performance, standard operational concerns, indicators of steady-state operations, and operational problems. The instructor's guide includes: (1) an overview of the unit; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of…

  5. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  6. Novel needle guide reduces time to perform ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Alparslan; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Maheshwari, Kamal; Farag, Ehab; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Soliman, Loran Mounir; Sessler, Daniel I

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks have become the standard when performing regional nerve blocks in anaesthesia. Infiniti Plus (CIVCO Medical Solutions, Kalona, Iowa, USA) is a needle guide that has been recently developed to help clinicians in performing ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. We tested the hypothesis that femoral nerve catheter placement carried out with the Infiniti Plus needle guide will be quicker to perform than without the Infiniti Plus. Secondary aims were to assess whether the Infiniti Plus needle guide decreased the number of block attempts and also whether it improved needle visibility. A randomised, controlled trial. Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. We enrolled adult patients having elective total knee arthroplasty with a femoral nerve block and femoral nerve catheter. Patients, who were pregnant or those who had preexisting neuropathy involving the surgical limb, coagulopathy, infection at the block site or allergy to local anaesthetics were excluded. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive the ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement with or without the Infiniti Plus needle guide. The time taken to place the femoral nerve catheter, the number of attempts, the success rate and needle visibility were recorded. We used an overall α of 0.05 for both the primary and secondary analyses; the secondary analyses were Bonferroni corrected to control for multiple comparisons. The median (interquartile range Q1 to Q3) time to perform the femoral nerve catheter placement was 118 (100 to 150) s with Infiniti Plus and 177 (130 to 236) s without Infiniti Plus. Infiniti Plus significantly reduced the time spent performing femoral nerve catheterisation, with estimated ratio of means [(95% confidence interval), P value] of 0.67 [(0.60 to 0.75), P Infiniti Plus compared with no Infiniti Plus. However, Infiniti Plus had no effect on the odds of a successful femoral nerve catheter placement, number of attempts or percentage of perfect

  7. A Study on Classification Cases in UAE BNPP Focused on Physical Breakdown Structure for the Establishment of Intelligent Export Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Hyo; Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    NSG and the international society haven't suggested a clear standard for EDP, but recommended every member of NSG to establish their own standard and control strategic item export. As a result, it is hard to sustain objectivity and consistency in examining thousands of items and technologies related to nuclear power plants through the existing methods that classifies strategic items with limited human resources. Its long processing time may bring about a financial burden to the related companies as well. Accordingly, it is more required to establish Intelligent eXport Control System (IXCS) than ever before so that a great many of strategic items can be effectively processed. To provide basic data used to establish IXCS, this study analyzed classification cases of Braka Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) in UAE mainly focusing on Physical Breakdown Structure (PBS). Due to commercial reactors exported to UAE and research reactors exported to Jordan, the number of classification requests is rapidly increasing in Korea. Therefore, it is required to develop IXCS that can assist an efficient and consistent decision on a great many classification request. This system will be developed to present the possibility that items could be strategic through analyzing characteristics (e.g. name, function, use, purpose, duplication, relation to nuclear activities, etc.). The result in this study that analyzed the linkage between PBS code and items, one of characteristics (use) cited above, will be used as weighting factor to classify items for developing the system. (e. g. PBS code 431 has weighting factor 0.7.) In addition, it can be more efficient to sort items which are likely to be strategic among all requests before processing classification requests growing exponentially. It is concluded that the linkage between PBS code and items will be used as filtering factor to select items which could be strategic accordingly. Henceforth, it is plan to derive highly reliable statistical results

  8. China: Possible Missile Technology Transfers from U.S. Satellite Export Policy - Actions and Chronology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2001-01-01

    .... Some critics opposed satellite exports to China, while others were concerned that the Clinton Administration relaxed export controls and monitoring of commercial satellites in moving the licensing...

  9. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy with reference to nuclear export control system, strategy toward IAEA, and NPT review conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Nam, Jang Soo; Lee, Han Myung

    1990-02-01

    The objectives of this study are follows: suggestion for i) our future nuclear development directions, ii) establishment of national export control system, iii) establishment of strategy toward IAEA, and suggestion of our standpoints toward the 4th NPT review conference. This study proposes the following; 1) It is desirable that nuclear power generation strategy is propelled under the premise of economics and proven technology. And international cooperation in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle should be reinforced. 2) It is recommened that nuclear export control system should be government-led. 3) Our country needs to make efforts in increasing the number of Korean staff in the IAEA, and to establish permanent mission which is wholly responsible for the IAEA affairs, and to construct a system which deals with nuclear foregin activities. 4) It is desirable that the basic position of our country toward the 4th NPT review conference should be : i) to urge parties to the NPT to conclude safeguards agreement with IAEA as early as possible, ii) to request nuclear suppliers to mitigate their nuclear technology for peaceful uses to nuclear developing countries, and iii) to urge nuclear weapon states to make further efforts for nuclear disarmament. (author)

  10. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  11. 75 FR 33989 - Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... 0694-AE69 Export Administration Regulations: Technical Corrections AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... section of Export Control Classification Number 2B001 and the other is in the Technical Note on Adjusted... language regarding certain performance criteria of turning machines covered by Export Control...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.942 - Export licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... writing, that the Agreement Officer authorize it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... appropriate licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Recipient shall be responsible for obtaining...

  13. 77 FR 34342 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ..., Luohu District, Shenzhen, 518001, China. On January 26, 2011, in the U.S. District Court, District of... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and violating Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Wu was convicted of illegally exporting...

  14. 77 FR 34340 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq. (2000)) (``IEEPA'') and Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2778 (2000)) (``AECA''). Specifically, Chitron- US was convicted of illegally exporting... components designated on the U.S. Munitions List to China through Hong Kong between 2004 and 2007. In...

  15. 78 FR 37785 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the... Order with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Industry and Security. The appeal must be filed within 45... the Internal Security Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. 783(b)), or section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  16. Exporting and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    different policy stance than typical in Africa. This is especially so in promoting export-oriented industry. If learning by exporting is a key driver of progress, then a fundamental reason for Africa's lack of transformation is likely to be the low policy priority given to export promotion in the past....... To enlarge the body of empirical evidence, we use an extensive 2005–2012 firm-level panel data set from Vietnam and separate out productivity effects of exporting due to self-selection. This allows us to conclude that firms actually learn by exporting. We also examine how this learning takes place. Our...... findings suggest that productivity gains are associated with moving to larger scale for foreign-owned firms with little evidence of subsequent learning on export markets. We find strong evidence to suggest that private domestic firms learn and accumulate knowledge from export markets with learning...

  17. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-01

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system

  18. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-15

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system.

  19. Nut tightening and bolt tension measuring apparatus for control guide tube with ultrasonic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzoni, M.

    1985-01-01

    Control rods are guided by elements set in the prolongation of the fuel assembly guide-tubes in which the control rods are introduced. These elements are inside guide-tubes fixed on the upper plate of the core by means of pins having a thread on which a nut is screwed bearing on the foot of the guide-tube. The pin is fixed inside the upper core plate by means of its lower part. An insufficient mechanical resistance and even failures have been observed with these pins. These failures have been involved by an unadequate screwing. The present invention proposes to control the pretension during the operation itself with an ultrasonic test [fr

  20. Cold War Arms Control Motivations and Techniques - A Guide for the Future?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Elmer

    1996-01-01

    .... This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  1. The results of CT-guided periradicular pain control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Arlinghaus, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of CT-guided periradicular pain therapy was studied. Material and method: 55 patients with lumbar and/or radicular pain were treated by periradicular injections of 40 ml triamcinolon, in some cases combined with injection of the facets of the lumbar vertebrae. 36 patients had chronic symptoms; in 7, these were acute, and 12 patients complained of renewed disc symptoms following previous disc surgery. Approximately 4 months after the conclusion of treatment, the patients were requested to complete a questionnaire giving information on the course and after-effects of treatment. The questionnaire was repeated after 5 months. Results: 55% of patients were free of symptoms or had had some improvement at the time of the questionnaire; 30% reported temporary improvement, and in 15% there was no change compared with the pre-treatment symptoms. At the time of the second questionnaire, the proportion of patients who had derived benefit from the treatment was somewhat lower. 49% reported that they were pain-free or improved, while temporary improvement was reported by 36% of patients. Conclusion: CT-guided periradicular pain therapy is a valuable procedure in patients in whom conservative measures prove ineffective, and when surgery is not indicated. However, only about half the treated patients maintain permanent improvement. (orig.) [de

  2. Rod cluster control assemblies and rod cluster control guide tubes: wear and drop time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbinden, M.

    1997-01-01

    The wear of RCCAs and of RCC guide tubes is due to two quite different mechanisms and the remedies to apply for each case might lead to contradictory solutions: - the impact/sliding wear for the seldom moving RCCAs, namely the shutdown RCCAs, under flow-induced vibrations, - the axial sliding wear for the control rods subjected to the stepping movements ordered by the acting load. In this case the hydraulic sticking forces are those which produce an evolution of the surface states that may increase the drop time. The introduction, an historical survey of the encountered difficulties, is followed by short description of the components and then the paper presents contributions of EDF in the R and D field, which take place in two successive multi-annual projects. Lastly, some information is given about the recent evolutions and new problems as well for impact/sliding wear as for drop time under normal or seismic conditions. (author)

  3. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  4. 48 CFR 1852.225-70 - Export Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... writing, that the Contracting Officer authorizes it to export ITAR-controlled technical data (including... licenses or other approvals, if required, for exports of hardware, technical data, and software, or for the provision of technical assistance. (b) The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining export licenses, if...

  5. 75 FR 842 - Action Affecting Export Privileges: Hailin Lin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... People's Republic of China (PRC) in violation of U.S. export control laws by failing to obtain the proper... (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706). Charge 1: 15 CFR 764.2(d)--Conspiracy To Export Electronic Components to the... was done so that Shipper's Export Declarations, which are filed with the U.S. Government and which...

  6. 75 FR 33682 - Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AE93 Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration... review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings...

  7. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  8. EKF-based fault detection for guided missiles flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Yang, Zhiyong; Liu, Yongjin

    2017-03-01

    The guided missiles flight control system is essential for guidance accuracy and kill probability. It is complicated and fragile. Since actuator faults and sensor faults could seriously affect the security and reliability of the system, fault detection for missiles flight control system is of great significance. This paper deals with the problem of fault detection for the closed-loop nonlinear model of the guided missiles flight control system in the presence of disturbance. First, set up the fault model of flight control system, and then design the residual generation based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the Eulerian-discrete fault model. After that, the Chi-square test was selected for the residual evaluation and the fault detention task for guided missiles closed-loop system was accomplished. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach proposed in the case of elevator fault separately.

  9. Radiological control guide for decommissioning of the TRIGA mark-2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of radiological control for TRIGA mark-2, 3 research reactors and facilities at the KAERI Seoul site, which are to be decommissioned, is in minimizing the radiation exposure for workers and in preventing the release of the radioactive materials to the environment. In order to accomplish these goal, the radiological control guide will be prepared during the decommissioning activities. Therefore, it is expected that this technical report can be used in preparing radiological control guide for safety decommissioning of the TRIGA mark-2, 3

  10. The Export Promoting Effect of Emigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne

    The theoretical claim that ethnic networks encourage trade has found broad empirical support in the literature on migration, business networks and international trade. Ethnic networks matter for the exporting firm, as they exhibit the potential to lower fixed and variable cost of exporting....... This paper provides a first attempt to identify the export-promoting effect of emigration on the firm level. Using detailed Danish firm-level data, we can parsimoniously control for export determinants other than emigration, unobserved heterogeneity at the firm level, as well as for self-selection of firms...... into exporting. Additionally accounting for taste similarity between Denmark and its trade partners, our findings suggest a positive effect of emigration on Danish manufacturing trade within Europe, thereby corroborating preceding studies on aggregate data. Nevertheless, as a novel insight, our analysis reveals...

  11. Family Food Choices: A Guide to Weight and Diabetes Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.

    Written for American Indians who have diabetes, this folder explains diabetes and outlines a weight control program and diet. The folder discusses the five things diabetics can do to help control their disease: lose weight, watch the amount and kind of fat eaten, eat more food with fiber, avoid sugar, and avoid alcohol. Charts for foods containing…

  12. Guide for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Venezuelan standard establishes the lines for the elaboration of plans to control emergencies. It includes general aspects for the control of any emergency originated by operational flaws, for the nature or for acts of third, in any industrial installation, working center, public or private building [es

  13. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  14. Unsolved problems in applying U.S. regulatory guides to control system equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stade, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Two current problems encountered when designing control systems to the United States Regulatory Guide requirements are discussed. They are: 1) Level of surge voltages that should be specified when procuring solid state control and instrumentation systems and equipment. 2) The approach to be used qualifying equipment that must meet the aging requirements. (author)

  15. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  16. Design and control of automated guided vehicle systems: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Adriaansen, A.C.; Udding, J.T.; Pogromski, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the design and control of automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, with the focus on the quayside container transport in an automated container terminal. We first set up an event-driven model for an AGV system in the zone control framework. Then a number of layouts of the road

  17. Control systems for power electronics a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the book covers most of the aspects as a primer on power electronics starting from a simple diode bridge to a DC-DC convertor using PWM control. The thyristor-bridge and the mechanism of designing a closed loop system are discussed in chapter one, two and three. The concepts are applied in the fourth chapter as a case study for buck converter which uses MOSFETs as switching devices and the closed loop system is elaborated in the fifth chapter. Chapter six is focused on the embedded system basics and the implementation of controls in the digital domain. Chapter seven is a case study of application of an embedded control system for a DC motor. With this book, the reader will find it easy to work on the practical control systems with microcontroller implementation. The core intent of this book is to help gain an accelerated learning path to practical control system engineering and transform control theory to an implementable control system through electronics. Illustrations are provided for most of...

  18. LED Retrofit Kits, TLEDs, and Lighting Controls: An Application Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    This document provides guidance for retrofitting existing fluorescent troffers including the LED and associated control options available, the pro/cons and costs/benefits of each option, and agency specific requirements (where applicable).

  19. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from...

  20. Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, Antonio; Newman, Carol; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the learning-by-exporting (LBE) hypothesis in the Mozambican context. Due to the presence of the ‘Born-Global’ phenomenon among exporters, we address the endogeneity introduced by self-selection, combining a generalised Blinder–Oaxaca approach with results from traditi...

  1. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  2. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA) [fr

  3. Wilmar Planning Tool, user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-15

    This is a short user guide to the Wilmar Planning Tool developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2002-00663). A User Shell implemented in an Excel workbook controls the Wilmar Planning Tool. All data are contained in Access databases that communicate with various sub-models through text files that are exported from or imported to the databases. In the User Shell various scenario variables and control parameters are set, and export of model data from the input database, activation of the models, as well as import of model results to the output database are triggered from the shell. (au)

  4. Wilmar Planning Tool, user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Helge V.

    2006-01-01

    This is a short user guide to the Wilmar Planning Tool developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2002-00663). A User Shell implemented in an Excel workbook controls the Wilmar Planning Tool. All data are contained in Access databases that communicate with various sub-models through text files that are exported from or imported to the databases. In the User Shell various scenario variables and control parameters are set, and export of model data from the input database, activation of the models, as well as import of model results to the output database are triggered from the shell. (au)

  5. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  6. Parameter tuning and cooperative control for automated guided vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, B.

    2005-01-01

    For several practical control engineering applications it is desirable that multiple systems can operate independently as well as in cooperation with each other. Especially when the transition between individual and cooperative behavior and vice versa can be carried out easily, this results in

  7. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  8. Guide: Monitoring Programme for unannounced inspections undertaken against the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is a guide to the Health Information and Quality Authority?s (the Authority) programme of monitoring service providers? compliance with the National Standards for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infections (referred to in this guide as the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards). This guide explains the approach that the Authority takes when monitoring the compliance of service providers ? including hospitals ? with the Infection, Prevention and Control Standards...

  9. 76 FR 80282 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Control of Vessels of War and Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... would require licenses from both the State Department and the Commerce Department. Following the... further align the CCL with the WAML and the Missile Technology Control Regime Equipment, Software and... antiterrorism (AT Column 1) controls, which currently impose a license requirement for five countries. A license...

  10. A user's guide to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    A guide to the use of the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program (FSD) is presented covering input requirements, control words, orbit generation, spacecraft description and simulation options, and output definition. The program can be used in dynamics and control analysis as well as in orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. The program is applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth oriented or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. Internal and external environmental effects can be simulated.

  11. Controlled Hyperthermia with MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Steffen; Salomir, Rares; Pedersen, Michael

    Introduction: Hyperthermia is an appealing oncological treatment since the significant regions of hypoxia contained in most solid tumours are known to be sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of heat. However, due to the seemingly insurmountable technical difficulties associated with delivering thermal......-sensitive promoters and localized drug delivery using thermo-sensitive micro-carriers. Subjects Here we will present some of the recent advances in MRI-FUS, and their technical background. This will include: 1) Real-time MRI-thermometry. 2) FUS-technology. 3) Temporal and Spatial temperature control using MRI...... and penetration depth are governed by the wavelength. Hence for US it is possible to body non-invasively position sub-millimeter focal points in deep seated regions of the. Temperature Control: Most solid tumours cover volumes larger than that of the focal region. This problem may be reduced somewhat...

  12. Doping control analyses in horseracing: a clinician's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2014-04-01

    Doping(1) in sports is highly detrimental, not only to the athletes involved but to the sport itself as well as to the confidence of the spectators and other participants. To protect the integrity of any sport, there must be in place an effective doping control program. In human sports, a 'top-down' and generally unified approach is taken where the rules and regulations against doping for the majority of elite sport events held in any country are governed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). However, in horseracing, there is no single organisation regulating this form of equestrian sport; instead, the rules and regulations are provided by individual racing authorities and so huge variations exist in the doping control programs currently in force around the world. This review summarises the current status of doping control analyses in horseracing, from sample collection, to the analyses of the samples, and to the need for harmonisation as well as exploring some of the difficulties currently faced by racing authorities, racing chemists and regulatory veterinarians worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    2001-03-26

    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  14. Design guides for cell atmosphere controls, utilities and fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, A.J. Jr.; Peishel, F.L.; Slattery, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    Facilities for handling radioactive and toxic materials must be designed not only for efficient operation, but also for protection of the operating personnel and the public. The ventilation system is of primary importance in maintaining containment of any airborne radioactivity. The type, number, and location of in-cell services must be adequate for planned operations, but also must allow flexibility to accommodate expansion in the scope of operations or changes in programs. Fire protection systems and operational controls are mandatory to maintain containment of radioactivity in the event of an operating error or process accident that may result in a fire

  15. Instrumentation and control systems important to safety in nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for establishing safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (the Requirements for Design), which establishes the design requirements for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide describes how the requirements should be met for instrumentation and control (I and C) systems important to safety. This publication is a revision and combination of two previous Safety Guides: Safety Series Nos 50-SG-D3 and 50-SG-D8, which are superseded by this new Safety Guide. The revision takes account of developments in I and C systems important to safety since the earlier Safety Guides were published in 1980 and 1984, respectively. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the design of I and C systems important to safety in nuclear power plants, including all I and C components, from the sensors allocated to the mechanical systems to the actuated equipment, operator interfaces and auxiliary equipment. This Safety Guide deals mainly with design requirements for those I and C systems that are important to safety. It expands on paragraphs of Ref in the area of I and C systems important to safety. This publication is intended for use primarily by designers of nuclear power plants and also by owners and/or operators and regulators of nuclear power plants. This Safety Guide provides general guidance on I and C systems important to safety which is broadly applicable to many nuclear power plants. More detailed requirements and limitations for safe operation specific to a particular plant type should be established as part of the design process. The present guidance is focused on the design principles for systems important to safety that warrant particular attention, and should be applied to both the design of new I and C systems and the modernization of existing systems. Guidance is provided on how design

  16. Cutting of Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps at Wuergassen NPP/ Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralf Loock

    2006-01-01

    KWW Nuclear Power Plant has been erected and put into operation in the time period 1968 to end of 1971. In 23 years of operation about 73 billions kWh electric power have been generated. The electric rated power was 670 MW. In May 1995 the decommission was started for economical reasons, since April 1997 the demolition is in progress. In autumn 2003 FANP has been called upon to cut the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps. After a 10 months preparatory phase, cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps was started in September 2004. For radiation protection reasons the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps were cut and packed remote controlled under water. The cutting process had been selected particularly under consideration of radiation protection aspects. A combination of the technologies band sawing and nibbling was assigned for cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps. The band saw consists of a substructure and of a feed system installed on it. The feed system can be equipped with one or two band saws optionally. A turntable is integrated in the substructure. It is used to support the CRGT respectively the residual piece of the CRGT and to move it out of the cut position after finishing the cutting. After getting the agreement to the specification, the equipment has been designed and manufactured according to the specification preferences. After finishing the internal testing, the factory acceptance test as well as acceptance and functional tests of every facility were carried out. After cold testing being performed successfully, the cutting equipment was installed in the NPP and checked for operational safety additionally. Cutting of the Control Rod Guide Tubes and Jet Pumps has been carried out on two working places inside the fuel element storage pool. During the total project duration on site the processing has been supervised by the radiation protection staff permanently. As a result 110 Control Rod Guide Tubes and 18 Jet Pumps were

  17. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  18. Effect of guided relaxation and imagery on falls self-efficacy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Newton, Roberta A; Sachs, Michael L; Glutting, Joseph J; Glanz, Karen

    2012-06-01

    To examine the effects of guided relaxation and imagery (GRI) on improvement in falls self-efficacy in older adults who report having a fear of falling. Randomized, controlled trial with allocation to GRI or guided relaxation with music of choice. General community. Ninety-one men and women aged 60 to 92. Participants were randomized to listen to a GRI audio compact disk (intervention group) or a guided relaxation audio compact disk and music of choice (control group) twice a week for 6 weeks for 10 minutes per session. Primary outcome measure was the Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Secondary outcome measures were the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) mobility test. GRI participants reported greater improvements on the Short FES-I (P = .002) and LTEQ (P = .001) scores and shorter time on the TUG (P = .002) than the guided relaxation and music-of-choice group. GRI was more effective at increasing falls self-efficacy and self-reported leisure time exercise and reducing times on a simple mobility test than was guided relaxation with music of choice. GRI is an effective, simple, low-cost tool for older adults to improve falls self-efficacy and leisure time exercise behaviors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. 78 FR 37570 - Certain Products Containing Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Interactive Program Guide and Parental Control Technology; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public... questions regarding filing should contact the Secretary (202-205-2000). Any person desiring to submit a... taken under the authority of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1337), and of...

  20. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  1. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  2. Electrical Procedures and Environmental Control Systems. Building Maintenance. Module IV. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Garry

    This curriculum guide, one of six modules keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides materials for two units on electrical procedures and environmental control systems. Unit 1, on electrical procedures, includes the following lessons: electrical safety; troubleshooting and…

  3. 78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8175] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Aguirre, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political... conviction in a criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative...

  4. 75 FR 13330 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6924] Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment... Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, (202) 663-2980... criminal proceeding, conducted by a United States Court, and as such the administrative debarment...

  5. Coal exports still growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the swings and roundabouts of the Asian economic shake out and Australian dollar devaluation are starting to work their way through the Australian export coal market. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, at this stage the results are not proving to be as bad as were at first predicted by some market watchers. Export revenue and tonnages are up 12% for the year to July 98. Coal exports totaling $9.5 billion left Australia's shores in the 12 months confirming coal as Australia's single largest export revenue earner. Sales volumes in the present financial year are still increasing, the market being driven by steadily increasing Asian demand for steaming coal from places like Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

  6. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  7. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  8. Valie EXPORT Society. Overlok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Valie EXPORT Society asutasid 23. okt. 1999. a. Frankfurdis Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets, kui olid külastanud austria naiskunstniku Valie Exporti näitust. Rühmituse aktsioonide kirjeldus

  9. Valie EXPORT Society Rooseumis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Malmös Rooseumi Kaasaegse Kunsti Keskuses näitus "Baltic Babel". Projekt koosneb Läänemeremaade linnades tegutsevate innovatiivsete gruppide aktsioonidest. Kuraator Charles Esche. Esinejatest (Eestist Valie Export Society: Kadi Estland, Killu Sukmit)

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Forogh, Bijan; Moeini-Taba, Seyed-Mohammad; Abedini, Amin; Kadkhodaie, Mona; Jahanjoo, Fateme; Eftekharsadat, Bina

    2018-04-01

    To review the literature and assess the comparative effectiveness of ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided local corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (from inception to February 1, 2017). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided injection with landmark-guided injection in patients with CTS were included. Two authors independently screened abstracts and full texts. The outcomes of interest were Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) scores of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL). Overall, 569 abstracts were retrieved and checked for eligibility; finally, 3 RCTs were included (181 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective in SSS improvement (mean difference [MD], -.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to -.32; P.99), DML (MD, .05; 95% CI, -.30 to .39; P=.80), or DSL (MD, .00; 95% CI, -.65 to .65; P>.99). This review suggested that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective than landmark-guided injection in symptom severity improvement in patients with CTS; however, no significant differences were observed in functional status or electrodiagnostic improvements between the 2 methods. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Eclipse system for surveying the guide tubes of control rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Eclipse is a new system developed by Areva to assess the wear of the guide tubes of control rod clusters. This system is based on the projection of a shadow on a light plan in order to record the profile and the internal diameter of a hollow tube. This system allows us to quantify the wear and it can be included in a program dedicated to monitor the wear and master its kinetics. This system has been validated on the guide tubes from the Ringhals units. (A.C.)

  12. Power, leadership and control of the distribution companies in the export of fresh vegetables from Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Avilés Ochoa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A key concept in the construction of the paradigm of global value chains is governance, for its constitution the variables of power, leadership and control are essential. The research focuses on Sinaloa vegetable distributors in the U.S.A. market, which reveals the interaction between regions of different countries for the formation of a horticultural value chain. The result is an index that defines which of the actors, involved in the fresh produce trade, practices more governance.

  13. Effect of Acetic and Lactic Acid Mixtures on Control of Quarantine Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Exporting Cymbidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixture (MX of acetic acid (AA and lactic acid (LA was examined for its effectiveness in the control of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus contaminated in cymbidium culture medium. Nematode mortality in vitro was nearly 100% in AA and MX at the concentrations of 5.0-1.0% (pH 2.6 – 4.2 and in LA only at 5.0% (pH 3.5, but lowered at concentrations of 0.5-0.1% (pH 5.1-6.9 more significantly in LA than AA and MX. MX of most concentrations caused higher nematode mortality than the average response to AA and LA. All treatments of MX (0.5% and 0.25%, fosthiazate (standard and double concentrations and culture dilution of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 (107colony-forming units/ml reduced significantly the nematode populations in the cymbidium culture medium, compared to non-treatment control, with no significant difference among the treatments. No phytotoxicity occurred in all treatments. pH of the medium with the time after treatment and growths of 2-year-old cymbidium were not significantly different among treatments. Considering the safety and price of the organic acids, use of MX in the processes for culturing cymbidium may be a practically reliable and eco-friendly way in the control of the quarantine nematode in cymbidium.

  14. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  15. An exporter's checklist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englot, P.

    1995-01-01

    The benefits of exporting goods and services was discussed. The article listed a summary of issues which could be referred to to assist with the development of an effective plan to export. Some issues to consider were: (1) analysis of the export market, such as political and cultural issues, local legislation, competition, infrastructure, transportation and logistics, (2) internal issues, such as people, equipment, capital, time, understanding of the risks, relocation and identification of all costs, (3) sources of support such as banks, government and transporters, (4) development of a solid payment plan. It was concluded that exporting was not for the faint-hearted. It can be expensive, and time consuming, however, if approached in the right spirit it could be highly rewarding. As a rule of thumb, the probability of success was said to be directly related to the amount of effort put into the preparatory phase. Potential exporters were reminded of the very strong infrastructure that exists in Canada to promote and support export initiatives, including all levels of government, financial institutions, freight forwarders and innumerable consultant/specialists

  16. Indonesian coal export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsteed, Ch.; Jolly, L.; Stuart, R.

    1993-01-01

    Indonesia's coal mining sector is expanding rapidly. Much of the increase in coal production since the mid-1980s has been exported. Indonesian coal mining companies have large expansion programs and continuing strong export growth is projected for the remainder of the 1990s. The low mining costs of indonesian coal, together with proximity to Asian markets, mean that Indonesia is well placed to compete strongly with other thermal coal exporters and win market share in the large and expanding thermal coal market in Asia. However, there is significant uncertainty about the likely future level of Indonesia's exportable surplus of coal. The government's planned expansion in coal fired power generation could constrain export growth, while the ability of producers to meet projected output levels is uncertain. The purpose in this article is to review coal supply and demand developments in Indonesia and, taking account of the key determining factors, to estimate the level of coal exports from Indonesia to the year 2000. This time frame has been chosen because all currently committed mine developments are expected to be on stream by 2000 and because it is difficult to project domestic demand for coal beyond that year. 29 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Export-defective lamB protein is a target for translational control caused by ompC porin overexpression.

    OpenAIRE

    Click, E M; Schnaitman, C A

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of OmpC protein from an inducible plasmid vector reduced the amount of the precursor form of LamB protein in LamB signal sequence mutants. The stability of the precursor form of LamB protein was not affected, indicating that the effect of OmpC overexpression was on the synthesis of the precursor rather than on degradation. These results indicate that a functional signal sequence is not required on an outer membrane protein for it to be a target for translational control.

  18. Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is a revision and combination of two Safety Guides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1 and No. NS-G-1.3. The revision takes into account developments in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems since the publication of the earlier Safety Guides. The main changes relate to the continuing development of computer applications and the evolution of the methods necessary for their safe, secure and practical use. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and the need for computer security. This Safety Guide references and takes into account other IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design

  19. Export Taxes under Bertrand Duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie; Roger Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses export taxes in a Bertrand duopoly with product differentiation, where a home and a foreign firm both export to a third-country market. It is shown that the maximum-revenue export tax always exceeds the optimum-welfare export tax. In a Nash equilibrium in export taxes, the country with the low cost firm imposes the largest export tax. The results under Bertrand duopoly are compared with those under Cournot duopoly. It is shown that the absolute value of the export subsid...

  20. Sediment traps with guiding channel and hybrid check dams improve controlled sediment retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Sebastian; Franca, Mário J.; Reffo, Alessandro; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2018-03-01

    Sediment traps with partially open check dams are crucial elements for flood protection in alpine regions. The trapping of sediment is necessary when intense sediment transport occurs during floods that may endanger urban areas at downstream river reaches. In turn, the unwanted permanent trapping of sediment during small, non-hazardous floods can result in the ecological and morphological degradation of downstream reaches. This study experimentally analyses a novel concept for permeable sediment traps. For ensuring the sediment transfer up to small floods, a guiding channel implemented in the deposition area of a sediment trap was systematically studied. The bankfull discharge of the guiding channel corresponds to a dominant morphological discharge. At the downstream end of the guiding channel, a permeable barrier (check dam) triggers sediment retention and deposition. The permeable barrier consists of a bar screen for mechanical deposition control, superposed to a flow constriction for the hydraulic control. The barrier obstructs hazardous sediment transport for discharges that are higher than the bankfull discharge of the guiding channel without the risk of unwanted sediment flushing (massive self-cleaning).

  1. Study on Fuzzy Adaptive Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    The mathematical model of the linear elevator maglev guiding system is analyzed in this paper. For the linear elevator needs strong stability and robustness to run, the integer order PID was expanded to the fractional order, in order to improve the steady state precision, rapidity and robustness of the system, enhance the accuracy of the parameter in fractional order PIλDμ controller, the fuzzy control is combined with the fractional order PIλDμ control, using the fuzzy logic achieves the parameters online adjustment. The simulations reveal that the system has faster response speed, higher tracking precision, and has stronger robustness to the disturbance.

  2. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  3. The ViewRay system: magnetic resonance-guided and controlled radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Sasa; Dempsey, James F

    2014-07-01

    A description of the first commercially available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided radiation therapy (RT) system is provided. The system consists of a split 0.35-T MR scanner straddling 3 (60)Co heads mounted on a ring gantry, each head equipped with independent doubly focused multileaf collimators. The MR and RT systems share a common isocenter, enabling simultaneous and continuous MRI during RT delivery. An on-couch adaptive RT treatment-planning system and integrated MRI-guided RT control system allow for rapid adaptive planning and beam delivery control based on the visualization of soft tissues. Treatment of patients with this system commenced at Washington University in January 2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  5. Australia's uranium export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U 3 O 8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  6. Coal export facilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeles, L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a wide range of trade barriers, particularly tariffs, in current and potential coal market. Commonwealth departments in Australia play a crucial role in supporting government industry policies. This article summarises some of more recent activities of the Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE) in facilitating the export of Australian Coals. Coal export facilitation activities are designed to assist the Australian coal industry by directing Commonwealth Government resources towards issues which would be inappropriate or difficult for the industry to address itself

  7. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  8. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  9. Hydrologic controls on DOC, As and Pb export from a polluted peatland - the importance of heavy rain events, antecedent moisture conditions and hydrological connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, T.; Biester, H.

    2015-08-01

    Bogs can store large amounts of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) from atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic emissions. Pb and As are exported along with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from these organic-rich systems, but it is not yet clear which hydrological (pre)conditions favor their export. This study combines a 1-year monitoring of precipitation, bog water level and pore water concentration changes with bog discharge and DOC, iron, As and Pb stream concentrations. From these data, annual DOC, As, and Pb exports were calculated. Concentrations ranged from 5 to 30 mg L-1 for DOC, 0.2 to 1.9 μg L-1 for As, and 1.3 to 12 μg L-1 for Pb, with highest concentrations in late summer. As and Pb concentrations significantly correlated with DOC concentrations. Fluxes depended strongly on discharge, as 40 % of As and 43 % of Pb were exported during 10 % of the time with the highest discharge, pointing out the over-proportional contribution of short-time, high-discharge events to annual As, Pb and DOC export. Exponential increase in element export from the bog is explained by connection of additional DOC, As and Pb pools in the acrotelm during water table rise, which is most pronounced after drought. Pb, As and DOC concentrations in pore water provide evidence of an increase in the soluble Pb pool as soon as the peat layer becomes hydrologically connected, while DOC and As peak concentrations in runoff lag behind in comparison to Pb. Our data indicate a distinct bog-specific discharge threshold of 8 L s-1, which is thought to depend mainly on the bogs size and drainage conditions. Above this threshold, element concentrations do not further increase and discharge becomes diluted. Combining pore water and discharge data shows that As and Pb exports are dependent on not only the amount of precipitation and discharge but also on the frequency and depth of water table fluctuations. Comparing the annual bog As and Pb export with element inventories indicates that As is much more

  10. PimT, an amino acid exporter controls polyene production via secretion of the quorum sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor in Streptomyces natalensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Susana M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyenes represent a major class of antifungal agents characterised by the presence of a series of conjugated double bonds in their planar hydroxylated macrolide ring structure. Despite their general interest, very little is known about the factors that modulate their biosynthesis. Among these factors, we have recently discovered a new inducing compound (PI-factor in the pimaricin producer Streptomyces natalensis, which elicits polyene production in a manner characteristic of quorum sensing. Here, we describe the involvement of an amino-acid exporter from S. natalensis in modulating the expression of pimaricin biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Results Adjacent to the pimaricin gene cluster lies a member of the RhtB family of amino-acid exporters. Gene deletion and complementation experiments provided evidence for a role for PimT in the export of L-homoserine, L-serine, and L-homoserine lactone. Expression of the gene was shown to be induced by homoserine and by the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. Interestingly, the mutant displayed 65% loss of pimaricin production, and also 50% decrease in the production of PI, indicating that PimT is used as PI-factor exporter, and suggesting that the effect in antifungal production might be due to limited secretion of the inducer. Conclusion This report describes the involvement of an amino acid exporter (encoded by pimT in the vicinity of the pimaricin cluster in modulating the expression of antibiotic biosynthetic genes via secretion of the quorum-sensing pimaricin-inducer PI-factor. The discovery of the participation of amino acid exporters in a signal transduction cascade for the production of polyene macrolides is unexpected, and represents an important step forward towards understanding the regulatory network for polyene regulation. Additionally, this finding constitutes the first detailed characterization of an amino

  11. Information, Corruption, and Measures for the Promotion of Manufactured Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; CHUN-YAN KUO

    2007-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis in many developing countries on export-led growth policies that attract both domestic and foreign investment into activities that will increase exports. Many countries, however, have not achieved the desired response. Among other problems, investors often face foreign exchange controls, tariffs on imported inputs, and a costly system for the exemption or refund of sales inflow of foreign investment and prevented the expansion of export production and sales. T...

  12. Complications in CT-guided Procedures: Do We Really Need Postinterventional CT Control Scans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nattenmüller, Johanna, E-mail: johanna.nattenmueller@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Filsinger, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias_filsinger@web.de; Bryant, Mark, E-mail: mark.bryant@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stiller, Wolfram, E-mail: Wolfram.Stiller@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Grenacher, Lars, E-mail: lars.grenacher@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kauczor, Hans-Ullrich, E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hosch, Waldemar, E-mail: waldemar.hosch@urz.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-19

    PurposeThe aim of this study is twofold: to determine the complication rate in computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies and drainages, and to evaluate the value of postinterventional CT control scans.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 1,067 CT-guided diagnostic biopsies (n = 476) and therapeutic drainages (n = 591) in thoracic (n = 37), abdominal (n = 866), and musculoskeletal (ms) (n = 164) locations. Severity of any complication was categorized as minor or major. To assess the need for postinterventional CT control scans, it was determined whether complications were detected clinically, on peri-procedural scans or on postinterventional scans only.ResultsThe complication rate was 2.5 % in all procedures (n = 27), 4.4 % in diagnostic punctures, and 1.0 % in drainages; 13.5 % in thoracic, 2.0 % in abdominal, and 3.0 % in musculoskeletal procedures. There was only 1 major complication (0.1 %). Pneumothorax (n = 14) was most frequent, followed by bleeding (n = 9), paresthesia (n = 2), material damage (n = 1), and bone fissure (n = 1). Postinterventional control acquisitions were performed in 65.7 % (701 of 1,067). Six complications were solely detectable in postinterventional control acquisitions (3 retroperitoneal bleeds, 3 pneumothoraces); all other complications were clinically detectable (n = 4) and/or visible in peri-interventional controls (n = 21).ConclusionComplications in CT-guided interventions are rare. Of these, thoracic interventions had the highest rate, while pneumothoraces and bleeding were most frequent. Most complications can be detected clinically or peri-interventionally. To reduce the radiation dose, postinterventional CT controls should not be performed routinely and should be restricted to complicated or retroperitoneal interventions only.

  13. Complications in CT-guided Procedures: Do We Really Need Postinterventional CT Control Scans?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattenmüller, Johanna; Filsinger, Matthias; Bryant, Mark; Stiller, Wolfram; Radeleff, Boris; Grenacher, Lars; Kauczor, Hans-Ullrich; Hosch, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is twofold: to determine the complication rate in computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsies and drainages, and to evaluate the value of postinterventional CT control scans.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 1,067 CT-guided diagnostic biopsies (n = 476) and therapeutic drainages (n = 591) in thoracic (n = 37), abdominal (n = 866), and musculoskeletal (ms) (n = 164) locations. Severity of any complication was categorized as minor or major. To assess the need for postinterventional CT control scans, it was determined whether complications were detected clinically, on peri-procedural scans or on postinterventional scans only.ResultsThe complication rate was 2.5 % in all procedures (n = 27), 4.4 % in diagnostic punctures, and 1.0 % in drainages; 13.5 % in thoracic, 2.0 % in abdominal, and 3.0 % in musculoskeletal procedures. There was only 1 major complication (0.1 %). Pneumothorax (n = 14) was most frequent, followed by bleeding (n = 9), paresthesia (n = 2), material damage (n = 1), and bone fissure (n = 1). Postinterventional control acquisitions were performed in 65.7 % (701 of 1,067). Six complications were solely detectable in postinterventional control acquisitions (3 retroperitoneal bleeds, 3 pneumothoraces); all other complications were clinically detectable (n = 4) and/or visible in peri-interventional controls (n = 21).ConclusionComplications in CT-guided interventions are rare. Of these, thoracic interventions had the highest rate, while pneumothoraces and bleeding were most frequent. Most complications can be detected clinically or peri-interventionally. To reduce the radiation dose, postinterventional CT controls should not be performed routinely and should be restricted to complicated or retroperitoneal interventions only

  14. Guided online or face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia: A randomized wait-list controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van Straten, A.; Morina, N.; Kaldo, V.; Kamphuis, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. Methods: A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were

  15. Sequence-controlled polymerization guided by aryl-fluoroaryl π-stacking

    KAUST Repository

    Mugemana, Clement; Almahdali, Sarah; Rodionov, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to control monomer sequences is essential in macromolecular chemistry. Better sequence control leads to better control over macromolecular folding and self-assembly, which, in turn, would enable control over bulk properties (such as thermal behavior, conductivity and rigidity), as well as mimicking the properties of globular proteins. Here, we present a three-part synopsis of recent advances in research on sequence-controlled polymerization guided by aryl-perfluoroaryl π-π stacking of monomer pairs. We also show that for monomers that are capable of strong associative interactions, the classical reactivity ratio analysis based on Fineman-Ross/terminal reactivity models may lead to an imprecise determination of the monomer alternation mode. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Neural Network Control-Based Drive Design of Servomotor and Its Application to Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An automatic guided vehicle (AGV is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN control is considered to assist the PID control for gain tuning. The experimental results are first provided to verify the correctness of the neural network plus PID control for 400 W-motor control system. Secondly, the AGV includes two sets of the designed motor systems and CAN BUS transmission so that it can move along the straight line and curve paths shown in the taped videos.

  17. Influence of structure improvement of guide tubes and bundles in pressurized water reactor (PWR) on drop of control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiuzhong; Yu Pingan; Yang Guanyue

    1996-01-01

    In order to alleviate the cross hydraulic load on control rod guide tubes and bundles, some protective sleeves are added to those near the upper plenum outlet nozzles (4 symmetric bundles: 02-26, 03-25, 11-29, 12-28). In a 1/4 scale transparent model of the PWR upper plenum of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, water was chosen as the fluid and hydraulic experiments with improved control rod guide tubes and bundles were carried out. The results were carefully compared with those of the experiments with unimproved control rod guide tubes and bundles. It is concluded that adding protective sleeves to the control rod guide tubes and bundles near the outlet nozzles will help to lighten the hydraulic load on them and make certain of the free movement and rapid dropping of control rods in the tubes and bundles in emergency by order

  18. Composition of Exports and Export Performance of Eurozone Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierts, P.J.; Kerkhoff, H.; de Haan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent the composition of exports is related to the export performance of eurozone countries using a data set on exports from the oldest eurozone countries to their top 20 trade partners for the period 1988-2009. The results suggest that a higher share of high

  19. Friction control using ultrasonic oscillation for rolling-element linear-motion guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiwa, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a friction-control method for rolling-element linear-motion guides used for precision positioning. In general, static friction greater than dynamic friction generates stick-slip motion and diminishes the positioning accuracy. Two ultrasonic actuators excite both the rail and the carriage of the guide to give relative displacements to bearing surfaces. In order to effectively propagate the vibration over the entire rail without damping, the actuator drives at that frequency with a half wavelength corresponding to the distances between the rail mounting bolts. This also minimizes undesirable vibration of the machine structure. Moreover, the bearing surfaces of the carriage are resonated by a second ultrasonic actuator. The experiments using a force sensor showed that the static and dynamic friction forces were reduced by approximately 25% at any place on the 600-mm-long rail. Moreover, excitation only at very low velocity decreased the static friction peak

  20. Danish energy-sector exports. Products and consulting services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.C.

    2000-06-01

    Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out studies of Danish energy-sector exports. The latest results were published in the report, Energisektorens eksport. Produkter og raadgivning. Danish Energy Agency, September 1998. The present survey is an update of the earlier studies, and includes 1998 exports. As previously, the study, carried out in cooperation with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Danish Council of Consulting Architects and Engineers, is based on questionnaires sent to relevant companies. In addition, information has been obtained from companies that do not belong to these organisations. On the basis of the answers received, 58 Danish companies exported products to a value of approximately DKK 16,000 million, and 22 consulting firms exported consulting services to a value of approximately DKK 370 million. These exports of approximately DKK 16.5 billion accounted for 5% of all Danish exports in 1998. In comparison with 1996, energy-sector exports have risen by more than 40% in a period in which Danish exports in general have risen by an average of 8%. Energy sector exports provide employment for more than 18,000 persons in Denmark - approximately 17,500 employees in companies that export products, and approximately 600 persons in consulting firms. To this must be added a presumably significantly larger number of persons employed by sub-suppliers to the above companies computed by value, 80% of the exports come from relatively few companies, i.e. 13 companies with products, and five offering consulting services. Energy-sector exports fall within the following product areas: 1) Wind turbines (25%). 2) District heating and combined heat and power (CHP) (21%). 3) Energy savings and control (20%). 4) Oil and natural gas (13%). 5) Electricity plants and power supply (13%). 6) Other (8%). 67% of the exports go to Western Europe, 18% to Asia, 7% to Eastern and Central Europe, and 8% to other parts of the world. (EHS)

  1. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  2. Procedure guide of design, construction of prototypes, calibration and sure operation of nucleonic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.; Griffith Martinez, J.; Desdin Garcia, L.F.; Rodriguez Cardona, R.L.; Molina, G.; Sebastian Calvo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This Guide was elaborated in the mark of the project RLA/8/024 ARCAL XLII 'Industrial Applications of the Tracer Technology and Nucleonic Control Systems'. Its objective is to establish the approaches for the design, the construction, the selection and the procedures for the sure operation of the Nucleonic Control Systems (NCS) in the industry. The NCS is used to control processes to high speeds, materials with extreme conditions or with noxious chemical properties, susceptible materials of being damaged by contact and packed products. In this document is defined the scope of the procedure. The SCN are classified according to: type of radiations, the mobility of the components, the degree of the beams collimation; and in function of the security. The design and construction criteria of the nuclear meters and of the systems of control nucleonic are exposed

  3. The Need to Increase Regulatory Controls on Imports and Exports came from the Detection of an Argentine Import Containing Exceeding Pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, N.A.; Vidal, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    sticking take place. It is also necessary to make a feasibility study in order to establish a procedure that make it possible to verify from external radioactive measurement the activity consigned in shipments when importing and exporting. This would be of great help to perform the regulatory control of the incoming and outgoing radioactive material to and from any country. (authors)

  4. Discharge controls on the sediment and dissolved nutrient transport flux of the lowermost Mississippi River: Implications for export to the ocean and for delta restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Pratt, Thad C.

    2017-12-01

    Lagrangian longitudinal surveys and fixed station data are utilized from the lowermost Mississippi River reach in Louisiana at high and low discharge in 2012-2013 to examine the changing stream power, sediment transport capacity, and nitrate conveyance in this backwater reach of the river. Nitrate appears to remain conservative through the backwater reach at higher discharges (>15,000 m3/s), thus, nitrate levels supplied from the catchment are those exported to the Gulf of Mexico, fueling coastal hypoxia. At lower discharges, interaction with fine sediments and organic matter stored on the bed due to estuarine and tidal processes, likely elevates nitrate levels prior to entering the Gulf: a further 1-2 week long spike in nitrate concentrations is associated with the remobilization of this sediments during the rising discharge phase of the Mississippi. Backwater characteristics are clearly observed in the study reach starting at river kilometer 703 (Vicksburg) in both longitudinal study periods. Stream power at the lowermost station is only 16% of that at Vicksburg in the high discharge survey, and 0.6% at low flow. The high-to-low discharge study differential in unit stream power at a station increases between Vicksburg and the lowermost station from a factor of 3 to 47-50 times. At high discharge, ∼30% of this energy loss can be ascribed to the removal of water to the Atchafalaya at Old River Control. Suspended sediment flux decreases downstream in the studied reach in both studies: the lowermost station has 75% of the flux at Vicksburg in the high discharge study, and 0.9% in the low discharge study. The high discharge values, given that this study was conducted during the highest rising hydrograph of the water year, are augmented by sediment resuspended from the bed that was deposited in the previous low discharge phase. Examination of this first detailed field observation studies of the backwater phenomenon in a major river, shows that observed suspended

  5. The need to increase regulatory controls on imports and exports came from the detection of an Argentine import containing exceeding pellets of Ir-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsolo, Nicolas; Vidal, Dora

    2008-01-01

    sticking take place. It is also necessary to make a feasibility study in order to establish a procedure that make it possible to verify from external radioactive measurement the activity consigned in shipments when importing and exporting. This would be of great help to perform the regulatory control of the incoming and outgoing radioactive material to and from any country. (author)

  6. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  7. Nuclear exporters cartel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1977-01-01

    Events that have transpired in the past few years that have caused renewed concern about the spread of nuclear weapons are reviewed. Many proposals have been made recently for keeping the bomb from spreading. The author feels that the most novel and intriguing of them is the one advanced by Senator Abraham Ribicoff and Steven J. Baker; in their proposal, the world market for nuclear reactors would be divided into precisely defined shares among the industrial nations that now manufacture them for export; each exporter would be guaranteed a certain number of sales annually; and each would pledge not to sell uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing technology, as Germany did to Brazil. This might not halt proliferation, but it would give the world a few more years to find a solution

  8. Export development financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main activities of the Export Development Corporation (EDC) were described, as well as some of the changes currently being implemented. EDC is Canada's official export credit agency, providing risk management services such as insurance, loans, guarantees, equity and leasing. EDC's project finance initiative started in 1991, and focused mainly on the up-front process. It has established itself as a recognized leader in project financing. It has over 15 years experience in a variety of sectors and countries. Energy projects financed to date include hydro projects in India, Argentina and Pakistan, and thermal projects in Thailand, China, Indonesia and Egypt. Lending criteria used to select projects were outlined, along with the risks endemic to project financing

  9. 19 CFR 19.38 - Supervision of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of exportation. 19.38 Section 19.38 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Duty-Free Stores § 19.38 Supervision of exportation. (a) Sales...

  10. 19 CFR 18.45 - Supervision of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supervision of exportation. 18.45 Section 18.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control Exported Under Cover of A Tir Carnet ...

  11. Dealing with control rod guide tube support pin cracking in French PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guicherd, L.

    1984-01-01

    Cracking and failure of control rod guide tube support pins has been encountered at a number of PWRs around the world. To deal with the problem, the French embarked on an extremely ambitious backfitting programme, involving the installation of replacement pins at all their operating 900MWe units. This highly successful programme, which will be completed in 1985, has been carried out with very low occupational doses and, in the last two years, has required no extensions to annual refuelling outage periods at the plants concerned. The French approach has involved a number of innovations, which should be of considerable interest to other PWR owners worldwide. (author)

  12. Invited review article: high-speed flexure-guided nanopositioning: mechanical design and control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Y K; Moheimani, S O R; Kenton, B J; Leang, K K

    2012-12-01

    Recent interest in high-speed scanning probe microscopy for high-throughput applications including video-rate atomic force microscopy and probe-based nanofabrication has sparked attention on the development of high-bandwidth flexure-guided nanopositioning systems (nanopositioners). Such nanopositioners are designed to move samples with sub-nanometer resolution with positioning bandwidth in the kilohertz range. State-of-the-art designs incorporate uniquely designed flexure mechanisms driven by compact and stiff piezoelectric actuators. This paper surveys key advances in mechanical design and control of dynamic effects and nonlinearities, in the context of high-speed nanopositioning. Future challenges and research topics are also discussed.

  13. Role of limb and target vision in the online control of memory-guided reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Matthew

    2005-07-01

    This investigation tested the proposal that a "highly accurate" and temporally unstable stored target representation is available to the motor system for the online control of memory-guided reaches. Participants reached to a target that was: (a) visible during the response, (b) extinguished at movement onset, and (c) occluded for 0, 500, 1,500 and 2,500 ms in advance of response cueing. Additionally, trials were performed with (i.e., limb visible) and without (i.e., limb occluded) vision of the reaching limb. Results showed that limb occluded trials undershot the target location in each target condition, and were characterized by a primarily offline mode of control. In contrast, limb visible trials showed a consistent level of endpoint accuracy for each target condition and elicited more online reaching corrections than limb occluded trials. It is therefore proposed that a reasonably accurate and temporally stable stored target representation can be combined with vision of the moving limb for the online control of memory-guided reaches.

  14. Simulated experimental research on flow field near control rod guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ping'an; Shen Xiuzhong; Yang Guanyue; He Fangzheng; Gao Weiguo; Zhang Zhiyi; Tian Ji'an

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the velocity measurement in the 1/4 scale transparent model of PWR pressure vessel upper plenum of 300 MW nuclear power plant by employing dynamic resistance strain foil velocity measurement technology and laser Doppler velocity measurement technology which have no effect on the flow field. In the experiment water is chosen as the fluid. As a result of the measurement the hydraulic load on the control rods is clarified and the experimental basis is provided for the analysis of whether the control rods are moving upward and downward freely and drop rapidly in emergency case by order. Meantime it also provides the experimental basis for the optical design of the control rod guide tubes and bundles

  15. Effects of arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block combined with ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Jun; Hwang, Jung-Taek; Kim, Do-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Hwang, Sung Mi; Lee, Na Rea; Kwak, Byung-Chan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pain relieving effect of ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) combined with arthroscopy-guided suprascapular nerve block (SSNB) with that of ultrasound-guided ISB alone within the first 48 h after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Forty-eight patients with rotator cuff tears who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled. The 24 patients in group 1 received ultrasound-guided ISB and arthroscopy-guided SSNB; the remaining 24 patients in group 2 underwent ultrasound-guided ISB alone. Visual analogue scale pain score and patient satisfaction score were checked at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h post-operatively. Group 1 had a lower visual analogue scale pain score at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h post-operatively (1.7  6.0, 6.2 > 4.3, 6.4 > 5.1, 6.9 > 5.9, 7.9 > 7.1). Six patients in group 1 developed rebound pain twice, and the others in group 1 developed it once. All of the patients in group 2 had one rebound phenomenon each (p = 0.010). The mean timing of rebound pain in group 1 was later than that in group 2 (15.5 > 9.3 h, p  4.0, p = 0.001). Arthroscopy-guided SSNB combined with ultrasound-guided ISB resulted in lower visual analogue scale pain scores at 3-24 and 48 h post-operatively, and higher patient satisfaction scores at 6-36 h post-operatively with the attenuated rebound pain compared to scores in patients who received ultrasound-guided ISB alone after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The combined blocks may relieve post-operative pain more effectively than the single block within 48 h after arthroscopic cuff repair. Randomized controlled trial, Level I. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02424630.

  16. Gas Exports in Turkmenistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanczki, Luca Zs.

    2011-01-01

    The Caspian region has been at the center of attention since Europe began seeking alternative routes to natural-gas resources. Turkmenistan has the potential to become an important gas exporter to Europe. As a landlocked country, Turkmenistan until recently has relied on post-Soviet pipeline infrastructures. The Central Asian republic has been at the mercy of Moscow's energy policy, which overlaps its foreign policy. At the same time, the revenue from gas exports is an essential part of the Turkmen national budget. This prompted Ashgabat to look for energy partners bypassing Russian territories. It started to convey natural gas first to Iran and then to China. This gave Turkmenistan strong leverage vis-a-vis Moscow. Ashgabat has not decided to export every gas molecule eastward, but, in jeopardizing its relations with Moscow, it expects more than empty pledges from Europe. On the other hand, a simple question emerges: Does Europe really need alternative sources? The answer is in the hands of Gazprom and Russian policy-makers

  17. Exports of petroleum products, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1987 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 22,200 m 3 /d in 1987, up 15% from 1986 levels. Exports of middle distillates and aviation fuel had the largest gains in 1987. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was below the New York spot price in the beginning of 1987 but remained close for the rest of the year. Canada's petroleum products exports were made to 5 countries while imports came from at least 13 countries. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Exports to Japan and the Far East rose ca 60% over 1986. Product outturns for export were 9% of total Canadian refinery throughput. Exports of aviation turbine fuel from Ontario began in April 1987. The top single exporter in Canada was Irving Oil Ltd. with 2,485,000 m 3 . Irving was also the top exporter in 1986. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Can Production Subsidies Explain China's Export Performance? Evidence from Firm-level Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Yundan; Yu, Zhihong; Girma, Sourafel

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity at the inten......This paper analyses the relationship between production subsidies and firms" export performance using a very comprehensive and recent firm-level database and controlling for the endogeneity of subsidies. It documents robust evidence that production subsidies stimulate export activity...

  19. Regional Groundwater and Storms Are Hydrologic Controls on the Quality and Export of Dissolved Organic Matter in Two Tropical Rainforest Streams, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Oviedo-Vargas, Diana; Barnett, Emily; Dierick, Diego; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Genereux, David P.

    2018-03-01

    A paired-watershed approach was used to compare the quality and fluxes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during stormflow and baseflow in two lowland tropical rainforest streams located in northeastern Costa Rica. The Arboleda stream received regional groundwater (RGW) flow, whereas the Taconazo stream did not. DOM quality was assessed with absorbance and fluorescence and stable carbon isotope (δ13C-DOC) values. RGW DOM lacked detectable fluorescence and had specific ultraviolet absorption (SUVA254) and absorbance slope ratio (SR) values consistent with low aromaticity and low molecular weight material, respectively. We attributed these properties to microbial degradation and sorption of humic DOM to mineral surfaces during transport through bedrock. SUVA254 values were lower and SR values were higher in the Arboleda stream during baseflow compared to the Taconazo stream, presumably due to dilution by RGW. However, no significant difference in SUVA254 or SR occurred between the streams during stormflow. SUVA254 was negatively correlated to δ13C-DOC (r2 = 0.61, P runoff containing soil and throughfall C sources. Mean DOC export from the Taconazo stream during the study period was 2.62 ± 0.39 g C m-2 year-1, consistent with other tropical streams, yet mean DOC export from the Arboleda stream was 13.79 ± 2.07 g C m-2 year-1, one of the highest exports reported and demonstrating a substantial impact of old RGW from outside the watershed boundary can have on surface water carbon cycling.

  20. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  1. Export policy and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries with a nuclear programme are about a dozen according to information obtained by IAEA. They are a group hostile to any restriction imposed on nuclear technology export and consider that such restriction is contrary to the global concept of North/South co-operation which provides for transfer of advanced technology. In particular, they object to the fact that nuclear weapon states make use of Article 4 of the NPT. Industrialised countries are required to keep a balance between a regular and stable supply system and the assurance that exported nuclear installations and materials are placed under international control according to the IAEA Safeguards. (NEA) [fr

  2. Export and import. Conformity with regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    Since the division of the former US Atomic Energy Commission's tasks, the regulation and control of import and export of nuclear materials and equipment has become the responsability of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The import and export of nuclear fuels, equipment and reactors are therefore subject to prior licensing by the Commission. This requirement aims to guarantee that such activities will not create serious hazards for defense and national safety, and that the exported products will not be diverted from their peaceful uses. The relevant applicable legal provisions are based on the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and on the detailed regulations issued by the Commission. Under the pressure of public opinion, there is a current tendency to restrict these activities because of the hazards they present, in particular during transport, until the Commission has completed all the necessary studies. (NEA) [fr

  3. Non-linear, connectivity and threshold-dominated runoff-generation controls DOC and heavy metal export in a small peat catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkel, Christian; Broder, Tanja; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils act as important carbon sinks, but they also release large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the aquatic system. The DOC export is strongly tied to the export of soluble heavy metals. The accumulation of potentially toxic substances due to anthropogenic activities, and their natural export from peat soils to the aquatic system is an important health and environmental issue. However, limited knowledge exists as to how much of these substances are mobilized, how they are mobilized in terms of flow pathways and under which hydrometeorological conditions. In this study, we report from a combined experimental and modelling effort to provide greater process understanding from a small, lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) contaminated upland peat catchment in northwestern Germany. We developed a minimally parameterized, but process-based, coupled hydrology-biogeochemistry model applied to simulate detailed hydrometric and biogeochemical data. The model was based on an initial data mining analysis, in combination with regression relationships of discharge, DOC and element export. We assessed the internal model DOC-processing based on stream-DOC hysteresis patterns and 3-hourly time step groundwater level and soil DOC data (not used for calibration as an independent model test) for two consecutive summer periods in 2013 and 2014. We found that Pb and As mobilization can be efficiently predicted from DOC transport alone, but Pb showed a significant non-linear relationship with DOC, while As was linearly related to DOC. The relatively parsimonious model (nine calibrated parameters in total) showed the importance of non-linear and rapid near-surface runoff-generation mechanisms that caused around 60% of simulated DOC load. The total load was high even though these pathways were only activated during storm events on average 30% of the monitoring time - as also shown by the experimental data. Overall, the drier period 2013 resulted in increased nonlinearity, but

  4. Cointegration and Causality Test Among Export, Import, and Foreign Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Subiyakto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rupiah exchange rate, import, and export are the important indicators in economy, including the Indonesia economy. The debate regarding the relationship among the exchange rate, import, and export has been persisting for several decades. Some researchers found that there is a relationship among those three and others explained that there is no correlation among them. The aim of this research is to obtain the empirical evidence of the causal relationship among the export, import, and foreign exchange rate by using the monthly data from January 2010 to April 2014. The export and import data are the export and import values in US dollar. The exchange rate data is the median exchange rates of the Indonesian Bank. The Johansen Cointegration Test and the Granger Causality Test are used to analyze the data. The research result shows that export and import have no causal relationship at five percent. Next, the foreign exchange rate influences the export and import at 10 percent level. The result indicates that the foreign exchange rate has small effects on the export and import. Based on the results, the government should control the balance of trade and should not make any policy that is based on the exchange rate values. Finally, it can be said that the exchange rate policy is not effective in increasing the exports and reducing the imports.

  5. Mesoscale Effects on Carbon Export: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cheryl S.; Long, Matthew C.; Lovenduski, Nicole S.; Moore, Jefferson K.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon export from the surface to the deep ocean is a primary control on global carbon budgets and is mediated by plankton that are sensitive to physical forcing. Earth system models generally do not resolve ocean mesoscale circulation (O(10-100) km), scales that strongly affect transport of nutrients and plankton. The role of mesoscale circulation in modulating export is evaluated by comparing global ocean simulations conducted at 1° and 0.1° horizontal resolution. Mesoscale resolution produces a small reduction in globally integrated export production (export production can be large (±50%), with compensating effects in different ocean basins. With mesoscale resolution, improved representation of coastal jets block off-shelf transport, leading to lower export in regions where shelf-derived nutrients fuel production. Export is further reduced in these regions by resolution of mesoscale turbulence, which restricts the spatial area of production. Maximum mixed layer depths are narrower and deeper across the Subantarctic at higher resolution, driving locally stronger nutrient entrainment and enhanced summer export production. In energetic regions with seasonal blooms, such as the Subantarctic and North Pacific, internally generated mesoscale variability drives substantial interannual variation in local export production. These results suggest that biogeochemical tracer dynamics show different sensitivities to transport biases than temperature and salinity, which should be considered in the formulation and validation of physical parameterizations. Efforts to compare estimates of export production from observations and models should account for large variability in space and time expected for regions strongly affected by mesoscale circulation.

  6. Export performance and investment in R&D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each...... other, and an empirical model is formulated in order to estimate which factors affect the firm's export. It is argued that besides R&D, firm size, wages and a number of other firm-specific factors controlling for risks are highly important for the export performance. In the empirical part of the paper...... the model is tested on a sample of 3,500 Danish firms. Using a FIML estimation form in order to deal with endogeneity problems between the R&D and export decisions of the firms, the computation clearly verifies the theoretical model put forward. Moreover, R&D is an important factor for being an exporting...

  7. Do R&D Investments Affect Export Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Valdemar; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Dilling-Hansen, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of R&D in the export behaviour of Danish firms. Export behaviour is defined as the export intensity and the likelihood of a firm being an exporter. In the theoretical part of the paper it is argued that export and being R&D active are endogenous with respect to each...... other, and an empirical model is formulated in order to estimate which factors affect the firm's export. It is argued that besides R&D, firm size, wages and a number of other firm-specific factors controlling for risks are highly important for the export performance. In the empirical part of the paper...... the model is tested on a sample of 3,500 Danish firms. Using a FIML estimation form in order to deal with endogeneity problems between the R&D and export decisions of the firms, the computation clearly verifies the theoretical model put forward. Moreover, R&D is an important factor for being an exporting...

  8. Self-Guided Multimedia Stress Management and Resilience Training for Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R. D.; Zbozinek, T. D.; Hentschel, P. G.; Smith, S, M.; O'Brien J.; Oftedal, A.; Craske, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Stress and anxiety-related problems are among the most common and costly behavioral health problems in society, and for those working in operational environments (i.e. astronauts, flight controllers, military) this can seriously impact crew performance, safety, and wellbeing. Technology-based interventions are effective for treating behavioral health problems, and can significantly improve the delivery of evidence-based health care. This study is evaluating the effectiveness, usefulness, and usability of a self-guided multimedia stress management and resilience training program in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample of flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. The intervention, SMART-OP (Stress Management and Resilience Training for Optimal Performance), is a six-session, cognitive behavioral-based computer program that uses self-guided, interactive activities to teach skills that can help individuals build resilience and manage stress. In a prior RCT with a sample of stressed but otherwise healthy individuals, SMART-OP reduced perceived stress and increased perceived control over stress in comparison to an Attention Control (AC) group. SMART-OP was rated as "highly useful" and "excellent" in usability and acceptability. Based on a-amylase data, individuals in SMART-OP recovered quicker and more completely from a social stress test as compared to the AC group [1]. In the current study, flight controllers are randomized either to receive SMART-OP training, or to a 6-week waitlist control period (WLC) before beginning SMART-OP. Eligible participants include JSC flight controllers and instructors without any medical or psychiatric disorder, but who are stressed based on self-report. Flight controllers provide a valid analog sample to astronauts in that they work in an operational setting, use similar terminology to astronauts, are mission-focused, and work under the same broader work culture. The study began in December 2014, and to date 79 flight

  9. Internet-based guided self-help for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catrin E; Farewell, Daniel; Groves, Vicky; Kitchiner, Neil J; Roberts, Neil P; Vick, Tracey; Bisson, Jonathan I

    2017-06-01

    There are numerous barriers that limit access to evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Internet-based guided self-help is a treatment option that may help widen access to effective intervention, but the approach has not been sufficiently explored for the treatment of PTSD. Forty two adults with DSM-5 PTSD of mild to moderate severity were randomly allocated to internet-based self-help with up to 3 h of therapist assistance, or to a delayed treatment control group. The internet-based program included eight modules that focused on psychoeducation, grounding, relaxation, behavioural activation, real-life and imaginal exposure, cognitive therapy, and relapse prevention. The primary outcome measure was reduction in clinician-rated traumatic stress symptoms using the clinician administered PTSD scale for DSM-V (CAPS-5). Secondary outcomes were self-reported PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, alcohol use, perceived social support, and functional impairment. Posttreatment, the internet-based guided self-help group had significantly lower clinician assessed PTSD symptoms than the delayed treatment control group (between-group effect size Cohen's d = 1.86). The difference was maintained at 1-month follow-up and dissipated once both groups had received treatment. Similar patterns of difference between the two groups were found for depression, anxiety, and functional impairment. The average contact with treating clinicians was 2½ h. Internet-based trauma-focused guided self-help for PTSD is a promising treatment option that requires far less therapist time than current first line face-to-face psychological therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Transactive Control of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment. A Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meintz, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-29

    This report seeks to characterize the opportunities and challenges that arise in developing a transactive control strategy for grid-EVSE integration in various use-case scenarios in a way that provides end-user, energy market, grid, and societal benefits. A detailed review provides information about EVSE integration market trends and stakeholder activities. This is followed by an exploration of value proposition for transactive control of EVSE at both the home scale and the building/campus scale. This report will serve as a reference guide for stakeholders in the grid-EVSE integration area, illustrate potential implementations, and identify a high-value research project for overcoming the barriers and unlocking the benefits of transactive controls of EVSE. While it is not intended to specify the technical details of the transactive control solution, the report contains a list of use cases describing potential applications of transactive control of EVSE, barriers to implementing these applications, and research and development (R&D) opportunities to overcome the barriers. The use cases of transactive control of EVSE are listed in Table ES1.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Dilational Tracheostomy: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobatto, André L N; Besen, Bruno A M P; Cestari, Mino; Pelosi, Paolo; Malbouisson, Luiz M S

    2018-01-01

    Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT) is a common and increasingly used procedure in the intensive care unit (ICU). It is usually performed with bronchoscopy guidance. Ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool in order to assist PDT, potentially improving its success rate and reducing procedural-related complications. To investigate whether the ultrasound-guided PDT is equivalent or superior to the bronchoscopy-guided or anatomical landmarks-guided PDT with regard to procedural-related and clinical complications. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted comparing an ultrasound-guided PDT to the control groups (either a bronchoscopy-guided PDT or an anatomical landmark-guided PDT) in patients undergoing a PDT in the ICU. The primary outcome was the incidence of major procedural-related and clinical complication rates. The secondary outcome was the incidence of minor complication rates. Random-effect meta-analyzes were used to pool the results. Four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and they were analyzed. The studies included 588 participants. There were no differences in the major complication rates between the patients who were assigned to the ultrasound-guided PDT when compared to the control groups (pooled risk ratio [RR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13-1.71, I 2 = 0%). The minor complication rates were not different between the groups, but they had a high heterogeneity (pooled RR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.16-1.50; I 2 = 85%). The sensitivity analyzes that only included the randomized controlled trials that used a landmark-guided PDT as the control group showed lower rates of minor complications in the ultrasound-guided PDT group (pooled RR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.98, I 2 = 0%). The ultrasound-guided PDT seems to be safe and it is comparable to the bronchoscopy-guided PDT regarding the major and minor procedural-related or clinical complications. It also seems to reduce the minor complications when compared to the anatomical

  12. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  13. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  14. 76 FR 52935 - President's Export Council, Subcommittee on Export Administration; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... with all countries with which the United States has diplomatic or trading relations and of controlling... and Vice Chair. 2. Export Control Reform Update. 3. Presentation of Papers or Comments by the Public. 4. Review of Field Hearing. 5. Status of 2011 Workplan. 6. Discussion of 2012 Workplan. 7...

  15. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  16. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  17. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL ARCHITECTURE OF AN OMNI-DIRECTIONAL AUTONOMOUS GUIDED VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Tlale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Omni-directionality is the ability of a mobile robot to move instantaneously in any direction. This paper describes the wheel and controller designs of a Mecanumwheeled, autonomous guided vehicle (AGV for reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Mecanum wheels use slip developed between rollers and surface, surface and ground, to achieve omni-directionality. An advantage of omni-directional robotic platforms is that they are capable of performing tasks in congested environments such as those found in factory workshops, narrow aisles, warehouses, etc. Controller Area Network (CAN is implemented as a distributed controller to control motion and navigation tasks of the developed robot. The design of the distributed controller is described and its performance analyzed. This increases the reliability and functionality of the mobile robot.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel beskryf wiel - en beheerontwerpe van ‘n veelrigting mobiele robot. Die robot is ‘n selfstandigbeheerde voertuig vir gebruik by vervaardigingstelsels met veranderbare konfigurasie. Die ontwerp van die robot en bypassende beheerstelsel word beskryf en ontleed teen die agterground van bewegings – en navigeertake. Die betroubaarheid en funksionering van die sisteem word beoordeel.

  18. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  19. Import-Export Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Asad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Import export businesses, also known as international trading, are one of the hottest commercial trends of this decade. Since the owner of an import export enterprise, can work as a distributor by focusing on exporting and importing goods and services that cannot be obtained on national soil. With a rapidly growing population of about 150 million, Pakistan is a major country, recognized by the international community, and is one of the most important actors in the Islamic world. Based on its ...

  20. Integrated navigation and control software system for MRI-guided robotic prostate interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Fischer, Gregory S; DiMaio, Simon P; Gobbi, David G; Csoma, Csaba; Mewes, Philip W; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2010-01-01

    A software system to provide intuitive navigation for MRI-guided robotic transperineal prostate therapy is presented. In the system, the robot control unit, the MRI scanner, and the open-source navigation software are connected together via Ethernet to exchange commands, coordinates, and images using an open network communication protocol, OpenIGTLink. The system has six states called "workphases" that provide the necessary synchronization of all components during each stage of the clinical workflow, and the user interface guides the operator linearly through these workphases. On top of this framework, the software provides the following features for needle guidance: interactive target planning; 3D image visualization with current needle position; treatment monitoring through real-time MR images of needle trajectories in the prostate. These features are supported by calibration of robot and image coordinates by fiducial-based registration. Performance tests show that the registration error of the system was 2.6mm within the prostate volume. Registered real-time 2D images were displayed 1.97 s after the image location is specified. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated navigation and control software system for MRI-guided robotic prostate interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Fischer, Gregory S.; DiMaio, Simon P.; Gobbi, David G.; Csoma, Csaba; Mewes, Philip W.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2010-01-01

    A software system to provide intuitive navigation for MRI-guided robotic transperineal prostate therapy is presented. In the system, the robot control unit, the MRI scanner, and the open-source navigation software are connected together via Ethernet to exchange commands, coordinates, and images using an open network communication protocol, OpenIGTLink. The system has six states called “workphases” that provide the necessary synchronization of all components during each stage of the clinical workflow, and the user interface guides the operator linearly through these workphases. On top of this framework, the software provides the following features for needle guidance: interactive target planning; 3D image visualization with current needle position; treatment monitoring through real-time MR images of needle trajectories in the prostate. These features are supported by calibration of robot and image coordinates by fiducial-based registration. Performance tests show that the registration error of the system was 2.6 mm within the prostate volume. Registered real-time 2D images were displayed 1.97 s after the image location is specified. PMID:19699057

  2. Image-guided radiotherapy quality control: Statistical process control using image similarity metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Satomi; Grams, Michael P; Fong de Los Santos, Luis E

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an objective quality control framework for the image review process. A total of 927 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registrations were retrospectively analyzed for 33 bilateral head and neck cancer patients who received definitive radiotherapy. Two registration tracking volumes (RTVs) - cervical spine (C-spine) and mandible - were defined, within which a similarity metric was calculated and used as a registration quality tracking metric over the course of treatment. First, sensitivity to large misregistrations was analyzed for normalized cross-correlation (NCC) and mutual information (MI) in the context of statistical analysis. The distribution of metrics was obtained for displacements that varied according to a normal distribution with standard deviation of σ = 2 mm, and the detectability of displacements greater than 5 mm was investigated. Then, similarity metric control charts were created using a statistical process control (SPC) framework to objectively monitor the image registration and review process. Patient-specific control charts were created using NCC values from the first five fractions to set a patient-specific process capability limit. Population control charts were created using the average of the first five NCC values for all patients in the study. For each patient, the similarity metrics were calculated as a function of unidirectional translation, referred to as the effective displacement. Patient-specific action limits corresponding to 5 mm effective displacements were defined. Furthermore, effective displacements of the ten registrations with the lowest similarity metrics were compared with a three dimensional (3DoF) couch displacement required to align the anatomical landmarks. Normalized cross-correlation identified suboptimal registrations more effectively than MI within the framework of SPC. Deviations greater than 5 mm were detected at 2.8σ and 2.1σ from the mean for NCC and MI

  3. Promoting sustainable economic growth in South Africa through the production and export of low-carbon environmental goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette van Niekerk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly those in the developing world, are under increasing pressure to improve their growth rates in order to tackle pressing economic problems at the domestic level. Increasing export volumes can make a positive contribution to a country’s economic growth rate, but it can also endanger the environment. How to reconcile the often conflicting phenomena of increased export activity, stronger economic growth and a lower carbon footprint is the focus of this study. A core outcome of the study was the creation of a single list using a cross-section of international sources, of low-carbon environmental goods, and their ranking according to their inherent ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, South Africa’s capacity to produce them, and their economic benefits, as reflected in the export opportunities they present. These export opportunities were revealed through the application of the Decision Support Model (DSM, an export market selection tool that incorporates a systematic filtering and screening system. The results of the analysis should help guide policymakers in their strategic deliberations on which export sectors to incentivise and support with a view to encouraging more ‘green’ growth in South Africa in the years ahead. diffusion of such goods. If the production and export of environmental goods were to increase, it could have a potentially positive effect on economic and environmental objectives, such as raising economic growth rates and lowering greenhouse gas intensity, respectively. For the purpose of this study, an analysis of four existing lists of environmental goods led to the identification of 39 core environmental goods. These 39 goods were ranked according to three criteria: i the potential environmental benefits of each environmental good, using consensus among role players as a proxy; ii South Africa’s capacity to produce each environmental good, using the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA

  4. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  6. Exports of petroleum products, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1988 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 32,000 m 3 /d in 1988, up 44% from 1987 levels. Each product except aviation fuel registered increases in export volumes, which reached the highest total volume of the decade. The main reason for the large increase was the first full year of production from the export-directed refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices. The heavy fuel oil price was mostly above the USA east coast spot price during 1988. Attractive prices on the USA east coast resulted in a few cargoes of middle distillate and motor gasoline shipped from British Columbia. Petroleum products imports came from 12 countries; Quebec had the largest volume of imports in 1988. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. Western exporters view the Far East as an ongoing important market. The top single exporter in Canada was Newfoundland Processing, with 32% of the total export volume. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Flow mixing inside a control-rod guide tube – Experimental tests and CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angele, Kristian; Odemark, Ylva; Cehlin, Mathias; Hemström, Bengt; Högström, Carl-Maikel; Henriksson, Mats; Tinoco, Hernan; Lindqvist, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers a combined experimental and computational effort carried out at Vattenfall Research and Development AB in order to study the thermal mixing in the annular region between a top tube and a control-rod stem. The low frequency thermal fluctuations in this region can result in problems with thermal fatigue and have caused cracks in the control-rod stems of several nuclear reactors (). The flow in the vertical annular region formed by the top tube and the control-rod stem is characterized by the mixing of hot bypass flow with cold crud-removal flow. The crud-removal flow is flowing upwards along the control-rod stem, and the warmer bypass flow is entering through eight horizontal holes positioned in the lower part of the guide tube and four holes in the upper part of the top tube, forming jets. Two full-scale models of a control rod, including the control-rod stem and the guide tube, were constructed. The first model, designed to work at atmospheric conditions, was made of Plexiglass, in order to be able to visualize the mixing process, whereas the second one was made of steel to allow for a higher temperature difference between the two flows, and the heating of the top tube. CFD simulations of the case at atmospheric conditions were also carried out. Both the experiments and the simulations showed that the mixing region between the cold crud-removal flow and the warm bypass flow is dominated by large flow structures coming from above. The process is characterized by low frequency, high amplitude temperature fluctuations. The process is basically hydrodynamic, caused by the downward transport of flow structures originated at the upper bypass inlets. The damping thermal effects through buoyancy is of secondary importance, as also the scaling analysis shows, however a slight damping of the temperature fluctuations can be seen due to natural convection due to a pre-heating of the cold crud-removal flow. The comparison between numerical and experimental

  8. The Export Intensity of Foreign Affiliates in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2007-01-01

      Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure of their ......  Using a unique database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises in Poland and the export structure...... of their affiliates. We find that labour intensity and foreign control are the main explanatory variables for the export intensity of the affiliates. Given the overall rise in export intensity over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has become a more important mode...

  9. Omnidirectional configuration and control approach on mini heavy loaded forklift autonomous guided vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Norsharimie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the omnidirectional configuration and control approach on Mini Heavy Loaded Forklift Autonomous Guided Vehicle (MHeLFAGV for flexibility maneuverability in confine and narrow area. The issue in turning motion for nonholonomic vehicle in confine area becoming a motivation in MHeLFAGV design to provide holonomic vehicle with flexible movement. Therefore an omni-wheeled named Mecanum wheel has been configured in this vehicle design as well as omnidirectional control algorithm. MHeLFAGV system is developed with collaboration and inspired from Vacuumshmelze (M Sdn. Bhd. Pekan, Pahang in order to have a customized mini forklift that able to work in a very confined warehouse (170cm × 270cm square with heavy payload in a range of 20-200kg. In electronics control design, two stages of controller boards are developed namely as Board 1 and 2 that specifically for movement controller board and monitoring controller board respectively. In addition separate module of left, right, forward, backward, diagonal and zigzagging movement is developed as embedded modules for MHeLFAGV system’s control architecture. A few experiments are done to verify the algorithm for each omnidirectional movement of MHeLFAGV system in the wide area. The waypoint of MHeLFAGV movement is plotted using Global Positioning System (GPS as well as a digital compass by mapping the longitude and latitude of the vehicle. There are slightly different between the targeted movements with recorded data since Mecanum wheeled affected by the uneven surface of the landscape. The experiment is also further on moving in confine are on the actual targeted warehouse.

  10. Export incentives, exchange rate policy and export growth in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.; Arslan, I.

    1993-01-01

    The driving forces behind the Turkish export miracle, and in fact its very existence, have remained a matter of debate We show there was a boom. As to contributing factors, import growth in the Middle East in excess of import growth elsewhere made a negative contribution. On exports to non-oil

  11. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewell 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.

    1996-01-01

    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTA's) at Sizewell 'A'. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with the three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to online graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (Author)

  12. Development of an automated guided vehicle controller using a systems engineering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, Tremaine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Automated guided vehicles (AGVs are widely used for transporting materials in industry and commerce. In this research, an intelligent AGV-based material-handling system was developed using a model- based systems engineering (MBSE approach. The core of the AGV, the controller, was designed in the system modelling language environment using Visual Paradigm software, and then implemented in the hardware. As the result, the AGV’s complex tasks of material handling, navigation, and communication were successfully accomplished and tested in the real industrial environment. The developed AGV is capable of towing trolleys with a weight of up to 200kg at walking speed. The AGV can be incorporated into an intelligent material-handling system with multiple autonomous vehicles and work stations, thus providing flexibility and reconfigurability for the whole manufacturing system. Ergonomic and safety aspects were also considered in the design of the AGV. A comprehensive safety system that is compliant with industrial standards was implemented.

  13. Functional magnetic resonance imaging-controlled neuronavigator-guided brain surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, J; Nishizaki, T; Tokumaru, T; Uesugi, S; Yamashita, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, M

    2001-05-01

    The effectiveness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI)-controlled and navigator-guided brain surgery for a patient with a recurrent astrocytoma is demonstrated. Preoperative f-MRI was performed in order to identify the motor area and ensure that the tumour was in the left prefrontal area. A more aggressive operation was planned for the recurrent tumour. The f-MRI data were input to the MKM navigation system and during the operation the contours of the tumour and motor area were visualised b y the microscope of the navigation system. The tumour and surrounding gliotic brain tissue were removed completely. The diagnosis was a grade III astrocytoma. The combination of the navigation system and f-MRI was useful for preoperative design of the surgical strategy, and tumour orientation during the operation, enabling aggressive surgery to be performed without functional deficits ensuing. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Summary: Update to ASTM guide E 1523 to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide E 1523 to the methods to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been released by ASTM [Annual Book of ASTM Standards Surface Analysis (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004), Vol. 03.06]. The guide is meant to acquaint x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users with the various charge control and charge referencing techniques that are and have been used in the acquisition and interpretation of XPS data from surfaces of insulating specimens. The current guide has been expanded to include new references as well as recommendations for reporting information on charge control and charge referencing. The previous version of the document had been published in 1997 [D. R. Baer and K. D. Bomben, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 754 (1998)

  15. Feasibility of bispectral index-guided propofol infusion for flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lun Lo

    Full Text Available There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB. The bispectral index (BIS correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively. The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001, less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively, and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively compared to the control group.BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815.

  16. Test and control computer user's guide for a digital beam former test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert E.; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A Digital Beam Former Test System was developed to determine the effects of noise, interferers and distortions, and digital implementations of beam forming as applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 2 (TDRS 2) architectures. The investigation of digital beam forming with application to TDRS 2 architectures, as described in TDRS 2 advanced concept design studies, was conducted by the NASA/Lewis Research Center for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. A Test and Control Computer (TCC) was used as the main controlling element of the digital Beam Former Test System. The Test and Control Computer User's Guide for a Digital Beam Former Test System provides an organized description of the Digital Beam Former Test System commands. It is written for users who wish to conduct tests of the Digital Beam forming Test processor using the TCC. The document describes the function, use, and syntax of the TCC commands available to the user while summarizing and demonstrating the use of the commands wtihin DOS batch files.

  17. Design report on the guide box-reactivity and safety control plates for MPR reactor under normal operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reactivity control system for the MPR reactor (Multi Purpose Reactor) is a critical component regarding safety, it must ensure a fast shut down, maintaining the reactor in subcritical condition under normal or accidental operation condition. For this purpose, this core component must be designed to maintain its operating capacity during all the residence time and under any foreseen operation condition. The mechanical design of control plates and guide boxes must comply with structural integrity, maintaining its geometric and dimensional stability within the pre-established limits to prevent interferences with other core components. For this, the heat generation effect, mechanical loads and environment and irradiation effects were evaluated during the mechanical design. The reactivity control system is composed of guide boxes, manufactured from Aluminium alloy, located between the fuel elements, and control absorber plates of Ag-In-Cd alloy hermetically enclosed by a cladding of stainless steel sliding inside de guide boxes. The upward-downward movement is transmitted by a rod from the motion device located at the reactor lower part. The design requirements, criteria and limits were established to fulfill with the normal and abnormal operation conditions. The design verifications were performed by analytical method, estimating the guide box and control plates residence time. The result of the analysis performed, shows that the design of the reactivity control system and the material selected, are appropriate to fulfill the functional requirements, with no failures attributed to the mechanical design. (author)

  18. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  19. The south's timer export potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1986-01-01

    Exports of southern wood products have bccil dcclirling since 1980, following a dramatic rise during the 1970s. The value of these exports rose from near the $50 million level in the early 1970s to almost $500 million in 1980, but has dropped by more than a third since then. Now, however, changing monetary conditions appear to be turning the trend upward again....

  20. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  1. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of current

  3. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  4. Second Thoughts on Exporter Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument is the te......Empirical literature has established a positive link between firm productivity and export status, yet notable exceptions exist. The present paper shows that the underlying theory (Melitz, 2003) is in fact able to accommodate the rule as well as the exception. The fulcrum of the argument...... is the tension between empirical work measuring productivity based on average cost information, and theoretical work representing productivity by marginal cost. In a heterogeneous firms trade model, we compute productivity based on average cost and find that around the export-indifferent firm, exporters...... will be less productive than non-exporters. Furthermore, we show that this effect may feed through at the industry level....

  5. The effectivity of periprostatic nerve blockade for the pain control during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Otunctemur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS guided prostete biopsy is accepted as a standard procedure in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Many different protocoles are applied to reduce the pain during the process. In this study we aimed to the comparison of two procedure with intrarectal lidocaine gel and periprostatice nerve blockade respective- ly in addition to perianal intrarectal lidocaine gel on the pain control in prostate biop- sy by TRUS. Methods: 473 patients who underwent prostate biopsy guided TRUS between 2008-2012 were included in the study. 10-point linear visual analog pain scale(VAS was used to evaluate the pain during biopsy. The patients were divided into two groups according to anesthesia procedure. In Group 1, there were 159 patients who had perianal-intrarectal lidocaine gel, in Group 2 there were 314 patients who had periprostatic nerve blockade in addition to intrarectal lidocain gel. The pain about probe manipulation was aseesed by VAS-1 and during the biopsy needle entries was evalu- ated by VAS-2. Results were compared with Mann-Whitney U and Pearson chi-square test. Results: Mean VAS-2 scores in Group 1 and Group 2 were 4.54 ± 1.02 and 2.06 ± 0.79 respectively. The pain score was determined significantly lower in the Group 2 (p = 0.001. In both groups there was no significant difference in VAS-1 scores, patient’s age, prostate volume, complication rate and PSA level. Conclusion: The combination of periprostatic nerve blockade and intrarectal lidocain gel provides a more meaningful pain relief compared to group of patients undergoing intrarectal lidocaine gel.

  6. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms

  7. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  8. Wear plates control rod guide tubes top internal reactor vessel C. N. VANDELLOS II; Desgaste placas tubos guia barras de control interno superior vasija del reactor C.N. Vandellos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The guide tubes for control rods forming part of the upper internals of the reactor vessel, its function is to guide the control rod to permit its insertion in the reactor core. These guide tubes are suspended from the upper support plate which are fixed by bolts and extending to the upper core plate which is fastened by clamping bolts (split pin) to prevent lateral displacement of the guide tubes, while allowing axial expansion.

  9. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  10. Endovascular MR-guided Renal Embolization by Using a Magnetically Assisted Remote-controlled Catheter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillaney, Prasheel V; Yang, Jeffrey K; Losey, Aaron D; Martin, Alastair J; Cooke, Daniel L; Thorne, Bradford R H; Barry, David C; Chu, Andrew; Stillson, Carol; Do, Loi; Arenson, Ronald L; Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark W; Hetts, Steven W

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility of a magnetically assisted remote-controlled (MARC) catheter system under magnetic resonance (MR) imaging guidance for performing a simple endovascular procedure (ie, renal artery embolization) in vivo and to compare with x-ray guidance to determine the value of MR imaging guidance and the specific areas where the MARC system can be improved. Materials and Methods In concordance with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol, in vivo renal artery navigation and embolization were tested in three farm pigs (mean weight 43 kg ± 2 [standard deviation]) under real-time MR imaging at 1.5 T. The MARC catheter device was constructed by using an intramural copper-braided catheter connected to a laser-lithographed saddle coil at the distal tip. Interventionalists controlled an in-room cart that delivered electrical current to deflect the catheter in the MR imager. Contralateral kidneys were similarly embolized under x-ray guidance by using standard clinical catheters and guidewires. Changes in renal artery flow and perfusion were measured before and after embolization by using velocity-encoded and perfusion MR imaging. Catheter navigation times, renal parenchymal perfusion, and renal artery flow rates were measured for MR-guided and x-ray-guided embolization procedures and are presented as means ± standard deviation in this pilot study. Results Embolization was successful in all six kidneys under both x-ray and MR imaging guidance. Mean catheterization time with MR guidance was 93 seconds ± 56, compared with 60 seconds ± 22 for x-ray guidance. Mean changes in perfusion rates were 4.9 au/sec ± 0.8 versus 4.6 au/sec ± 0.6, and mean changes in renal flow rate were 2.1 mL/min/g ± 0.2 versus 1.9 mL/min/g ± 0.2 with MR imaging and x-ray guidance, respectively. Conclusion The MARC catheter system is feasible for renal artery catheterization and embolization under real-time MR imaging in vivo, and quantitative physiologic

  11. Guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for depression is limited. One solution is CBT self-help books. Trial Objectives: To assess the impact of a guided self-help CBT book (GSH-CBT on mood, compared to treatment as usual (TAU. HYPOTHESES: GSH-CBT will have improved mood and knowledge of the causes and treatment of depression compared to the control receiving TAUGuided self-help will be acceptable to patients and staff. METHODS AND FINDINGS: PARTICIPANTS: Adults attending seven general practices in Glasgow, UK with a BDI-II score of ≥14. 141 randomised to GSH-CBT and 140 to TAU. INTERVENTIONS: RCT comparing 'Overcoming Depression: A Five Areas Approach' book plus 3-4 short face to face support appointments totalling up to 2 hours of guided support, compared with general practitioner TAU. PRIMARY OUTCOME: The BDI (II score at 4 months. Numbers analysed: 281 at baseline, 203 at 4 months (primary outcome, 117 at 12 months. OUTCOME: Mean BDI-II scores were lower in the GSH-CBT group at 4 months by 5.3 points (2.6 to 7.9, p<0.001. At 4 and 12 months there were also significantly higher proportions of participants achieving a 50% reduction in BDI-II in the GSH-CBT arm. The mean support was 2 sessions with 42.7 minutes for session 1, 41.4 minutes for session 2 and 40.2 minutes of support for session 3. Adverse effects/Harms: Significantly less deterioration in mood in GSH-CBT (2.0% compared to 9.8% in the TAU group for BDI-II category change. LIMITATIONS: Weaknesses: Our follow-up rate of 72.2% at 4 months is better than predicted but is poorer at 12 months (41.6%. In the GSH-CBT arm, around 50% of people attended 2 or fewer sessions. 22% failed to take up treatment. CONCLUSIONS: GSH-CBT is substantially more effective than TAU. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN13475030.

  12. A newly developed technique of wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides of cold neutron research facilities at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In

    2012-01-01

    KAERI developed a neutron guide system for cold neutron research facilities at HANARO from 2003 to 2010. In 2008, the old plug shutter and instruments were removed, and a new plug and primary shutter were installed as the first cold neutron delivery system at HANARO. At the beginning of 2010, all the neutron guides and accessories had been successfully installed as well. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in pile plug assembly with in pile guides, the primary shutter with in shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with secondary shutter, and the neutron guides in the neutron guide hall. Three kinds of glass materials were selected with optimum lengths by considering their lifetime, shielding, maintainability and cost as well. Radiation damage of the guides can occur on the coating and glass by neutron capturing in the glass. It is a big challenge to inspect a guide failure because of the difficult surrounding environment, such as high level radiation, limited working space, and massive hard work for removing and reinstalling the shielding blocks as shown in Fig 1. Therefore, KAERI has developed a wireless remote controlled visual inspection system for neutron guides using an infrared light camera mounted on the vehicle moving in the guide

  13. Canadian solar export market study. Export policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This report outlines policies and recommendations on the export of Canadian solar equipment and technology, with a view toward stimulating the domestic solar industry. The current picture is of an industry which is relatively small, operates in a competitive domestic market with low profit margins, and needs assistance in order to break into the world market. A number of recommendations are therefore made on the main thrust of industry and government solar export development activities. An export development program is described which includes a strategy of concentrating on a limited number of product lines, namely: low-temperature solar heating systems for recreational applications, integrated residential water heating systems, prepackaged commercial water heating systems, and industrial pre-heat systems. It is also recommended that this strategy be directed only at a limited number of target countries where the market justifies such activity. Market research, international cooperation agreements, promotional services, and proper export organization are also needed.

  14. Highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational control for MRI-guided prostatic thermal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Anthony B [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Diederich, Chris J [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nau, William H [Thermal Therapy Research Group, UCSF Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gill, Harcharan [Department of Urology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Bouley, Donna M [Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Daniel, Bruce [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Rieke, Viola [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Butts, R Kim [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Sommer, Graham [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-01-21

    Transurethral ultrasound applicators with highly directional energy deposition and rotational control were investigated for precise treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and adenocarcinoma of the prostate (CaP). Two types of catheter-based applicators were fabricated, using either sectored tubular (3.5 mm OD x 10 mm) or planar transducers (3.5 mm x 10 mm). They were constructed to be MRI compatible, minimally invasive and allow for manual rotation of the transducer array within a 10 mm cooling balloon. In vivo evaluations of the applicators were performed in canine prostates (n 3) using MRI guidance (0.5 T interventional magnet). MR temperature imaging (MRTI) utilizing the proton resonance frequency shift method was used to acquire multiple-slice temperature overlays in real time for monitoring and guiding the thermal treatments. Post-treatment T1-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride stained tissue sections were used to define regions of tissue coagulation. Single sonications with the tubular applicator ) produced coagulated zones covering a wedge of the prostate extending from 1-2 mm outside the urethra to the outer boundary of the gland (16 mm radial coagulation). Single sonications with the planar applicator (15-20 W, 10 min, {approx}8 MHz) generated thermal lesions of {approx}30 extending to the prostate boundary. Multiple sequential sonications (sweeping) of a planar applicator (12 W with eight rotations of 30 each) demonstrated controllable coagulation of a 270 contiguous section of the prostate extending to the capsule boundary. The feasibility of using highly directional transurethral ultrasound applicators with rotational capabilities to selectively coagulate regions of the prostate while monitoring and controlling the treatments with MRTI was demonstrated in this study.

  15. (No) time for control: Frontal theta dynamics reveal the cost of temporally guided conflict anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, Joram; Swart, Jennifer C; Egner, Tobias; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Cohen, Michael X

    2015-12-01

    During situations of response conflict, cognitive control is characterized by prefrontal theta-band (3- to 8-Hz) activity. It has been shown that cognitive control can be triggered proactively by contextual cues that predict conflict. Here, we investigated whether a pretrial preparation interval could serve as such a cue. This would show that the temporal contingencies embedded in the task can be used to anticipate upcoming conflict. To this end, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from 30 human subjects while they performed a version of a Simon task in which the duration of a fixation cross between trials predicted whether the next trial would contain response conflict. Both their behavior and EEG activity showed a consistent but unexpected pattern of results: The conflict effect (increased reaction times and decreased accuracy on conflict as compared to nonconflict trials) was stronger when conflict was cued, and this was associated with stronger conflict-related midfrontal theta activity and functional connectivity. Interestingly, intervals that predicted conflict did show a pretarget increase in midfrontal theta power. These findings suggest that temporally guided expectations of conflict do heighten conflict anticipation, but also lead to less efficiently applied reactive control. We further explored this post-hoc interpretation by means of three behavioral follow-up experiments, in which we used nontemporal cues, semantically informative cues, and neutral cues. Together, this body of results suggests that the counterintuitive cost of conflict cueing may not be uniquely related to the temporal domain, but may instead be related to the implicitness and validity of the cue.

  16. 76 FR 5236 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Information Collection: Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services. OMB Control Number: 1405... of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: Actual export of defense technical data and defense... DS-4071, Export Declaration of Defense Technical Data or Services; OMB Control Number 1405-0157...

  17. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of a pressurized water reactor fuel element prototype with Zy-control rod guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezold, H.; Romeiser, H.J.

    1978-10-01

    A prototype fuel assembly with zircaloy guide was fabricated by mass production methods. The fastening of the Inconel spacer grids to the guide tubes and the transition joint for fixing the tubes to the stainless stell upper end-fitting of the assembly were investigated. Tools and welding devices were developed for the construction of the skeleton. (orig.) [de

  19. Derivation of Mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Deficient in Export of Pectolytic Enzymes with Potential for Biological Control of Potato Soft Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José M.; Loper, Joyce E.

    1994-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. betavasculorum Ecb168 produces an antibiotic(s) that suppresses growth of the related bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture and in wounds of potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 also produces and secretes pectolytic enzymes and causes a vascular necrosis and root rot of sugar beet. Genes (out) involved in secretion of pectolytic enzymes by Ecb168 were localized to two HindIII fragments (8.5 and 10.5 kb) of Ecb168 genomic DNA by hybridization to the cloned out region of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and by complementation of Out- mutants of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Out- mutants of Ecb168, which did not secrete pectate lyase into the culture medium, were obtained when deletions internal to either HindIII fragment were introduced into the genome of Ecb168 through marker exchange mutagenesis. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were complemented to the Out+ phenotype by introduction of the corresponding cloned HindIII fragment. Out- mutants of Ecb168 were less virulent than the Out+ parental strain on potato tubers. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives inhibited the growth of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in culture, indicating that the uncharacterized antibiotic(s) responsible for antagonism was exported through an out-independent mechanism. Strain Ecb168 and Out- derivatives reduced the establishment of large populations of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora in wounds of potato tubers and suppressed tuber soft rot caused by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. PMID:16349316

  20. Control rod guide tube wear in operating reactors; operating experience report. Technical report December 1977-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, R.

    1980-04-01

    Evidence of control rod guide tube wear has been observed in operating pressurized water reactors. The cause of this wear is identified as flow-induced vibration of the control rods. This report describes the measures being taken by both the industry and the NRC to deal with this matter. The staff also presents its technical positions and requirements to support continued operation of the plants as of December 1979 pending completion of this generic effort

  1. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  2. Treatment of child anxiety disorders via guided parent-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter J; Karalus, Jessica; Voysey, Merryn; Willetts, Lucy; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    Promising evidence has emerged of clinical gains using guided self-help cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for child anxiety and by involving parents in treatment; however, the efficacy of guided parent-delivered CBT has not been systematically evaluated in UK primary and secondary settings. To evaluate the efficacy of low-intensity guided parent-delivered CBT treatments for children with anxiety disorders. A total of 194 children presenting with a current anxiety disorder, whose primary carer did not meet criteria for a current anxiety disorder, were randomly allocated to full guided parent-delivered CBT (four face-to-face and four telephone sessions) or brief guided parent-delivered CBT (two face-to-face and two telephone sessions), or a wait-list control group (trial registration: ISRCTN92977593). Presence and severity of child primary anxiety disorder (Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, child/parent versions), improvement in child presentation of anxiety (Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale), and change in child anxiety symptoms (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, child/parent version and Child Anxiety Impact scale, parent version) were assessed at post-treatment and for those in the two active treatment groups, 6 months post-treatment. Full guided parent-delivered CBT produced superior diagnostic outcomes compared with wait-list at post-treatment, whereas brief guided parent-delivered CBT did not: at post-treatment, 25 (50%) of those in the full guided CBT group had recovered from their primary diagnosis, compared with 16 (25%) of those on the wait-list (relative risk (RR) 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-2.99); and in the brief guided CBT group, 18 participants (39%) had recovered from their primary diagnosis post-treatment (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.89-2.74). Level of therapist training and experience was unrelated to child outcome. Full guided parent-delivered CBT is an effective and inexpensive first-line treatment for child anxiety.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Injections for Trigger Finger: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hao; Tsai, Mei-Wun; Lin, Shan-Hui; Chou, Chen-Liang; Chiu, Jan-Wei; Chiang, Chao-Ching; Kao, Chung-Lan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of ultrasound-guided injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) versus steroid for trigger fingers in adults. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled study. Tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of trigger finger (N=36; 39 affected digits) received treatment and were evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned to HA and steroid injection groups. Both study medications were injected separately via ultrasound guidance with 1 injection. The classification of trigger grading, pain, functional disability, and patient satisfaction were evaluated before the injection and 3 weeks and 3 months after the injection. At 3 months, 12 patients (66.7%) in the HA group and 17 patients (89.5%) in the steroid group exhibited no triggering of the affected fingers (P=.124). The treatment results at 3 weeks and 3 months showed similar changes in the Quinnell scale (P=.057 and .931, respectively). A statistically significant interaction effect between group and time was found for visual analog scale (VAS) and Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ) evaluation (Pinjection (steroid 0.5±1.1 vs HA 2.7±2.4; Pinjection of HA demonstrated promising results for the treatment of trigger fingers. The optimal frequency, dosage, and molecular weight of HA injections for trigger fingers deserve further investigation for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Guide to robots and remote-controlled tools used in French nuclebar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferriole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Three types of robots are used in French nuclear plants: 1) Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads 2) Autonomous tool carriers and 3) Multifunctional tool carriers. Tool carriers for steam generator channel heads have been designed to perform only maintenance activities inside the channel head of steam generators and especially on the tubes. The shape and size of these carriers are adapted to the channel heads which is their only application. Autonomous carriers are tank-type vehicles with full tractor treads and their capacity ranges from 20 to 150 kg. These vehicles are used mainly for televisual inspection of the instrumentation penetrations underneath the pressure vessel and the upper pressure vessel internal structures (inspection of control rod guide tube split pins). Multifunctional tool carriers are developed to perform exceptional maintenance tasks of a nongeneric type in an environment with very high irradiation fields, that are inaccessible to a human operator. This means that such tasks are not always clearly defined and their execution is liable to change during the process. The different tasks can be delicate to perform and highly complex, e.g.: recovering a dropped fuel element, underwater measuration, dismantling of mechanical equipment, etc

  5. Communication of 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the IAEA concerning the establishment of the oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's export control on goods, technologies, materials and equipment related to nuclear and biological weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 7 August 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan enclosing a copy of the Gazette of Pakistan S.R.O. No.693(I)/2007, dated 11 July 2007, regarding the establishment of the Oversight Board to monitor the implementation of Pakistan's Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Materials and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act (Act No.V) 2004, including the formation and functioning of Strategic Export Control Division. As requested in the Note Verbale, the Note Verbale and the enclosure thereto are circulated for the information of Member States

  6. The implications of uranium export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that Australia should not enter the business of uranium mining enrichment and export because of the hazards of nuclear power and because there are practical alternatives to the development of nuclear power. (R.L.)

  7. Intramuscular diclofenac vs periprostatic lidocaine injection for controlling pain undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) technique for getting prostatic tissue for histopathology is now the standard procedure for malignant lesions of the prostate and imperative diagnostic investigation of patients with clinical specks of prostatic neoplasia. During TRUS guided biopsy, pain control has been important issue therefore, highly potent analgesia before this procedure should be considered on high priority according to current census. Therefore, we compared intramuscular diclofenac injection with sensory blockade of injection lidocaine to abolish pain undergoing prostatic biopsy with TRUS technique. Methods: Total 200 patients were selected for this study having raised PSA values and suspicious nodule on Digital Rectal Examination. These patients were segregated into two groups by randomization. Group Ar eceived intramuscular diclofenac and group Bw ere infiltrated with lidocaine injection for sensory blockade. Results: Patients in group A was having mean age of 64.5±5.8 years while for group B patients was 65.6±4.9 years (p=0.16). Both groups have statistically insignificant difference in their mean PSA values (p=0.24) and mean prostatic volume (p=0.22). The mean pain scores on visual analogue scale in groups A was 3.5±0.8 and in group B it was 2.4±0.8 (p<0.001). 60% group A patients reported with mild or no pain compared to 90% in group B. (p<0.001). Conclusion: Local blockade with lidocaine injection has better pain control as compared to patients experienced pain with intramuscular diclofenac used for prostatic biopsy through TRUS technique.

  8. Effects of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Visually Guided Learning of Grip Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Minarik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS has been shown to be an effective non-invasive brain stimulation method for improving cognitive and motor functioning in patients with neurological deficits. tDCS over motor cortex (M1, for instance, facilitates motor learning in stroke patients. However, the literature on anodal tDCS effects on motor learning in healthy participants is inconclusive, and the effects of tDCS on visuo-motor integration are not well understood. In the present study we examined whether tDCS over the contralateral motor cortex enhances learning of grip-force output in a visually guided feedback task in young and neurologically healthy volunteers. Twenty minutes of 1 mA anodal tDCS were applied over the primary motor cortex (M1 contralateral to the dominant (right hand, during the first half of a 40 min power-grip task. This task required the control of a visual signal by modulating the strength of the power-grip for six seconds per trial. Each participant completed a two-session sham-controlled crossover protocol. The stimulation conditions were counterbalanced across participants and the sessions were one week apart. Performance measures comprised time-on-target and target-deviation, and were calculated for the periods of stimulation (or sham and during the afterphase respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant performance improvements over the stimulation and the afterphase, but this learning effect was not modulated by tDCS condition. This suggests that the form of visuomotor learning taking place in the present task was not sensitive to neurostimulation. These null effects, together with similar reports for other types of motor tasks, lead to the proposition that tDCS facilitation of motor learning might be restricted to cases or situations where the motor system is challenged, such as motor deficits, advanced age, or very high task demand.

  9. A cadaver study of mastoidectomy using an image-guided human-robot collaborative control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Lee, Hwan Seo; Yang, Chan Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lim, Hoon; Lee, Seongpung; Yi, Byung-Ju; Chung, Jong Woo

    2017-10-01

    Surgical precision would be better achieved with the development of an anatomical monitoring and controlling robot system than by traditional surgery techniques alone. We evaluated the feasibility of robot-assisted mastoidectomy in terms of duration, precision, and safety. Human cadaveric study. We developed a multi-degree-of-freedom robot system for a surgical drill with a balancing arm. The drill system is manipulated by the surgeon, the motion of the drill burr is monitored by the image-guided system, and the brake is controlled by the robotic system. The system also includes an alarm as well as the brake to help avoid unexpected damage to vital structures. Experimental mastoidectomy was performed in 11 temporal bones of six cadavers. Parameters including duration and safety were assessed, as well as intraoperative damage, which was judged via pre- and post-operative computed tomography. The duration of mastoidectomy in our study was comparable with that required for chronic otitis media patients. Although minor damage, such as dura exposure without tearing, was noted, no critical damage to the facial nerve or other important structures was observed. When the brake system was set to 1 mm from the facial nerve, the postoperative average bone thicknesses of the facial nerve was 1.39, 1.41, 1.22, 1.41, and 1.55 mm in the lateral, posterior pyramidal and anterior, lateral, and posterior mastoid portions, respectively. Mastoidectomy can be successfully performed using our robot-assisted system while maintaining a pre-set limit of 1 mm in most cases. This system may thus be useful for more inexperienced surgeons. NA.

  10. Towards MRI-guided linear accelerator control: gating on an MRI accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, S P M; Kok, J G M; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2011-08-07

    , we will realize more intricate MRI-guided linear accelerator control in the near future.

  11. The Wassenaar Arrangement and Russian High-Tech Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current military and political situation in the world raises the necessity of use by Russia of all existing tools to counter actions targeted against it. Participation of the country in international export control regimes, including the Wassenaar Arrangement (the WA, is one of these tools. Membership in the WA allows to Russia to maintain its international status, to contribute to strengthening of international stability, to ensure the non-targeting of this forum against the country, to participate in the development of decisions affecting its interests. Participation in the WA is also important from the view of modernizations of Russian economy towards transition to a new technological mode accompanied by emergence of new groups of innovative products and modification of existing ones. Control of crossing the country's borders by dual-use goods and services is one of conditions for carrying out their export. The Wassenaar Arrangement was established in 1995 to replace COCOM in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability. A huge work is carried out within the forum aimed at enhancing control over transfers of conventional weapons and high-tech dual-use goods. Russian export control system fully meets requirements of international export control regime, including the WA, and effectively functions. Export of the controlled goods from Russia or their transfer to foreign individuals and legal entities are possible only on the basis of decisions of the Export control Commission of the Russian Federation. The dilemma between the need to support exporters by reducing administrative barriers and the ensuring security interests of the country gain momentum in current stage of scientific-and-technological advance development.

  12. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  13. Exports of petroleum products, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1990 calendar year. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 34,000 m 3 /d in 1990, up 12% from 1989 levels. The increase reflects increased output from the Come By Chance refinery in Newfoundland. Motor gasoline exports increased 35% to 10,500 m 3 /d, reflecting refinery upgrading in eastern Canada. Export prices were generally in line with spot product prices in the USA. Spot prices rose sharply following the Kuwait crisis in August 1990 but fell again in November. The spot price for jet fuel rose more dramatically in that period than for other products, reflecting increased military demand. In winter 1989/90 and during the Kuwait conflict, the export price of heating oil tended to track the USA spot price. Petroleum products imports in 1990 were 18,500 m 3 /d, compared to 21,900 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports were lower partially as a result of higher crude runs in Quebec and a Quebec refinery expansion. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada continued to be strong in comparison to the mid-1980s. The top single exporter in 1990, as in 1989, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 4,506,400 m 3 . 13 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Exports of petroleum products, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    A summary is presented of exports of motor gasoline, middle distillate, aviation turbine fuel, heavy fuel oil, and partially processed oil from Canada for the 1989 calendar year. A discussion of petroleum product imports is included in order to put exports in the context of the overall trade. Exports of the above petroleum products averaged 30,400 m 3 /d in 1989, down 5% from 1988 levels. Motor gasoline shipments showed the largest decrease, down 1,500 m 3 to 7,700 m 3 /d. Export prices for light petroleum products stayed relatively close to USA spot prices except in June and July 1989, when attractive prices were obtained for shipments from the prairie provinces. The heavy fuel oil export price was similar to the USA east coast spot price in 1989, except in December. Canada's petroleum products imports in 1989 were 21,600 m 3 /d, compared to 18,400 m 3 /d in 1988. Imports of heavy fuel oil in eastern Canada rose 36% in 1989 because of industries switching from electricity and the high demand for thermal power generation. The USA remained Canada's largest trading partner in petroleum products. The top single exporter in 1989, as in 1988, was Newfoundland Processing, with a volume of 3,484,500 m 3 . 24 figs., 4 tabs

  15. The anatomy of China's export growth

    OpenAIRE

    Amiti, Mary; Freund, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Decomposing China's real export growth, of over 500 percent since 1992, reveals a number of interesting findings. First, China's export structure changed dramatically, with growing export shares in electronics and machinery and a decline in agriculture and apparel. Second, despite the shift into these more sophisticated products, the skill content of China's manufacturing exports remained ...

  16. E-business and small Ghanaian exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinson, Robert; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2006-01-01

    The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items.......The arfticle aims to investigate the relationship between export intensity and e-business adoption in Ghana. No clear relationship is found among exporters of non-traditional items....

  17. 27 CFR 28.30 - Export status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export status. 28.30... Export status. (a) Distilled spirits and wines manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles packed in... such purposes are considered to be exported. Export status is not acquired until application on Form...

  18. Development of a new concept automatic frequency controller for an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamino, Yuichiro; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Masaki; Miura, Sadao; Hirai, Etsuro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a four-dimensional, image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. The system has pursuing irradiation capability in addition to precise irradiation capability, owing to its agile x-ray head. The moving x-ray head requires a very small C-band accelerator guide. The heat intensity of the accelerator guide is much higher than that of conventional S-band medical linear accelerators. The resonance frequency varies over almost 1.0 MHz with a thermal time constant of about 30 s. An automatic frequency controller (AFC) is employed to compensate for this variation in resonance frequency. Furthermore, we noted that fast AFC response is important for step-and-shoot intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), in which the beam is turned on and off frequently. Therefore, we invented a digital AFC, based on a new concept, to provide effective compensation for the thermal characteristics of the accelerator guide and to ensure stable and optimized x-ray treatment. An important aspect of the performance of the AFC is the capture-frequency range over which the AFC can seek, lock on to, and track the resonance frequency. The conventional, analog AFC used in S-band medical linear accelerators would have a capture-frequency range of about 0.9 MHz, if applied to our accelerator guide, and would be inappropriate. Conversely, our new AFC has a capture-frequency range of 24 MHz, which is well suited to our accelerator guide. The design concept behind this new AFC has been developed and verified. A full prototype system was constructed and tested on an existing accelerator guide at the rated x-ray output (500 cGy/min) of our radiotherapy system, with a pulse-repetition frequency of 300 Hz. The AFC acquired the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide within 0.15 s after beam-on, and provided stable tracking and adjustment of the frequency of the microwave source to the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide. With a planned improvement of the

  19. The Export Performance of MNE Affiliates in Polish manufacturing: 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2006-01-01

    of the foreign affiliates. The results from panel estimations show that the export intensity of the affiliates has increased every year since 1994. The lowest level of export performance was recorded in science-based industries. Import intensity, labour intensity, wage level, scale economies and foreign control......Using a unique database containing trade (export and import) and industry variables (wages, employment, foreign capital share, investments, sales, etc.) of foreign affiliates in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, this paper analyses the determinants of the export performance...... are significant and positively associated to export performance, while investment activity is negatively related to the export performance of the affiliates. On the assumption that some industry variables are proxies for technology transfer, the results show that the increasing export orientation of foreign...

  20. Liquid Pipeline Operator's Control Room Human Factors Risk Assessment and Management Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    The purpose of this guide is to document methodologies, tools, procedures, guidance, and instructions that have been developed to provide liquid pipeline operators with an efficient and effective means of managing the human factors risks in their con...

  1. Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide: Addendum for Shock Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plews, Julia A.; Crane, Nathan K; de Frias, Gabriel Jose; Le, San; Littlewood, David John; Merewether, Mark Thomas; Mosby, Matthew David; Pierson, Kendall H.; Porter, Vicki L.; Shelton, Timothy; Thomas, Jesse David; Tupek, Michael R.; Veilleux, Michael; Xavier, Patrick G.

    2018-03-01

    This is an addendum to the Sierra/SolidMechanics 4.48 User's Guide that documents additional capabilities available only in alternate versions of the Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) code. These alternate versions are enhanced to provide capabilities that are regulated under the U.S. Department of State's International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) export-control rules. The ITAR regulated codes are only distributed to entities that comply with the ITAR export-control requirements. The ITAR enhancements to Sierra/SM in- clude material models with an energy-dependent pressure response (appropriate for very large deformations and strain rates) and capabilities for blast modeling. Since this is an addendum to the standard Sierra/SM user's guide, please refer to that document first for general descriptions of code capability and use.

  2. Evaluation of the Leap Motion Controller during the performance of visually-guided upper limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechwiej-Szwedo, Ewa; Gonzalez, David; Nouredanesh, Mina; Tung, James

    2018-01-01

    Kinematic analysis of upper limb reaching provides insight into the central nervous system control of movements. Until recently, kinematic examination of motor control has been limited to studies conducted in traditional research laboratories because motion capture equipment used for data collection is not easily portable and expensive. A recently developed markerless system, the Leap Motion Controller (LMC), is a portable and inexpensive tracking device that allows recording of 3D hand and finger position. The main goal of this study was to assess the concurrent reliability and validity of the LMC as compared to the Optotrak, a criterion-standard motion capture system, for measures of temporal accuracy and peak velocity during the performance of upper limb, visually-guided movements. In experiment 1, 14 participants executed aiming movements to visual targets presented on a computer monitor. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess the validity and limits of agreement for measures of temporal accuracy (movement time, duration of deceleration interval), peak velocity, and spatial accuracy (endpoint accuracy). In addition, a one-sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that the error difference between measures obtained from Optotrak and LMC is zero. In experiment 2, 15 participants performed a Fitts' type aiming task in order to assess whether the LMC is capable of assessing a well-known speed-accuracy trade-off relationship. Experiment 3 assessed the temporal coordination pattern during the performance of a sequence consisting of a reaching, grasping, and placement task in 15 participants. Results from the t-test showed that the error difference in temporal measures was significantly different from zero. Based on the results from the 3 experiments, the average temporal error in movement time was 40±44 ms, and the error in peak velocity was 0.024±0.103 m/s. The limits of agreement between the LMC and Optotrak for spatial accuracy measures ranged between

  3. Coping with Work-Related Stress through Guided Imagery and Music (GIM): Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bolette Daniels; Hansen, Åse Marie; Gold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychotherapy intervention including relaxation, music listening, and imagery, on biopsychosocial measures of work-related stress. Twenty Danish workers on sick leave were randomized to music therapy versus wait-list control. Data collection was carried out at an occupational health ward in the period 2008-2010. Changes in salivary cortisol, testosterone, and melatonin were explored, and self-reported data on psychological stress symptoms (perceived stress, mood disturbance, sleep quality, physical distress symptoms, work readiness, well-being, anxiety, depression, immediate stress) were collected. Data regarding sick leave situation and job return were collected from participants throughout the study. Significant beneficial effects of GIM compared to wait-list after nine weeks with large effect sizes were found in well-being, mood disturbance, and physical distress, and in cortisol concentrations with a medium effect size. A comparison between early and late intervention as related to the onset of sick leave showed faster job return and significantly improved perceived stress, well-being, mood disturbance, depression, anxiety, and physical distress symptoms in favor of early intervention. In the whole sample, 83% of the participants had returned to work at nine weeks' follow-up. The results indicate that GIM is a promising treatment for work-related chronic stress, and further studies are recommended. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Interventional spinal procedures guided and controlled by a 3D rotational angiographic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Verdolotti, Tommaso; Pompucci, Angelo; Desiderio, Flora; D'Argento, Francesco; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of 2D multiplanar reformatting images (MPR) obtained from rotational acquisitions with cone-beam computed tomography technology during percutaneous extra-vascular spinal procedures performed in the angiography suite. We used a 3D rotational angiographic unit with a flat panel detector. MPR images were obtained from a rotational acquisition of 8 s (240 images at 30 fps), tube rotation of 180° and after post-processing of 5 s by a local work-station. Multislice CT (MSCT) is the best guidance system for spinal approaches permitting direct tomographic visualization of each spinal structure. Many operators, however, are trained with fluoroscopy, it is less expensive, allows real-time guidance, and in many centers the angiography suite is more frequently available for percutaneous procedures. We present our 6-year experience in fluoroscopy-guided spinal procedures, which were performed under different conditions using MPR images. We illustrate cases of vertebroplasty, epidural injections, selective foraminal nerve root block, facet block, percutaneous treatment of disc herniation and spine biopsy, all performed with the help of MPR images for guidance and control in the event of difficult or anatomically complex access. The integrated use of "CT-like" MPR images allows the execution of spinal procedures under fluoroscopy guidance alone in all cases of dorso-lumbar access, with evident limitation of risks and complications, and without need for recourse to MSCT guidance, thus eliminating CT-room time (often bearing high diagnostic charges), and avoiding organizational problems for procedures that need, for example, combined use of a C-arm in the CT room.

  5. Interventional spinal procedures guided and controlled by a 3D rotational angiographic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Verdolotti, Tommaso; Desiderio, Flora; D'Argento, Francesco; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Pompucci, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of 2D multiplanar reformatting images (MPR) obtained from rotational acquisitions with cone-beam computed tomography technology during percutaneous extra-vascular spinal procedures performed in the angiography suite. We used a 3D rotational angiographic unit with a flat panel detector. MPR images were obtained from a rotational acquisition of 8 s (240 images at 30 fps), tube rotation of 180 and after post-processing of 5 s by a local work-station. Multislice CT (MSCT) is the best guidance system for spinal approaches permitting direct tomographic visualization of each spinal structure. Many operators, however, are trained with fluoroscopy, it is less expensive, allows real-time guidance, and in many centers the angiography suite is more frequently available for percutaneous procedures. We present our 6-year experience in fluoroscopy-guided spinal procedures, which were performed under different conditions using MPR images. We illustrate cases of vertebroplasty, epidural injections, selective foraminal nerve root block, facet block, percutaneous treatment of disc herniation and spine biopsy, all performed with the help of MPR images for guidance and control in the event of difficult or anatomically complex access. The integrated use of ''CT-like'' MPR images allows the execution of spinal procedures under fluoroscopy guidance alone in all cases of dorso-lumbar access, with evident limitation of risks and complications, and without need for recourse to MSCT guidance, thus eliminating CT-room time (often bearing high diagnostic charges), and avoiding organizational problems for procedures that need, for example, combined use of a C-arm in the CT room. (orig.)

  6. Interventional spinal procedures guided and controlled by a 3D rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Verdolotti, Tommaso; Desiderio, Flora; D' Argento, Francesco; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, A. Gemelli Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Pompucci, Angelo [Catholic University of Rome, A. Gemelli Hospital, Department of Neurotraumatology, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of 2D multiplanar reformatting images (MPR) obtained from rotational acquisitions with cone-beam computed tomography technology during percutaneous extra-vascular spinal procedures performed in the angiography suite. We used a 3D rotational angiographic unit with a flat panel detector. MPR images were obtained from a rotational acquisition of 8 s (240 images at 30 fps), tube rotation of 180 and after post-processing of 5 s by a local work-station. Multislice CT (MSCT) is the best guidance system for spinal approaches permitting direct tomographic visualization of each spinal structure. Many operators, however, are trained with fluoroscopy, it is less expensive, allows real-time guidance, and in many centers the angiography suite is more frequently available for percutaneous procedures. We present our 6-year experience in fluoroscopy-guided spinal procedures, which were performed under different conditions using MPR images. We illustrate cases of vertebroplasty, epidural injections, selective foraminal nerve root block, facet block, percutaneous treatment of disc herniation and spine biopsy, all performed with the help of MPR images for guidance and control in the event of difficult or anatomically complex access. The integrated use of ''CT-like'' MPR images allows the execution of spinal procedures under fluoroscopy guidance alone in all cases of dorso-lumbar access, with evident limitation of risks and complications, and without need for recourse to MSCT guidance, thus eliminating CT-room time (often bearing high diagnostic charges), and avoiding organizational problems for procedures that need, for example, combined use of a C-arm in the CT room. (orig.)

  7. Phases definition in marketing export process

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Dragan; Kokić Miljko

    2004-01-01

    The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action). The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed ...

  8. Topics in Productivity, Exporting and Outsourced Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kidder, Matthew Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical studies using the a survey of Chilean Manufactures. The first two chapters of this dissertation evaluates the productivity impact of exporting and service outsourcing. The last chapter evaluates selection mechanisms into exporting.The first chapter examines productivity and exporting. I find that asymmetric responses, between exporters and non-exporters, to changes in the domestic lending rate can cause propensity-score-matching-differen...

  9. Guide for the putting int practice the control of internal contamination due to I-131 in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The generalized use of radioactive installations in different branches of the Economy and Medicine makes essential the existence of a radiological surveillance systems that guarantees that exposure are kept within the limits established. Nuclear medicine workers in hospitals that handle I-131 constitutes a professional group that can be internally contaminated the aim of this guide is to give the entity the general instructions and the necessary methodology to fulfill the control of the internal contamination by this radionuclide

  10. Guided self-determination improves life skills with Type 1 diabetes and A1C in randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoffmann, Vibeke; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Objective To report 1-year results of newly developed method, guided self-determination (GSD), applied in group training (GSD-GT) for Type 1 diabetes patients with persistent poor glycaemic control. Methods GSD was designed on the basis of qualitative research to help patients develop life skills...... is a worthy candidate for further research. We consider it adjustable to people with type 2 diabetes and other chronic conditions....

  11. A Control of Collision and Deadlock Avoidance for Automated Guided Vehicles with a Fault-Tolerance Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on a novel discrete-event zone-control model, in our previous papers [1, 2], we presented a time-efficient traffic control for automated guided vehicle (AGV systems to exclude inter-vehicle collisions and system deadlocks, together with a case study on container terminals. The traffic control allows each vehicle in an AGV system to freely choose its routes for any finite sequence of zone-to-zone transportation tasks and the routes can be constructed in an online fashion. In this paper, we extended our previous results with two practical goals: (1 to increase the utilization of the workspace area by reducing the minimally allowed area of each zone; (2 to avoid vehicle collisions and deadlocks with the occurrence of vehicle breakdowns. To achieve the first goal, we include one extra vehicle event that allows each vehicle to probe further ahead while it is moving on the guide-path. This leads to an extension of our previous discrete-event model and traffic control rules, which are presented in the first part of the paper. The second part of the paper concerns the second goal, for which an emergency traffic control scheme is designed as supplementary to the normal traffic control rules. As in our previous papers, the improved model and traffic control are applied to a simulation of quayside container transshipment at container terminals; our simulation results are compared with those from two interesting works in the literature.

  12. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  13. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  14. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Kapoula, Zoi

    2011-01-01

    The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF). Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS) over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay); the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  15. Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Daniel E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the paucity of effective evidence-based therapies for children with recurrent abdominal pain, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of guided imagery, a well-studied self-regulation technique. Methods 22 children, aged 5 – 18 years, were randomized to learn either breathing exercises alone or guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation. Both groups had 4-weekly sessions with a therapist. Children reported the numbers of days with pain, the pain intensity, and missed activities due to abdominal pain using a daily pain diary collected at baseline and during the intervention. Monthly phone calls to the children reported the number of days with pain and the number of days of missed activities experienced during the month of and month following the intervention. Children with ≤ 4 days of pain/month and no missed activities due to pain were defined as being healed. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were measured in both children and parents at baseline. Results At baseline the children who received guided imagery had more days of pain during the preceding month (23 vs. 14 days, P = 0.04. There were no differences in the intensity of painful episodes or any baseline psychological factors between the two groups. Children who learned guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation had significantly greater decrease in the number of days with pain than those learning breathing exercises alone after one (67% vs. 21%, P = 0.05, and two (82% vs. 45%, P Conclusion The therapeutic efficacy of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation found in this study is consistent with our present understanding of the pathophysiology of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Although unfamiliar to many pediatricians, guided imagery is a simple, noninvasive therapy with potential benefit for treating children with RAP.

  16. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  17. The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Cocoa Export Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Rifin, Amzul; Nauly, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The government of Indonesia implemented an export tax policy on cocoa beans since April 2010 in order to develop cocoa processing industry. The objective of this article is to analyze the effect of export tax on Indonesia’s cocoa export competitiveness. The results indicate that with the implementation of export tax, cocoa export product composition shift from cocoa beans to processed cocoa products. On the other hand, Indonesia’s cocoa export growth is lower than the growth of cocoa world de...

  18. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body

  19. Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Perfectionism: Results From Two Different Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D; Kothari, Radha; Egan, Sarah J; Ekberg, Linda; Wiss, Maria; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-04-26

    Perfectionism can become a debilitating condition that may negatively affect functioning in multiple areas, including mental health. Prior research has indicated that internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy can be beneficial, but few studies have included follow-up data. The objective of this study was to explore the outcomes at follow-up of internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy with guided self-help, delivered as 2 separate randomized controlled trials conducted in Sweden and the United Kingdom. In total, 120 participants randomly assigned to internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy were included in both intention-to-treat and completer analyses: 78 in the Swedish trial and 62 in the UK trial. The primary outcome measure was the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Concern over Mistakes subscale (FMPS CM). Secondary outcome measures varied between the trials and consisted of the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ; both trials), the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; Swedish trial), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7; Swedish trial), and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21; UK trial). Follow-up occurred after 6 months for the UK trial and after 12 months for the Swedish trial. Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between pretreatment and follow-up in both studies. Intention-to-treat within-group Cohen d effect sizes were 1.21 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.86-1.54) and 1.24 (UK trial; 95% CI 0.85-1.62) for the FMPS CM. Furthermore, 29 (59%; Swedish trial) and 15 (43%; UK trial) of the participants met the criteria for recovery on the FMPS CM. Improvements were also significant for the CPQ, with effect sizes of 1.32 (Swedish trial; 95% CI 0.97-1.66) and 1.49 (UK trial; 95% CI 1.09-1.88); the PHQ-9, effect size 0.60 (95% CI 0.28-0.92); the GAD-7, effect size 0.67 (95% CI 0.34-0.99); and the DASS-21, effect size 0.50 (95% CI 0.13-0.85). The results are promising for the use of

  20. 76 FR 16353 - International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Exemption for Temporary Export of Chemical Agent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... assistance. Section (c)(3) is to be revised to remove what is in practice extraneous language. Subject to the... Administrative Procedure Act The Department of State is of the opinion that controlling the import and export of... comment and without prejudice to its determination that controlling the import and export of defense...

  1. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  2. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  3. 75 FR 44761 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... sales prices and/or minimum target sales prices, and other terms of sales in the Export Markets... canned salmon in the Export Markets, selling strategies for the Export Markets, sales for the Export... described below for the following Export Trade and Export Markets: Export Trade Products Shelf stable non...

  4. Export-Led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Agricultural Exports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the nature and direction of causality in Tanzania between economic growth and agricultural exports along with some selected variables such as labour force and domestic investment. The analysis for this study was carried out using time series data for the period of 1980 to 2013. The data series were ...

  5. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  6. Guide-09-1998. Quality control of darkrooms and image display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This guide is applicable to process darkrooms relieved and receiving devices and image displays. A number of methods which require the appointed instrumentation described, some of which can be implemented in own radiology services in the country given the low complexity of themselves and others that require specific equipment and can be performed by specialized groups external to these units.

  7. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  8. A Stocking Guide for Allegheny Hardwoods and Its Use in Controlling Intermediate Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin A. Roach

    1977-01-01

    A stocking guide for stands of Allegheny hardwoods (sugar maple or sugar maple-beech with varying admixtures of black cherry, red maple, white ash, sweet birch, and other species) on the Allegheny Plateau in northwestern Pennsylvania. Included are procedures for evaluating stocking and stand conditions, thinning even-aged stands, determining minimum residual stocking,...

  9. Determinants of Short-Term Export Performance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms.Amber; Habib, Sukaina

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the interdependency between independent (Increase of pricing strategy adaptation, Increase of export intensity, Firm's commitment to exporting, Export market development, Export market competition, Past Pricing Strategy Adaptation, Past Export Performance Satisfaction, Past Export Intensity, Export market distance) and dependent variables (i.e. Expected Short-Term Export Performance improvement) of export performance. The framework is tested via a survey through que...

  10. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Werner.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA) [fr

  11. International cooperation in the field of export control as risk reduction instrument for both nuclear technologies spreading and nuclear ecological terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.V.; Odejchuk, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper is noted, that it is necessary to develop international flexible procedures for control of potentially hazardous materials, averting illicit spreading and in that time are minimally limiting development of a trade-commercial partnership. Efforts on prevention of unendorsed mass destruction weapon development by terrorist groups must carrying out in two directions: material transactions and intangible transfers (technologies, qualified personnel). Now efforts of international regimes are focused on the material component. But is is necessary to develop mechanism universal for all world community, for control of intangible transfer and preventing of unapproved transfers of 'sensitive' technologies

  12. A guide to mines and mining houses of the Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This guide lists the mining houses of the Republic of South Africa and the mines under their respective control. It is intended as a guide for British exporters wishing to develop business with the South African mining industry and hence includes buying offices and senior buying personnel in South Africa (and in the UK where relevant). Amongst the 16 mining houses included are the Chamber of Mines of South Africa, De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., Rand Mines Ltd., Sasol Ltd. and the South African Iron and Steel Industrial Corporation Ltd.

  13. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  14. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Katahira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex.

  15. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  16. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  17. Nuclear Export of Messenger RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katahira, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Transport of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is an essential step of eukaryotic gene expression. In the cell nucleus, a precursor mRNA undergoes a series of processing steps, including capping at the 5' ends, splicing and cleavage/polyadenylation at the 3' ends. During this process, the mRNA associates with a wide variety of proteins, forming a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle. Association with factors involved in nuclear export also occurs during transcription and processing, and thus nuclear export is fully integrated into mRNA maturation. The coupling between mRNA maturation and nuclear export is an important mechanism for providing only fully functional and competent mRNA to the cytoplasmic translational machinery, thereby ensuring accuracy and swiftness of gene expression. This review describes the molecular mechanism of nuclear mRNA export mediated by the principal transport factors, including Tap-p15 and the TREX complex. PMID:25836925

  18. Export Intermediation and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the remarkable growth in numbers of connected firms to the Internet marks a radical shift in current organisation of international business channels. For export intermediaries these new possibilities pose a threat to their current market position. However, virtual market presence...

  19. Control of a self guided tracked vehicle for hazardous waste removal using GPS positioning and ultrasonic collision avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.; Lokhorst, D.; Fung, P.; Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 a large hydraulic telerobotic tracked transport vehicle (TTV) was built for Lockheed Idaho Technologies by a team of companies consisting of RAHCO International of Spokane, Spar Aerospace of Toronto and RSI Research of Victoria. The TTV was developed as a part of the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program to transport low level transuranic waste in a safe, dust-free manner minimizing the potential spread of airborne contaminants. The TTV was controlled from a remote control station by an operator relying on video and sensor feedback. This paper describes the control system of SGTV, a self guided version of the TTV developed in 1995 to travel autonomously between loading and off-loading points while automatically avoiding obstacles in its path. Self-guidance is divided between a supervisory Mission Planning and Control computer (WC) and an on-board system of five networked computers

  20. Agent-Oriented Embedded Control System Design and Development of a Vision-Based Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision-based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi-agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three-phase agent-oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real-time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space-limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent-oriented embedded control system.

  1. Export markets for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    By late 1984, nuclear power plants were in operation or under construction in 32 countries of the globe. An additional six countries had concrete plans for building nuclear power plants. Of these 38 countries, ten have shown that they posses the necessary know-how and the technical facilities to plan and build nuclear power plants practically on their own. Seven of these ten countries have already acted as exporters of nuclear power plants, albeit with very different degrees of market penetration. In addition, there have been a number of countries for quite some time whose industries have managed to manufacture many important nuclear power plant components. Their high level of technical development and the problems frequently encountered in export financing have made them very attractive partners of the true exporters of nuclear power plants. For the future, it must be expected that some of the countries which have so far limited their efforts to the construction of nuclear power plants at home will also develop into exporters of nuclear technology. The report contains a survey of the range of nuclear products available, a list of reactor vendors, reactor lines, and data on the economics of electricity generation in nuclear plants. It then goes on to offer detailed descriptions of the market and the demand situation. Interesting chapters are devoted to the selection criteria applied by importing countries, to financing problems, and to the influences exerted by the political environment. A realistic forecast is attempted in order to make a quantitative analysis of possible export contracts up until the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  2. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  3. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  4. Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Sharon K.; Mata, Miguel A.; Zhang, Liang; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. PMID:23872491

  5. From an accounting point of view of cost control challenges current export foreign trade enterprises%从会计成本控制的角度分析当前外贸企业出口挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲敏

    2016-01-01

    As a cost control basic functions of accounting personnel, has a very important impact on daily business operations and cost savings. At this stage of international development trend, especially foreign trade enterprises in the face of all kinds of domestic and foreign markets dynamic challenges of cost control means, methods, results and other concerns, naturally become the pursuit of sustainable development an important starting point. In the current paper the impact of various types of foreign trade enterprises business factors of cost control, such as raising the cost of human resources, marketing costs increased rapidly, energy price fluctuations as the analysis starting point for analysis, and strive to provide some advice to optimize trade and export policy opinion.%成本控制作为会计人员的基本职能,对企业的日常运营及成本节约具有极为重要的影响。现阶段在我国国际化发展的大趋势下,尤其是外贸企业在面对国内外市场的各类动态性挑战中,对成本控制的方式、方法、成效等关注,自然就成为企业谋求可持续发展的重要切入点。文中以当前影响外贸企业贸易成本控制的各类因素,如人力资源成本的提升、营销费用快速递增、能源价格波动等作为分析的切入点进行分析,力求为外贸企业出口策略的优化提供一定建议和意见。

  6. Exporting nuclear engineering and the government's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reasons for the government's positive attitude to nuclear engineering exports are explained, especially with regard to them being a compensation of the decreasing domestic demand. The federal government considers such exports to be necessary and correct for economical and energy-political reasons. Their contribution reaches from accompanying measures to the provision of state guarantees of export financing activities. (UA) [de

  7. Firm-level volatility and exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannoorenberghe, G.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows that the share of exports in the total sales of a firm has a positive and substantial impact on the volatility of its sales. Decomposing the volatility of sales of exporters between their domestic and export markets, I show using an identification strategy based on a firm-specific

  8. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  9. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  10. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  11. 7 CFR 923.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 923.15 Section 923.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.15 Export. Export means to ship cherries...

  12. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  13. 7 CFR 958.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 958.14 Section 958.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.14 Export. Export...

  14. 7 CFR 945.14 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 945.14 Section 945.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.14 Export. Export...

  15. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2012 LNG Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of availability of 2012 LNG Export Study and request for comments. Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. [FE Docket No. 10-161-LNG] and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC. Lake Charles Exports, LLC.... [FE Docket...

  16. 7 CFR 948.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 948.17 Section 948.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.17 Export. Export means the shipment of potatoes to any destination...

  17. 7 CFR 959.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 959.18 Section 959.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 959.18 Export. Export means to ship onions to any destination which is not within...

  18. 7 CFR 915.12 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 915.12 Section 915.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.12 Export. Export means to ship avocados to any destination which is...

  19. 7 CFR 922.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 922.15 Section 922.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.15 Export. Export means to ship apricots beyond the...

  20. 7 CFR 946.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 946.15 Section 946.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.15 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of...

  1. 7 CFR 966.18 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 966.18 Section 966.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Handling Definitions § 966.18 Export. Export means shipment of tomatoes beyond the boundaries of the 48...

  2. 7 CFR 51.912 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 51.912 Section 51.912 Agriculture Regulations... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.912 Export. When designated as Export, grapes shall be packed with any of the customary protective materials such as cushions...

  3. 7 CFR 927.12 - Export market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export market. 927.12 Section 927.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.12 Export market. Export market means any destination which...

  4. 22 CFR 120.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export. 120.17 Section 120.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.17 Export. (a) Export means: (1) Sending or taking a defense article out of the United States in any manner, except by...

  5. 7 CFR 924.15 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 924.15 Section 924.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.15 Export. Export means...

  6. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  7. 7 CFR 947.17 - Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export. 947.17 Section 947.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Definitions § 947.17 Export. Export means shipment of potatoes beyond the boundaries of continental United...

  8. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  9. Distinct control of initiation and metrics of memory-guided saccades and vergence by the FEF: a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The initiation of memory guided saccades is known to be controlled by the frontal eye field (FEF. Recent physiological studies showed the existence of an area close to FEF that controls also vergence initiation and execution. This study is to explore the effect of transcranial magnetic simulation (TMS over FEF on the control of memory-guided saccade-vergence eye movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects had to make an eye movement in dark towards a target flashed 1 sec earlier (memory delay; the location of the target relative to fixation point was such as to require either a vergence along the median plane, or a saccade, or a saccade with vergence; trials were interleaved. Single pulse TMS was applied on the left or right FEF; it was delivered at 100 ms after the end of memory delay, i.e. extinction of fixation LED that was the "go" signal. Twelve healthy subjects participated in the study. TMS of left or right FEF prolonged the latency of all types of eye movements; the increase varied from 21 to 56 ms and was particularly strong for the divergence movements. This indicates that FEF is involved in the initiation of all types of memory guided movement in the 3D space. TMS of the FEF also altered the accuracy but only for leftward saccades combined with either convergence or divergence; intrasaccadic vergence also increased after TMS of the FEF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest anisotropy in the quality of space memory and are discussed in the context of other known perceptual motor anisotropies.

  10. 76 FR 66693 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: November 16, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET) ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  11. 76 FR 9550 - President's Export Council: Meeting of the President's Export Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    .... ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Export Council will hold a meeting to discuss.... exports, jobs, and growth. DATES: March 11, 2011 at 9:30 a.m. (ET). ADDRESSES: The President's Export... on December 20, 1973 to advise the President on matters relating to U.S. export trade and report to...

  12. Ultrasound guided injection of dexamethasone versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilheany Mark F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar fasciitis is the most commonly reported cause of chronic pain beneath the heel. Management of this condition commonly involves the use of corticosteroid injection in cases where less invasive treatments have failed. However, despite widespread use, only two randomised trials have tested the effect of this treatment in comparison to placebo. These trials currently offer the best available evidence by which to guide clinical practice, though both were limited by methodological issues such as insufficient statistical power. Therefore, the aim of this randomised trial is to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis. Methods The trial will be conducted at the La Trobe University Podiatry Clinic and will recruit 80 community-dwelling participants. Diagnostic ultrasound will be used to diagnose plantar fasciitis and participants will be required to meet a range of selection criteria. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: (i ultrasound-guided injection of the plantar fascia with 1 mL of 4 mg/mL dexamethasone sodium phosphate (experimental group, or (ii ultrasound-guided injection of the plantar fascia with 1 mL normal saline (control group. Blinding will be applied to participants and the investigator performing procedures, measuring outcomes and analysing data. Primary outcomes will be pain measured by the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and plantar fascia thickness measured by ultrasound at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. All data analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Conclusion This will be a randomised trial investigating the effect of dexamethasone injection on pre-specified treatment outcomes in people with plantar fasciitis. Within the parameters of this protocol, the trial findings will be used to make evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of corticosteroid injection for treatment of this

  13. Optimal Power Flow Using Gbest-Guided Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Feedback Control Strategy and Constraint Domination Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonggui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal power flow (OPF is well-known as a significant optimization tool for the security and economic operation of power system, and OPF problem is a complex nonlinear, nondifferentiable programming problem. Thus this paper proposes a Gbest-guided cuckoo search algorithm with the feedback control strategy and constraint domination rule which is named as FCGCS algorithm for solving OPF problem and getting optimal solution. This FCGCS algorithm is guided by the global best solution for strengthening exploitation ability. Feedback control strategy is devised to dynamically regulate the control parameters according to actual and specific feedback value in the simulation process. And the constraint domination rule can efficiently handle inequality constraints on state variables, which is superior to traditional penalty function method. The performance of FCGCS algorithm is tested and validated on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus example systems, and simulation results are compared with different methods obtained from other literatures recently. The comparison results indicate that FCGCS algorithm can provide high-quality feasible solutions for different OPF problems.

  14. Fiducial registration error as a statistical process control metric in image-guided radiotherapy with prostatic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, M.N.; Wee, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Portal imaging of implanted fiducial markers has been in use for image-guided radiotherapy (TORT) of prostate cancer, with ample attention to localization accuracy and organ motion. The geometric uncertainties in point-based rigid-body (PBRB) image registration during localization of prostate fiducial markers can be quantified in terms of a fiducial registration error (FRE). Statistical process control charts for individual patients can be designed to identify potentially significant deviation of FRE from expected behaviour. In this study, the aim was to retrospectively apply statistical process control methods to FREs in 34 individuals to identify parameters that may impact on the process stability in image-based localization. A robust procedure for estimating control parameters, control lim its and fixed tolerance levels from a small number of initial observations has been proposed and discussed. Four distinct types of qualitative control chart behavior have been observed. Probable clinical factors leading to IORT process instability are discussed in light of the control chart behaviour. Control charts have been shown to be a useful decision-making tool for detecting potentially out-of control processes on an individual basis. It can sensitively identify potential problems that warrant more detailed investigation in the 10RT of prostate cancer.

  15. Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Osaka Rosai Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Kazuki; Yagi, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Kanta

    2013-01-01

    The linear accelerator with image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was introduced in May 2010. We performed the verification of the IGRT system, id est (i.e.), acceptance test and our original performance test and confirmed the acceptability for clinical use. We also performed daily QA/QC program before the start of treatment. One-year experience of QA/QC program showed excellent stability of IGRT function compared with our old machine. We further hope to establish the more useful management system and QA/QC program. (author)

  16. The effect of ultrasound-guided compression immediately after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy on postbiopsy bleeding: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Hee; Kim, Jung Im; Bae, Sang Rak; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Sung Hak; Han, Chang Hee

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether ultrasound-guided compression performed immediately after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy decreases bleeding complications. We prospectively evaluated a total of 148 consecutive patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between March 2015 and July 2016. Systematic 12-core prostate biopsy was performed in all patients. Of these, 100 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts immediately after prostate biopsy, while the non-compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy alone. The incidence rate and duration of hematuria, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding were compared between the two groups. The incidence rates of hematuria and hematospermia were not significantly different between the two groups (60 vs. 64%, p = 0.68; 22 vs. 30%, p = 0.362, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). The rectal bleeding incidence was significantly lower in the compression group as compared to the non-compression group (20 vs. 44%, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the median duration of hematuria, hematospermia, or rectal bleeding between the two groups (2, 8, and 2 days vs. 2, 10, and 1 days, p > 0.05, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). TRUS-guided compression [p = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) 0.25] and patient age (p = 0.013, OR 0.93) were significantly protective against the occurrence of rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy in multivariable analysis. Although it has no impact on other complications, ultrasound-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts performed immediately after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is an effective and practical method to treat or decrease rectal bleeding.

  17. Treating anxiety and depression in young adults: A randomised controlled trial comparing clinician-guided versus self-guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Fogliati, Rhiannon; Johnson, Bareena; Boyle, Olivia; Karin, Eyal; Gandy, Milena; Kayrouz, Rony; Staples, Lauren G; Titov, Nickolai

    2017-10-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy may increase access by young adults to evidence-based treatments for anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of an Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy intervention designed for adults aged 18-24 years, when delivered in clinician-guided versus self-guided formats. The intervention, the Mood Mechanic Course, is a transdiagnostic treatment that simultaneously targets symptoms of anxiety and depression using cognitive and behavioural skills. The brief intervention comprised four lessons, delivered over 5 weeks. Following a brief telephone interview, young adults ( n = 191) with symptoms of anxiety and depression were randomly allocated to either (1) clinician-guided treatment ( n = 96) or (2) self-guided treatment ( n = 95). At post treatment, large reductions (average improvement; clinician guided vs self-guided) were observed in symptoms of anxiety (44% vs 35%) and depression (40% vs 31%) in both groups. Significant improvements were also observed in general psychological distress (33% vs 29%), satisfaction with life (18% vs 15%) and disability (36% vs 29%). No marked or consistent differences in clinical outcomes emerged between conditions at post-treatment, at 3-month or 12-month follow-up. Satisfaction was high with both treatment formats, but slightly higher for clinician-guided treatment. These results indicate the potential of carefully developed Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy interventions for young adults with anxiety and depression provided in either self or therapist-guided format. Further large-scale research is required to determine the short- and long-term advantages and disadvantages of different models of support.

  18. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intense competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... Using a very rich matched worker-firm longitudinal dataset we find that firms with high export intensities pay higher wages. However, an interaction term between export intensity and skill intensity has a positive impact on wages and it absorbs the direct effect of the export intensity. That is, we find...... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities...

  19. Phases definition in marketing export process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of export marketing process depends on its five phases. The first phase-revision of export capacities, inner view on advantages and defects of company concerning export possibilities. The second phase-identification of export strategy market penetration. The forth phase-preparing for the marketing campaign (action. The fifth phase-carrying out the above mentioned activities. This study shows the structure and contents of the mentioned phases. At the end, export marketing analyzed DPV is given as the example.

  20. 22 CFR 124.3 - Exports of technical data in furtherance of an agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved in writing by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) and the technical data does not... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exports of technical data in furtherance of an... REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.3 Exports of technical data in...