WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploration high accuracy

  1. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 1: High accuracy exploration of the Farr-Bertillon effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    The Farr-Bertillon law says that for all age-groups the death rate of married people is lower than the death rate of people who are not married (i.e. single, widowed or divorced). Although this law has been known for over 150 years, it has never been established with well-controlled accuracy (e.g. error bars). This even let some authors argue that it was a statistical artifact. It is true that the data must be selected with great care, especially for age groups of small size (e.g. widowers under 25). The observations reported in this paper were selected in the way experiments are designed in physics, that is to say with the objective of minimizing error bars. Data appropriate for mid-age groups may be unsuitable for young age groups and vice versa. The investigation led to the following results. (1) The FB effect is very similar for men and women, except that (at least in western countries) its amplitude is 20% higher for men. (2) There is a marked difference between single/divorced persons on the one hand, for whom the effect is largest around the age of 40, and widowed persons on the other hand, for whom the effect is largest around the age of 25. (3) When different causes of death are distinguished, the effect is largest for suicide and smallest for cancer. For heart disease and cerebrovascular accidents, the fact of being married divides the death rate by 2.2 compared to non-married persons. (4) For young widowers the death rates are up to 10 times higher than for married persons of same age. This extreme form of the FB effect will be referred to as the ;young widower effect;. Chinese data are used to explore this effect more closely. A possible connection between the FB effect and Martin Raff's ;Stay alive; effect for the cells in an organism is discussed in the last section.

  2. {sup 90}Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.carlier@chu-nantes.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Nantes, Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France and CRCNA–UMR 892 INSERM 6299 CNRS, 8 quai Moncousu BP 70721, Nantes 44007 (France); Willowson, Kathy P. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Fourkal, Eugene [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Bailey, Dale L. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe 2141, Australia and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Doss, Mohan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Conti, Maurizio [Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y -positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming a recognized modality for postinfusion quantitative assessment following radioembolization therapy. However, the extremely low counts and high random fraction associated with {sup 90}Y -PET may significantly impair both qualitative and quantitative results. The aim of this work was to study image quality and noise level in relation to the quantification and bias performance of two types of Siemens PET scanners when imaging {sup 90}Y and to compare experimental results with clinical data from two types of commercially available {sup 90}Y microspheres. Methods: Data were acquired on both Siemens Biograph TruePoint [non-time-of-flight (TOF)] and Biograph microcomputed tomography (mCT) (TOF) PET/CT scanners. The study was conducted in three phases. The first aimed to assess quantification and bias for different reconstruction methods according to random fraction and number of true counts in the scan. The NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with water with one cylindrical insert left empty (air) and the other filled with a solution of {sup 90}Y . The phantom was scanned for 60 min in the PET/CT scanner every one or two days. The second phase used the NEMA 2001 PET phantom to derive noise and image quality metrics. The spheres and the background were filled with a {sup 90}Y solution in an 8:1 contrast ratio and four 30 min acquisitions were performed over a one week period. Finally, 32 patient data (8 treated with Therasphere{sup ®} and 24 with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}) were retrospectively reconstructed and activity in the whole field of view and the liver was compared to theoretical injected activity. Results: The contribution of both bremsstrahlung and LSO trues was found to be negligible, allowing data to be decay corrected to obtain correct quantification. In general, the recovered activity for all reconstruction methods was stable over the range studied, with a small bias appearing at extremely

  3. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  4. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camer...

  5. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, Attila; Szalay, Péter G; Császár, Attila G; Kállay, Mihály; Gauss, Jürgen; Valeev, Edward F; Flowers, Bradley A; Vázquez, Juana; Stanton, John F

    2004-12-15

    A theoretical model chemistry designed to achieve high accuracy for enthalpies of formation of atoms and small molecules is described. This approach is entirely independent of experimental data and contains no empirical scaling factors, and includes a treatment of electron correlation up to the full coupled-cluster singles, doubles, triples and quadruples approach. Energies are further augmented by anharmonic zero-point vibrational energies, a scalar relativistic correction, first-order spin-orbit coupling, and the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction. The accuracy of the approach is assessed by several means. Enthalpies of formation (at 0 K) calculated for a test suite of 31 atoms and molecules via direct calculation of the corresponding elemental formation reactions are within 1 kJ mol(-1) to experiment in all cases. Given the quite different bonding environments in the product and reactant sides of these reactions, the results strongly indicate that even greater accuracy may be expected in reactions that preserve (either exactly or approximately) the number and types of chemical bonds. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  6. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  7. Exploring the Relationship Between Eye Movements and Electrocardiogram Interpretation Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan; Brown, Gavin; Vigo, Markel; Harper, Simon; Horseman, Laura; Splendiani, Bruno; Hill, Elspeth; Jay, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    Interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is a complex task involving visual inspection. This paper aims to improve understanding of how practitioners perceive ECGs, and determine whether visual behaviour can indicate differences in interpretation accuracy. A group of healthcare practitioners (n = 31) who interpret ECGs as part of their clinical role were shown 11 commonly encountered ECGs on a computer screen. The participants’ eye movement data were recorded as they viewed the ECGs and attempted interpretation. The Jensen-Shannon distance was computed for the distance between two Markov chains, constructed from the transition matrices (visual shifts from and to ECG leads) of the correct and incorrect interpretation groups for each ECG. A permutation test was then used to compare this distance against 10,000 randomly shuffled groups made up of the same participants. The results demonstrated a statistically significant (α  0.05) result in 5 of the 11 stimuli demonstrating that the gaze shift between the ECG leads is different between the groups making correct and incorrect interpretations and therefore a factor in interpretation accuracy. The results shed further light on the relationship between visual behaviour and ECG interpretation accuracy, providing information that can be used to improve both human and automated interpretation approaches.

  8. Two blackbody radiometers of high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J M; Berdahl, C M

    1970-05-01

    Two cavity-type radiometers have been developed, based on first principles, having the capability of measuring an irradiance with an indicated error 0.3%. The prerequisites for this accuracy are a measuredaperture area, a measurement of electric voltages, and an effective absorptance of its blackbody cavity from 0.998 to 0.999 throughout the uv, visible, and ir spectral ranges. The first cavity-type radiometer is designed to operate only in a vacuum of radiometer in an evacuated cold chamber, an experimental determination of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant is obtained at a value that differs from the theoretical value by 0.3%, which indicates the degree of confidence that can be expected in measurements made with blackbody cavity radiometers. The second type of radiometer is designed to operate in either air or vacuum. Although its aperture opening is windowless, it is unaffected by wind. The range of intensities accurately measurable is from about 10 mW cm(-2) to 800 mW cm(-2); the indicated accuracy is also 0.3%.

  9. College Students' Perceptions of Depressed Mood: Exploring Accuracy and Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene M; Kirk, Jennifer L; Mittmann, Angela J; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-10-01

    College is a time of high risk for depressed mood. Theories about depression (i.e. Cognitive Theory and Depressive Realism theory) are well researched, but suggest different venues of understanding the cognitive underpinnings of mood. In addition, much research is available about normative perceptions around substance use and how those perceptions relate to behaviors. However, there are no studies examining normative perceptions around depressed mood nor how these perceptions may relate to students' own well-being. Undergraduates (N=1577) ages 18-24 responded to an online survey as part of a larger study on drinking and depressed mood. The survey assessed symptoms of depression and feelings of sadness, depression and suicidal ideation experienced in the past 2 weeks, as well as students' perceptions of the prevalence of these feelings among other students. Rates of sadness and depression reported in the sample were relatively high; whereas rates of reported suicidal ideation were low. Most students under-estimated the prevalence of sadness and depression experienced by other students; a finding that was especially true for male students. Conversely, most students over-estimated the prevalence of suicidal ideation. Students who reported experiencing a given feeling in the past two weeks perceived greater rates of the feeling among other students. Depression symptoms were associated with both greater perceived prevalence of sadness, depression and suicidal ideation, as well as correct and over-estimates of the prevalence of sadness and depression. Implications for future directions in prevention and interventions efforts are discussed.

  10. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  11. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  12. Compact, High Accuracy CO2 Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a low cost, robust, highly precise and accurate CO2 monitoring system. This system will...

  13. High-accuracy theoretical thermochemistry of fluoroethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Balázs; Csontos, Botond; Csontos, József; Szakács, Péter; Kállay, Mihály

    2014-07-03

    A highly accurate coupled-cluster-based ab initio model chemistry has been applied to calculate the thermodynamic functions including enthalpies of formation and standard entropies for fluorinated ethane derivatives, C2HxF6-x (x = 0-5), as well as ethane, C2H6. The invoked composite protocol includes contributions up to quadruple excitations in coupled-cluster (CC) theory as well as corrections beyond the nonrelativistic and Born-Oppenheimer approximations. For species CH2F-CH2F, CH2F-CHF2, and CHF2-CHF2, where anti/gauche isomerism occurs due to the hindered rotation around the C-C bond, conformationally averaged enthalpies and entropies at 298.15 K are also calculated. The results obtained here are in reasonable agreement with previous experimental and theoretical findings, and for all fluorinated ethanes except CH2FCH3 and C2F6 this study delivers the best available theoretical enthalpy and entropy estimates.

  14. High accuracy & long timescale light curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgkin S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical analysis of the optical light curves (LCs for short-period high-mass transiting extrasolar planet systems. Our method considers the primary transit, the secondary eclipse, and the overall phase shape of the LC between the occultations. Phase variations arise from (i reflected and thermally emitted light by the planet, (ii the ellipsoidal shape of the star due to the gravitational pull of the planet, and (iii the Doppler shift of the stellar light as the star orbits the center of mass of the system. Our full model of the out-of-eclipse variations contains information about the planetary mass, orbital eccentricity, the orientation of periastron and the planet's albedo. For a range of hypothetical systems we demonstrate that the ellipsoidal variations (ii. can be large enough to be distinguished from the remaining components and that this effect can be used to constrain the planet's mass. As an example we presend KOI-13b (candidate exoplanet system included in the September 2011 Kepler data release. The Kepler light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, as well as significant out-of-eclipse light curve variations. We model the relative contributions from (i thermal emission from the companion, (ii planetary reflected light, (iii doppler beaming, and (iv ellipsoidal variations in the host-star arising from the tidal distortion of the host star by its companion. Our analysis, based on the light curve alone, enables us to constrain the mass of the KOI-13.01 companion to be MC = 8.3 ± 1.25 MJ and thus demonstrates that the transiting companion is a planet. The teqnique is useful for current and future space missions such as Kepler and PLATO.

  15. High accuracy & long timescale light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislis, D.; Hodgkin, S.

    2013-04-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the optical light curves (LCs) for short-period high-mass transiting extrasolar planet systems. Our method considers the primary transit, the secondary eclipse, and the overall phase shape of the LC between the occultations. Phase variations arise from (i) reflected and thermally emitted light by the planet, (ii) the ellipsoidal shape of the star due to the gravitational pull of the planet, and (iii) the Doppler shift of the stellar light as the star orbits the center of mass of the system. Our full model of the out-of-eclipse variations contains information about the planetary mass, orbital eccentricity, the orientation of periastron and the planet's albedo. For a range of hypothetical systems we demonstrate that the ellipsoidal variations (ii.) can be large enough to be distinguished from the remaining components and that this effect can be used to constrain the planet's mass. As an example we presend KOI-13b (candidate exoplanet system) included in the September 2011 Kepler data release. The Kepler light curve shows both primary and secondary eclipses, as well as significant out-of-eclipse light curve variations. We model the relative contributions from (i) thermal emission from the companion, (ii) planetary reflected light, (iii) doppler beaming, and (iv) ellipsoidal variations in the host-star arising from the tidal distortion of the host star by its companion. Our analysis, based on the light curve alone, enables us to constrain the mass of the KOI-13.01 companion to be MC = 8.3 ± 1.25 MJ and thus demonstrates that the transiting companion is a planet. The teqnique is useful for current and future space missions such as Kepler and PLATO.

  16. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  17. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qingzhong; Yang, Gongliu; Song, Ningfang; Liu, Yiliang

    2016-06-22

    An inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10(-6)°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs) using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  18. STRAP IV - High accuracy, low drift attitude control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsberry, D. J.; Budney, T. J.; Riley, D. C.; Schuler, B. C.

    1973-01-01

    The STRAP IV attitude control system was designed, tested, and successfully launched to provide stable high accuracy pointing at nontrackable X-ray sources. On its initial flight (May 19, 1972), the STRAP IV control system updated its high accuracy, rate integrating gyros on two successive stellar targets and then maneuvered the rocket body to point the experimental payload at two separate X-ray sources and an X-ray-free background location. The third axis, which remained under the control of a coarse free gyro, was updated by a technique of successive star-target coordinate transformation to ensure the correct fine-axis azimuth alignment for the high accuracy inertial maneuvers. Pointing accuracies of 4 arc min with limit cycle stability of less than 20 arc sec peak to peak were obtained on all targets.

  19. On-table Diagnostic Accuracy and the Clinical Significance of Routine Exploration in Open Appendectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk Fan Shum

    2005-10-01

    Conclusion: Based on these results, it seems that the on-table diagnostic accuracy in open appendectomies is low and surgeons' on-table diagnosis should not be the determining factor for whether further exploration is necessary. Exploration for other intra-abdominal pathology should be routine irrespective of the on-table diagnosis, the surgeon's experience and patient gender and age. An alternative is minimal-access surgery in which inspection of other intra-abdominal organs can be performed more easily.

  20. 5-HTTLPR modulates the recognition accuracy and exploration of emotional facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina eBoll

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individual genetic differences in the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR have been associated with variations in the sensitivity to social and emotional cues as well as altered amygdala reactivity to facial expressions of emotion. Amygdala activation has further been shown to trigger gaze changes towards diagnostically relevant facial features. The current study examined whether altered socio-emotional reactivity in variants of the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphism reflects individual differences in attending to diagnostic features of facial expressions. For this purpose, visual exploration of emotional facial expressions was compared between a low (n=39 and a high (n=40 5-HTT expressing group of healthy human volunteers in an eye tracking paradigm. Emotional faces were presented while manipulating the initial fixation such that saccadic changes towards the eyes and towards the mouth could be identified. We found that the low versus the high 5-HTT group demonstrated greater accuracy with regard to emotion classifications, particularly when faces were presented for a longer duration. No group differences in gaze orientation towards diagnostic facial features could be observed. However, participants in the low 5-HTT group exhibited more and faster fixation changes for certain emotions when faces were presented for a longer duration and overall face fixation times were reduced for this genotype group. These results suggest that the 5-HTT gene influences social perception by modulating the general vigilance to social cues rather than selectively affecting the pre-attentive detection of diagnostic facial features.

  1. Automatic, high-accuracy image registration in confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Yong; Wang, Weibo; Wang, Yuhang; Zhang, He; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-11-10

    We proposed a high-accuracy image registration method of confocal microscopy for a large field of view and high resolution. The spatial information (edge information) and the entropy correlation coefficient have been both taken into account for higher accuracy of registration. The edge information is introduced to calculate the normalization correlation coefficient of the image. Then the normalization correlation coefficient and the entropy correlation coefficient of the original image have been used to improve the proposed similarity measures, the normalized mutual information with edge information (called EMI). Meanwhile, a parallel particle swarm optimization (pa-PSO) with the idea of conditional initialization and parallel cooperation is developed to speed up the convergence rate and further reduce the mismatch. Experiments verified that the registration accuracy can be up to 0.2 pixel and has better robustness to the noise.

  2. High-accuracy polynomial solutions of the classical Stefan problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    High-accuracy polynomial solutions of the Stefan problem for a semi-infinite medium with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions and boundary conditions of general form are presented. The initial temperature of the medium was assumed to be equal to its phase-transition temperature. With the use of the integral method of boundary characteristics, based on the multiple integration of the heat-conduction equation, sequences of identical equalities with different boundary conditions were obtained. On the basis of these equalities, polynomial solutions of different degrees were constructed. High efficiency of the approach proposed was demonstrated by different examples. The polynomial solutions of the second and third degrees surpass in approximation accuracy the analogous known solutions. The accuracy of the calculations of the interphase boundary with the use of the fourth- and fifth-degree polynomials is higher by several orders of magnitude then that of numerical methods.

  3. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with real-time information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate

  4. DIPSY, a low-cost GPS application with high accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, W.F.M. van der

    1998-01-01

    To improve the control of unmanned aircraft flying out of visual range, the controller needs to be provided with realtime information about the position and behaviour of the drone during the flight. The position of the drone has to be presented with a relative high accuracy to obtain accurate flight

  5. Accuracy Enhancement of Inertial Sensors Utilizing High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Korenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In both military and civilian applications, the inertial navigation system (INS and the global positioning system (GPS are two complementary technologies that can be integrated to provide reliable positioning and navigation information for land vehicles. The accuracy enhancement of INS sensors and the integration of INS with GPS are the subjects of widespread research. Wavelet de-noising of INS sensors has had limited success in removing the long-term (low-frequency inertial sensor errors. The primary objective of this research is to develop a novel inertial sensor accuracy enhancement technique that can remove both short-term and long-term error components from inertial sensor measurements prior to INS mechanization and INS/GPS integration. A high resolution spectral analysis technique called the fast orthogonal search (FOS algorithm is used to accurately model the low frequency range of the spectrum, which includes the vehicle motion dynamics and inertial sensor errors. FOS models the spectral components with the most energy first and uses an adaptive threshold to stop adding frequency terms when fitting a term does not reduce the mean squared error more than fitting white noise. The proposed method was developed, tested and validated through road test experiments involving both low-end tactical grade and low cost MEMS-based inertial systems. The results demonstrate that in most cases the position accuracy during GPS outages using FOS de-noised data is superior to the position accuracy using wavelet de-noising.

  6. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  7. Operating a real time high accuracy positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, G.; Hanley, J.; Russell, D.; Vooght, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper shall review the history and development of real time DGPS services prior to then describing the design of a high accuracy GPS commercial augmentation system and service currently delivering over a wide area to users of precise positioning products. The infrastructure and system shall be explained in relation to the need for high accuracy and high integrity of positioning for users. A comparison of the different techniques for the delivery of data shall be provided to outline the technical approach taken. Examples of the performance of the real time system shall be shown in various regions and modes to outline the current achievable accuracies. Having described and established the current GPS based situation, a review of the potential of the Galileo system shall be presented. Following brief contextual information relating to the Galileo project, core system and services, the paper will identify possible key applications and the main user communities for sub decimetre level precise positioning. The paper will address the Galileo and modernised GPS signals in space that are relevant to commercial precise positioning for the future and will discuss the implications for precise positioning performance. An outline of the proposed architecture shall be described and associated with pointers towards a successful implementation. Central to this discussion will be an assessment of the likely evolution of system infrastructure and user equipment implementation, prospects for new applications and their effect upon the business case for precise positioning services.

  8. SHAPES - Spatial, high-accuracy, position-encoding sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerheim, Noble M.; Blue, Randel C.

    1992-01-01

    Future space systems will require control sensors capable of real-time measurements of position coordinates of many structural locations. Applications for such a sensor include figure and vibration control, rendezvous and docking, and structure assembly verification. The paper discusses an experimental study of SHAPES (spatial, high-accuracy, position-encoding sensor), a 3D position sensor that provides range and two angular positions of laser-illuminated retroreflector targets that mark the locations to be measured. Simultaneous range measurements to multiple targets by a time-of-flight corelation of short laser pulses are made with a CCD-equipped streak tube. Angular positions are measured with a CCD camera. Position measurements of 24 targets with sub-millimeter range accuracy at a 10 Hz update rate have been demonstrated.

  9. A high-accuracy map of global terrain elevations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Dai; Ikeshima, Daiki; Tawatari, Ryunosuke; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Neal, Jeffery C.; Sampson, Christopher C.; Kanae, Shinjiro; Bates, Paul D.

    2017-06-01

    Spaceborne digital elevation models (DEMs) are a fundamental input for many geoscience studies, but they still include nonnegligible height errors. Here we introduce a high-accuracy global DEM at 3″ resolution ( 90 m at the equator) by eliminating major error components from existing DEMs. We separated absolute bias, stripe noise, speckle noise, and tree height bias using multiple satellite data sets and filtering techniques. After the error removal, land areas mapped with ±2 m or better vertical accuracy were increased from 39% to 58%. Significant improvements were found in flat regions where height errors larger than topography variability, and landscapes such as river networks and hill-valley structures, became clearly represented. We found the topography slope of previous DEMs was largely distorted in most of world major floodplains (e.g., Ganges, Nile, Niger, and Mekong) and swamp forests (e.g., Amazon, Congo, and Vasyugan). The newly developed DEM will enhance many geoscience applications which are terrain dependent.

  10. High accuracy operon prediction method based on STRING database scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Blanca; Verde, Cristina; Merino, Enrique

    2010-07-01

    We present a simple and highly accurate computational method for operon prediction, based on intergenic distances and functional relationships between the protein products of contiguous genes, as defined by STRING database (Jensen,L.J., Kuhn,M., Stark,M., Chaffron,S., Creevey,C., Muller,J., Doerks,T., Julien,P., Roth,A., Simonovic,M. et al. (2009) STRING 8-a global view on proteins and their functional interactions in 630 organisms. Nucleic Acids Res., 37, D412-D416). These two parameters were used to train a neural network on a subset of experimentally characterized Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis operons. Our predictive model was successfully tested on the set of experimentally defined operons in E. coli and B. subtilis, with accuracies of 94.6 and 93.3%, respectively. As far as we know, these are the highest accuracies ever obtained for predicting bacterial operons. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the predictable accuracy of our model when using an organism's data set for the training procedure, and a different organism's data set for testing, we repeated the E. coli operon prediction analysis using a neural network trained with B. subtilis data, and a B. subtilis analysis using a neural network trained with E. coli data. Even for these cases, the accuracies reached with our method were outstandingly high, 91.5 and 93%, respectively. These results show the potential use of our method for accurately predicting the operons of any other organism. Our operon predictions for fully-sequenced genomes are available at http://operons.ibt.unam.mx/OperonPredictor/.

  11. Generation of an Optimum High Speed High Accuracy Operational Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    certainly will have gains and emitter resistances that are not identical. In mono- lithic op-amps, it is highly desirable that all of the tran- sistors on a...external resistances ( a and K . altered). In general, w and Q are functions of a and K. p .p , "It is desirable to select these values such that the...220),OMEGA(220) COMPLEX HH,S,DENOM REAL K,ANUM c THE FOLLOWING ARE CONSTANTS TO BE UTILIZED:A01=>DC GAIN OF FIRST c OPAMP ;A02=>DC GAIN OF SECOND OPAMP

  12. A high accuracy land use/cover retrieval system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hefnawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spatial resolution on the accuracy of mapping land use/cover types have received increasing attention as a large number of multi-scale earth observation data become available. Although many methods of semi automated image classification of remotely sensed data have been established for improving the accuracy of land use/cover classification during the past 40 years, most of them were employed in single-resolution image classification, which led to unsatisfactory results. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution fast adaptive content-based retrieval system of satellite images. Through our proposed system, we apply a Super Resolution technique for the Landsat-TM images to have a high resolution dataset. The human–computer interactive system is based on modified radial basis function for retrieval of satellite database images. We apply the backpropagation supervised artificial neural network classifier for both the multi and single resolution datasets. The results show significant improved land use/cover classification accuracy for the multi-resolution approach compared with those from single-resolution approach.

  13. Two high accuracy digital integrators for Rogowski current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan-dian; Li, Hong-bin; Li, Zhen-hua

    2014-01-01

    The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions. The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset. This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators. Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.

  14. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  15. Improving the Accuracy of High-Order Nodal Transport Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    1999-09-27

    This paper outlines some recent advances towards improving the accuracy of neutron transport calculations using the Arbitrarily High Order Transport-Nodal (AHOT-N) Method. These advances consist of several contributions: (a) A formula for the spatial weights that allows for the polynomial order to be raised arbitrarily high without suffering adverse effects from round-off error; (b) A reconstruction technique for the angular flux, based upon a recursive formula, that reduces the pointwise error by one ordeq (c) An a posterior error indicator that estimates the true error and its distribution throughout the domain, so that it can be used for adaptively refining the approximation. Present results are mainly for ID, extension to 2D-3D is in progress.

  16. Improving the Accuracy of High-Order Nodal Transport Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Y.Y.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Zamonsky, O.M.

    1999-09-27

    This paper outlines some recent advances towards improving the accuracy of neutron calculations using the Arbitrarily High Order Transport-Nodal (AHOT-N) Method. These transport advances consist of several contributions: (a) A formula for the spatial weights that allows for the polynomial order to be raised arbitrarily high without suffering from pollution from round-off, error; (b) A reconstruction technique for the angular flux, based upon a recursive formula, that reduces the pointwise error by one order; (c) An a posterior error indicator that estimates the true error and its distribution throughout the domain, so that it can be used for adaptively reftig the approximation. Present results are mainly for ID, extension to 2D-3D is in progress.

  17. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  18. Stabilized high-accuracy optical tracking system (SHOTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatto, Donald; Brown, H. Donald; Pohle, Richard H.; Reiley, Michael F.; Haddock, Delmar D.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes an 0.75 meter aperture, Stabilized High-accuracy Optical Tracking System (SHOTS), two of which are being developed by Textron Systems Corporation, under contract to the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego (SPAWAR-SD). The SHOTS design is optimized to meet the requirements of the Navy's Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD) testing program being conducted at the Kauai Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The SHOTS utilizes a high-precision, GPS aided inertial navigation unit (INU) coupled with a 3-axis, rate gyro stabilized mount which allows precision pointing to be achieved on either land or sea-based platforms. The SHOTS mount control system architecture, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) functionality and methodology which allows the system to meet the TBMD mission data collection requirements are discussed. High frame rate visible and MWIR sensors are incorporated into the system design to provide the capability of capturing short duration events, e.g., missile-target intercepts. These sensors along with the supporting high speed data acquisition, recording and control subsystems are described. Simulations of the SHOTS imaging performance in TBMD measurement scenarios are presented along with an example of the image improvement being achieved with post-processing image reconstruction algorithms.

  19. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods

    KAUST Repository

    Kronbichler, Martin

    2012-08-21

    Numerical simulation of the processes in the Earth\\'s mantle is a key piece in understanding its dynamics, composition, history and interaction with the lithosphere and the Earth\\'s core. However, doing so presents many practical difficulties related to the numerical methods that can accurately represent these processes at relevant scales. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in algorithms for high-Rayleigh number flows such as those in the Earth\\'s mantle, and discusses their implementation in the Open Source code Aspect (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth\\'s ConvecTion). Specifically, we show how an interconnected set of methods for adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), higher order spatial and temporal discretizations, advection stabilization and efficient linear solvers can provide high accuracy at a numerical cost unachievable with traditional methods, and how these methods can be designed in a way so that they scale to large numbers of processors on compute clusters. Aspect relies on the numerical software packages deal.II and Trilinos, enabling us to focus on high level code and keeping our implementation compact. We present results from validation tests using widely used benchmarks for our code, as well as scaling results from parallel runs. © 2012 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2012 RAS.

  20. A high-accuracy DCO with hybrid architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhao, Huidong; Qiao, Shushan; Hei, Yong; Zhang, Fuhai

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel hybrid digital-controlled oscillator (DCO) is proposed, which is used to improve the accuracy of the all-digital clock generator without reference source. The DCO with hybrid architecture consists of two parts: DCO_high and DCO_low. The DCO_high decides the coarse output frequency of DCO, and adopts the cascade structure to decrease the area. The DCO_low adopts the chain structure with three-state buffer, and decides the fine output frequency of DCO. Compared with traditional cascade DCO, the proposed hybrid DCO features higher precision with less inherent delay. Therefore the clock generator can tolerate process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variation and meet the needs of different conditions. The DCO is designed in SMIC 180 nm CMOS process with 0.021 mm2 chip area. The output frequency is adjusted from 15-120 MHz. The frequency error is less than 0.83% at 25 MHz with 1.6-1.8 V supply voltage and 0-80 °C temperature variations in TT, FF, SS corners. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61306025, 61474135).

  1. Monitoring techniques for high accuracy interference fit assembly processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, A.; Vedugo, F. Rodriguez; Paone, N.; Ungaro, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the automotive industry, there are many assembly processes that require a high geometric accuracy, in the micrometer range; generally open-loop controllers cannot meet these requirements. This results in an increased defect rate and high production costs. This paper presents an experimental study of interference fit process, aimed to evaluate the aspects which have the most impact on the uncertainty in the final positioning. The press-fitting process considered, consists in a press machine operating with a piezoelectric actuator to press a plug into a sleeve. Plug and sleeve are designed and machined to obtain a known interference fit. Differential displacement and velocity measurements of the plug with respect to the sleeve are measured by a fiber optic differential laser Doppler vibrometer. Different driving signals of the piezo actuator allow to have an insight into the differences between a linear and a pulsating press action. The paper highlights how the press-fit assembly process is characterized by two main phases: the first is an elastic deformation of the plug and sleeve, which produces a reversible displacement, the second is a sliding of the plug with respect to the sleeve, which results in an irreversible displacement and finally realizes the assembly. The simultaneous measurements of the displacement and the force have permitted to define characteristic features in the signal useful to identify the start of the irreversible movement. These indicators could be used to develop a control logic in a press assembly process.

  2. High accuracy magnetic field mapping of the LEP spectrometer magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F

    2000-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron accelerator (LEP) is a storage ring which has been operated since 1989 at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), located in the Geneva area. It is intended to experimentally verify the Standard Model theory and in particular to detect with high accuracy the mass of the electro-weak force bosons. Electrons and positrons are accelerated inside the LEP ring in opposite directions and forced to collide at four locations, once they reach an energy high enough for the experimental purposes. During head-to-head collisions the leptons loose all their energy and a huge amount of energy is concentrated in a small region. In this condition the energy is quickly converted in other particles which tend to go away from the interaction point. The higher the energy of the leptons before the collisions, the higher the mass of the particles that can escape. At LEP four large experimental detectors are accommodated. All detectors are multi purpose detectors covering a solid angle of alm...

  3. Determination of UAV position using high accuracy navigation platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Kubicki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The choice of navigation system for mini UAV is very important because of its application and exploitation, particularly when the installed on it a synthetic aperture radar requires highly precise information about an object’s position. The presented exemplary solution of such a system draws attention to the possible problems associated with the use of appropriate technology, sensors, and devices or with a complete navigation system. The position and spatial orientation errors of the measurement platform influence on the obtained SAR imaging. Both, turbulences and maneuvers performed during flight cause the changes in the position of the airborne object resulting in deterioration or lack of images from SAR. Consequently, it is necessary to perform operations for reducing or eliminating the impact of the sensors’ errors on the UAV position accuracy. You need to look for compromise solutions between newer better technologies and in the field of software. Keywords: navigation systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, sensors integration

  4. High Accuracy Nonlinear Control and Estimation for Machine Tool Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios

    sophisticated machine tool systems that are adaptable to different workspace conditions, while at the same time being able to maintain very narrow workpiece tolerances. The main topic of this thesis is to suggest control methods that can maintain required manufacturing tolerances, despite moderate wear and tear......Component mass production has been the backbone of industry since the second industrial revolution, and machine tools are producing parts of widely varying size and design complexity. The ever-increasing level of automation in modern manufacturing processes necessitates the use of more....... The purpose is to ensure that full accuracy is maintained between service intervals and to advice when overhaul is needed. The thesis argues that quality of manufactured components is directly related to the positioning accuracy of the machine tool axes, and it shows which low level control architectures...

  5. High-accuracy brain-machine interfaces using feedback information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Gi Yeom

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.

  6. Fundamental Physics Explored with High Intensity Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Homma, K.

    2012-10-01

    Over the last century the method of particle acceleration to high energies has become the prime approach to explore the fundamental nature of matter in laboratory. It appears that the latest search of the contemporary accelerator based on the colliders shows a sign of saturation (or at least a slow-down) in increasing its energy and other necessary parameters to extend this frontier. We suggest two pronged approach enabled by the recent progress in high intensity lasers. First we envision the laser-driven plasma accelerator may be able to extend the reach of the collider. For this approach to bear fruit, we need to develop the technology of high averaged power laser in addition to the high intensity. For this we mention that the latest research effort of ICAN is an encouraging sign. In addition to this, we now introduce the concept of the noncollider paradigm in exploring fundamental physics with high intensity (and large energy) lasers. One of the examples we mention is the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) far beyond TeV without large luminosity. If we relax or do not require the large luminosity necessary for colliders, but solely in ultrahigh energy frontier, we are still capable of exploring such a fundamental issue. Given such a high energetic particle source and high-intensity laser fields simultaneously, we expect to be able to access new aspects on the matter and the vacuum structure from fundamental physical point of views. LWFA naturally exploits the nonlinear optical effects in the plasma when it becomes of relativistic intensity. Normally nonlinear optical effects are discussed based upon polarization susceptibility of matter to external fields. We suggest application of this concept even to the vacuum structure as a new kind of order parameter to discuss vacuum-originating phenomena at semimacroscopic scales. This viewpoint unifies the following observables with the unprecedented experimental environment we envision; the dispersion relation of

  7. Numerical simulation for accuracy of velocity analysis in small-scale high-resolution marine multichannel seismic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Di; Cai, Feng; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2017-06-01

    When used with large energy sparkers, marine multichannel small-scale high-resolution seismic detection technology has a high resolution, high-detection precision, a wide applicable range, and is very flexible. Positive results have been achieved in submarine geological research, particularly in the investigation of marine gas hydrates. However, the amount of traveltime difference information is reduced for the velocity analysis under conditions of a shorter spread length, thus leading to poorer focusing of the velocity spectrum energy group and a lower accuracy of the velocity analysis. It is thus currently debatable whether the velocity analysis accuracy of short-arrangement multichannel seismic detection technology is able to meet the requirements of practical application in natural gas hydrate exploration. Therefore, in this study the bottom boundary of gas hydrates (Bottom Simulating Reflector, BSR) is used to conduct numerical simulation to discuss the accuracy of the velocity analysis related to such technology. Results show that a higher dominant frequency and smaller sampling interval are not only able to improve the seismic resolution, but they also compensate for the defects of the short-arrangement, thereby improving the accuracy of the velocity analysis. In conclusion, the accuracy of the velocity analysis in this small-scale, high-resolution, multi-channel seismic detection technology meets the requirements of natural gas hydrate exploration.

  8. New solution for the high accuracy alignment of accelerator components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Caiazza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several state-of-the-art metrology measurement methods have been investigated and combined for a fiducialization of accelerator components in the micrometric regime. The PACMAN project at CERN applied stretched-wire measurement methods to Compact Linear Collider quadrupole and cavity beam position monitor prototypes, to locate their magnetic, respectively, electromagnetic, axis using a dedicated test stand and to determine the position of the wire with respect to external alignment targets (fiducials testing different methods, such as coordinate measuring machine measurements and microtriangulation. Further studies have been performed using a nanopositioning system, verifying the absolute accuracy and repeatability of the fiducialization method within a few micrometers.

  9. Design of a high linearity and high gain accuracy analog baseband circuit for DAB receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ma; Zhigong, Wang; Jian, Xu; Yiqiang, Wu; Junliang, Wang; Mi, Tian; Jianping, Chen

    2015-02-01

    An analog baseband circuit of high linearity and high gain accuracy for a digital audio broadcasting receiver is implemented in a 0.18-μm RFCMOS process. The circuit comprises a 3rd-order active-RC complex filter (CF) and a programmable gain amplifier (PGA). An automatic tuning circuit is also designed to tune the CF's pass band. Instead of the class-A fully differential operational amplifier (FDOPA) adopted in the conventional CF and PGA design, a class-AB FDOPA is specially employed in this circuit to achieve a higher linearity and gain accuracy for its large current swing capability with lower static current consumption. In the PGA circuit, a novel DC offset cancellation technique based on the MOS resistor is introduced to reduce the settling time significantly. A reformative switching network is proposed, which can eliminate the switch resistor's influence on the gain accuracy of the PGA. The measurement result shows the gain range of the circuit is 10-50 dB with a 1-dB step size, and the gain accuracy is less than ±0.3 dB. The OIP3 is 23.3 dBm at the gain of 10 dB. Simulation results show that the settling time is reduced from 100 to 1 ms. The image band rejection is about 40 dB. It only draws 4.5 mA current from a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  10. Design and analysis of a high-accuracy flexure hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Xianmin; Fatikow, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    This paper designs and analyzes a new kind of flexure hinge obtained by using a topology optimization approach, namely, a quasi-V-shaped flexure hinge (QVFH). Flexure hinges are formed by three segments: the left and right segments with convex shapes and the middle segment with straight line. According to the results of topology optimization, the curve equations of profiles of the flexure hinges are developed by numerical fitting. The in-plane dimensionless compliance equations of the flexure hinges are derived based on Castigliano's second theorem. The accuracy of rotation, which is denoted by the compliance of the center of rotation that deviates from the midpoint, is derived. The equations for evaluating the maximum stresses are also provided. These dimensionless equations are verified by finite element analysis and experimentation. The analytical results are within 8% uncertainty compared to the finite element analysis results and within 9% uncertainty compared to the experimental measurement data. Compared with the filleted V-shaped flexure hinge, the QVFH has a higher accuracy of rotation and better ability of preserving the center of rotation position but smaller compliance.

  11. Micro-vision-based displacement measurement with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qinghua; Zhang, Xianmin; Fan, Yanbin

    2011-12-01

    The micro-motion stages are widely used in micro/nano manufacturing technology. In this paper, an integrated approach for measuring micro-displacement of micro-motion stage that incorporates motion estimation algorithm into the computer microvision is proposed. At first, the basic principle of the computer microvision measurement is analyzed. Then, a robust multiscale motion estimation algorithm for micro-motion measurement is proposed. Finally, the microdisplacement of the micro-motion stage based on the piezoelectric ceramic actuators and the compliant mechanisms is measured using the integrated approach. The maximal bias of the proposed approach reached 13 nm. Experimental results show that the new integrated method can measure micro-displacement with nanometer accuracy.

  12. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  13. High-accuracy oxygen polarograph for photosynthetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, P. C.; Popovic, R.

    1988-03-01

    A new system is presented here, whose design is based on the electrochemical phenomena occurring on the platinum electrode that we examined before [P. Meunier and R. Popovic (unpublished)]. The architecture of the system is articulated around an IBM-PC computer which controls the polarization of the electrodes, the triggering of the flash lamp, and the acquisition of data. The potentiostat circuit and new electrode design improve the response of the electrode to a rise time of 4 ms and a decay time constant of 21 ms, without the signal being distorted by filters and without using the first derivative of the signal. This polarograph shows a 50-dB signal-to-noise ratio (0.3% error) during experiments with the motile algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The determination of amplitudes of oxygen production is performed with third-order cubic spline interpolations, after subtraction of the current base line. The resulting accuracy and reproducibility will enable researchers to attain a higher degree of refinement in the quantification of properties of the oxygen evolving complex.

  14. a Protocol for High-Accuracy Theoretical Thermochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bradley; Dawes, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical studies of spectroscopy and reaction dynamics including the necessary development of potential energy surfaces rely on accurate thermochemical information. The Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach by Ruscic^{1} incorporates data for a large number of chemical species from a variety of sources (both experimental and theoretical) and derives a self-consistent network capable of making extremely accurate estimates of quantities such as temperature dependent enthalpies of formation. The network provides rigorous uncertainties, and since the values don't rely on a single measurement or calculation, the provenance of each quantity is also obtained. To expand and improve the network it is desirable to have a reliable protocol such as the HEAT approach^{2} for calculating accurate theoretical data. Here we present and benchmark an approach based on explicitly-correlated coupled-cluster theory and vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2). Methyldioxy and Methyl Hydroperoxide are important and well-characterized species in combustion processes and begin the family of (ethyl-, propyl-based, etc) similar compounds (much less is known about the larger members). Accurate anharmonic frequencies are essential to accurately describe even the 0 K enthalpies of formation, but are especially important for finite temperature studies. Here we benchmark the spectroscopic and thermochemical accuracy of the approach, comparing with available data for the smallest systems, and comment on the outlook for larger systems that are less well-known and characterized. ^{1}B. Ruscic, Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) values based on ver. 1.118 of the Thermochemical Network (2015); available at ATcT.anl.gov ^{2}A. Tajti, P. G. Szalay, A. G. Császár, M. Kállay, J. Gauss, E. F. Valeev, B. A. Flowers, J. Vázquez, and J. F. Stanton. JCP 121, (2004): 11599.

  15. THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND HIGH-INTENSITY FATIGUE ON GROUNDSTROKE ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NON-EXPERT TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the effects of fatigue on skilled performance in tennis presents a significant challenge to the researcher with respect to ecological validity. This study examined the effects of moderate and high-intensity fatigue on groundstroke accuracy in expert and non-expert tennis players. The research also explored whether the effects of fatigue are the same regardless of gender and player's achievement motivation characteristics. 13 expert (7 male, 6 female and 17 non-expert (13 male, 4 female tennis players participated in the study. Groundstroke accuracy was assessed using the modified Loughborough Tennis Skills Test. Fatigue was induced using the Loughborough Intermittent Tennis Test with moderate (70% and high-intensities (90% set as a percentage of peak heart rate (attained during a tennis-specific maximal hitting sprint test. Ratings of perceived exertion were used as an adjunct to the monitoring of heart rate. Achievement goal indicators for each player were assessed using the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport in an effort to examine if this personality characteristic provides insight into how players perform under moderate and high-intensity fatigue conditions. A series of mixed ANOVA's revealed significant fatigue effects on groundstroke accuracy regardless of expertise. The expert players however, maintained better groundstroke accuracy across all conditions compared to the novice players. Nevertheless, in both groups, performance following high-intensity fatigue deteriorated compared to performance at rest and performance while moderately fatigued. Groundstroke accuracy under moderate levels of fatigue was equivalent to that at rest. Fatigue effects were also similar regardless of gender. No fatigue by expertise, or fatigue by gender interactions were found. Fatigue effects were also equivalent regardless of player's achievement goal indicators. Future research is required to explore the effects of fatigue on

  16. High-accuracy Subdaily ERPs from the IGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.; Griffiths, J.

    2012-04-01

    Since November 2000 the International GNSS Service (IGS) has published Ultra-rapid (IGU) products for near real-time (RT) and true real-time applications. They include satellite orbits and clocks, as well as Earth rotation parameters (ERPs) for a sliding 48-hr period. The first day of each update is based on the most recent GPS and GLONASS observational data from the IGS hourly tracking network. At the time of release, these observed products have an initial latency of 3 hr. The second day of each update consists of predictions. So the predictions between about 3 and 9 hr into the second half are relevant for true RT uses. Originally updated twice daily, the IGU products since April 2004 have been issued every 6 hr, at 3, 9, 15, and 21 UTC. Up to seven Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute to the IGU combinations. Two sets of ERPs are published with each IGU update, observed values at the middle epoch of the first half and predicted values at the middle epoch of the second half. The latency of the near RT ERPs is 15 hr while the predicted ERPs, based on projections of each AC's most recent determinations, are issued 9 hr ahead of their reference epoch. While IGU ERPs are issued every 6 hr, each set represents an integrated estimate over the surrounding 24 hr. So successive values are temporally correlated with about 75% of the data being common; this fact should be taken into account in user assimilations. To evaluate the accuracy of these near RT and predicted ERPs, they have been compared to the IGS Final ERPs, available about 11 to 17 d after data collection. The IGU products improved dramatically in the earlier years but since about 2008.0 the performance has been stable and excellent. During the last three years, RMS differences for the observed IGU ERPs have been about 0.036 mas and 0.0101 ms for each polar motion component and LOD respectively. (The internal precision of the reference IGS ERPs over the same period is about 0.016 mas for polar motion and 0

  17. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  18. A High Accuracy Method for Semi-supervised Information Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2007-04-22

    Customization to specific domains of dis-course and/or user requirements is one of the greatest challenges for today’s Information Extraction (IE) systems. While demonstrably effective, both rule-based and supervised machine learning approaches to IE customization pose too high a burden on the user. Semi-supervised learning approaches may in principle offer a more resource effective solution but are still insufficiently accurate to grant realistic application. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by integrating fully-supervised learning techniques within a semi-supervised IE approach, without increasing resource requirements.

  19. Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a fast and high-accuracy three-dimensional (3-D) imaging laser radar that can achieve better than 1 mm range accuracy for half a million pixels in less than 1 s. Our technique is based on range-gating segmentation. We combine the advantages of gated viewing with our new fast...

  20. High-Reproducibility and High-Accuracy Method for Automated Topic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lancichinetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of human knowledge sits in large databases of unstructured text. Leveraging this knowledge requires algorithms that extract and record metadata on unstructured text documents. Assigning topics to documents will enable intelligent searching, statistical characterization, and meaningful classification. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA is the state of the art in topic modeling. Here, we perform a systematic theoretical and numerical analysis that demonstrates that current optimization techniques for LDA often yield results that are not accurate in inferring the most suitable model parameters. Adapting approaches from community detection in networks, we propose a new algorithm that displays high reproducibility and high accuracy and also has high computational efficiency. We apply it to a large set of documents in the English Wikipedia and reveal its hierarchical structure.

  1. Achieving High Accuracy in Calculations of NMR Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Rasmus

    information about the relative positions of nuclei are also obtained. Due to the widespread use of NMR spectroscopy, there is a keen interest in theoretical predictions of the relevant parameters, the nuclear shielding constants and indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC). Though highly advanced...... calculations are today typically based on coupled cluster (CC) theory. The CCSD(T) method is very popular and is known to give accurate results for a wide range of molecular properties, including nuclear shielding constants, but not SSCCs. An alternative to CCSD(T) for calculating SSCCs could be the CC3 method...... that CC3 captures important correlation effects ignored by the previous standard method, CCSD. Indeed, CC3 is shown to accurately reproduce gas-phase experimental results for the SSCCs of acetylene. In any molecular property calculation the one-electron basis set must be chosen with care as the basis set...

  2. Accuracy of High-Rate GPS for Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosegui, P.; Davis, J. L.; Oberlander, D.; Baena, R.; Ekstrom, G.

    2006-01-01

    We built a device for translating a GPS antenna on a positioning table to simulate the ground motions caused by an earthquake. The earthquake simulator is accurate to better than 0.1 mm in position, and provides the "ground truth" displacements for assessing the technique of high-rate GPS. We found that the root-mean-square error of the 1-Hz GPS position estimates over the 15-min duration of the simulated seismic event was 2.5 mm, with approximately 96% of the observations in error by less than 5 mm, and is independent of GPS antenna motion. The error spectrum of the GPS estimates is approximately flicker noise, with a 50% decorrelation time for the position error of approx.1.6 s. We that, for the particular event simulated, the spectrum of dependent error in the GPS measurements. surface deformations exceeds the GPS error spectrum within a finite band. More studies are required to determine whether a generally optimal bandwidth exists for a target group of seismic events.

  3. The accuracy of QCD perturbation theory at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling $\\alpha_\\mathrm{\\overline{MS}}^{}(m_\\mathrm{Z})$ or equivalently the QCD $\\Lambda$-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in $\\alpha_s(\\mu)$ in some scheme, $s$, and at some energy scale $\\mu$. The higher the scale $\\mu$ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the $\\Lambda$-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to $\\alpha_s = 0.1$ and below. We find that perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the $\\Lambda$-parameter, while data around $\\alpha_s \\approx 0.2$ is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  4. Diagnostic Accuracy of Abdominal wall Ultrasonography and Local Wound Exploration in Predicting the Need for Laparotomy following Stab Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vafaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Screening of patients with anterior abdominal penetrating trauma in need for laparotomy is an important issue in management of these cases. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of abdominal wall ultrasonography (AWU and local wound exploration (LWE in this regard.Methods: This diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on ≥ 18 year-old patients presenting to emergency department with anterior abdominal stab wound and stable hemodynamics, to compare the characteristics of AWU and LWE in screening of patients in need of laparotomy.Results: 50 cases with the mean age of 28.44 ± 7.14 years were included (80% male. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of AWU were 70.58 (95% CI: 44.04 – 88.62, 93.33 (95% CI: 76.49 – 98.83, and 81.96 (95% CI: 69.91 – 94.01, respectively. These measures were 88.23 (62.25 – 97.93, 93.33 (76.49 – 98.83, and 90.78 (95% CI: 81.67 – 99.89 for LWE, respectively. The difference in overall accuracy of the two methods was not statistically significant (p = 0.0641.Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, AWU and LWE had the same specificity but different sensitivities in screening of anterior abdominal stab wound patients in need of laparotomy. The overall accuracy of LWE was slightly higher (91.48% versus 85.1%.

  5. Magnetoresistive Current Sensors for High Accuracy, High Bandwidth Current Measurement in Spacecraft Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatter, Rolf; Goffin, Benoit

    2014-08-01

    The usage of magnetoresistive (MR) current sensors is increasing steadily in the field of power electronics. Current sensors must not only be accurate and dynamic, but must also be compact and robust. The MR effect is the basis for current sensors with a unique combination of precision and bandwidth in a compact package. A space-qualifiable magnetoresistive current sensor with high accuracy and high bandwidth is being jointly developed by the sensor manufacturer Sensitec and the spacecraft power electronics supplier Thales Alenia Space (T AS) Belgium. Test results for breadboards incorporating commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors are presented as well as an application example in the electronic control and power unit for the thrust vector actuators of the Ariane5-ME launcher.

  6. About accuracy of the discrimination parameter estimation for the dual high-energy method

    OpenAIRE

    Osipov, Sergey Pavlovich; Chakhlov, Sergey Vladimirovich; Осипов, Олег Сергеевич; Stein, Aleksandr Mikhailovich; Strugovtsev, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    A set of the mathematical formulas to estimate the accuracy of discrimination parameters for two implementations of the dual high energy method - by the effective atomic number and by the level lines is given. The hardware parameters which influenced on the accuracy of the discrimination parameters are stated. The recommendations to form the structure of the high energy X-ray radiation impulses are formulated. To prove the applicability of the proposed procedure there were calculated the stat...

  7. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  8. Polarization-independent optical circulator for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    A high precision, polarization-independent optical circulator was developed for high accuracy Faraday depolarization lidar. Glan laser prisms and other novel optics were utilized in the circulator optics, resulting in a high extinction ratio of polarization of >30 dB. High accuracy is needed to detect a small rotation angle in the polarization plane of the propagating beam. It is generated by the Faraday effect due to the lightning discharge. The developed circulator delivered high performance of insertion loss and isolation as laser transmitter and echo receiver in the inline lidar optics. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  9. Do students know what they know? Exploring the accuracy of students’ self-assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Lindsey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an investigation into how well students in introductory science classes (both physics and chemistry are able to predict which questions they will or will not be able to answer correctly on an upcoming assessment. An examination of the data at the level of students’ overall scores reveals results consistent with the Dunning-Kruger effect, in which low-performing students tend to overestimate their abilities, while high-performing students estimate their abilities more accurately. Similar results have been widely reported in the science education literature. Breaking results out by students’ responses to individual questions, however, reveals that students of all ability levels have difficulty distinguishing questions which they are able to answer correctly from those that they are not able to answer correctly. These results have implications for the future study and reporting of students’ metacognitive abilities.

  10. Judgment of Learning Accuracy in High-functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2016-11-01

    This study explored whether adults and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulties making metacognitive judgments, specifically judgments of learning. Across two experiments, the study examined whether individuals with ASD could accurately judge whether they had learnt a piece of information (in this case word pairs). In Experiment 1, adults with ASD demonstrated typical accuracy on a standard 'cue-alone' judgment of learning (JOL) task, compared to age- and IQ-matched neurotypical adults. Additionally, in Experiment 2, adolescents with ASD demonstrated typical accuracy on both a standard 'cue-alone' JOL task, and a 'cue-target' JOL task. These results suggest that JOL accuracy is unimpaired in ASD. These results have important implications for both theories of metacognition in ASD and educational practise.

  11. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    OpenAIRE

    Wenya Zhou; Haixu Wang; Zhengwei Ruan; Zhigang Wu; Enmei Wang

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on ...

  12. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  13. High-accuracy drilling with an image guided light weight robot: autonomous versus intuitive feed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, Sebastian; Fuchs, Alexander; Baier, Fabian; Kahrs, Lüder A; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2017-07-13

    Assistance of robotic systems in the operating room promises higher accuracy and, hence, demanding surgical interventions become realisable (e.g. the direct cochlear access). Additionally, an intuitive user interface is crucial for the use of robots in surgery. Torque sensors in the joints can be employed for intuitive interaction concepts. Regarding the accuracy, they lead to a lower structural stiffness and, thus, to an additional error source. The aim of this contribution is to examine, if an accuracy needed for demanding interventions can be achieved by such a system or not. Feasible accuracy results of the robot-assisted process depend on each work-flow step. This work focuses on the determination of the tool coordinate frame. A method for drill axis definition is implemented and analysed. Furthermore, a concept of admittance feed control is developed. This allows the user to control feeding along the planned path by applying a force to the robots structure. The accuracy is researched by drilling experiments with a PMMA phantom and artificial bone blocks. The described drill axis estimation process results in a high angular repeatability ([Formula: see text]). In the first set of drilling results, an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at entrance and [Formula: see text] at target point excluding imaging was achieved. With admittance feed control an accuracy of [Formula: see text] at target point was realised. In a third set twelve holes were drilled in artificial temporal bone phantoms including imaging. In this set-up an error of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] was achieved. The results of conducted experiments show that accuracy requirements for demanding procedures such as the direct cochlear access can be fulfilled with compliant systems. Furthermore, it was shown that with the presented admittance feed control an accuracy of less then [Formula: see text] is achievable.

  14. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  15. Exploring high school learners' perceptions of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Patricia; Louw, Johann

    2010-12-01

    Learners' perceptions of aspects of school life that are sufficiently serious to interfere with their schoolwork were investigated. Bullying was a form of behaviour that was singled out for inclusion and further exploration in the study. Learners from three coeducational Western Cape Education Department schools were surveyed: 414 Grade 8 and 474 Grade 9 learners completed an anonymous, voluntary self-report questionnaire. Factors identified as most frequently interfering with their schoolwork included classmates not listening in class, feeling overwhelmed by schoolwork, teacher absenteeism, and verbal fighting. When asked specifically about bullying, 40% of learners indicated that they frequently experienced bullying at school-although they ranked it as much lower when compared to other potentially problematic school experiences. Furthermore, although the majority of learners indicated they thought teachers considered bullying a problem, few felt there was anything that school staff could do to counteract bullying effectively. These findings suggest that learners perceive bullying as an unavoidable part of school experience and have normalised this aggressive behaviour.

  16. High-accuracy Brillouin frequency shift measurement system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqian; An, Qi; Li, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Lixin

    2017-05-01

    A high-accuracy Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) measurement system for vector Brillouin optical time-domain analysis-based temperature sensor is proposed, in which double sideband modulation is used and the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) gain and loss processes work together to generate a superimposed SBS phase-shift spectrum. The measurement principle is analyzed by mathematical modeling and the proof-of-concept experiment is performed by using a 100-m long standard single-mode fiber. The theoretical and experimental results reveal that the temperature sensitivity of BFS obtained from the measured SBS phase-shift spectrum is 1.059 MHz/°C, and the measurement error of temperature is only half that in traditional single sideband-based system, which indicates that the proposed technique can realize high-accuracy temperature measurement and have huge potential in the field of long-distance and high-accuracy sensing.

  17. Very high-accuracy calibration of radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission of the Europ......In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission...

  18. Experimental studies of high-accuracy RFID localization with channel impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Eric; Zhang, Yimin D.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems present an incredibly cost-effective and easy-to-implement solution to close-range localization. One of the important applications of a passive RFID system is to determine the reader position through multilateration based on the estimated distances between the reader and multiple distributed reference tags obtained from, e.g., the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) readings. In practice, the achievable accuracy of passive RFID reader localization suffers from many factors, such as the distorted RSSI reading due to channel impairments in terms of the susceptibility to reader antenna patterns and multipath propagation. Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of passive RFID localization can be significantly improved by properly modeling and compensating for such channel impairments. The objective of this paper is to report experimental study results that validate the effectiveness of such approaches for high-accuracy RFID localization. We also examine a number of practical issues arising in the underlying problem that limit the accuracy of reader-tag distance measurements and, therefore, the estimated reader localization. These issues include the variations in tag radiation characteristics for similar tags, effects of tag orientations, and reader RSS quantization and measurement errors. As such, this paper reveals valuable insights of the issues and solutions toward achieving high-accuracy passive RFID localization.

  19. Accuracy of protein-protein binding sites in high-throughput template-based modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras J Kundrotas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of protein structures, particularly their binding sites, is essential for the success of modeling protein complexes. Computationally inexpensive methodology is required for genome-wide modeling of such structures. For systematic evaluation of potential accuracy in high-throughput modeling of binding sites, a statistical analysis of target-template sequence alignments was performed for a representative set of protein complexes. For most of the complexes, alignments containing all residues of the interface were found. The full interface alignments were obtained even in the case of poor alignments where a relatively small part of the target sequence (as low as 40% aligned to the template sequence, with a low overall alignment identity (<30%. Although such poor overall alignments might be considered inadequate for modeling of whole proteins, the alignment of the interfaces was strong enough for docking. In the set of homology models built on these alignments, one third of those ranked 1 by a simple sequence identity criteria had RMSD<5 A, the accuracy suitable for low-resolution template free docking. Such models corresponded to multi-domain target proteins, whereas for single-domain proteins the best models had 5 Aaccuracy suitable for less sensitive structure-alignment methods. Overall, approximately 50% of complexes with the interfaces modeled by high-throughput techniques had accuracy suitable for meaningful docking experiments. This percentage will grow with the increasing availability of co-crystallized protein-protein complexes.

  20. High-accuracy identification and bioinformatic analysis of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Florian; de Godoy, Lyris M F; Cox, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism that affects many cell signaling processes. Using high-accuracy MS and stable isotope labeling in cell culture-labeling, we provide a global view of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphoproteome, containing 3620 phosphorylation sites ma...

  1. Accuracy of hiatal hernia detection with esophageal high-resolution manometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; van Hoeij, F. B.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of a sliding hiatal hernia is classically made with endoscopy or barium esophagogram. Spatial separation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and diaphragm, the hallmark of hiatal hernia, can also be observed on high-resolution manometry (HRM), but the diagnostic accuracy of this

  2. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  3. Silver Coating for High-Mass-Accuracy Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Fingerprints on Nanostructured Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Taryn M; Gustafsson, Ove J R; McPhee, Gordon; Kobus, Hilton; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-17

    Nanostructure imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) using porous silicon (pSi) is a key technique for molecular imaging of exogenous and endogenous low molecular weight compounds from fingerprints. However, high-mass-accuracy NIMS can be difficult to achieve as time-of-flight (ToF) mass analyzers, which dominate the field, cannot sufficiently compensate for shifts in measured m/z values. Here, we show internal recalibration using a thin layer of silver (Ag) sputter-coated onto functionalized pSi substrates. NIMS peaks for several previously reported fingerprint components were selected and mass accuracy was compared to theoretical values. Mass accuracy was improved by more than an order of magnitude in several cases. This straightforward method should form part of the standard guidelines for NIMS studies for spatial characterization of small molecules.

  4. A high-accuracy surgical augmented reality system using enhanced integral videography image overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen

    2015-01-01

    Image guided surgery has been used in clinic to improve the surgery safety and accuracy. Augmented reality (AR) technique, which can provide intuitive image guidance, has been greatly evolved these years. As one promising approach of surgical AR systems, integral videography (IV) autostereoscopic image overlay has achieved accurate fusion of full parallax guidance into surgical scene. This paper describes an image enhanced high-accuracy IV overlay system. A flexible optical image enhancement system (IES) is designed to increase the resolution and quality of IV image. Furthermore, we introduce a novel IV rendering algorithm to promote the spatial accuracy with the consideration of distortion introduced by micro lens array. Preliminary experiments validated that the image accuracy and resolution are improved with the proposed methods. The resolution of the IV image could be promoted to 1 mm for a micro lens array with pitch of 2.32 mm and IES magnification value of 0.5. The relative deviation of accuracy in depth and lateral directions are -4.68 ± 0.83% and -9.01 ± 0.42%.

  5. A high accuracy algorithm of displacement measurement for a micro-positioning stage

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zhang; Xianmin Zhang; Heng Wu; Jinqiang Gan; Hai Li

    2017-01-01

    A high accuracy displacement measurement algorithm for a two degrees of freedom compliant precision micro-positioning stage is proposed based on the computer micro-vision technique. The algorithm consists of an integer-pixel and a subpixel matching procedure. Series of simulations are conducted to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed algorithm possesses the advantages of high precision and stability, the resolution can attain to 0.01 pixel theoretically. In addition,...

  6. High-density marker imputation accuracy in sixteen French cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozé, Chris; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Venot, Eric; Guillaume, François; Dassonneville, Romain; Fritz, Sébastien; Ducrocq, Vincent; Phocas, Florence; Boichard, Didier; Croiseau, Pascal

    2013-09-03

    Genotyping with the medium-density Bovine SNP50 BeadChip® (50K) is now standard in cattle. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip®, which contains 777,609 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was developed in 2010. Increasing marker density increases the level of linkage disequilibrium between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNPs and the accuracy of QTL localization and genomic selection. However, re-genotyping all animals with the high-density chip is not economically feasible. An alternative strategy is to genotype part of the animals with the high-density chip and to impute high-density genotypes for animals already genotyped with the 50K chip. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the error rate when imputing from the 50K to the high-density chip. Five thousand one hundred and fifty three animals from 16 breeds (89 to 788 per breed) were genotyped with the high-density chip. Imputation error rates from the 50K to the high-density chip were computed for each breed with a validation set that included the 20% youngest animals. Marker genotypes were masked for animals in the validation population in order to mimic 50K genotypes. Imputation was carried out using the Beagle 3.3.0 software. Mean allele imputation error rates ranged from 0.31% to 2.41% depending on the breed. In total, 1980 SNPs had high imputation error rates in several breeds, which is probably due to genome assembly errors, and we recommend to discard these in future studies. Differences in imputation accuracy between breeds were related to the high-density-genotyped sample size and to the genetic relationship between reference and validation populations, whereas differences in effective population size and level of linkage disequilibrium showed limited effects. Accordingly, imputation accuracy was higher in breeds with large populations and in dairy breeds than in beef breeds. More than 99% of the alleles were correctly imputed if more than 300 animals were genotyped at high-density. No

  7. About accuracy of the discrimination parameter estimation for the dual high-energy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, S. P.; Chakhlov, S. V.; Osipov, O. S.; Shtein, A. M.; Strugovtsev, D. V.

    2015-04-01

    A set of the mathematical formulas to estimate the accuracy of discrimination parameters for two implementations of the dual high energy method - by the effective atomic number and by the level lines is given. The hardware parameters which influenced on the accuracy of the discrimination parameters are stated. The recommendations to form the structure of the high energy X-ray radiation impulses are formulated. To prove the applicability of the proposed procedure there were calculated the statistical errors of the discrimination parameters for the cargo inspection system of the Tomsk polytechnic university on base of the portable betatron MIB-9. The comparison of the experimental estimations and the theoretical ones of the discrimination parameter errors was carried out. It proved the practical applicability of the algorithm to estimate the discrimination parameter errors for the dual high energy method.

  8. A fast and high accuracy numerical simulation algorithm of the polymer spherulite at the mesoscale Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhi; Geng, Tie; (Tom Turng, Lih-Sheng; Liu, Chuntai; Cao, Wei; Shen, Changyu

    2017-09-01

    In the multiscale numerical simulation of polymer crystallization during the processing period, flow and temperature of the polymer melt are simulated on the macroscale level, while nucleation and growth of the spherulite are simulated at the mesoscale level. As a part of the multiscale simulation, the meso-simulation requires a fast solving speed because the meso-simulation software must be run several times in every macro-element at each macro-step. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the calculation results is also very important. It is known that the simulation geometry of crystallization includes planar (2D) and three-dimensional space (3D). The 3D calculations are more accurate but more expensive because of the long CPU time consumed. On the contrary, 2D calculations are always much faster but lower in accuracy. To reach the desirable speed and high accuracy at the same time, an algorithm is presented, in which the Delesse law coupled with the Monte Carlo method and pixel method are employed to simulate the nucleation, growth, and impingement of the polymer spherulite at the mesoscale level. Based on this algorithm, a software is developed with the Visual C++ language, and its numerical examples’ results prove that the solving speed of this algorithm is as fast as the 2D classical simulation and the calculation accuracy is at the same level as the 3D simulation.

  9. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, R., E-mail: hongran@uw.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Leredde, A. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bagdasarova, Y. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Fléchard, X. [Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); García, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Müller, P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Knecht, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Liénard, E. [Normandie Univ, ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, 14000 Caen (France); Kossin, M. [Department of Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sternberg, M.G.; Swanson, H.E.; Zumwalt, D.W. [Department of Physics and Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 µm and a resolution of 85 µm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  10. High accuracy position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate ion detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, R.; Leredde, A.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Fléchard, X.; García, A.; Müller, P.; Knecht, A.; Liénard, E.; Kossin, M.; Sternberg, M. G.; Swanson, H. E.; Zumwalt, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a position response calibration method for a micro-channel plate (MCP) detector with a delay-line anode position readout scheme. Using an in situ calibration mask, an accuracy of 8 μm and a resolution of 85 μm (FWHM) have been achieved for MeV-scale α particles and ions with energies of ∼10 keV. At this level of accuracy, the difference between the MCP position responses to high-energy α particles and low-energy ions is significant. The improved performance of the MCP detector can find applications in many fields of AMO and nuclear physics. In our case, it helps reducing systematic uncertainties in a high-precision nuclear β-decay experiment.

  11. High-accuracy water potential energy surface for the calculation of infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizus, Irina I; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A; Zobov, Nikolai F; Makhnev, Vladimir Yu; Polyansky, Oleg L; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-03-13

    Transition intensities for small molecules such as water and CO 2 can now be computed with such high accuracy that they are being used to systematically replace measurements in standard databases. These calculations use high-accuracy ab initio dipole moment surfaces and wave functions from spectroscopically determined potential energy surfaces (PESs). Here, an extra high-accuracy PES of the water molecule (H 2 16 O) is produced starting from an ab initio PES which is then refined to empirical rovibrational energy levels. Variational nuclear motion calculations using this PES reproduce the fitted energy levels with a standard deviation of 0.011 cm -1 , approximately three times their stated uncertainty. The use of wave functions computed with this refined PES is found to improve the predicted transition intensities for selected (problematic) transitions. A new room temperature line list for H 2 16 O is presented. It is suggested that the associated set of line intensities is the most accurate available to date for this species.This article is part of the theme issue 'Modern theoretical chemistry'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. High accuracy position adjustment and vibration isolation actuator with the controlled ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuai; Li, Chunfang; Zhao, Xiangyu; Jiao, Zongxia

    2017-11-01

    An actuator for microposition adjustment and vibration isolation using the controlled ferrofluid is reported in this letter. The proposed actuator levitates on the ferrofluid which is affected by the combined dynamic magnetic field which is formed by coupling a permanent magnetic field with a controlled electromagnetic field. A controlled electromagnetic field is superposed on the permanent magnetic field in order to change the shape of the ferrofluid to ultimately move the actuator. The experimental results indicate that the proposed actuator can adjust the position with high accuracy and has a good dynamic performance. The proposed actuator can bear over 2 N loads, and the positioning accuracy is within 0.1 μ m. The stroke of the actuator is about of ±30 μ m with no load, and the stroke increases to ±75 μ m at 2 N load. Its dynamic band with -3 dB amplitude attenuation and -90° phase is over 40 Hz. In addition, the displacement has a very good linear relationship with the input current. The results also demonstrate that the actuator can isolate vibration in a wide frequency range, as the low frequency vibration can be compensated by the active motion control, while the high frequency vibration can be attenuated by the elasticity and damping effects of the ferrofluid. Consequently, the proposed actuator has a significant potential for applications where the high accuracy micro-position adjustment and vibration isolation are needed.

  13. A smart high accuracy silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor temperature compensation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanwu; Zhao, Yulong; Guo, Fangfang; Xu, Wenju

    2014-07-08

    Theoretical analysis in this paper indicates that the accuracy of a silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is mainly affected by thermal drift, and varies nonlinearly with the temperature. Here, a smart temperature compensation system to reduce its effect on accuracy is proposed. Firstly, an effective conditioning circuit for signal processing and data acquisition is designed. The hardware to implement the system is fabricated. Then, a program is developed on LabVIEW which incorporates an extreme learning machine (ELM) as the calibration algorithm for the pressure drift. The implementation of the algorithm was ported to a micro-control unit (MCU) after calibration in the computer. Practical pressure measurement experiments are carried out to verify the system's performance. The temperature compensation is solved in the interval from -40 to 85 °C. The compensated sensor is aimed at providing pressure measurement in oil-gas pipelines. Compared with other algorithms, ELM acquires higher accuracy and is more suitable for batch compensation because of its higher generalization and faster learning speed. The accuracy, linearity, zero temperature coefficient and sensitivity temperature coefficient of the tested sensor are 2.57% FS, 2.49% FS, 8.1 × 10(-5)/°C and 29.5 × 10(-5)/°C before compensation, and are improved to 0.13%FS, 0.15%FS, 1.17 × 10(-5)/°C and 2.1 × 10(-5)/°C respectively, after compensation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is valid for the temperature compensation and high accuracy requirement of the sensor.

  14. A Smart High Accuracy Silicon Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Temperature Compensation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanwu Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis in this paper indicates that the accuracy of a silicon piezoresistive pressure sensor is mainly affected by thermal drift, and varies nonlinearly with the temperature. Here, a smart temperature compensation system to reduce its effect on accuracy is proposed. Firstly, an effective conditioning circuit for signal processing and data acquisition is designed. The hardware to implement the system is fabricated. Then, a program is developed on LabVIEW which incorporates an extreme learning machine (ELM as the calibration algorithm for the pressure drift. The implementation of the algorithm was ported to a micro-control unit (MCU after calibration in the computer. Practical pressure measurement experiments are carried out to verify the system’s performance. The temperature compensation is solved in the interval from −40 to 85 °C. The compensated sensor is aimed at providing pressure measurement in oil-gas pipelines. Compared with other algorithms, ELM acquires higher accuracy and is more suitable for batch compensation because of its higher generalization and faster learning speed. The accuracy, linearity, zero temperature coefficient and sensitivity temperature coefficient of the tested sensor are 2.57% FS, 2.49% FS, 8.1 × 10−5/°C and 29.5 × 10−5/°C before compensation, and are improved to 0.13%FS, 0.15%FS, 1.17 × 10−5/°C and 2.1 × 10−5/°C respectively, after compensation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system is valid for the temperature compensation and high accuracy requirement of the sensor.

  15. Accuracy of GPS devices for measuring high-intensity running in field-based team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampinini, E; Alberti, G; Fiorenza, M; Riggio, M; Sassi, R; Borges, T O; Coutts, A J

    2015-01-01

    We compared the accuracy of 2 GPS systems with different sampling rates for the determination of distances covered at high-speed and metabolic power derived from a combination of running speed and acceleration. 8 participants performed 56 bouts of shuttle intermittent running wearing 2 portable GPS devices (SPI-Pro, GPS-5 Hz and MinimaxX, GPS-10 Hz). The GPS systems were compared with a radar system as a criterion measure. The variables investigated were: total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSR>4.17 m·s(-1)), very high-speed distance (VHSR>5.56 m·s(-1)), mean power (Pmean), high metabolic power (HMP>20 W·kg(-1)) and very high metabolic power (VHMP>25 W·kg(-1)). GPS-5 Hz had low error for TD (2.8%) and Pmean (4.5%), while the errors for the other variables ranged from moderate to high (7.5-23.2%). GPS-10 Hz demonstrated a low error for TD (1.9%), HSR (4.7%), Pmean (2.4%) and HMP (4.5%), whereas the errors for VHSR (10.5%) and VHMP (6.2%) were moderate. In general, GPS accuracy increased with a higher sampling rate, but decreased with increasing speed of movement. Both systems could be used for calculating TD and Pmean, but they cannot be used interchangeably. Only GPS-10 Hz demonstrated a sufficient level of accuracy for quantifying distance covered at higher speeds or time spent at very high power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  17. High Accuracy Attitude Control System Design for Satellite with Flexible Appendages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high accuracy attitude control of satellite with flexible appendages, attitude control system consisting of the controller and structural filter was designed. When the low order vibration frequency of flexible appendages is approximating the bandwidth of attitude control system, the vibration signal will enter the control system through measurement device to bring impact on the accuracy or even the stability. In order to reduce the impact of vibration of appendages on the attitude control system, the structural filter is designed in terms of rejecting the vibration of flexible appendages. Considering the potential problem of in-orbit frequency variation of the flexible appendages, the design method for the adaptive notch filter is proposed based on the in-orbit identification technology. Finally, the simulation results are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design techniques.

  18. Locating very high energy gamma ray sources with arc minute accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D. J.; Harris, K.; Hillas, A. M.; Jennings, D. G.; Lamb, R. C.; Lawrence, M. A.; Lang, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The angular accuracy of gamma-ray detectors is intrinsically limited by the physical processes involved in photon detection. Although a number of point-like sources were detected by the COS-B satellite, only two were unambiguously identified by time signature with counterparts at longer wavelengths. By taking advantage of the extended longitudinal structure of Very High Energy gamma-ray showers, measurements in the TeV energy range can pinpoint source coordinates to arc minute accuracy. This was demonstrated using Cerenkov air shower imaging techniques. With two telescopes in coincidence, the individual event circular probable error will be 0.13 deg. The half-cone angle of the field of view is effectively 1 deg.

  19. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux at n{sub T}OF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Variale, V. [Sezione di Bari, INFN, Bari (Italy); Guerrero, C.; Andriamonje, S.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Losito, R.; Versaci, R.; Vlachoudis, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tsinganis, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Tarrio, D.; Duran, I.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Paradela, C. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago (Spain); Altstadt, S.; Goebel, K.; Langer, C.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Weigand, M. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Perkowski, J. [Uniwersytet Lodzki, Lodz (Poland); Audouin, L.; Leong, L.S.; Tassan-Got, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IPN, Orsay (France); Becares, V.; Cano-Ott, D.; Garcia, A.R.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J.; Valenta, S. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Belloni, F.; Fraval, K.; Gunsing, F.; Lampoudis, C.; Papaevangelou, T. [Commissariata l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Berthoumieux, E.; Chiaveri, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Commissariata l' Energie Atomique (CEA) Saclay - Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Billowes, J.; Ware, T.; Wright, T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bosnar, D.; Zugec, P. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Calvino, F.; Cortes, G.; Gomez-Hornillos, M.B.; Riego, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carrapico, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Sarmento, R.; Vaz, P. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Sabate-Gilarte, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Diakaki, M.; Karadimos, D.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Giubrone, G.; Tain, J.L. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Dressler, R.; Kivel, N.; Schumann, D.; Steinegger, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dzysiuk, N.; Mastinu, P.F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Rome (Italy); Eleftheriadis, C.; Manousos, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Ganesan, S.; Gurusamy, P.; Saxena, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (IN); Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wien (AT); Hernandez-Prieto, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Jenkins, D.G.; Vermeulen, M.J. [University of York, Heslington, York (GB); Kaeppeler, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, Karlsruhe (DE); Koehler, P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge (US); Lederer, C. [Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (DE); University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Massimi, C.; Mingrone, F.; Vannini, G. [Universita di Bologna (IT); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna (IT); Mengoni, A.; Ventura, A. [Agenzia nazionale per le nuove tecnologie, l' energia e lo sviluppo economico sostenibile (ENEA), Bologna (IT); Milazzo, P.M. [Sezione di Trieste, INFN, Trieste (IT); Mirea, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest - Magurele (RO); Mondalaers, W.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, European Commission JRC, Geel (BE); Pavlik, A.; Wallner, A. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Rauscher, T. [University of Basel, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Basel (CH); Roman, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest - Magurele (RO); Rubbia, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso dell' INFN, Assergi (AQ) (IT); Weiss, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (DE)

    2013-12-15

    The neutron flux of the n{sub T}OF facility at CERN was measured, after installation of the new spallation target, with four different systems based on three neutron-converting reactions, which represent accepted cross sections standards in different energy regions. A careful comparison and combination of the different measurements allowed us to reach an unprecedented accuracy on the energy dependence of the neutron flux in the very wide range (thermal to 1 GeV) that characterizes the n{sub T}OF neutron beam. This is a pre-requisite for the high accuracy of cross section measurements at n{sub T}OF. An unexpected anomaly in the neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 235}U is observed in the energy region between 10 and 30keV, hinting at a possible overestimation of this important cross section, well above currently assigned uncertainties. (orig.)

  20. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux at n_TOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M.; Guerrero, C.; Tsinganis, A.; Tarrío, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martınez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Papaevangelou, T.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Steinegger, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2013-12-01

    The neutron flux of the n_TOF facility at CERN was measured, after installation of the new spallation target, with four different systems based on three neutron-converting reactions, which represent accepted cross sections standards in different energy regions. A careful comparison and combination of the different measurements allowed us to reach an unprecedented accuracy on the energy dependence of the neutron flux in the very wide range (thermal to 1 GeV) that characterizes the n_TOF neutron beam. This is a pre-requisite for the high accuracy of cross section measurements at n_TOF. An unexpected anomaly in the neutron-induced fission cross section of 235U is observed in the energy region between 10 and 30keV, hinting at a possible overestimation of this important cross section, well above currently assigned uncertainties.

  1. Career Exploration for High School Women: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Janice M.; Tanney, Mary Faith

    Designed for high school women at the sophomore level, this program is intended to act as a catalyst for exploration of career goals with a heightened awareness of the influence of sexism and stereotypic attitudes regarding women's roles. Together with three special activity periods, there is continued assistance by the high school counselor in…

  2. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongkai; Yi, Ming; Zou, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms of cell fate decision in a noisy environment, the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on cell fate are explored at the single cell level. Specifically, we theoretically define the impulse of Cln1/2 as an indication of cell fates. The strong dependence between the impulse of Cln1/2 and cell fates is exhibited. Based on the simulation results, we illustrate that increasing intrinsic fluctuations causes the parallel shift of the separation ratio of Whi5P but that increasing extrinsic fluctuations leads to the mixture of different cell fates. Our quantitative study also suggests that the strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic noises around an approximate linear model can ensure a high accuracy of cell fate selection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the selection of cell fates is an entropy-decreasing process. In addition, we reveal that cell fates are significantly correlated with the range of entropy decreases. PMID:25042292

  3. High density marker panels, SNPs prioritizing and accuracy of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yun; Toghiani, Sajjad; Ling, Ashley; Aggrey, Sammy E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2018-01-05

    The availability of high-density (HD) marker panels, genome wide variants and sequence data creates an unprecedented opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits, enhance genomic selection (GS) and identify causal variants of disease. The disproportional increase in the number of parameters in the genetic association model compared to the number of phenotypes has led to further deterioration in statistical power and an increase in co-linearity and false positive rates. At best, HD panels do not significantly improve GS accuracy and, at worst, reduce accuracy. This is true for both regression and variance component approaches. To remedy this situation, some form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) filtering or external information is needed. Current methods for prioritizing SNP markers (i.e. BayesB, BayesCπ) are sensitive to the increased co-linearity in HD panels which could limit their performance. In this study, the usefulness of FST, a measure of allele frequency variation among populations, as an external source of information in GS was evaluated. A simulation was carried out for a trait with heritability of 0.4. Data was divided into three subpopulations based on phenotype distribution (bottom 5%, middle 90%, top 5%). Marker data were simulated to mimic a 770 K and 1.5 million SNP marker panel. A ten-chromosome genome with 200 K and 400 K SNPs was simulated. Several scenarios with varying distributions for the quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects were simulated. Using all 200 K markers and no filtering, the accuracy of genomic prediction was 0.77. When marker effects were simulated from a gamma distribution, SNPs pre-selected based on the 99.5, 99.0 and 97.5% quantile of the FST score distribution resulted in an accuracy of 0.725, 0.797, and 0.853, respectively. Similar results were observed under other simulation scenarios. Clearly, the accuracy obtained using all SNPs can be easily achieved using only 0.5 to 1% of all markers. These

  4. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuhler, Chelsea; Kelly, John R.; Martinson, John; Okum, Sara; Pilgrim, Erik

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput DNA metabarcoding has gained recognition as a potentially powerful tool for biomonitoring, including early detection of aquatic invasive species (AIS). DNA based techniques are advancing, but our understanding of the limits to detection for metabarcoding complex samples is inadequate. For detecting AIS at an early stage of invasion when the species is rare, accuracy at low detection limits is key. To evaluate the utility of metabarcoding in future fish community monitoring programs, we conducted several experiments to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of routine metabarcoding methods. Experimental mixes used larval fish tissue from multiple “common” species spiked with varying proportions of tissue from an additional “rare” species. Pyrosequencing of genetic marker, COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) and subsequent sequence data analysis provided experimental evidence of low-level detection of the target “rare” species at biomass percentages as low as 0.02% of total sample biomass. Limits to detection varied interspecifically and were susceptible to amplification bias. Moreover, results showed some data processing methods can skew sequence-based biodiversity measurements from corresponding relative biomass abundances and increase false absences. We suggest caution in interpreting presence/absence and relative abundance in larval fish assemblages until metabarcoding methods are optimized for accuracy and precision.

  5. High accuracy measurements of magnetic field integrals for the european XFEL undulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Fabris, Frederik; Viehweger, Marc; Li, Yuhui; Pflüger, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    Two high accuracy moving wire (MW) measurement systems based on stretched wire technique were built for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). They were dedicated to monitor, tune and improve the magnetic field integrals properties during the serial production of the undulator segments, phase shifters and air coil correctors for XFEL.EU. For the magnetic tuning of phase shifters and the calibration of the air coils correctors a short portable MW measurement bench was built to measure first field integrals in short devices with magnetic length of less than about 300 mm and with an ultimate accuracy much better than 1 G cm (0.001 T mm). A long MW measurement setup was dedicated to obtain the total first and second field integrals on the 5-meters long undulator segments with accuracy of about 4 G cm (0.004 T mm) and 2000 G cm2 (20 T mm2) for the 1st and 2nd field integrals, respectively. Using these data a method was developed to compute the proper corrections for the air coils correctors used at both extremities so that zero first and second field integrals for an undulator segment are obtained. It is demonstrated that charging air coils correctors with these corrections results in near zero effect to the electron trajectory in the undulator systems and consequently no negative impact on the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process should occur.

  6. Accuracy assessment of high frequency 3D ultrasound for digital impression-taking of prepared teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Stefan; Vollborn, Thorsten; Tinschert, Joachim; Wolfart, Stefan; Radermacher, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    Silicone based impression-taking of prepared teeth followed by plaster casting is well-established but potentially less reliable, error-prone and inefficient, particularly in combination with emerging techniques like computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of dental prosthesis. Intra-oral optical scanners for digital impression-taking have been introduced but until now some drawbacks still exist. Because optical waves can hardly penetrate liquids or soft-tissues, sub-gingival preparations still need to be uncovered invasively prior to scanning. High frequency ultrasound (HFUS) based micro-scanning has been recently investigated as an alternative to optical intra-oral scanning. Ultrasound is less sensitive against oral fluids and in principal able to penetrate gingiva without invasively exposing of sub-gingival preparations. Nevertheless, spatial resolution as well as digitization accuracy of an ultrasound based micro-scanning system remains a critical parameter because the ultrasound wavelength in water-like media such as gingiva is typically smaller than that of optical waves. In this contribution, the in-vitro accuracy of ultrasound based micro-scanning for tooth geometry reconstruction is being investigated and compared to its extra-oral optical counterpart. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the system, 2nd harmonic frequencies from a mechanically driven focused single element transducer were separated and corresponding 3D surface models were calculated for both fundamentals and 2nd harmonics. Measurements on phantoms, model teeth and human teeth were carried out for evaluation of spatial resolution and surface detection accuracy. Comparison of optical and ultrasound digital impression taking indicate that, in terms of accuracy, ultrasound based tooth digitization can be an alternative for optical impression-taking.

  7. A very low noise, high accuracy, programmable voltage source for low frequency noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Graziella; Giusi, Gino; Ciofi, Carmine

    2014-04-01

    In this paper an approach for designing a programmable, very low noise, high accuracy voltage source for biasing devices under test in low frequency noise measurements is proposed. The core of the system is a supercapacitor based two pole low pass filter used for filtering out the noise produced by a standard DA converter down to 100 mHz with an attenuation in excess of 40 dB. The high leakage current of the supercapacitors, however, introduces large DC errors that need to be compensated in order to obtain high accuracy as well as very low output noise. To this end, a proper circuit topology has been developed that allows to considerably reduce the effect of the supercapacitor leakage current on the DC response of the system while maintaining a very low level of output noise. With a proper design an output noise as low as the equivalent input voltage noise of the OP27 operational amplifier, used as the output buffer of the system, can be obtained with DC accuracies better that 0.05% up to the maximum output of 8 V. The expected performances of the proposed voltage source have been confirmed both by means of SPICE simulations and by means of measurements on actual prototypes. Turn on and stabilization times for the system are of the order of a few hundred seconds. These times are fully compatible with noise measurements down to 100 mHz, since measurement times of the order of several tens of minutes are required in any case in order to reduce the statistical error in the measured spectra down to an acceptable level.

  8. A small and high accuracy gyro stabilization electro-optical platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haitao; Han, Yonggen; Lv, Yanhong

    2008-10-01

    A high accuracy line-of-sight (LOS) Stabilization system based on digital control technology was designed. The current feedback closed-loop system was introduced which uses the CCD graphic and resolver to constitute the position closed-loop and uses the optic fiber gyro to constitute the rate closed-loop. In order to realize zero steady-state error of angular output in counteracting disturbance from carrier, a PII2 (proportional-integral-double integral) control scheme is proposed. The hardware configuration and software system is presented. Experimental results show that the system has perfect dynamic and static performance and the technical requirements were satisfied.

  9. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  10. From journal to headline: the accuracy of climate science news in Danish high quality newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Gunver Lystbæk

    2011-01-01

    analysis to examine the accuracy of Danish high quality newspapers in quoting scientific publications from 1997 to 2009. Out of 88 articles, 46 contained inaccuracies though the majority was found to be insignificant and random. The study concludes that Danish broadsheet newspapers are ‘moderately......A significant number of mass media news stories on climate change quote scientific publications. However, the journalistic process of popularizing scientific research regarding climate change has been profoundly criticized for being manipulative and inaccurate. This preliminary study used content...

  11. High accuracy 234U(n,f cross section in the resonance energy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal-Cidoncha E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings, based on previous n_TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n_TOF neutron flux.

  12. High accuracy 234U(n,f) cross section in the resonance energy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Durán, I.; Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Leal, L. C.; Naour, C. Le; Noguere, G.; Tarrío, D.; Leong, L. S.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f) as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f) obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings), based on previous n_TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f) cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n_TOF neutron flux.

  13. High Accuracy Three-dimensional Simulation of Micro Injection Moulded Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F. S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is the key replication technology for high precision manufacturing of polymer micro products. Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted during the present validation study. Detailed information about the μIM process was gathered...... and used to establish a reliable simulation methodology suitable for μIM parts. Various Simulation set-up parameters that have been considered in order to improve the simulation accuracy: injection speed profile, melt and mould temperatures, 3D mesh, material rheology, inertia effect and shrinkage...

  14. A new ultra-high-accuracy angle generator: current status and future direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Christian F.; Geckeler, Ralf D.

    2017-09-01

    Lack of an extreme high-accuracy angular positioning device available in the United States has left a gap in industrial and scientific efforts conducted there, requiring certain user groups to undertake time-consuming work with overseas laboratories. Specifically, in x-ray mirror metrology the global research community is advancing the state-of-the-art to unprecedented levels. We aim to fill this U.S. gap by developing a versatile high-accuracy angle generator as a part of the national metrology tool set for x-ray mirror metrology and other important industries. Using an established calibration technique to measure the errors of the encoder scale graduations for full-rotation rotary encoders, we implemented an optimized arrangement of sensors positioned to minimize propagation of calibration errors. Our initial feasibility research shows that upon scaling to a full prototype and including additional calibration techniques we can expect to achieve uncertainties at the level of 0.01 arcsec (50 nrad) or better and offer the immense advantage of a highly automatable and customizable product to the commercial market.

  15. Emergency positioning system accuracy with infrared LEDs in high-security facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoch, Sierra N.; Nelson, Charles; Walker, Owens

    2017-05-01

    Instantaneous personnel location presents a challenge in Department of Defense applications where high levels of security restrict real-time tracking of crew members. During emergency situations, command and control requires immediate accountability of all personnel. Current radio frequency (RF) based indoor positioning systems can be unsuitable due to RF leakage and electromagnetic interference with sensitively calibrated machinery on variable platforms like ships, submarines and high-security facilities. Infrared light provide a possible solution to this problem. This paper proposes and evaluates an indoor line-of-sight positioning system that is comprised of IR and high-sensitivity CMOS camera receivers. In this system the movement of the LEDs is captured by the camera, uploaded and analyzed; the highest point of power is located and plotted to create a blueprint of crewmember location. Results provided evaluate accuracy as a function of both wavelength and environmental conditions. Research will further evaluate the accuracy of the LED transmitter and CMOS camera receiver system. Transmissions in both the 780 and 850nm IR are analyzed.

  16. High accuracy position method based on computer vision and error analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihao; Shi, Zhongke

    2003-09-01

    The study of high accuracy position system is becoming the hotspot in the field of autocontrol. And positioning is one of the most researched tasks in vision system. So we decide to solve the object locating by using the image processing method. This paper describes a new method of high accuracy positioning method through vision system. In the proposed method, an edge-detection filter is designed for a certain running condition. Here, the filter contains two mainly parts: one is image-processing module, this module is to implement edge detection, it contains of multi-level threshold self-adapting segmentation, edge-detection and edge filter; the other one is object-locating module, it is to point out the location of each object in high accurate, and it is made up of medium-filtering and curve-fitting. This paper gives some analysis error for the method to prove the feasibility of vision in position detecting. Finally, to verify the availability of the method, an example of positioning worktable, which is using the proposed method, is given at the end of the paper. Results show that the method can accurately detect the position of measured object and identify object attitude.

  17. SpaceNav - A high accuracy navigation system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, H.-H.

    The technology of the SpaceNav-system is based on research performed by the Institute of Flight Guidance and Control at the Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. In 1989 this institute gave the worlds first public demonstration of a fully automatic landing of an aircraft, using inertial and satellite informations exclusively. The SpaceNav device components are: Acceleration-/Gyro Sensor Package; Global Positioning System (GPS) Receiver/optional more than one; Time Reference Unit; CPU; Telemetry (optional); and Differential GPS (DGPS) Receiver (optional). The coupling of GPS receivers with inertial sensors provides an extremely accurate navigation data set in real time applications even in phases with high dynamic conditions. The update rate of this navigation information is up to 100 Hz with the same accuracy in 3D-position, velocity, acceleration, attitude and time. SpaceNav is an integrated navigation system, which operates according to the principle of combining the longterm stability and accuracy of GPS, and the high level of dynamic precision of conventional inertial navigation system (INS) strapdown systems. The system's design allows other aiding sensors e.g. GLONASS satellite navigation system, distance measuring equipment (DME), altimeter (radar and/or barometric), flux valve etc. to be connected, in order to increase the redundancy of the system. The advantage of such an upgraded system is the availability of more sensor information than necessary for a navigation solution. The resulting redundancy in range measurement allows real-time detection and identification of sensor signals that are incompatible with the other information. As a result you get Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) as described in 'A Multi-Sensor Approach to Assuring GPS Integrity', presented by Alison Brown in the March/April 1990 issue of 'GPS World'. In this paper the author presents information about the principles of the Satellite Navigation System GPS, and

  18. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 ...

  19. Exploring the Behavior of Highly Effective CIOs Using Video Analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Komal; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2009-01-01

    Although recently several studies have addressed the required skills of effective CIOs, little is known of the actual behavior successful CIOs. In this study, we explore the behavior of highly effective CIOs by video-recording CIOs at work. The two CIOs videotaped were nominated as CIO of the year.

  20. High-accuracy process based on the corrective calibration of removal function in the magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2017-08-01

    The corrective calibration of the removal function plays an important role in the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) high-accuracy process. This paper mainly investigates the asymmetrical characteristic of the MRF removal function shape and further analyzes its influence on the surface residual error by means of an iteration algorithm and simulations. By comparing the ripple errors and convergence ratios based on the ideal MRF tool function and the deflected tool function, the mathematical models for calibrating the deviation of horizontal and flowing directions are presented. Meanwhile, revised mathematical models for the coordinate transformation of an MRF machine is also established. Furthermore, a Ø140-mm fused silica plane and a Ø196 mm, f/1∶1, fused silica concave sphere samples are taken as the experiments. After two runs, the plane mirror final surface error reaches PV 17.7 nm, RMS 1.75 nm, and the polishing time is 16 min in total; after three runs, the sphere mirror final surfer error reaches RMS 2.7 nm and the polishing time is 70 min in total. The convergence ratios are 96.2% and 93.5%, respectively. The spherical simulation error and the polishing result are almost consistent, which fully validate the efficiency and feasibility of the calibration method of MRF removal function error using for the high-accuracy subaperture optical manufacturing.

  1. Producing high-accuracy lattice models from protein atomic coordinates including side chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Saunders, Rhodri; Smith, Cameron; Backofen, Rolf; Deane, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Lattice models are a common abstraction used in the study of protein structure, folding, and refinement. They are advantageous because the discretisation of space can make extensive protein evaluations computationally feasible. Various approaches to the protein chain lattice fitting problem have been suggested but only a single backbone-only tool is available currently. We introduce LatFit, a new tool to produce high-accuracy lattice protein models. It generates both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models in any user defined lattice. LatFit implements a new distance RMSD-optimisation fitting procedure in addition to the known coordinate RMSD method. We tested LatFit's accuracy and speed using a large nonredundant set of high resolution proteins (SCOP database) on three commonly used lattices: 3D cubic, face-centred cubic, and knight's walk. Fitting speed compared favourably to other methods and both backbone-only and backbone-side-chain models show low deviation from the original data (~1.5 Å RMSD in the FCC lattice). To our knowledge this represents the first comprehensive study of lattice quality for on-lattice protein models including side chains while LatFit is the only available tool for such models.

  2. Spatial, High-Accuracy, Positioning-Encoding Sensor (SHAPES) for large space system control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclauchlan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Spatial, High-Accuracy, Position-Encoding Sensor is a controls sensor suitable for the determination of the static shape and vibrational motion of large space structures and similar systems and for the determination of position and velocity in rendezvous and docking. It uses a combination of electro-optical techniques to measure the three-dimensional coordinates distributed over the structure at reading rates high compared to the rates at which the coordinates are changing. The technical approach is that of measuring the distance to and the direction of points on the structure from a single sensor head. Many points can be measured simultaneously from a single head without significantly increasing the complexity of the system.

  3. CMOS highly linear direct-conversion transmitter for WCDMA with fine gain accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Fu Jian; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang, E-mail: yumeihuang@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A highly linear, high output power, 0.13 {mu}m CMOS direct conversion transmitter for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) is described. The transmitter delivers 6.8 dBm output power with 38 mA current consumption. With careful design on the resistor bank in the IQ-modulator, the gain step accuracy is within 0.1 dB, hence the image rejection ratio can be kept below -47 dBc for the entire output range. The adjacent channel leakage ratio and the LO leakage at 6.8 dBm output power are -44 dBc - 5 MHz and -37 dBc, respectively, and the corresponding EVM is 3.6%. The overall gain can be programmed in 6 dB steps in a 66-dB range.

  4. CMOS highly linear direct-conversion transmitter for WCDMA with fine gain accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Li; Jian, Fu; Yumei, Huang; Zhiliang, Hong

    2011-08-01

    A highly linear, high output power, 0.13 μm CMOS direct conversion transmitter for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) is described. The transmitter delivers 6.8 dBm output power with 38 mA current consumption. With careful design on the resistor bank in the IQ-modulator, the gain step accuracy is within 0.1 dB, hence the image rejection ratio can be kept below -47 dBc for the entire output range. The adjacent channel leakage ratio and the LO leakage at 6.8 dBm output power are -44 dBc @ 5 MHz and -37 dBc, respectively, and the corresponding EVM is 3.6%. The overall gain can be programmed in 6 dB steps in a 66-dB range.

  5. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  6. Appraisal of the realistic accuracy of molecular dynamics of high-pressure hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme J. Ackland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics (MD is a powerful method for studying the behaviour of materials at high temperature. In practice, however, its effectiveness in representing real systems is limited by the accuracy of the forces, finite size effects, quantization and equilibration methods. In this paper, we report and discuss some calculations carried out using MD on high-pressure hydrogen, reviewing a number of sources of error, of which the neglect of zero-point vibrations is quantitatively the largest. We show that simulations using ab initio MD with the PBE functional predict a large stability field for the molecular Cmca4 structure at pressures just above those achieved in current experiments above the stability range of the mixed molecular layered Phase IV. However, the various errors in the simulation all point towards a much smaller stability range, and the likelihood of a non-molecular phase based on low-coordination networks or chains of atoms.

  7. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor...... but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...... probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree...

  8. EGNSS High Accuracy System Improving Photovoltaic Plant Maintenance using RPAS integrated with Low-cost RTK Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisi, Marco; Menichetti, Fabio; Bilal, Muhammad

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Real Time Kinematic (RTK) is the key enabling technology for a number of applications demanding very high positioning accuracy as their operational requirement. This include, but not limited to, mapping, surveying, robot guidance, and precision agriculture...... to name a few. Typically, GNSS RTK employs high-end dual-frequency receivers and antennas to deliver precise positioning that, in some way, restricts the use of GNSS RTK to a subset of user market due to very high cost. The emerging mass-market user applications, however, require centimeter positioning...... accuracy considering a cost-effective solution. This calls for low-cost GNSS RTK technology to create new possibilities for mass-market user applications to make use of GNSS high accuracy positioning in a variety of ways. One of the applications that make use of low-cost RTK is EGNSS high accuracy system...

  9. Usability and accuracy of high-resolution detectors for daily quality assurance for robotic radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loutfi-Krauss Britta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For daily CyberKnife QA a Winston-Lutz-Test (Automated-Quality-Assurance, AQA is used to determine sub-millimeter deviations in beam delivery accuracy. This test is performed using gafchromic film, an extensive and user-dependent method requiring the use of disposables. We therefore analyzed the usability and accuracy of high-resolution detector arrays. We analyzed a liquid-filled ionization-chamber array (Octavius 1000SRS, PTW, Germany, which has a central resolution of 2.5mm. To test sufficient sensitivity, beam profiles with robot shifts of 0.1mm along the arrays' axes were measured. The detected deviation between the shifted and central profile were compared to the real robot's position. We then compared the results to the SRS-Profiler (SunNuclear, USA with 4.0mm resolution and to the Nonius (QUART, Germany, a single-line diode detector with 2.8mm resolution. Finally, AQA variance and usability were analyzed performing a number of AQA tests over time, which required the use of specially designed fixtures for each array, and the results were compared to film. Concerning sensitivity, the 1000SRS detected the beam profile shifts with a maximum difference of 0.11mm (mean deviation = 0.03mm compared to the actual robot shift. The Nonius and SRS-Profiler showed differences of up to 0.15mm and 0.69mm with mean deviation of 0.05mm and 0.18mm, respectively. Analyzing the variation of AQA results over time, the 1000SRS showed a comparable standard deviation to film (0.26mm vs. 0.18mm. The SRS-Profiler and the Nonius showed a standard deviation of 0.16mm and 0.24mm, respectively. The 1000SRS seems to provide equivalent accuracy and sensitivity to the gold standard film when performing daily AQA tests. Compared to other detectors in our study the sensitivity as well as the accuracy of the 1000SRS appears to be superior and more user-friendly. Furthermore, no significant modification of the standard AQA procedure is required when introducing 1000SRS for

  10. Dynamical dark energy simulations: high accuracy power spectra at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarini, Luciano; Bonometto, Silvio A. [Department of Physics G. Occhialini-Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Maccio, Andrea V., E-mail: luciano.casarini@mib.infn.it, E-mail: maccio@mpia.de, E-mail: silvio.bonometto@mib.infn.it [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Accurate predictions on non-linear power spectra, at various redshift z, will be a basic tool to interpret cosmological data from next generation mass probes, so obtaining key information on Dark Energy nature. This calls for high precision simulations, covering the whole functional space of w(z) state equations and taking also into account the admitted ranges of other cosmological parameters; surely a difficult task. A procedure was however suggested, able to match the spectra at z = 0, up to k {approx} 3 hMpc{sup -1}, in cosmologies with an (almost) arbitrary w(z), by making recourse to the results of N-body simulations with w = const. In this paper we extend such procedure to high redshift and test our approach through a series of N-body gravitational simulations of various models, including a model closely fitting WMAP5 and complementary data. Our approach detects w = const. models, whose spectra meet the requirement within 1% at z = 0 and perform even better at higher redshift, where they are close to a permil precision. Available Halofit expressions, extended to (constant) w{ne}-1 are unfortunately unsuitable to fit the spectra of the physical models considered here. Their extension to cover the desired range should be however feasible, and this will enable us to match spectra from any DE state equation.

  11. Innovative Technique for High-Accuracy Remote Monitoring of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.; Thayer, J. P.; Crowley, G.

    2016-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems and agricultural waterways. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for monitoring water resources on fast timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  12. A method to enhance the measurement accuracy of Raman shift based on high precision calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Raman spectrometers are usually calibrated periodically to ensure their measurement accuracy of Raman shift. A combination of a piece of monocrystalline silicon chip and a low pressure discharge lamp is proposed as a candidate for the reference standard of Raman shift. A high precision calibration technique is developed to accurately determine the standard value of the silicon's Raman shift around 520cm-1. The technique is described and illustrated by measuring a piece of silicon chip against three atomic spectral lines of a neon lamp. A commercial Raman spectrometer is employed and its error characteristics of Raman shift are investigated. Error sources are evaluated based on theoretical analysis and experiments, including the sample factor, the instrumental factor, the laser factor and random factors. Experimental results show that the expanded uncertainty of the silicon's Raman shift around 520cm-1 can acheive 0.3 cm-1 (k=2), which is more accurate than most of currently used reference materials. The results are validated by comparison measurement between three Raman spectrometers. It is proved that the technique can remarkably enhance the accuracy of Raman shift, making it possible to use the silicon and the lamp to calibrate Raman spectrometers.

  13. Combined Scintigraphy and Tumor Marker Analysis Predicts Unfavorable Histopathology of Neuroblastic Tumors with High Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Peter Fendler

    Full Text Available Our aim was to improve the prediction of unfavorable histopathology (UH in neuroblastic tumors through combined imaging and biochemical parameters.123I-MIBG SPECT and MRI was performed before surgical resection or biopsy in 47 consecutive pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumor. Semi-quantitative tumor-to-liver count-rate ratio (TLCRR, MRI tumor size and margins, urine catecholamine and NSE blood levels of neuron specific enolase (NSE were recorded. Accuracy of single and combined variables for prediction of UH was tested by ROC analysis with Bonferroni correction.34 of 47 patients had UH based on the International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC. TLCRR and serum NSE both predicted UH with moderate accuracy. Optimal cut-off for TLCRR was 2.0, resulting in 68% sensitivity and 100% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.86, p < 0.001. Optimal cut-off for NSE was 25.8 ng/ml, resulting in 74% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC-ROC 0.81, p = 0.001. Combination of TLCRR/NSE criteria reduced false negative findings from 11/9 to only five, with improved sensitivity and specificity of 85% (AUC-ROC 0.85, p < 0.001.Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of NSE were each predictive of UH. Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.

  14. Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded daily reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Jerry; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Hobbins, Michael; Senay, Gabriel; Paul, George; Marek, Thomas; Porter, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides daily reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which is essential for regional scale water resources management. Data used in the development of NOAA daily ETref maps are derived from observations over surfaces that are different from short (grass — ETos) or tall (alfalfa — ETrs) reference crops, often in nonagricultural settings, which carries an unknown discrepancy between assumed and actual conditions. In this study, NOAA daily ETos and ETrs maps were evaluated for accuracy, using observed data from the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network. Daily ETos, ETrs and the climatic data (air temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) used for calculating ETref were extracted from the NOAA maps for TXHPET locations and compared against ground measurements on reference grass surfaces. NOAA ETrefmaps generally overestimated the TXHPET observations (1.4 and 2.2 mm/day ETos and ETrs, respectively), which may be attributed to errors in the NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed, to which reference ETref is most sensitive. Therefore, a bias correction to NLDAS modeled air temperature and wind speed data, or adjustment to the resulting NOAA ETref, may be needed to improve the accuracy of NOAA ETref maps.

  15. [Accuracy of correlation function method for evaluating pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Zou, Jianzhong; Wu, Feng; Liu, Fang; Jiao, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of ultrasound monitoring during pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (PHIFU) treatment and improve the sensitivity of ultrasound monitoring of tissue necrosis caused by PHIFU treatment. Bovine liver ex vivo was dot-exposed with HIFU at the therapeutic doses of 2000 J (group A) and 1440 J (group B). The two groups were further divided into groups A1 (power 100 W, duty cycle 100%, irradiate 20 s) A2 (power 100 W, duty cycle 50%, irradiate 40 s), A3 (power 100 W, duty cycle 40%, irradiate 50 s), B1 (power 120 W, duty cycle 100%, irradiate 12 s), B2 (power 100 W, duty cycle 50%, irradiate 24 s), and B3 (power 100 W, duty cycle 40%, irradiate 30 s). The gray scale changes in the ultrasonic images after the exposures were observed, and the correlation function of the image was calculated before and after the exposure. The accuracy of evaluations based on the correlation function and gray-scale changes was compared. The correct rate of gray scale-based evaluation of tissue necrosis caused by PHIFU was only 51%, while that by correlation function-based evaluation reached 85%. Monitoring of tissue necrosis caused by PHIFU treatment can not rely solely on evaluation of gray-scale change of the ultrasound images, and the correlation function-based evaluation can be more accurate and sensitive for that purpose.

  16. High Accuracy Mass Measurement of the Dripline Nuclides $^{12,14}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    State-of-the art, three-body nuclear models that describe halo nuclides require the binding energy of the halo neutron(s) as a critical input parameter. In the case of $^{14}$Be, the uncertainty of this quantity is currently far too large (130 keV), inhibiting efforts at detailed theoretical description. A high accuracy, direct mass deterlnination of $^{14}$Be (as well as $^{12}$Be to obtain the two-neutron separation energy) is therefore required. The measurement can be performed with the MISTRAL spectrometer, which is presently the only possible solution due to required accuracy (10 keV) and short half-life (4.5 ms). Having achieved a 5 keV uncertainty for the mass of $^{11}$Li (8.6 ms), MISTRAL has proved the feasibility of such measurements. Since the current ISOLDE production rate of $^{14}$Be is only about 10/s, the installation of a beam cooler is underway in order to improve MISTRAL transmission. The projected improvement of an order of magnitude (in each transverse direction) will make this measureme...

  17. PACMAN Project: A New Solution for the High-accuracy Alignment of Accelerator Components

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, Helene; Buzio, Marco; Caiazza, Domenico; Catalán Lasheras, Nuria; Cherif, Ahmed; Doytchinov, Iordan; Fuchs, Jean-Frederic; Gaddi, Andrea; Galindo Munoz, Natalia; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Kamugasa, Solomon; Modena, Michele; Novotny, Peter; Russenschuck, Stephan; Sanz, Claude; Severino, Giordana; Tshilumba, David; Vlachakis, Vasileios; Wendt, Manfred; Zorzetti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The beam alignment requirements for the next generation of lepton colliders have become increasingly challenging. As an example, the alignment requirements for the three major collider components of the CLIC linear collider are as follows. Before the first beam circulates, the Beam Position Monitors (BPM), Accelerating Structures (AS)and quadrupoles will have to be aligned up to 10 μm w.r.t. a straight line over 200 m long segments, along the 20 km of linacs. PACMAN is a study on Particle Accelerator Components' Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometre scale. It is an Innovative Doctoral Program, funded by the EU and hosted by CERN, providing high quality training to 10 Early Stage Researchers working towards a PhD thesis. The technical aim of the project is to improve the alignment accuracy of the CLIC components by developing new methods and tools addressing several steps of alignment simultaneously, to gain time and accuracy. The tools and methods developed will be validated on a test bench. This paper pr...

  18. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87%. In 99% of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family.

  19. High-accuracy calculations of the rotation-vibration spectrum of {{\\rm{H}}}_{3}^{+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Alijah, Alexander; Császár, Attila G.

    2017-12-01

    Calculation of the rotation-vibration spectrum of {{{H}}}3+, as well as of its deuterated isotopologues, with near-spectroscopic accuracy requires the development of sophisticated theoretical models, methods, and codes. The present paper reviews the state-of-the-art in these fields. Computation of rovibrational states on a given potential energy surface (PES) has now become standard for triatomic molecules, at least up to intermediate energies, due to developments achieved by the present authors and others. However, highly accurate Born–Oppenheimer energies leading to highly accurate PESs are not accessible even for this two-electron system using conventional electronic structure procedures (e.g. configuration-interaction or coupled-cluster techniques with extrapolation to the complete (atom-centered Gaussian) basis set limit). For this purpose, highly specialized techniques must be used, e.g. those employing explicitly correlated Gaussians and nonlinear parameter optimizations. It has also become evident that a very dense grid of ab initio points is required to obtain reliable representations of the computed points extending from the minimum to the asymptotic limits. Furthermore, adiabatic, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic correction terms need to be considered to achieve near-spectroscopic accuracy during calculation of the rotation-vibration spectrum of {{{H}}}3+. The remaining and most intractable problem is then the treatment of the effects of non-adiabatic coupling on the rovibrational energies, which, in the worst cases, may lead to corrections on the order of several cm‑1. A promising way of handling this difficulty is the further development of effective, motion- or even coordinate-dependent, masses and mass surfaces. Finally, the unresolved challenge of how to describe and elucidate the experimental pre-dissociation spectra of {{{H}}}3+ and its isotopologues is discussed.

  20. High-accuracy infra-red thermography method using reflective marker arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirollos, Benjamin; Povey, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method for high-accuracy infra-red (IR) thermography measurements in situations with significant spatial variation in reflected radiation from the surroundings, or significant spatial variation in surface emissivity due to viewing angle non-uniformity across the field of view. The method employs a reflective marker array (RMA) on the target surface—typically, high emissivity circular dots—and an integrated image analysis algorithm designed to require minimal human input. The new technique has two particular advantages which make it suited to high-accuracy measurements in demanding environments: (i) it allows the reflected radiation component to be calculated directly, in situ, and as a function of position, overcoming a key problem in measurement environments with non-uniform and unsteady stray radiation from the surroundings; (ii) using image analysis of the marker array (via apparent aspect ratio of the circular reflective markers), the local viewing angle of the target surface can be estimated, allowing corrections for angular variation of local emissivity to be performed without prior knowledge of the geometry. A third advantage of the technique is that allows for simple focus-stacking algorithms due to increased image entropy. The reflective marker array method is demonstrated for an isothermal, hemispherical object exposed to an external IR source arranged to give a significant non-uniform reflected radiation term. This is an example of a challenging environment, both because of the significant non-uniform reflected radiation term, and also the significant variation in target emissivity due to surface angle variation. We demonstrate that the new RMA IR technique leads to significantly lower error in evaluated surface temperature than conventional IR techniques. The method is applicable to any complex radiative environment.

  1. High-Accuracy Tidal Flat Digital Elevation Model Construction Using TanDEM-X Science Phase Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Kuk; Ryu, Joo-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility of using TanDEM-X (TDX) interferometric observations of tidal flats for digital elevation model (DEM) construction. Our goal was to generate high-precision DEMs in tidal flat areas, because accurate intertidal zone data are essential for monitoring coastal environment sand erosion processes. To monitor dynamic coastal changes caused by waves, currents, and tides, very accurate DEMs with high spatial resolution are required. The bi- and monostatic modes of the TDX interferometer employed during the TDX science phase provided a great opportunity for highly accurate intertidal DEM construction using radar interferometry with no time lag (bistatic mode) or an approximately 10-s temporal baseline (monostatic mode) between the master and slave synthetic aperture radar image acquisitions. In this study, DEM construction in tidal flat areas was first optimized based on the TDX system parameters used in various TDX modes. We successfully generated intertidal zone DEMs with 57-m spatial resolutions and interferometric height accuracies better than 0.15 m for three representative tidal flats on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Finally, we validated these TDX DEMs against real-time kinematic-GPS measurements acquired in two tidal flat areas; the correlation coefficient was 0.97 with a root mean square error of 0.20 m.

  2. High accuracy Primary Reference gas Mixtures for high-impact greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Zalewska, Ewelina; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Brewer, Paul; Resner, Kate; Mace, Tatiana; Tarhan, Tanil; Zellweger, Christophe; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, due to increased man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, poses one of the greatest risks to society worldwide. High-impact greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirect drivers for global warming (e.g. CO) are measured by the global monitoring stations for greenhouse gases, operated and organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Reference gases for the calibration of analyzers have to meet very challenging low level of measurement uncertainty to comply with the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) set by the WMO. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), a project to improve the metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases was granted (HIGHGAS, June 2014-May 2017). As a result of the HIGHGAS project, primary reference gas mixtures in cylinders for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air have been prepared with unprecedented low uncertainties, typically 3-10 times lower than usually previously achieved by the NMIs. To accomplish these low uncertainties in the reference standards, a number of preparation and analysis steps have been studied and improved. The purity analysis of the parent gases had to be performed with lower detection limits than previously achievable. E.g., to achieve an uncertainty of 2•10-9 mol/mol (absolute) on the amount fraction for N2O, the detection limit for the N2O analysis in the parent gases has to be in the sub nmol/mol domain. Results of an OPO-CRDS analyzer set-up in the 5µm wavelength domain, with a 200•10-12 mol/mol detection limit for N2O, will be presented. The adsorption effects of greenhouse gas components at cylinder surfaces are critical, and have been studied for different cylinder passivation techniques. Results of a two-year stability study will be presented. The fit-for-purpose of the reference materials was studied for possible variation on isotopic composition between the reference material and the sample. Measurement results for a suit of CO2 in air

  3. High-Accuracy Approximation of High-Rank Derivatives: Isotropic Finite Differences Based on Lattice-Boltzmann Stencils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Kalervo Mattila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose isotropic finite differences for high-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives. These finite differences are based on direct application of lattice-Boltzmann stencils. The presented finite-difference expressions are valid in any dimension, particularly in two and three dimensions, and any lattice-Boltzmann stencil isotropic enough can be utilized. A theoretical basis for the proposed utilization of lattice-Boltzmann stencils in the approximation of high-rank derivatives is established. In particular, the isotropy and accuracy properties of the proposed approximations are derived directly from this basis. Furthermore, in this formal development, we extend the theory of Hermite polynomial tensors in the case of discrete spaces and present expressions for the discrete inner products between monomials and Hermite polynomial tensors. In addition, we prove an equivalency between two approaches for constructing lattice-Boltzmann stencils. For the numerical verification of the presented finite differences, we introduce 5th-, 6th-, and 8th-order two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann stencils.

  4. High-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives: isotropic finite differences based on lattice-Boltzmann stencils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Keijo Kalervo; Hegele Júnior, Luiz Adolfo; Philippi, Paulo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    We propose isotropic finite differences for high-accuracy approximation of high-rank derivatives. These finite differences are based on direct application of lattice-Boltzmann stencils. The presented finite-difference expressions are valid in any dimension, particularly in two and three dimensions, and any lattice-Boltzmann stencil isotropic enough can be utilized. A theoretical basis for the proposed utilization of lattice-Boltzmann stencils in the approximation of high-rank derivatives is established. In particular, the isotropy and accuracy properties of the proposed approximations are derived directly from this basis. Furthermore, in this formal development, we extend the theory of Hermite polynomial tensors in the case of discrete spaces and present expressions for the discrete inner products between monomials and Hermite polynomial tensors. In addition, we prove an equivalency between two approaches for constructing lattice-Boltzmann stencils. For the numerical verification of the presented finite differences, we introduce 5th-, 6th-, and 8th-order two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann stencils.

  5. A high-accuracy measurement method of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid based on microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dachao; Xu, Qingmei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Ridong; Xu, Kexin; Yu, Haixia

    2017-11-01

    A high-accuracy microdialysis method that can provide the reference values of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid for the accurate evaluation of non-invasive and minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring is reported in this study. The parameters of the microdialysis process were firstly optimized by testing and analyzing three main factors that impact microdialysis recovery, including the perfusion rate, temperature, and glucose concentration in the area surrounding the microdialysis probe. The precision of the optimized microdialysis method was then determined in a simulation system that was designed and established in this study to simulate variations in continuous glucose concentration in the human body. Finally, the microdialysis method was tested for in vivo interstitial glucose concentration measurement.

  6. High-accuracy biodistribution analysis of adeno-associated virus variants by double barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsic, Damien; Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; Zolotukhin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Biodistribution analysis is a key step in the evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variants, whether natural isolates or produced by rational design or directed evolution. Indeed, when screening candidate vectors, accurate knowledge about which tissues are infected and how efficiently is essential. We describe the design, validation, and application of a new vector, pTR-UF50-BC, encoding a bioluminescent protein, a fluorescent protein and a DNA barcode, which can be used to visualize localization of transduction at the organism, organ, tissue, or cellular levels. In addition, by linking capsid variants to different barcoded versions of the vector and amplifying the barcode region from various tissue samples using barcoded primers, biodistribution of viral genomes can be analyzed with high accuracy and efficiency.

  7. High-accuracy biodistribution analysis of adeno-associated virus variants by double barcode sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Marsic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodistribution analysis is a key step in the evaluation of adeno-associated virus (AAV capsid variants, whether natural isolates or produced by rational design or directed evolution. Indeed, when screening candidate vectors, accurate knowledge about which tissues are infected and how efficiently is essential. We describe the design, validation, and application of a new vector, pTR-UF50-BC, encoding a bioluminescent protein, a fluorescent protein and a DNA barcode, which can be used to visualize localization of transduction at the organism, organ, tissue, or cellular levels. In addition, by linking capsid variants to different barcoded versions of the vector and amplifying the barcode region from various tissue samples using barcoded primers, biodistribution of viral genomes can be analyzed with high accuracy and efficiency.

  8. [Urban land use change detection based on high accuracy classification of multispectral remote sensing imagery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Miao-Long

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, the urban land change in Jiading district of Shanghai was studied on the basis of high accuracy classification for 4 epochs of multispectral remotely sensed imageries. A further improved genetic-algorithm optimized back propagation neural network approach was first employed in our study to obtain sorts of land cover types from the remotely sensed imageries. The urban land and non-urban land types were thus extracted based on the classification result. According to the 16 corresponding relationships between the pixel values in the four urban land imageries and the ones in the generated urban land change imagery, the amount of each type pixel in the generated imagery was calculated according to the four plates, and the situation of urban land change was analyzed and investigated for the study area in three year intervals. The urban development in the study area was also preliminarily revealed.

  9. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast MRI with high accuracy optical flow estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Anke; Barbu, Adrian; Lobbes, Marc; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Burgeth, Bernhard; Kleefeld, Andreas; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    Non-mass enhancing lesions represent a challenge for the radiological reading. They are not well-defined in both morphology (geometric shape) and kinetics (temporal enhancement) and pose a problem to lesion detection and classification. To enhance the discriminative properties of an automated radiological workflow, the correct preprocessing steps need to be taken. In an usual computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, motion compensation plays an important role. To this end, we employ a new high accuracy optical flow based motion compensation algorithm with robustification variants. An automated computer-aided diagnosis system evaluates the atypical behavior of these lesions, and additionally considers the impact of non-rigid motion compensation on a correct diagnosis.

  10. High-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry of the vinyl, allyl, and vinoxy radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Daniel P; Harding, Michael E; Ichino, Takatoshi; Stanton, John F

    2012-07-26

    Enthalpies of formation at both 0 and 298 K were calculated according to the HEAT (High-accuracy Extrapolated Ab initio Thermochemistry) protocol for the title molecules, all of which play important roles in combustion chemistry. At the HEAT345-(Q) level of theory, recommended enthalpies of formation at 0 K are 301.5 ± 1.3, 180.3 ± 1.8, and 23.4 ± 1.5 kJ mol(-1) for vinyl, allyl, and vinoxy, respectively. At 298 K, the corresponding values are 297.3, 168.6, and 16.1 kJ mol(-1), with the same uncertainties. The calculated values for the three radicals are in excellent agreement with the corresponding experimental values, but the uncertainties associated with the HEAT values for vinoxy are considerably smaller than those based on experimental studies.

  11. Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  12. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  13. Simulation of Trajectories for High Specific Impulse Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Adams, Robert B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Difficulties in approximating flight times and deliverable masses for continuous thrust propulsion systems have complicated comparison and evaluation of proposed propulsion concepts. These continuous thrust propulsion systems are of interest to many groups, not the least of which are the electric propulsion and fusion communities. Several charts plotting the results of well-known trajectory simulation codes were developed and are contained in this paper. These charts illustrate the dependence of time of flight and payload ratio on jet power, initial mass, specific impulse and specific power. These charts are intended to be a tool by which people in the propulsion community can explore the possibilities of their propulsion system concepts. Trajectories were simulated using the tools VARITOP and IPOST. VARITOP is a well known trajectory optimization code that involves numerical integration based on calculus of variations. IPOST has several methods of trajectory simulation; the one used in this paper is Cowell's method for full integration of the equations of motion. The analytical method derived in the companion paper was also used to simulate the trajectory. The accuracy of this method is discussed in the paper.

  14. Accuracy and Coordination of Spatial Frames of Reference during the Exploration of Virtual Maps: Interest for Orientation and Mobility of Blind People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Simonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if their spatial reasoning capabilities remain quite similar to those of sighted people, blind people encounter difficulties in getting distant information from their surroundings. Thus, whole body displacements, tactile map consultations, or auditory solutions are needed to establish physical contacts with their environment. Therefore, the accuracy of nonvisual spatial representations heavily relies upon the efficiency of exploration strategies and the ability to coordinate egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference. This study aims to better understand the mechanisms of this coordination without vision by analyzing cartographic exploration strategies and assessing their influence on mental spatial representations. Six blind sailors were immersed within a virtual haptic and auditory maritime environment. They were required to learn the layout of the map. Their movements were recorded and we identified some exploration strategies. Then they had to estimate the directions of six particular seamarks in aligned and misaligned situations. Better accuracy and coordination were obtained when participants used the “central point of reference” strategy. Our discussion relative to the articulation between geometric enduring representations and salient transient perceptions provides implications on map reading techniques and on mobility and orientation programs for blind people.

  15. A new device for liver cancer biomarker detection with high accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaipeng Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cantilever array-based bio-sensor was batch-fabricated with IC compatible MEMS technology for precise liver cancer bio-marker detection. A micro-cavity was designed in the free end of the cantilever for local antibody-immobilization, thus adsorption of the cancer biomarker is localized in the micro-cavity, and the adsorption-induced k variation can be dramatically reduced with comparison to that caused by adsorption of the whole lever. The cantilever is pizeoelectrically driven into vibration which is pizeoresistively sensed by Wheatstone bridge. These structural features offer several advantages: high sensitivity, high throughput, high mass detection accuracy, and small volume. In addition, an analytical model has been established to eliminate the effect of adsorption-induced lever stiffness change and has been applied to precise mass detection of cancer biomarker AFP, the detected AFP antigen mass (7.6 pg/ml is quite close to the calculated one (5.5 pg/ml, two orders of magnitude better than the value by the fully antibody-immobilized cantilever sensor. These approaches will promote real application of the cantilever sensors in early diagnosis of cancer.

  16. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS. The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μs. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM. The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS signal.

  17. High accuracy electromagnetic field solvers for cylindrical waveguides and axisymmetric structures using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Eric Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Some two-dimensional finite element electromagnetic field solvers are described and tested. For TE and TM modes in homogeneous cylindrical waveguides and monopole modes in homogeneous axisymmetric structures, the solvers find approximate solutions to a weak formulation of the wave equation. Second-order isoparametric lagrangian triangular elements represent the field. For multipole modes in axisymmetric structures, the solver finds approximate solutions to a weak form of the curl-curl formulation of Maxwell`s equations. Second-order triangular edge elements represent the radial (ρ) and axial (z) components of the field, while a second-order lagrangian basis represents the azimuthal (Φ) component of the field weighted by the radius ρ. A reduced set of basis functions is employed for elements touching the axis. With this basis the spurious modes of the curl-curl formulation have zero frequency, so spurious modes are easily distinguished from non-static physical modes. Tests on an annular ring, a pillbox and a sphere indicate the solutions converge rapidly as the mesh is refined. Computed eigenvalues with relative errors of less than a few parts per million are obtained. Boundary conditions for symmetric, periodic and symmetric-periodic structures are discussed and included in the field solver. Boundary conditions for structures with inversion symmetry are also discussed. Special corner elements are described and employed to improve the accuracy of cylindrical waveguide and monopole modes with singular fields at sharp corners. The field solver is applied to three problems: (1) cross-field amplifier slow-wave circuits, (2) a detuned disk-loaded waveguide linear accelerator structure and (3) a 90° overmoded waveguide bend. The detuned accelerator structure is a critical application of this high accuracy field solver. To maintain low long-range wakefields, tight design and manufacturing tolerances are required.

  18. High-accuracy optical extensometer based on coordinate transform in two-dimensional digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zeqian; Xu, Xiaohai; Yan, Tianhao; Cai, Yulong; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2018-01-01

    In the measurement of plate specimens, traditional two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is challenged by two aspects: (1) the slant optical axis (misalignment of the optical camera axis and the object surface) and (2) out-of-plane motions (including translations and rotations) of the specimens. There are measurement errors in the results measured by 2D DIC, especially when the out-of-plane motions are big enough. To solve this problem, a novel compensation method has been proposed to correct the unsatisfactory results. The proposed compensation method consists of three main parts: 1) a pre-calibration step is used to determine the intrinsic parameters and lens distortions; 2) a compensation panel (a rigid panel with several markers located at known positions) is mounted to the specimen to track the specimen's motion so that the relative coordinate transformation between the compensation panel and the 2D DIC setup can be calculated using the coordinate transform algorithm; 3) three-dimensional world coordinates of measuring points on the specimen can be reconstructed via the coordinate transform algorithm and used to calculate deformations. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed compensation method. Results come out that when the extensometer length is 400 pixels, the strain accuracy reaches 10 με no matter out-of-plane translations (less than 1/200 of the object distance) nor out-of-plane rotations (rotation angle less than 5°) occur. The proposed compensation method leads to good results even when the out-of-plane translation reaches several percents of the object distance or the out-of-plane rotation angle reaches tens of degrees. The proposed compensation method has been applied in tensile experiments to obtain high-accuracy results as well.

  19. A Robust High-Accuracy Ultrasound Indoor Positioning System Based on a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jun; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2017-11-06

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a robust high-accuracy ultrasonic indoor positioning system (UIPS). The UIPS consists of several wireless ultrasonic beacons in the indoor environment. Each of them has a fixed and known position coordinate and can collect all the transmissions from the target node or emit ultrasonic signals. Every wireless sensor network (WSN) node has two communication modules: one is WiFi, that transmits the data to the server, and the other is the radio frequency (RF) module, which is only used for time synchronization between different nodes, with accuracy up to 1 μ s. The distance between the beacon and the target node is calculated by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) for the ultrasonic signal, and then the position of the target is computed by some distances and the coordinate of the beacons. TOF estimation is the most important technique in the UIPS. A new time domain method to extract the envelope of the ultrasonic signals is presented in order to estimate the TOF. This method, with the envelope detection filter, estimates the value with the sampled values on both sides based on the least squares method (LSM). The simulation results show that the method can achieve envelope detection with a good filtering effect by means of the LSM. The highest precision and variance can reach 0.61 mm and 0.23 mm, respectively, in pseudo-range measurements with UIPS. A maximum location error of 10.2 mm is achieved in the positioning experiments for a moving robot, when UIPS works on the line-of-sight (LOS) signal.

  20. Model Accuracy Comparison for High Resolution Insar Coherence Statistics Over Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Fu, Kun; Sun, Xian; Xu, Guangluan; Wang, Hongqi

    2016-06-01

    The interferometric coherence map derived from the cross-correlation of two complex registered synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is the reflection of imaged targets. In many applications, it can act as an independent information source, or give additional information complementary to the intensity image. Specially, the statistical properties of the coherence are of great importance in land cover classification, segmentation and change detection. However, compared to the amount of work on the statistical characters of SAR intensity, there are quite fewer researches on interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence statistics. And to our knowledge, all of the existing work that focuses on InSAR coherence statistics, models the coherence with Gaussian distribution with no discrimination on data resolutions or scene types. But the properties of coherence may be different for different data resolutions and scene types. In this paper, we investigate on the coherence statistics for high resolution data over urban areas, by making a comparison of the accuracy of several typical statistical models. Four typical land classes including buildings, trees, shadow and roads are selected as the representatives of urban areas. Firstly, several regions are selected from the coherence map manually and labelled with their corresponding classes respectively. Then we try to model the statistics of the pixel coherence for each type of region, with different models including Gaussian, Rayleigh, Weibull, Beta and Nakagami. Finally, we evaluate the model accuracy for each type of region. The experiments on TanDEM-X data show that the Beta model has a better performance than other distributions.

  1. Prioritizing spatial accuracy in high-resolution fMRI data using multivariate feature weight mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eStelzer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although ultra-high-field fMRI at field strengths of 7T or above provides substantial gains in BOLD contrast-to-noise ratio, when very high-resolution fMRI is required such gains are inevitably reduced. The improvement in sensitivity provided by multivariate analysis techniques, as compared with univariate methods, then becomes especially welcome. Information mapping approaches are commonly used, such as the searchlight technique, which take into account the spatially distributed patterns of activation in order to predict stimulus conditions. However, the popular searchlight decoding technique, in particular, has been found to be prone to spatial inaccuracies. For instance, the spatial extent of informative areas is generally exaggerated, and their spatial configuration is distorted. We propose the combination of a nonparametric and permutation-based statistical framework with linear classifiers. We term this new combined method Feature Weight Mapping (FWM. The main goal of the proposed method is to map the specific contribution of each voxel to the classification decision while including a correction for the multiple comparisons problem. Next, we compare this new method to the searchlight approach using a simulation and ultra-high-field 7T experimental data. We found that the searchlight method led to spatial inaccuracies that are especially noticeable in high-resolution fMRI data. In contrast, FWM was more spatially precise, revealing both informative anatomical structures as well as the direction by which voxels contribute to the classification. By maximizing the spatial accuracy of ultra-high-field fMRI results, global multivariate methods provide a substantial improvement for characterizing structure-function relationships.

  2. Computer-aided analysis of star shot films for high-accuracy radiation therapy treatment units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Tom; Penne, Rudi; Verellen, Dirk; Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Leysen, Katrien; Vandevondel, Iwein; Poels, Kenneth; Reynders, Truus; Gevaert, Thierry; Duchateau, Michael; Tournel, Koen; Boussaer, Marlies; Cosentino, Dorian; Garibaldi, Cristina; Solberg, Timothy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-21

    As mechanical stability of radiation therapy treatment devices has gone beyond sub-millimeter levels, there is a rising demand for simple yet highly accurate measurement techniques to support the routine quality control of these devices. A combination of using high-resolution radiosensitive film and computer-aided analysis could provide an answer. One generally known technique is the acquisition of star shot films to determine the mechanical stability of rotations of gantries and the therapeutic beam. With computer-aided analysis, mechanical performance can be quantified as a radiation isocenter radius size. In this work, computer-aided analysis of star shot film is further refined by applying an analytical solution for the smallest intersecting circle problem, in contrast to the gradient optimization approaches used until today. An algorithm is presented and subjected to a performance test using two different types of radiosensitive film, the Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and the ISP EBT2 radiochromic film. Artificial star shots with a priori known radiation isocenter size are used to determine the systematic errors introduced by the digitization of the film and the computer analysis. The estimated uncertainty on the isocenter size measurement with the presented technique was 0.04 mm (2σ) and 0.06 mm (2σ) for radiographic and radiochromic films, respectively. As an application of the technique, a study was conducted to compare the mechanical stability of O-ring gantry systems with C-arm-based gantries. In total ten systems of five different institutions were included in this study and star shots were acquired for gantry, collimator, ring, couch rotations and gantry wobble. It was not possible to draw general conclusions about differences in mechanical performance between O-ring and C-arm gantry systems, mainly due to differences in the beam-MLC alignment procedure accuracy. Nevertheless, the best performing O-ring system in this study, a BrainLab/MHI Vero system

  3. High-resolution CT of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in adult CF patients: diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, Sinead; Lavelle, Lisa; Kilcoyne, Aoife; McCarthy, Colin; Dodd, Jonathan D. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); DeJong, Pim A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm A.W.M. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology and Allergology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine and National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacterium infection (NTM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Twenty-seven CF patients with sputum-culture-proven NTM (NTM+) underwent HRCT. An age, gender and spirometrically matched group of 27 CF patients without NTM (NTM-) was included as controls. Images were randomly and blindly analysed by two readers in consensus and scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Significant differences were seen between NTM (+) and NTM (-) patients in the severity of the bronchiectasis subscore [45 % (1.8/4) vs. 35 % (1.4/4), P = 0.029], collapse/consolidation subscore [33 % (1.3/3) vs. 15 % (0.6/3)], tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules subscore [43 % (1.7/3) vs. 25 % (1.0/3), P = 0.002] and the total CT score [56 % (18.4/33) vs. 46 % (15.2/33), P = 0.002]. Binary logistic regression revealed BMI, peribronchial thickening, collapse/consolidation and tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules to be predictors of NTM status (R{sup 2} = 0.43). Receiver-operator curve analysis of the regression model showed an area under the curve of 0.89, P < 0.0001. In adults with CF, seven or more bronchopulmonary segments showing tree-in-bud/centrilobular nodules on HRCT is highly suggestive of NTM colonisation. (orig.)

  4. Rigorous Training of Dogs Leads to High Accuracy in Human Scent Matching-To-Sample Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Marchal

    Full Text Available Human scent identification is based on a matching-to-sample task in which trained dogs are required to compare a scent sample collected from an object found at a crime scene to that of a suspect. Based on dogs' greater olfactory ability to detect and process odours, this method has been used in forensic investigations to identify the odour of a suspect at a crime scene. The excellent reliability and reproducibility of the method largely depend on rigor in dog training. The present study describes the various steps of training that lead to high sensitivity scores, with dogs matching samples with 90% efficiency when the complexity of the scents presented during the task in the sample is similar to that presented in the in lineups, and specificity reaching a ceiling, with no false alarms in human scent matching-to-sample tasks. This high level of accuracy ensures reliable results in judicial human scent identification tests. Also, our data should convince law enforcement authorities to use these results as official forensic evidence when dogs are trained appropriately.

  5. Exploring THz band for high speed wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Hangkai; Jia, Shi

    2016-01-01

    We overview recent trend in developing high speed wireless communication systems by exploring large bandwidth available in the THz band, and we also present our recent experimental achievements on 400 GHz wireless transmission with a data rate of up to 60 Gbit/s by using a uni-travelling carrier...... photodiode (UTC-PD) as emitter and a Schottky diode as receiver. This system is foreseen to be capable of accommodating faster data rates beyond 100 Gbit/s, and would find application in bandwidth hungry scenarios....

  6. Accuracy of the field triage protocol in selecting severely injured patients after high energy trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, J J E M; Lansink, K W W; van Heijl, M; Lichtveld, R A; Leenen, L P H

    2014-05-01

    For optimal treatment of trauma patients it is of great importance to identify patients who are at risk for severe injuries. The Dutch field triage protocol for trauma patients, the LPA (National Protocol of Ambulance Services), is designed to get the right patient, in the right time, to the right hospital. Purpose of this study was to determine diagnostic accuracy and compliance of this triage protocol. Triage criteria were categorised into physiological condition (P), mechanism of trauma (M) and injury type (I). A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all high-energy trauma patients from 2008 to 2011 in the region Central Netherlands is performed. Diagnostic parameters (sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value) of the field triage protocol for selecting severely injured patients were calculated including rates of under- and overtriage. Undertriage was defined as the proportion of severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS)≥16) who were transported to a level two or three trauma care centre. Overtriage was defined as the proportion of non-severely injured patients (ISS<16) who were transported to a level one trauma care centre. Overall sensitivity and specificity of the field triage protocol was 89.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 84.4-92.6) and 60.5% (95% CI 57.9-63.1), respectively. The overall rate of undertriage was 10.9% (95%CI 7.4-15.7) and the overall rate of overtriage was 39.5% (95%CI 36.9-42.1). These rates were 16.5% and 37.7%, respectively for patients with M+I-P-. Compliance to the triage protocol for patients with M+I-P- was 78.7%. Furthermore, compliance in patients with either a positive I+ or positive P+ was 91.2%. The overall rate of undertriage (10.8%) was mainly influenced by a high rate of undertriage in the group of patients with only a positive mechanism criterion, therefore showing low diagnostic accuracy in selecting severely injured patients. As a consequence these

  7. Trade-Off Analysis in High-Throughput Materials Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volety, Kalpana K; Huyberechts, Guido P J

    2017-03-13

    This Research Article presents a strategy to identify the optimum compositions in metal alloys with certain desired properties in a high-throughput screening environment, using a multiobjective optimization approach. In addition to the identification of the optimum compositions in a primary screening, the strategy also allows pointing to regions in the compositional space where further exploration in a secondary screening could be carried out. The strategy for the primary screening is a combination of two multiobjective optimization approaches namely Pareto optimality and desirability functions. The experimental data used in the present study have been collected from over 200 different compositions belonging to four different alloy systems. The metal alloys (comprising Fe, Ti, Al, Nb, Hf, Zr) are synthesized and screened using high-throughput technologies. The advantages of such a kind of approach compared to the limitations of the traditional and comparatively simpler approaches like ranking and calculating figures of merit are discussed.

  8. Raman spectroscopic determination of the molecular constants of the hydrogen isotopologues with high accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasch, Bennet; Mirz, Sebastian; Groessle, Robin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany). Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK); Collaboration: KATRIN-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The interest in the thermodynamic properties of gases as the chemical equilibrium is faced by the challenge of time-consuming and technical extensive experimental setups. One possible solution is the derivation of these properties from the molecular constants. The rotational and vibrational movement of diatomic molecules, as the hydrogen isotopologues, is described by the concept of the rotational anharmonic oscillator. The molecular constants are the free parameters of this concept. Molecular constants themselves can be determined by measuring the line position of rotational and/or rotational transitions e.g. with Raman spectroscopy for hydrogen as it has been done since several years. In this contribution a Raman method was development to measure the molecular constant of the hydrogen isotopologues with high accuracy to obtain reliable results. But not only the method was development but also a complete measurement uncertainty budget was set up. The uncertainty budget contains all possible sources for uncertainties from the measurement period or the analysis process as well the contribution of each single uncertainty. The method and the uncertainty budget were exemplary tested on Deuterium.

  9. High Accuracy Ground-based near-Earth-asteroid Astrometry using Synthetic Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chengxing; Shao, Michael; Saini, Navtej; Sandhu, Jagmit; Werne, Thomas; Choi, Philip; Ely, Todd A.; Jacobs, Chirstopher S.; Lazio, Joseph; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Owen, William M.; Preston, Robert; Turyshev, Slava; Michell, Adam; Nazli, Kutay; Cui, Isaac; Monchama, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Accurate astrometry is crucial for determining the orbits of near-Earth-asteroids (NEAs). Further, the future of deep space high data rate communications is likely to be optical communications, such as the Deep Space Optical Communications package that is part of the baseline payload for the planned Psyche Discovery mission to the Psyche asteroid. We have recently upgraded our instrument on the Pomona College 1 m telescope, at JPL's Table Mountain Facility, for conducting synthetic tracking by taking many short exposure images. These images can be then combined in post-processing to track both asteroid and reference stars to yield accurate astrometry. Utilizing the precision of the current and future Gaia data releases, the JPL-Pomona College effort is now demonstrating precision astrometry on NEAs, which is likely to be of considerable value for cataloging NEAs. Further, treating NEAs as proxies of future spacecraft that carry optical communication lasers, our results serve as a measure of the astrometric accuracy that could be achieved for future plane-of-sky optical navigation.

  10. Fast-type high-accuracy universal polarimeter using charge-coupled device spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Takanabe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A fast, high-accuracy universal polarimeter was developed using a charge-coupled device (CCD spectrometer (CCD-HAUP, to carry out simultaneous optical anisotropic (linear birefringence, LB; linear dichroism, LD and chiroptical (circular birefringence, CB; circular dichroism, CD measurements on single crystals without any pretreatment, in the visible region between 400–680 nm. The principle of the HAUP method is to measure the intensities of emergent light passing through a polarizer, a crystal sample, and then an analyzer, as the azimuth angles of the polarizer and analyzer are independently altered. The CCD-HAUP has the unique feature that white transmitted light intensity can be measured using a CCD spectrometer, compared with the generalized HAUP (G-HAUP system in which monochromatic transmitted light is measured using a photomultiplier. The CCD-HAUP measurements across the entire wavelength region are completed within the G-HAUP measurement time for a single wavelength. The CCD-HAUP drastically reduces the measurement time for a dataset to only 1.5 h, from the 24 h required for the G-HAUP system. LB, LD, CB, and CD measurements of single crystals of α-quartz and enantiomeric photomechanical salicylidenephenylethylamines before, during, and after ultraviolet light irradiation show results comparable to those obtained using the G-HAUP system. The newly developed system is very effective for samples susceptible to degradation induced by external stimuli, such as light and heat.

  11. High-accuracy measurement of low-water-content in liquid using NIR spectral absorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bao-Jin; Wan, Xu; Jin, Hong-Zhen; Zhao, Yong; Mao, He-Fa

    2005-01-01

    Water content measurement technologies are very important for quality inspection of food, medicine products, chemical products and many other industry fields. In recent years, requests for accurate low-water-content measurement in liquid are more and more exigent, and great interests have been shown from the research and experimental work. With the development and advancement of modern production and control technologies, more accurate water content technology is needed. In this paper, a novel experimental setup based on near-infrared (NIR) spectral technology and fiber-optic sensor (OFS) is presented. It has a good measurement accuracy about -/+ 0.01%, which is better, to our knowledge, than most other methods published until now. It has a high measurement resolution of 0.001% in the measurement range from zero to 0.05% for water-in-alcohol measurement, and the water-in-oil measurement is carried out as well. In addition, the advantages of this method also include pollution-free to the measured liquid, fast measurement and so on.

  12. A 3-D high accuracy positioning system based on visible light communication with novel positioning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huanhuan; Xu, Zhaowen; Yu, Changyuan; Gurusamy, Mohan

    2017-08-01

    A novel indoor positioning system (IPS) with high positioning precision, based on visible light communication (VLC), is proposed and demonstrated with the dimensions of 100 cm×118.5 cm×128.7 cm. The average positioning distance error is 1.72 cm using the original 2-D positioning algorithm. However, at the corners of the test-bed, the positioning errors are relatively larger than other places. Thus, an error correcting algorithm (ECA) is applied at the corners in order to improve the positioning accuracy. The average positioning errors of four corners decrease from 3.67 cm to 1.55 cm. Then, a 3-D positioning algorithm is developed and the average positioning error of 1.90 cm in space is achieved. Four altitude levels are chosen and on each receiver plane with different heights, four points are picked up to test the positioning error. The average positioning errors in 3-D space are all within 3 cm on these four levels and the performance on each level is similar. A random track is also drawn to show that in 3-D space, the positioning error of random point is within 3 cm.

  13. Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Formulas for Highly Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate and compare the accuracy of different intraocular lens (IOL power calculation formulas for eyes with an axial length (AL greater than 26.00 mm. Methods. This study reviewed 407 eyes of 219 patients with AL longer than 26.0 mm. The refractive prediction errors of IOL power calculation formulas (SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, Hoffer Q, and Barrett Universal II using User Group for Laser Interference Biometry (ULIB constants were evaluated and compared. Results. One hundred seventy-one eyes were enrolled. The Barrett Universal II formula had the lowest mean absolute error (MAE and SRK/T and Haigis had similar MAE, and the statistical highest MAE were seen with the Holladay and Hoffer Q formulas. The interquartile range of the Barrett Universal II formula was also the lowest among all the formulas. The Barrett Universal II formulas yielded the highest percentage of eyes within ±1.0 D and ±0.5 D of the target refraction in this study (97.24% and 79.56%, resp.. Conclusions. Barrett Universal II formula produced the lowest predictive error and the least variable predictive error compared with the SRK/T, Haigis, Holladay, and Hoffer Q formulas. For high myopic eyes, the Barrett Universal II formula may be a more suitable choice.

  14. GRACE Data-based High Accuracy Global Static Earth's Gravity Field Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qiujie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To recover the highly accurate static earth's gravity field by using GRACE satellite data is one of the hot topics in geodesy. Since linearization errors of dynamic approach quickly increase when extending satellite arc length, we established a modified dynamic approach for processing GRACE orbit and range-rate measurements in this paper, which treated orbit observations of the twin GRACE satellites as approximate values for linearization. Using the GRACE data spanning the period Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2010, containing satellite attitudes, orbits, range-rate, and non-conservative forces, we developed two global static gravity field models. One is the unconstrained solution called Tongji-Dyn01s complete to degree and order 180; the other one is the Tongji-Dyn01k model computed by using Kaula constraint. The comparisons between our models and those latest GRACE-only models (including the AIUB-GRACE03, the GGM05S, the ITSG-Grace2014k and the Tongji-GRACE01 published by different international groups, and the external validations with marine gravity anomalies from DTU13 product and height anomalies from GPS/levelling data, were performed in this study. The results demonstrate that the Tongji-Dyn01s has the same accuracy level with those of the latest GRACE-only models, while the Tongji-Dyn01k model is closer to the EIGEN6C2 than the other GRACE-only models as a whole.

  15. A high accuracy broadband measurement system for time resolved complex bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, S; Malhotra, A; Ardelt, G; Ryschka, M

    2014-06-01

    Bioimpedance measurements are useful tools in biomedical engineering and life science. Bioimpedance is the electrical impedance of living tissue and can be used in the analysis of various physiological parameters. Bioimpedance is commonly measured by injecting a small well known alternating current via surface electrodes into an object under test and measuring the resultant surface voltages. It is non-invasive, painless and has no known hazards. This work presents a field programmable gate array based high accuracy broadband bioimpedance measurement system for time resolved bioimpedance measurements. The system is able to measure magnitude and phase of complex impedances under test in a frequency range of about 10-500 kHz with excitation currents from 10 µA to 5 mA. The overall measurement uncertainties stay below 1% for the impedance magnitude and below 0.5° for the phase in most measurement ranges. Furthermore, the described system has a sample rate of up to 3840 impedance spectra per second. The performance of the bioimpedance measurement system is demonstrated with a resistor based system calibration and with measurements on biological samples.

  16. Statistical downscaling of precipitation using local regression and high accuracy surface modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Yue, Tianxiang; Zhou, Xun; Zhao, Mingwei; Liu, Yu; Du, Zhengping; Zhang, Lili

    2017-07-01

    Downscaling precipitation is required in local scale climate impact studies. In this paper, a statistical downscaling scheme was presented with a combination of geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and a recently developed method, high accuracy surface modeling method (HASM). This proposed method was compared with another downscaling method using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database and ground-based data from 732 stations across China for the period 1976-2005. The residual which was produced by GWR was modified by comparing different interpolators including HASM, Kriging, inverse distance weighted method (IDW), and Spline. The spatial downscaling from 1° to 1-km grids for period 1976-2005 and future scenarios was achieved by using the proposed downscaling method. The prediction accuracy was assessed at two separate validation sites throughout China and Jiangxi Province on both annual and seasonal scales, with the root mean square error (RMSE), mean relative error (MRE), and mean absolute error (MAE). The results indicate that the developed model in this study outperforms the method that builds transfer function using the gauge values. There is a large improvement in the results when using a residual correction with meteorological station observations. In comparison with other three classical interpolators, HASM shows better performance in modifying the residual produced by local regression method. The success of the developed technique lies in the effective use of the datasets and the modification process of the residual by using HASM. The results from the future climate scenarios show that precipitation exhibits overall increasing trend from T1 (2011-2040) to T2 (2041-2070) and T2 to T3 (2071-2100) in RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. The most significant increase occurs in RCP8.5 from T2 to T3, while the lowest increase is found in RCP2.6 from T2 to T3, increased by 47.11 and 2.12 mm, respectively.

  17. Finite volume schemes of very high order of accuracy for stiff hyperbolic balance laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbser, Michael; Enaux, Cedric; Toro, Eleuterio F.

    2008-04-01

    In this article, we propose a new class of finite volume schemes of arbitrary accuracy in space and time for systems of hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms. The new class of schemes is based on a three stage procedure. First a high-order WENO reconstruction procedure is applied to the cell averages at the current time level. Second, the temporal evolution of the reconstruction polynomials is computed locally inside each cell using the governing equations. In the original ENO scheme of Harten et al. and in the ADER schemes of Titarev and Toro, this time evolution is achieved via a Taylor series expansion where the time derivatives are computed by repeated differentiation of the governing PDE with respect to space and time, i.e. by applying the so-called Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure. However, this approach is not able to handle stiff source terms. Therefore, we present a new strategy that only replaces the Cauchy-Kovalewski procedure compared to the previously mentioned schemes. For the time-evolution part of the algorithm, we introduce a local space-time discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element scheme that is able to handle also stiff source terms. This step is the only part of the algorithm which is locally implicit. The third and last step of the proposed ADER finite volume schemes consists of the standard explicit space-time integration over each control volume, using the local space-time DG solutions at the Gaussian integration points for the intercell fluxes and for the space-time integral over the source term. We will show numerical convergence studies for nonlinear systems in one space dimension with both non-stiff and with very stiff source terms up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time. The application of the new method to a large set of different test cases is shown, in particular the stiff scalar model problem of LeVeque and Yee [R.J. LeVeque, H.C. Yee, A study of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws with stiff source

  18. The regulatory benefits of high levels of affect perception accuracy: a process analysis of reactions to stressors in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Buchholz, Maria M; Boyd, Ryan L; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-08-01

    Individuals attuned to affective signals from the environment may possess an advantage in the emotion-regulation realm. In two studies (total n = 151), individual differences in affective perception accuracy were assessed in an objective, performance-based manner. Subsequently, the same individuals completed daily diary protocols in which daily stressor levels were reported as well as problematic states shown to be stress-reactive in previous studies. In both studies, individual differences in affect perception accuracy interacted with daily stressor levels to predict the problematic outcomes. Daily stressors precipitated problematic reactions--whether depressive feelings (study 1) or somatic symptoms (study 2)--at low levels of affect perception accuracy, but did not do so at high levels of affect perception accuracy. The findings support a regulatory view of such perceptual abilities. Implications for understanding emotion regulation processes, emotional intelligence, and individual differences in reactivity are discussed.

  19. Accuracy of hiatal hernia detection with esophageal high-resolution manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenborg, P W; van Hoeij, F B; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of a sliding hiatal hernia is classically made with endoscopy or barium esophagogram. Spatial separation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and diaphragm, the hallmark of hiatal hernia, can also be observed on high-resolution manometry (HRM), but the diagnostic accuracy of this finding has not yet been investigated. To determine the diagnostic value of HRM in the detection of hiatal hernia. HRM recordings, endoscopy reports, and barium esophagograms of 90 patients were analyzed for the presence and size of a hiatal hernia. The diagnostic value of a hernia specific HRM pressure pattern was calculated, and the agreement of HRM with endoscopy and barium esophagogram for the assessment of hernia size. HRM was found to be highly sensitive and specific for hiatal hernia detection, with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 95%, exceeding the sensitivity of endoscopy or radiography alone (both 73%). Patients with a hiatal hernia on HRM were manometrically characterized by an esophagogastric junction (EGJ) with partial or complete separation of the LES and crural diaphragm (CD), the latter being associated with significantly lower EGJ pressure. A cutoff value of spatial LES-CD separation on HRM of 1.85 cm yielded the optimal performance in identifying hiatal hernia. Agreement between HRM, endoscopy, and radiography for size of hiatal hernias was good (ICC [95% CI] 0.74 [0.65-0.82]). With HRM, the presence or absence and size of a hiatal hernia can be assessed with greater sensitivity than with endoscopy or radiography alone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Achieving numerical accuracy and high performance using recursive tile LU factorization with partial pivoting

    KAUST Repository

    Dongarra, Jack

    2013-09-18

    The LU factorization is an important numerical algorithm for solving systems of linear equations in science and engineering and is a characteristic of many dense linear algebra computations. For example, it has become the de facto numerical algorithm implemented within the LINPACK benchmark to rank the most powerful supercomputers in the world, collected by the TOP500 website. Multicore processors continue to present challenges to the development of fast and robust numerical software due to the increasing levels of hardware parallelism and widening gap between core and memory speeds. In this context, the difficulty in developing new algorithms for the scientific community resides in the combination of two goals: achieving high performance while maintaining the accuracy of the numerical algorithm. This paper proposes a new approach for computing the LU factorization in parallel on multicore architectures, which not only improves the overall performance but also sustains the numerical quality of the standard LU factorization algorithm with partial pivoting. While the update of the trailing submatrix is computationally intensive and highly parallel, the inherently problematic portion of the LU factorization is the panel factorization due to its memory-bound characteristic as well as the atomicity of selecting the appropriate pivots. Our approach uses a parallel fine-grained recursive formulation of the panel factorization step and implements the update of the trailing submatrix with the tile algorithm. Based on conflict-free partitioning of the data and lockless synchronization mechanisms, our implementation lets the overall computation flow naturally without contention. The dynamic runtime system called QUARK is then able to schedule tasks with heterogeneous granularities and to transparently introduce algorithmic lookahead. The performance results of our implementation are competitive compared to the currently available software packages and libraries. For example

  1. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING : A NEW STANDARD IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR HIGH ACCURACY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizaldy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct georeferencing is a new method in photogrammetry, especially in the digital camera era. Theoretically, this method does not require ground control points (GCP and the Aerial Triangulation (AT, to process aerial photography into ground coordinates. Compared with the old method, this method has three main advantages: faster data processing, simple workflow and less expensive project, at the same accuracy. Direct georeferencing using two devices, GPS and IMU. GPS recording the camera coordinates (X, Y, Z, and IMU recording the camera orientation (omega, phi, kappa. Both parameters merged into Exterior Orientation (EO parameter. This parameters required for next steps in the photogrammetric projects, such as stereocompilation, DSM generation, orthorectification and mosaic. Accuracy of this method was tested on topographic map project in Medan, Indonesia. Large-format digital camera Ultracam X from Vexcel is used, while the GPS / IMU is IGI AeroControl. 19 Independent Check Point (ICP were used to determine the accuracy. Horizontal accuracy is 0.356 meters and vertical accuracy is 0.483 meters. Data with this accuracy can be used for 1:2.500 map scale project.

  2. Towards Building Reliable, High-Accuracy Solar Irradiance Database For Arid Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, S.; Ghedira, H.

    2012-12-01

    Middle East's growing interest in renewable energy has led to increased activity in solar technology development with the recent commissioning of several utility-scale solar power projects and many other commercial installations across the Arabian Peninsula. The region, lying in a virtually rainless sunny belt with a typical daily average solar radiation exceeding 6 kWh/m2, is also one of the most promising candidates for solar energy deployment. However, it is not the availability of resource, but its characterization and reasonably accurate assessment that determines the application potential. Solar irradiance, magnitude and variability inclusive, is the key input in assessing the economic feasibility of a solar system. The accuracy of such data is of critical importance for realistic on-site performance estimates. This contribution aims to identify the key stages in developing a robust solar database for desert climate by focusing on the challenges that an arid environment presents to parameterization of solar irradiance attenuating factors. Adjustments are proposed based on the currently available resource assessment tools to produce high quality data for assessing bankability. Establishing and maintaining ground solar irradiance measurements is an expensive affair and fairly limited in time (recently operational) and space (fewer sites) in the Gulf region. Developers within solar technology industry, therefore, rely on solar radiation models and satellite-derived data for prompt resource assessment needs. It is imperative that such estimation tools are as accurate as possible. While purely empirical models have been widely researched and validated in the Arabian Peninsula's solar modeling history, they are known to be intrinsically site-specific. A primal step to modeling is an in-depth understanding of the region's climate, identifying the key players attenuating radiation and their appropriate characterization to determine solar irradiance. Physical approach

  3. Intrepid: Exploring the NEA population with a Fleet of Highly Autonomous SmallSat explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Chesley, Steven R.; Ehlmann, Bethany; Raymond, Carol Anne

    2017-10-01

    The Intrepid mission concept calls for phased deployment of a fleet of small highly autonomous rendezvous spacecraft designed to characterize the evolution, structure and composition of dozens of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs). Intrepid represents a marked departure from conventional solar system exploration projects, where a single unique and complex spacecraft is typically directed to explore a single target body. In contrast, Intrepid relies on the deployment of a large number of autonomous spacecraft to provide redundancy and ensure that the project goals are achieved at a small fraction of the cost of typical missions.The Intrepid science goals are threefold: (1) to understand the evolutionary processes that govern asteroid physical, chemical and dynamical histories and relate these results to solar system origins and evolution; (2) to facilitate impactor deflection scenarios for planetary defense by statistically characterizing relevant asteroid physical properties; (3) to quantify the presence and extractability of potentially useful resources on a large sample of asteroids. To achieve these goals, the baseline architecture includes multiple modular instruments including cameras, spectrometers, radar sounders, and projectiles that could interact with the target asteroid. Key questions to be addressed are: what is the total quantity of water in each object? How is the water incorporated? Are organics present? What is the asteroid physical structure? How would the object respond to impact/deflection?We have begun development of a miniature infrared point spectrometer, a cornerstone of the Intrepid payload, covering both shortwave infrared (SWIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral bands. The spectrometer is designed with a compact 2U form-factor, making it both relevant to Intrepid and implementable on a CubeSat. The combination of SWIR and MIR in a single integrated instrument would enable robust compositional interpretations from a single dataset combining both

  4. Interactive Java Tools for Exploring High-dimensional Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Bradley

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (WWW is a new mechanism for providing information. At this point, the majority of the information on the WWW is static, which means it is incapable of responding to user input. Text, images, and video are examples of static information that can easily be included in a WWW page. With the advent of the Java programming language, it is now possible to embed dynamic information in the form of interactive programs called applets. Therefore, it is not only possible to transfer raw data over the WWW, but we can also now provide interactive graphics for displaying and exploring data in the context of a WWW page. In this paper, we will describe the use of Java applets that have been developed for the interactive display of high dimensional data on the WWW.

  5. The research of digital circuit system for high accuracy CCD of portable Raman spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu; Cui, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiuda; Yan, Huimin

    2013-08-01

    The Raman spectrum technology is widely used for it can identify various types of molecular structure and material. The portable Raman spectrometer has become a hot direction of the spectrometer development nowadays for its convenience in handheld operation and real-time detection which is superior to traditional Raman spectrometer with heavy weight and bulky size. But there is still a gap for its measurement sensitivity between portable and traditional devices. However, portable Raman Spectrometer with Shell-Isolated Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) technology can enhance the Raman signal significantly by several orders of magnitude, giving consideration in both measurement sensitivity and mobility. This paper proposed a design and implementation of driver and digital circuit for high accuracy CCD sensor, which is core part of portable spectrometer. The main target of the whole design is to reduce the dark current generation rate and increase signal sensitivity during the long integration time, and in the weak signal environment. In this case, we use back-thinned CCD image sensor from Hamamatsu Corporation with high sensitivity, low noise and large dynamic range. In order to maximize this CCD sensor's performance and minimize the whole size of the device simultaneously to achieve the project indicators, we delicately designed a peripheral circuit for the CCD sensor. The design is mainly composed with multi-voltage circuit, sequential generation circuit, driving circuit and A/D transition parts. As the most important power supply circuit, the multi-voltage circuits with 12 independent voltages are designed with reference power supply IC and set to specified voltage value by the amplifier making up the low-pass filter, which allows the user to obtain a highly stable and accurate voltage with low noise. What's more, to make our design easy to debug, CPLD is selected to generate sequential signal. The A/D converter chip consists of a correlated

  6. High accuracy of arterial spin labeling perfusion imaging in differentiation of pilomyxoid from pilocytic astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Hajmomenian, M.; Vossough, A. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Santi, M. [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a relatively new tumor entity which has been added to the 2007 WHO Classification of tumors of the central nervous system. The goal of this study is to utilize arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging to differentiate PMA from pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pulsed ASL and conventional MRI sequences of patients with PMA and PA in the past 5 years were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with history of radiation or treatment with anti-angiogenic drugs were excluded. A total of 24 patients (9 PMA, 15 PA) were included. There were statistically significant differences between PMA and PA in mean tumor/gray matter (GM) cerebral blood flow (CBF) ratios (1.3 vs 0.4, p < 0.001) and maximum tumor/GM CBF ratio (2.3 vs 1, p < 0.001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for differentiation of PMA from PA was 0.91 using mean tumor CBF, 0.95 using mean tumor/GM CBF ratios, and 0.89 using maximum tumor/GM CBF. Using a threshold value of 0.91, the mean tumor/GM CBF ratio was able to diagnose PMA with 77 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, and a threshold value of 0.7, provided 88 % sensitivity and 86 % specificity. There was no statistically significant difference between the two tumors in enhancement pattern (p = 0.33), internal architecture (p = 0.15), or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values (p = 0.07). ASL imaging has high accuracy in differentiating PMA from PA. The result of this study may have important applications in prognostication and treatment planning especially in patients with less accessible tumors such as hypothalamic-chiasmatic gliomas. (orig.)

  7. Assessment of diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution ultrasonography in determination of temporomandibular joint internal derangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byahatti Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this study was to determine the value of dynamic high-resolution ultrasonography (HR-US in the evaluation of internal derangements of a temporomandibular joint (TMJ in the open and closed mouth position. Settings and Design : The study designed to collect the sample from the Outpatient Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology at GDC, Bangalore. Patients with pain, clicking, deviation, and tenderness were included in the study as a symptomatic group. The asymptomatic group was free of any symptoms. Materials and Methods : Maximum mandibular range of motion (Open and Closed was performed during HR-US of TMJ in 100 consecutive patients, (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic cases, a total of 400 joints, with 200 joints in the right and left closed and open mouth position;36 males and 64 females; age range, 16 - 50 years; mean age 27.56 years. Subsequently, the entire group, after clinical diagnosis, went for HR-US. Sonography confirmed the diagnosis by showing internal derangement in 34 (68% of the symptomatic group and the remaining 16 (32% patients failed to show any derangement. In the asymptomatic group 40 patients did not show any pathology associated with TMJ, whereas, 10 patients showed internal derangement. The data obtained was analyzed statistically. Results : HR-US performed during the maximal range of motion (Open and Closed helped to detect 34 instances (68 joints of internal derangement, which were true positive cases, whereas, 16 patients (32 joints showed a false positive finding for internal derangement (ID. The results obtained showed a sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 84%, and a negative predictive value of 71%, with an accuracy of 76%. Conclusions : Dynamic HR-US being non-invasive can provide valuable information about internal derangement of the TMJ in mandibular closed mouth than open mouth position.

  8. Automated, high accuracy classification of Parkinsonian disorders: a pattern recognition approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F Marquand

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, multiple system atrophy (MSA and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD can be clinically indistinguishable, especially in the early stages, despite distinct patterns of molecular pathology. Structural neuroimaging holds promise for providing objective biomarkers for discriminating these diseases at the single subject level but all studies to date have reported incomplete separation of disease groups. In this study, we employed multi-class pattern recognition to assess the value of anatomical patterns derived from a widely available structural neuroimaging sequence for automated classification of these disorders. To achieve this, 17 patients with PSP, 14 with IPD and 19 with MSA were scanned using structural MRI along with 19 healthy controls (HCs. An advanced probabilistic pattern recognition approach was employed to evaluate the diagnostic value of several pre-defined anatomical patterns for discriminating the disorders, including: (i a subcortical motor network; (ii each of its component regions and (iii the whole brain. All disease groups could be discriminated simultaneously with high accuracy using the subcortical motor network. The region providing the most accurate predictions overall was the midbrain/brainstem, which discriminated all disease groups from one another and from HCs. The subcortical network also produced more accurate predictions than the whole brain and all of its constituent regions. PSP was accurately predicted from the midbrain/brainstem, cerebellum and all basal ganglia compartments; MSA from the midbrain/brainstem and cerebellum and IPD from the midbrain/brainstem only. This study demonstrates that automated analysis of structural MRI can accurately predict diagnosis in individual patients with Parkinsonian disorders, and identifies distinct patterns of regional atrophy particularly useful for this process.

  9. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  10. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  11. High-accuracy biaxial optical extensometer based on 2D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feipeng; Gong, Yan; Bai, Pengxiang; Jiang, Zhencheng; Lei, Dong

    2017-08-01

    In two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC), the optical axis of the camera must be exactly perpendicular to the object surface to avoid the generation of out-of-plane displacement, which leads to low strain accuracy. In this work, we first studied the strain accuracy of a common optical extensometer when the optical axis of the camera is not perpendicular to the specimen surface. Derivation reveals that even a very small oblique angle θ will introduce a considerable strain error and that an opposite oblique angle θ generates an opposite strain error of the same magnitude. Therefore, taking the strain average of these two optical extensometers can almost entirely eliminate such effect of non-perpendicularity, which has the same form as the optical extensometer realized by dual-reflector imaging. Because the transverse strain of a specimen is less than its axial strain, the measurement of transverse strain requires higher strain-measurement accuracy. With the aid of a self-designed right-angled apparatus, we conveniently extend this 1D extensometer to a 2D situation, which is called the biaxial optical extensometer. Uniaxial tensile tests of a stainless-steel specimen are conducted to evaluate the strain accuracy of the biaxial optical extensometer quantitatively. Experimental results show that the transverse and axial strains obtained using the proposed biaxial extensometer are in good agreement with those obtained using strain gauges and that the proposed extensometer achieves higher strain accuracy compared to the 3D-DIC extensometer.

  12. The attitude accuracy consequences of on-orbit calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer attitude sensors by the Flight Dynamics Facility at Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmall, J.; Davis, W.; Harman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The science mission of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) requires attitude solutions with uncertainties of 27, 16.7, 16.7 arcseconds (3 sigma) around the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, respectively. The primary input to the attitude determination process is provided by two NASA standard fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) and a Teledyne dry rotor inertial reference unit (DRIRU) 2. The attitude determination requirements approach the limits attainable with the FHSTs and DRIRU. The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designed and executed calibration procedures that far exceeded the extent and the data volume of any other FDF-supported mission. The techniques and results of this attempt to obtain attitude accuracies at the limit of sensor capability and the results of analysis of the factors that limit the attitude accuracy are the primary subjects of this paper. The success of the calibration effort is judged by the resulting measurement residuals and comparisons between ground- and onboard-determined attitudes. The FHST star position residuals have been reduced to less tha 4 arcsec per axis -- a value that appears to be limited by the sensor capabilities. The FDF ground system uses a batch least-squares estimator to determine attitude. The EUVE onboard computer (OBC) uses an extended Kalman filter. Currently, there are systematic differences between the two attitude solutions that occasionally exceed the mission requirements for 3 sigma attitude uncertainty. Attempts to understand and reduce these differences are continuing.

  13. High-Accuracy HLA Type Inference from Whole-Genome Sequencing Data Using Population Reference Graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T Dilthey

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation at the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA genes is associated with many autoimmune and infectious disease phenotypes, is an important element of the immunological distinction between self and non-self, and shapes immune epitope repertoires. Determining the allelic state of the HLA genes (HLA typing as a by-product of standard whole-genome sequencing data would therefore be highly desirable and enable the immunogenetic characterization of samples in currently ongoing population sequencing projects. Extensive hyperpolymorphism and sequence similarity between the HLA genes, however, pose problems for accurate read mapping and make HLA type inference from whole-genome sequencing data a challenging problem. We describe how to address these challenges in a Population Reference Graph (PRG framework. First, we construct a PRG for 46 (mostly HLA genes and pseudogenes, their genomic context and their characterized sequence variants, integrating a database of over 10,000 known allele sequences. Second, we present a sequence-to-PRG paired-end read mapping algorithm that enables accurate read mapping for the HLA genes. Third, we infer the most likely pair of underlying alleles at G group resolution from the IMGT/HLA database at each locus, employing a simple likelihood framework. We show that HLA*PRG, our algorithm, outperforms existing methods by a wide margin. We evaluate HLA*PRG on six classical class I and class II HLA genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DRB1 and on a set of 14 samples (3 samples with 2 x 100bp, 11 samples with 2 x 250bp Illumina HiSeq data. Of 158 alleles tested, we correctly infer 157 alleles (99.4%. We also identify and re-type two erroneous alleles in the original validation data. We conclude that HLA*PRG for the first time achieves accuracies comparable to gold-standard reference methods from standard whole-genome sequencing data, though high computational demands (currently ~30-250 CPU hours per sample remain a

  14. High-accuracy interferometric measurements of flatness and parallelism of a step gauge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method in the calibration of step gauges is the coordinate measuring machine (CMM), equipped with a laser interferometer for the highest accuracy. This paper describes a modification to a length-bar measuring machine...

  15. The Effects of Individual or Group Guidelines on the Calibration Accuracy and Achievement of High School Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.; Walck, Camilla C.; Nunnery, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed in a quasi-experiment to investigate the effects of guidelines in group or individual settings on the calibration accuracy and achievement of 82 high school biology students. Significant main effects indicated that calibration practice with guidelines and practice in group settings increased prediction and…

  16. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  17. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  18. The Science Buffet: Exploring students' images of high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Justin Jacob

    Science curriculum reform documents, as well as research in science education, call for changes in how high school science is taught and learned. In spite of these calls for change, classroom practices are still dominated by traditional science instruction. In this thesis, I report the results of a study in which I disrupted the traditional discourses of teaching and learning high school science in order to explore students' images of science and the discursive practices that shape these images. By listening to students' accounts of their school science experiences, I sought to uncover some of the implicit images of science held by students and, in doing so, to bring a fresh perspective to teaching and learning and science education. Two classes of grade twelve students were asked to keep journals to tell the story of their experiences in the many activities and assignments of a physics course. Using the journal entries, eight students were identified and asked to participate in group interviews. The interviews expanded on the details of the students' experiences, providing deep insights into the student's images of science and how these images came to be. The students' comments and journal entries were used to create a narrative entitled, "The Science Buffet" which conveys a story of the data collected through this study. Through the metaphorical thread of a buffet table, this research text presents and interprets students' experiences in the physics course using such themes as Where's The Beef?, Who Wants Dessert?, and Can I Have A Doggie Bag Please? Findings of the study suggest that high school students often have clearly defined images of school science and what it means to learn. Unfortunately, however, these images of science and learning may not coincide with what we would expect (and desire) as teachers, thus providing some insight into resistance to change in school science classrooms.

  19. Utility of ionosphere and troposphere models for extending the range of high-accuracy GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, David William

    This dissertation studied the use of NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere products in extending the range of long-baseline, high-accuracy DGPS for real-time positioning. The question being addressed by this work is; can existing real-time ionosphere and troposphere models reduce the observation uncertainties to the level where they can be used to reliably resolve integer ambiguities, in real-time, over long baselines (>30km). In-house GPS processing software (USM_OTF) was developed to ingest the models and compute epoch-to-epoch, float and fixed ambiguity position solutions. Single baseline processing, ranging from 20 to 740 kin, over several days in four separate sessions (July 2004, January 2005, August 2005 and July 2006) incorporating four regions of the U.S.A. (Michigan, California, Central and the South East), were evaluated. The first session looked at the NOAA real-time troposphere model and the second session looked at the NOAA real-time ionosphere model. The third and fourth sessions looked at the use of both the NOAA real-time ionosphere and troposphere models. Results showed that the NOAA troposphere model reduced the height bias uncertainty by up to 30 cm, under high activity conditions. They also showed that the troposphere model increased the uncertainty standard deviation under these high activity conditions. The results from the first tests of the real-time NOAA ionosphere model showed that, due to satellite coverage issues, it produced worse results than other real-time models. The NOAA model suffered from lack of satellite coverage corrections, especially in areas near the limits of the model, and at the beginning and end of a satellite's flight path. A reduction in satellite numbers lead to weaker geometry and less reliable position solutions. These tests showed that it was better to provide less accurate ionosphere estimates than to leave the satellites out of the solution. These problems were addressed by NOAA prior to the final tests

  20. High-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. II. Minor improvements to the protocol and a vital simplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomble, Yannick J; Vázquez, Juana; Kállay, Mihály; Michauk, Christine; Szalay, Péter G; Császár, Attila G; Gauss, Jürgen; Stanton, John F

    2006-08-14

    The recently developed high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry method for theoretical thermochemistry, which is intimately related to other high-precision protocols such as the Weizmann-3 and focal-point approaches, is revisited. Some minor improvements in theoretical rigor are introduced which do not lead to any significant additional computational overhead, but are shown to have a negligible overall effect on the accuracy. In addition, the method is extended to completely treat electron correlation effects up to pentuple excitations. The use of an approximate treatment of quadruple and pentuple excitations is suggested; the former as a pragmatic approximation for standard cases and the latter when extremely high accuracy is required. For a test suite of molecules that have rather precisely known enthalpies of formation {as taken from the active thermochemical tables of Ruscic and co-workers [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, edited by M. Parashar (Springer, Berlin, 2002), Vol. 2536, pp. 25-38; J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 9979 (2004)]}, the largest deviations between theory and experiment are 0.52, -0.70, and 0.51 kJ mol(-1) for the latter three methods, respectively. Some perspective is provided on this level of accuracy, and sources of remaining systematic deficiencies in the approaches are discussed.

  1. Automatic J–A Model Parameter Tuning Algorithm for High Accuracy Inrush Current Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishan Wen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inrush current simulation plays an important role in many tasks of the power system, such as power transformer protection. However, the accuracy of the inrush current simulation can hardly be ensured. In this paper, a Jiles–Atherton (J–A theory based model is proposed to simulate the inrush current of power transformers. The characteristics of the inrush current curve are analyzed and results show that the entire inrush current curve can be well featured by the crest value of the first two cycles. With comprehensive consideration of both of the features of the inrush current curve and the J–A parameters, an automatic J–A parameter estimation algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm can obtain more reasonable J–A parameters, which improve the accuracy of simulation. Experimental results have verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  2. SFOL Pulse: A High Accuracy DME Pulse for Alternative Aircraft Position and Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euiho Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA performance based navigation strategy announced in 2016, the FAA stated that it would retain and expand the Distance Measuring Equipment (DME infrastructure to ensure resilient aircraft navigation capability during the event of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS outage. However, the main drawback of the DME as a GNSS back up system is that it requires a significant expansion of the current DME ground infrastructure due to its poor distance measuring accuracy over 100 m. The paper introduces a method to improve DME distance measuring accuracy by using a new DME pulse shape. The proposed pulse shape was developed by using Genetic Algorithms and is less susceptible to multipath effects so that the ranging error reduces by 36.0–77.3% when compared to the Gaussian and Smoothed Concave Polygon DME pulses, depending on noise environment.

  3. Identifying wrist fracture patients with high accuracy by automatic categorization of X-ray reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Berry; Cranney, Ann; O'Donnell, Siobhan; Martin, Joel D; Forster, Alan J

    2006-01-01

    The authors performed this study to determine the accuracy of several text classification methods to categorize wrist x-ray reports. We randomly sampled 751 textual wrist x-ray reports. Two expert reviewers rated the presence (n = 301) or absence (n = 450) of an acute fracture of wrist. We developed two information retrieval (IR) text classification methods and a machine learning method using a support vector machine (TC-1). In cross-validation on the derivation set (n = 493), TC-1 outperformed the two IR based methods and six benchmark classifiers, including Naive Bayes and a Neural Network. In the validation set (n = 258), TC-1 demonstrated consistent performance with 93.8% accuracy; 95.5% sensitivity; 92.9% specificity; and 87.5% positive predictive value. TC-1 was easy to implement and superior in performance to the other classification methods.

  4. Locating very high energy gamma-ray sources with arcminute accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.; Chantell, M.; Harris, K.; Lawrence, M. A.; Fegan, D. J.; Lang, M. J.; Hillas, A. M.; Jennings, D. G.; Lamb, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The angular accuracy of gamma-ray detectors is intrinsically limited by the physical processes involved in photon detection. Although a number of pointlike sources were detected by the COS B satellite, only two have been unambiguously identified by time signature with counterparts at longer wavelengths. By taking advantage of the extended longitudinal structure of VHE gamma-ray showers, measurements in the TeV energy range can pinpoint source coordinates to arcminute accuracy. This has now been demonstrated with new data analysis procedures applied to observations of the Crab Nebula using Cherenkov air shower imaging techniques. With two telescopes in coincidence, the individual event circular probable error will be 0.13 deg. The half-cone angle of the field of view is effectively 1 deg.

  5. High accuracy microwave frequency measurement based on single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement by employing a single-drive dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Based on bias manipulations of the modulator, conventional frequency-to-power mapping technique is developed by performing a...... 10−3 relative error. This high accuracy frequency measurement technique is a promising candidate for high-speed electronic warfare and defense applications....

  6. Building high-accuracy thermal simulation for evaluation of thermal comfort in real houses

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoaison; Makino, Yoshiki; Lim, Azman Osman; Tan, Yasuo; Shinoda, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential aspect for the control and verification of many smart home services. In this research, we design and implement simulation which models thermal environment of a smart house testbed. Our simulation can be used to evaluate thermal comfort in various conditions of home environment. In order to increase the accuracy of the simulation, we measure thermal-related parameters of the house such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation by the use of sensors and perform p...

  7. A high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor for finite element applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Taylor, B. K.

    1984-01-01

    Optical linear processors are computationally efficient computers for solving matrix-matrix and matrix-vector oriented problems. Optical system errors limit their dynamic range to 30-40 dB, which limits their accuray to 9-12 bits. Large problems, such as the finite element problem in structural mechanics (with tens or hundreds of thousands of variables) which can exploit the speed of optical processors, require the 32 bit accuracy obtainable from digital machines. To obtain this required 32 bit accuracy with an optical processor, the data can be digitally encoded, thereby reducing the dynamic range requirements of the optical system (i.e., decreasing the effect of optical errors on the data) while providing increased accuracy. This report describes a new digitally encoded optical linear algebra processor architecture for solving finite element and banded matrix-vector problems. A linear static plate bending case study is described which quantities the processor requirements. Multiplication by digital convolution is explained, and the digitally encoded optical processor architecture is advanced.

  8. Positional accuracy in RPC point determination based on high-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Han; Liu, Yongliang; Zhang, Jingxiong; Gong, Hao

    2007-06-01

    The rational function model (RFM), also known as rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) or rational polynomial camera (RPC) model, is a generalized sensor model. Different from rigorous sensor model, RFM does not need to obtain the interior and exterior orientation geometry and other physical properties associated with the physical sensor. RFMs were first adopted by Space Imaging company as a replacement for rigorous sensor models, and it drew much attention from the commercial satellite data vendors who rapidly followed the suit in order to protect the confidential information of the sensors. This paper focuses on the solution for rational polynomial coefficients, RFM-based stereo-model reconstitution, and positional accuracy analysis. As RPCs do not have obvious physical meanings and their solution is iterative, analytical approaches to accuracy analysis may not be feasible; computer simulation is thus adopted to quantify accuracy in RPC-determined positional data. The simulation-based strategy is efficient in mapping local features in positional errors, which contain both the systematic and random components.

  9. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  10. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Zhu

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition(HAR from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  11. High accuracy integrated global positioning system/inertial navigation system LDRD: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.; Fellerhoff, J.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report contains the results of a Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) technologies toward the goal of optimizing the navigational accuracy of the combined GPSANS system. The approach undertaken is to integrate the data from an INS, which has long term drifts, but excellent short term accuracy, with GPS carrier phase signal information, which is accurate to the sub-centimeter level, but requires continuous tracking of the GPS signals. The goal is to maintain a sub-meter accurate navigation solution while the vehicle is in motion by using the GPS measurements to estimate the INS navigation errors and then using the refined INS data to aid the GPS carrier phase cycle slip detection and correction and bridge dropouts in the GPS data. The work was expanded to look at GPS-based attitude determination, using multiple GPS receivers and antennas on a single platform, as a possible navigation aid. Efforts included not only the development of data processing algorithms and software, but also the collection and analysis of GPS and INS flight data aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Finally, the application of improved navigation system accuracy to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target location is examined.

  12. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Rodriguez, M.; Cramer, A.; Garcia, I.; Gaskin, J.; Chavis, K.; Smith, L.

    2012-12-01

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun (during the day) and astrophysical targets (at night) during a single flight. HEROES will use grazing-incidence x-ray focusing optics combined with position-sensitive detectors to make new high energy (>20 keV) observations of the Sun in order to understand particle acceleration in solar flares. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing 110 grazing incidence replicated optics, mounted on a carbon-fiber-Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of focal-plane detectors (high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters). The solar science objectives for HEROES are to (1) investigate electron acceleration in the non-flaring solar corona by searching for the hard X-ray signature of energetic electrons and to (2) investigate the acceleration and transport of energetic electrons in solar flares. HEROES will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec (FWHM) and will have a sensitivity up to ~100 times better than RHESSI at 20 keV. During 6 hours of solar observations (a minimum requirement for a typical balloon flight), HEROES has a ~75% chance of observing at least one flare with a GOES class above C1, and a ~20% chance of at least one flare above M1. HEROES is expected to observe the faint HXR emission from electrons streaming down the legs of magnetic loops or escaping along open magnetic field lines. Information from this flight will be used to design of a new balloon payload (SuperHERO) capable of capable of observing the Sun for 2-4 weeks using a Long Duration Balloon. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering

  13. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Audi, G.; Beck, D. [and others; ISOLDE Collaboration

    1999-02-01

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600000 and an accuracy of {delta}m {approx} 13 keV have been obtained. The masses of {sup 123,124,126}Ba and {sup 122m}Cs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model. (orig.)

  14. High-accuracy mass determination of neutron-rich rubidium and strontiumiIsotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Beck, D; Bollen, G; De Saint-Simon, M; Kluge, H J; König, M; Moore, R B; Schwarz, S; Savard, G; Szerypo, J

    2002-01-01

    The penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP, installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN, has been used to measure atomic masses of $^{88,89,90m,91,92,93,94}$Rb and $^{91- 95}$Sr. Using a resolving power of R $\\!\\scriptstyle\\approx$1 million a mass accuracy of typically 10 keV was achieved for all nuclides. Discrepancies with older data are analyzed and discussed, leading to corrections to those data. Together with the present ISOLTRAP data these corrected data have been used in the general mass adjustment.

  15. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ames, F; Beck, D; Bollen, G; De Saint-Simon, M; Jertz, R; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; König, M; Lunney, M D; Martel, I; Moore, R B; Otto, T; Patyk, Z; Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Rouleau, G; Savard, G; Schark, E; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Stolzenberg, H; Szerypo, J

    1999-01-01

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600 000 and an accuracy of $\\delta \\mbox{m} \\approx 13$ keV have been obtained. The masses of $^{123,124,126}$Ba and $^{122m}$Cs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model.

  16. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, F.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; de Saint Simon, M.; Jertz, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; König, M.; Lunney, D.; Martel, I.; Moore, R. B.; Otto, T.; Patyk, Z.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Rouleau, G.; Savard, G.; Schark, E.; Schwarz, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Szerypo, J.; Isolde Collaboration

    1999-05-01

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600 000 and an accuracy of δm ≈ 13 keV have been obtained. The masses of 123,124,126Ba and 122 mCs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model.

  17. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable cesium and barium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; Saint Simon, M. de; Jertz, R.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kohl, A.; Koenig, M.; Lunney, D.; Martel, I.; Moore, R.B.; Otto, T.; Patyk, Z.; Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Rouleau, G.; Savard, G.; Schark, E.; Schwarz, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Szerypo, J

    1999-05-03

    Direct mass measurements of short-lived Cs and Ba isotopes have been performed with the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP installed at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Typically, a mass resolving power of 600 000 and an accuracy of {delta}m {approx}13 keV have been obtained. The masses of {sup 123,124,126}Ba and {sup 122m}Cs were measured for the first time. A least-squares adjustment has been performed and the experimental masses are compared with theoretical ones, particularly in the frame of a macroscopic-microscopic model.

  18. Micro Injection Moulding High Accuracy Three-Dimensional Simulations and Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis and simulations of micro‐moulding experiments have been conducted. Micro moulding simulations have been executed by implementing in the software the actual processing conditions. Various aspects of the simulation set‐up have been considered in order to improve the simulation accuracy......, injection pressure profile, moulding mass and flow pattern. The importance of calibrated micro moulding process monitoring for an accurate implementation strategy of the simulation and its validation has been demonstrated. In fact, inconsistencies and uncertainties in the experimental data must be minimized...

  19. Cause and Cure - Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations With Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral meshes are avoided by CFD re-searchers in the vicinity of a solid wall, as it is known to reduce the accuracy of gradient computations in those regions and also cause numerical instability. Although for certain complex geometries, the use of high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements in the vicinity of a solid wall can be replaced by quadrilateral/prismatic elements, ability to use triangular/tetrahedral elements in such regions without any degradation in accuracy can be beneficial from a mesh generation point of view. The benefits also carry over to numerical frameworks such as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE), where triangular/tetrahedral elements are the mandatory building blocks. With the requirement of the CESE method in mind, a rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identities the reason behind the difficulties in use of such high-aspect ratio triangular/tetrahedral elements is presented here. As will be shown, it turns out that the degree of accuracy deterioration of gradient computation involving a triangular element is hinged on the value of its shape factor Gamma def = sq sin Alpha1 + sq sin Alpha2 + sq sin Alpha3, where Alpha1; Alpha2 and Alpha3 are the internal angles of the element. In fact, it is shown that the degree of accuracy deterioration increases monotonically as the value of Gamma decreases monotonically from its maximal value 9/4 (attained by an equilateral triangle only) to a value much less than 1 (associated with a highly obtuse triangle). By taking advantage of the fact that a high-aspect ratio triangle is not necessarily highly obtuse, and in fact it can have a shape factor whose value is close to the maximal value 9/4, a potential solution to avoid accuracy deterioration of gradient computation associated with a high-aspect ratio triangular grid is given. Also a brief discussion on the extension of the current mathematical framework to the

  20. Affine-Invariant Geometric Constraints-Based High Accuracy Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangchen Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe a new appearance-based loop-closure detection method for online incremental simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM using affine-invariant-based geometric constraints. Unlike other pure bag-of-words-based approaches, our proposed method uses geometric constraints as a supplement to improve accuracy. By establishing an affine-invariant hypothesis, the proposed method excludes incorrect visual words and calculates the dispersion of correctly matched visual words to improve the accuracy of the likelihood calculation. In addition, camera’s intrinsic parameters and distortion coefficients are adequate for this method. 3D measuring is not necessary. We use the mechanism of Long-Term Memory and Working Memory (WM to manage the memory. Only a limited size of the WM is used for loop-closure detection; therefore the proposed method is suitable for large-scale real-time SLAM. We tested our method using the CityCenter and Lip6Indoor datasets. Our proposed method results can effectively correct the typical false-positive localization of previous methods, thus gaining better recall ratios and better precision.

  1. Vision-based algorithms for high-accuracy measurements in an industrial bakery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Paulo; Davies, Roger; Correia, Bento A. B.; Dinis, Joao

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the machine vision algorithms developed for VIP3D, a measuring system used in an industrial bakery to monitor the dimensions and weight of loaves of bread (baguettes). The length and perimeter of more than 70 different varieties of baguette are measured with 1-mm accuracy, quickly, reliably and automatically. VIP3D uses a laser triangulation technique to measure the perimeter. The shape of the loaves is approximately cylindrical and the perimeter is defined as the convex hull of a cross-section perpendicular to the baguette axis at mid-length. A camera, mounted obliquely to the measuring plane, captures an image of a laser line projected onto the upper surface of the baguette. Three cameras are used to measure the baguette length, a solution adopted in order to minimize perspective-induced measurement errors. The paper describes in detail the machine vision algorithms developed to perform segmentation of the laser line and subsequent calculation of the perimeter of the baguette. The algorithms used to segment and measure the position of the ends of the baguette, to sub-pixel accuracy, are also described, as are the algorithms used to calibrate the measuring system and compensate for camera-induced image distortion.

  2. Comparison of level I land cover classification accuracy for MSS and AVHRR data. [Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, J. C.; Kerber, A. G.; Witt, R. G.; Lu, Y. C.; Sekhon, R.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of the Advanced Very-High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for land-cover mapping were investigated by comparing the accuracy of land-cover information for the Washington, DC area derived from NOAA-7 AVHRR data with that from Landsat Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) data. Unsupervised level I land-cover classifications were performed for MSS and AVHRR data sets collected on July 11, 1981. A detailed accuracy assessment was conducted based on ground data delineated on 12 U.S. Geological Survey 7-5 min series topographic maps. These results produced overall land-cover classification accuracies of 71.9 and 76.8 per cent for AVHRR and MSS, respectively. While the accuracies for predominant categories were similar for both sensors, land-cover discrimination for less commonly occurring and/or spatially heterogeneous categories was improved with the MSS data set. The AVHRR, however, performed as well as or better than the MSS in classifying large homogeneous areas. The application of AVHRR data with its lower processing cost and more frequent worldwide coverage appears promising for regional land-cover mapping.

  3. a Method to Achieve Large Volume, High Accuracy Photogrammetric Measurements Through the Use of AN Actively Deformable Sensor Mounting Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, B.; Robson, S.; Szigeti, E.; Richardson, P.; El-Nounu, A.; Rafla, M.

    2016-06-01

    When using any optical measurement system one important factor to consider is the placement of the sensors in relation to the workpiece being measured. When making decisions on sensor placement compromises are necessary in selecting the best placement based on the shape and size of the object of interest and the desired resolution and accuracy. One such compromise is in the distance the sensors are placed from the measurement surface, where a smaller distance gives a higher spatial resolution and local accuracy and a greater distance reduces the number of measurements necessary to cover a large area reducing the build-up of errors between measurements and increasing global accuracy. This paper proposes a photogrammetric approach whereby a number of sensors on a continuously flexible mobile platform are used to obtain local measurements while the position of the sensors is determined by a 6DoF tracking solution and the results combined to give a single set of measurement data within a continuous global coordinate system. The ability of this approach to achieve both high accuracy measurement and give results over a large volume is then tested and areas of weakness to be improved upon are identified.

  4. Evaluation of Heart Rate Assessment Timing, Communication, Accuracy, and Clinical Decision-Making during High Fidelity Simulation of Neonatal Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Boon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Accurate heart rate (HR determination during neonatal resuscitation (NR informs subsequent NR actions. This study’s objective was to evaluate HR determination timeliness, communication, and accuracy during high fidelity NR simulations that house officers completed during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU rotations. Methods. In 2010, house officers in NICU rotations completed high fidelity NR simulation. We reviewed 80 house officers’ videotaped performance on their initial high fidelity simulation session, prior to training and performance debriefing. We calculated the proportion of cases congruent with NR guidelines, using chi square analysis to evaluate performance across HR ranges relevant to NR decision-making: <60, 60–99, and ≥100 beats per minute (bpm. Results. 87% used umbilical cord palpation, 57% initiated HR assessment within 30 seconds, 70% were accurate, and 74% were communicated appropriately. HR determination accuracy varied significantly across HR ranges, with 87%, 57%, and 68% for HR <60, 60–99, and ≥100 bpm, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusions. Timeliness, communication, and accuracy of house officers’ HR determination are suboptimal, particularly for HR 60–100 bpm, which might lead to inappropriate decision-making and NR care. Training implications include emphasizing more accurate HR determination methods, better communication, and improved HR interpretation during NR.

  5. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR 3D MODELLING OF HIGH-ALPINE ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Legat

    2016-03-01

    Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  6. Meditation Experience Predicts Introspective Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C. R.; Zakarauskas, Pierre; Dixon, Matt; Ellamil, Melissa; Thompson, Evan; Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1–15,000 hrs experience). Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a ‘body-scanning’ meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold) as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices. PMID:23049790

  7. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majda, Paweł; Powałka, Bartosz

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe's numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

  8. Accuracy and repeatability positioning of high-performancel athe for non-circular turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Paweł

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the accuracy and repeatability of CNC axis positioning in an innovative lathe with an additional Xs axis. This axis is used to perform movements synchronized with the angular position of the main drive, i.e. the spindle, and with the axial feed along the Z axis. This enables the one-pass turning of non-circular surfaces, rope and trapezoidal threads, as well as the surfaces of rotary tools such as a gear cutting hob, etc. The paper presents and discusses the interpretation of results and the calibration effects of positioning errors in the lathe’s numerical control system. Finally, it shows the geometric characteristics of the rope thread turned at various spindle speeds, including before and after-correction of the positioning error of the Xs axis.

  9. Analysis of the plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasonder, Edwin; Ishihama, Yasushi; Andersen, Jens S

    2002-01-01

    -accuracy (average deviation less than 0.02 Da at 1,000 Da) mass spectrometric proteome analysis of selected stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The analysis revealed 1,289 proteins of which 714 proteins were identified in asexual blood stages, 931 in gametocytes and 645 in gametes. The last...... two groups provide insights into the biology of the sexual stages of the parasite, and include conserved, stage-specific, secreted and membrane-associated proteins. A subset of these proteins contain domains that indicate a role in cell-cell interactions, and therefore can be evaluated as potential...... components of a malaria vaccine formulation. We also report a set of peptides with significant matches in the parasite genome but not in the protein set predicted by computational methods....

  10. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Yu Xia

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012, our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp.

  11. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xia-Yu; Ge, Meng; Hsi, Jenny H; He, Xiang; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Shao, Yi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD) assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F) strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels) and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc) as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012), our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp.

  12. A smartphone imaging-based label-free and dual-wavelength fluorescent biosensor with high sensitivity and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Il; Shrivastava, Sajal; Duy, Le-Thai; Yeong Kim, Bo; Son, Young-Min; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-08-15

    The accuracy of a bioassay based on smartphone-integrated fluorescent biosensors has been limited due to the occurrence of false signals from non-specific reactions as well as a high background and low signal-to-noise ratios for complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors. To overcome this problem, we demonstrate dual-wavelength fluorescent detection of biomolecules with high accuracy. Fluorescent intensity can be quantified using dual wavelengths simultaneously, where one decreases and the other increases, as the target analytes bind to the split capture and detection aptamer probes. To do this, we performed smartphone imaging-based fluorescence microscopy using a microarray platform on a substrate with metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) using Ag film and Al2O3 nano-spacer. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the dual-wavelength fluorescent quantitative assay for the target biomolecule 17-β-estradiol in water were significantly increased through the elimination of false signals. The detection limit was 1pg/mL and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the proposed assay (0.922) was comparable to that of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (0.956) from statistical accuracy tests using spiked wastewater samples. This novel method has great potential as an accurate point-of-care testing technology based on mobile platforms for clinical diagnostics and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  14. Design of high-accuracy two-axis sun-tracking system based on optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Zhou, Wang; Li, Ye

    2011-08-01

    This paper mainly introduces the system of sun-tracking control in CPV (Concentrating Photovoltaic), includes new structure design, process circuit and software design. This system includes five photoelectric sensors, five optical fibers, one microcontroller, two-axis motion mechanism and motors etc. Here a center fiber is used to determine whether the sun appears and get a reference illuminance, and other four fibers are symmetrically distributed around the center fiber. The optical fibers lead sunlight energy into photoelectric sensors and their length can be adjusted according to actual case. So that system is flexible and has good anti-jamming. The difference value of optical energy gained by each pair of opposite optical fiber is important measure data processed by MCU. Through the calculate result by a MCU, the system can gain the direction of the sun in real time. In addition, this paper presents processing circuit, software about control process as well as error analyzes. The software also provides a scheme for suiting any weather. This new structure can protect the photoelectric sensor in any case of the weather and environment, because the sensors are deeply put inside the instrument and the light energy is passed by the fibers. More than that, through calculating the difference value of each opposite pair of fiber, controlling the motors and increasing the accuracy of sun-tracking can be realized.

  15. The high accuracy data processing system of laser interferometry signals based on MSP430

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong-yue; Lin, Yu-chi; Zhao, Mei-rong

    2009-07-01

    Generally speaking there are two orthogonal signals used in single-frequency laser interferometer for differentiating direction and electronic subdivision. However there usually exist three errors with the interferential signals: zero offsets error, unequal amplitude error and quadrature phase shift error. These three errors have a serious impact on subdivision precision. Based on Heydemann error compensation algorithm, it is proposed to achieve compensation of the three errors. Due to complicated operation of the Heydemann mode, a improved arithmetic is advanced to decrease the calculating time effectively in accordance with the special characteristic that only one item of data will be changed in each fitting algorithm operation. Then a real-time and dynamic compensatory circuit is designed. Taking microchip MSP430 as the core of hardware system, two input signals with the three errors are turned into digital quantity by the AD7862. After data processing in line with improved arithmetic, two ideal signals without errors are output by the AD7225. At the same time two original signals are turned into relevant square wave and imported to the differentiating direction circuit. The impulse exported from the distinguishing direction circuit is counted by the timer of the microchip. According to the number of the pulse and the soft subdivision the final result is showed by LED. The arithmetic and the circuit are adopted to test the capability of a laser interferometer with 8 times optical path difference and the measuring accuracy of 12-14nm is achieved.

  16. Demonstrating High-Accuracy Orbital Access Using Open-Source Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Welch, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Orbit propagation is fundamental to almost every space-based analysis. Currently, many system analysts use commercial software to predict the future positions of orbiting satellites. This is one of many capabilities that can replicated, with great accuracy, without using expensive, proprietary software. NASAs SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Center for Engineering, Networks, Integration, and Communications (SCENIC) project plans to provide its analysis capabilities using a combination of internal and open-source software, allowing for a much greater measure of customization and flexibility, while reducing recurring software license costs. MATLAB and the open-source Orbit Determination Toolbox created by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) were utilized to develop tools with the capability to propagate orbits, perform line-of-sight (LOS) availability analyses, and visualize the results. The developed programs are modular and can be applied for mission planning and viability analysis in a variety of Solar System applications. The tools can perform 2 and N-body orbit propagation, find inter-satellite and satellite to ground station LOS access (accounting for intermediate oblate spheroid body blocking, geometric restrictions of the antenna field-of-view (FOV), and relativistic corrections), and create animations of planetary movement, satellite orbits, and LOS accesses. The code is the basis for SCENICs broad analysis capabilities including dynamic link analysis, dilution-of-precision navigation analysis, and orbital availability calculations.

  17. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Foong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs. Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  18. High Accuracy Passive Magnetic Field-Based Localization for Feedback Control Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Shaohui; Sun, Zhenglong

    2016-08-12

    In this paper, a novel magnetic field-based sensing system employing statistically optimized concurrent multiple sensor outputs for precise field-position association and localization is presented. This method capitalizes on the independence between simultaneous spatial field measurements at multiple locations to induce unique correspondences between field and position. This single-source-multi-sensor configuration is able to achieve accurate and precise localization and tracking of translational motion without contact over large travel distances for feedback control. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as a pseudo-linear filter to optimally reduce the dimensions of the multi-sensor output space for computationally efficient field-position mapping with artificial neural networks (ANNs). Numerical simulations are employed to investigate the effects of geometric parameters and Gaussian noise corruption on PCA assisted ANN mapping performance. Using a 9-sensor network, the sensing accuracy and closed-loop tracking performance of the proposed optimal field-based sensing system is experimentally evaluated on a linear actuator with a significantly more expensive optical encoder as a comparison.

  19. High-Performance Micro-Rover for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Chen, X.

    2009-04-01

    Planetary robotic missions rely on rovers to produce surface mobility for multiple sites sampling and exploration. For example, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have been extremely successful in the exploring a wide area of the Martian surface in the past four years. Each of the MER has the size of a golf car and weights ~170 kg. They both result in a massive launch of nearly 1100 kg. Small rovers (5-30 kg) can help to provide moderate surface traverse and greatly reduce cost of the mission, e.g. the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission. There is a growing interest in the micro-rover design and how to maximize performance of a miniaturized system. For example, the rover traversability and locomotion capability will be compromised if the objective is to reduce the size of the vehicle. Undoubtedly, this affects the rover performance in terms of mobility and usefulness to the mission. We propose to overcome this problem by investigating a new generation of rover chassis design to maximize its terrian capability. This paper presents a chassis concept suited for a micro-rover system and negotiating with different planetary terrains such as the Moon and Mars. The proposed tracked-wheel is motivated by bringing together advantages of wheels and tracks, in the same time keeping the design simple and easy to implement. The chassis is built based on four tracked-wheels and offers 10 DOF for the vehicle. Analysis based on Bekker theories suggests this design can generate larger tractive effort (drawbar pull) compared to the wheeled design for the same rover dimensions. As a result, a more effective and efficent chassis can be achieved and leave a large design margin for the science payload.

  20. ISPA - a high accuracy X-ray and gamma camera Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    ISPA offers ... Ten times better resolution than Anger cameras High efficiency single gamma counting Noise reduction by sensitivity to gamma energy ...for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

  1. Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Describing the Diagnostic Accuracy of History, Physical Examination, Imaging, and Lumbar Puncture With an Exploration of Test Thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Hussain, Adnan M; Ward, Michael J; Zipfel, Gregory J; Fowler, Susan; Pines, Jesse M; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2016-09-01

    % CI = 6 to 8,700) and ruled out SAH (LR- = 0.01; 95% CI = 0 to 0.04); CT beyond 6 hours had a LR- of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.01 to 0.61). CSF analyses had lower diagnostic accuracy, whether using red blood cell (RBC) count or xanthochromia. At a threshold RBC count of 1,000 × 10(6) /L, the LR+ was 5.7 (95% CI = 1.4 to 23) and LR- was 0.21 (95% CI = 0.03 to 1.7). Using the pooled estimates of diagnostic accuracy and testing risks and benefits, we estimate that LP only benefits CT-negative patients when the pre-LP probability of SAH is on the order of 5%, which corresponds to a pre-CT probability greater than 20%. Less than one in 10 headache patients concerning for SAH are ultimately diagnosed with SAH in recent studies. While certain symptoms and signs increase or decrease the likelihood of SAH, no single characteristic is sufficient to rule in or rule out SAH. Within 6 hours of symptom onset, noncontrast cranial CT is highly accurate, while a negative CT beyond 6 hours substantially reduces the likelihood of SAH. LP appears to benefit relatively few patients within a narrow pretest probability range. With improvements in CT technology and an expanding body of evidence, test thresholds for LP may become more precise, obviating the need for a post-CT LP in more acute headache patients. Existing SAH clinical decision rules await external validation, but offer the potential to identify subsets most likely to benefit from post-CT LP, angiography, or no further testing. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. High accuracy and precision micro injection moulding of thermoplastic elastomers micro ring production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Elsborg, René

    2016-01-01

    /product monitoring and metrology. The study represent a new concept yet to be developed with great potential for high precision mass-manufacturing of highly functional 3D multi-material (i.e. including metal/soft polymer) micro components. The activities related to HINMICO project objectives proves the importance...

  3. Exploring the high-resolution mapping of gender-disaggregated development indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, C; Alegana, V; Bird, T; Pezzulo, C; Bengtsson, L; Sorichetta, A; Steele, J; Hornby, G; Ruktanonchai, C; Ruktanonchai, N; Wetter, E; Tatem, A J

    2017-04-01

    Improved understanding of geographical variation and inequity in health status, wealth and access to resources within countries is increasingly being recognized as central to meeting development goals. Development and health indicators assessed at national or subnational scale can often conceal important inequities, with the rural poor often least well represented. The ability to target limited resources is fundamental, especially in an international context where funding for health and development comes under pressure. This has recently prompted the exploration of the potential of spatial interpolation methods based on geolocated clusters from national household survey data for the high-resolution mapping of features such as population age structures, vaccination coverage and access to sanitation. It remains unclear, however, how predictable these different factors are across different settings, variables and between demographic groups. Here we test the accuracy of spatial interpolation methods in producing gender-disaggregated high-resolution maps of the rates of literacy, stunting and the use of modern contraceptive methods from a combination of geolocated demographic and health surveys cluster data and geospatial covariates. Bayesian geostatistical and machine learning modelling methods were tested across four low-income countries and varying gridded environmental and socio-economic covariate datasets to build 1×1 km spatial resolution maps with uncertainty estimates. Results show the potential of the approach in producing high-resolution maps of key gender-disaggregated socio-economic indicators, with explained variance through cross-validation being as high as 74-75% for female literacy in Nigeria and Kenya, and in the 50-70% range for many other variables. However, substantial variations by both country and variable were seen, with many variables showing poor mapping accuracies in the range of 2-30% explained variance using both geostatistical and machine

  4. DURA-Peel, DURACON-Based Removable High Accuracy IR Thermography Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber reinforced composite materials are used extensively in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, and superior thermal,...

  5. Sensitivity and accuracy of high-throughput metabarcoding methods for early detection of invasive fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For early detection biomonitoring of aquatic invasive species, sensitivity to rare individuals and accurate, high-resolution taxonomic classification are critical to minimize detection errors. Given the great expense and effort associated with morphological identification of many...

  6. A new, highly precise measurement technology for the in vitro evaluation of the accuracy of digital imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wilmowsky, Cornelius; Bergauer, Bastian; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Neuhuber, Winfried; Lell, Michael; Keller, Andrea; Eitner, Stephan; Matta, Ragai-Edward

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional radiological imaging data play an increasingly role in planning, simulation, and navigation in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The aim of this study was to establish a new, highly precise, in vitro measurement technology for the evaluation of the geometric accuracy down to the micrometric range of digital imaging data. A macerated human mandible was scanned optically with an industrial, non-contact, white light scanner, and a three-dimensional (3D) model was obtained, which served as a master model. The mandible was then scanned 10 times by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and the generated 3D surface bone model was virtually compared with the master model. To evaluate the accuracy of the CBCT scans, the standard deviation and the intraclass coefficient were determined. A total of 19 measurement points in 10 CBCT scans were investigated, and showed an average value of 0.2676 mm with a standard deviation of 0.0593 mm. The standard error of the mean was 0.0043 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) within the 10 CBCT scans was 0.9416. This highly precise measuring technology was demonstrated to be appropriate for the evaluation of the accuracy of digital imaging data, down to the micrometric scale. This method is able to exclude human measurement errors, as the software calculates the superimposition and deviation. Thus inaccuracies caused by measurement errors can be avoided. This method provides a highly precise determination of deviations of different CBCT parameters and 3D models for surgical, navigational, and diagnostic purposes. Thus, surgical procedures and the post-operative outcomes can be precisely simulated to benefit the patient. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring High-Achieving Students' Images of Mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…

  8. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.

    2016-05-16

    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  9. Conceptual and practical bases for the high accuracy of machine learning interatomic potentials: Application to elemental titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Seko, Atsuto; Tanaka, Isao

    2017-11-01

    Machine learning interatomic potentials (MLIPs) based on a large data set obtained by density functional theory calculation have been developed recently. This study gives both conceptual and practical bases for the high accuracy of MLIPs, although MLIPs have been considered to be simply an accurate black-box description of atomic energy. We also construct the most accurate MLIP of elemental Ti ever reported using a linearized MLIP framework and many angular-dependent descriptors, which also corresponds to a generalization of the modified embedded atom method potential.

  10. Interethnic differences in the accuracy of anthropometric indicators of obesity in screening for high risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, VM; Casas, JP; Miranda, JJ; Perel, P; Pichardo, R; González, A; Sanchez, JR; Ferreccio, C; Aguilera, X; Silva, E; Oróstegui, M; Gómez, LF; Chirinos, JA; Medina-Lezama, J; Pérez, CM; Suárez, E; Ortiz, AP; Rosero, L; Schapochnik, N; Ortiz, Z; Ferrante, D; Diaz, M; Bautista, LE

    2009-01-01

    Background Cut points for defining obesity have been derived from mortality data among Whites from Europe and the United States and their accuracy to screen for high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in other ethnic groups has been questioned. Objective To compare the accuracy and to define ethnic and gender-specific optimal cut points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) when they are used in screening for high risk of CHD in the Latin-American and the US populations. Methods We estimated the accuracy and optimal cut points for BMI, WC and WHR to screen for CHD risk in Latin Americans (n=18 976), non-Hispanic Whites (Whites; n=8956), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks; n=5205) and Hispanics (n=5803). High risk of CHD was defined as a 10-year risk ≥20% (Framingham equation). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the misclassification-cost term were used to assess accuracy and to identify optimal cut points. Results WHR had the highest AUC in all ethnic groups (from 0.75 to 0.82) and BMI had the lowest (from 0.50 to 0.59). Optimal cut point for BMI was similar across ethnic/gender groups (27 kg/m2). In women, cut points for WC (94 cm) and WHR (0.91) were consistent by ethnicity. In men, cut points for WC and WHR varied significantly with ethnicity: from 91 cm in Latin Americans to 102 cm in Whites, and from 0.94 in Latin Americans to 0.99 in Hispanics, respectively. Conclusion WHR is the most accurate anthropometric indicator to screen for high risk of CHD, whereas BMI is almost uninformative. The same BMI cut point should be used in all men and women. Unique cut points for WC and WHR should be used in all women, but ethnic-specific cut points seem warranted among men. PMID:19238159

  11. A high-accuracy consensus map of yeast protein complexes reveals modular nature of gene essentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcotte Edward M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying all protein complexes in an organism is a major goal of systems biology. In the past 18 months, the results of two genome-scale tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry (TAP-MS assays in yeast have been published, along with corresponding complex maps. For most complexes, the published data sets were surprisingly uncorrelated. It is therefore useful to consider the raw data from each study and generate an accurate complex map from a high-confidence data set that integrates the results of these and earlier assays. Results Using an unsupervised probabilistic scoring scheme, we assigned a confidence score to each interaction in the matrix-model interpretation of the large-scale yeast mass-spectrometry data sets. The scoring metric proved more accurate than the filtering schemes used in the original data sets. We then took a high-confidence subset of these interactions and derived a set of complexes using MCL. The complexes show high correlation with existing annotations. Hierarchical organization of some protein complexes is evident from inter-complex interactions. Conclusion We demonstrate that our scoring method can generate an integrated high-confidence subset of observed matrix-model interactions, which we subsequently used to derive an accurate map of yeast complexes. Our results indicate that essentiality is a product of the protein complex rather than the individual protein, and that we have achieved near saturation of the yeast high-abundance, rich-media-expressed "complex-ome."

  12. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High Accuracy Investigation of Microwave Absorption in Polymer Electrical Components on Motherboard of Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dašić, P.; Hutanu, C.; Jevremović, V.; Dobra, R.; Risteiu, M.; Ileana, I.

    2017-06-01

    Electronic operating at high frequencies can have problems with emission of high frequency noise. Once put inside an enclosure, the energy will add in phase at certain frequencies to cause resonances which will hinder the performance of the device. These absorbers are based upon open celled foam impregnated with a carbon coating. It is quite possible that in the near future, microprocessors would be to work on a frequency located in 5 to 10 GHz. In these circumstances it is useful to know how and how much of the electromagnetic field emitted by a microprocessor, it is absorbed by the circuit elements in the immediate vicinity of the microprocessor. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate throughout high-level experimental analysis how the main electric parameters of polymer materials, which build the printed circuits and the one of electric capacitors and resistors, depend on the frequencies on which they work from the microwave range.

  14. High-accuracy detector calibration at the PTB four-crystal monochromator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Krumrey, M

    2001-01-01

    A four-crystal monochromator beamline has been installed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at a bending magnet of the electron storage ring BESSY II. The monochromatic radiation with very high spectral purity and high spectral resolution in the photon energy range from 1.75 to 10 keV is used to calibrate detectors by comparison to a cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer as primary detector standard with relative uncertainties well below 1%. This is one order of magnitude better than all calibrations of non-energy-dispersive detectors in this spectral range previously performed. The beamline is also used for the characterization of optical components.

  15. Micromachined High-Temperature Sensors for Planet Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop, simulate, fabricate and test high-temperature piezoelectric miniature sensors (up to 800oC), for...

  16. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian corrosive, high pressure, 460oC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a...

  17. High Temperature Telemetry Transmitter for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed S-band telemetry transmitter will operate in the exterior Venusian high pressure, 465?aC ambient atmosphere without being contained in a thermally...

  18. High Performance Arm for an Exploration Space Suit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Final Frontier Design (FFD) proposes to develop and deliver an advanced pressure garment arm with low torque and high Range of Motion (ROM), and increased...

  19. High Accuracy Tracking of Space-Borne Non-Cooperative Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Arge Klevang

    the surface and to enhance the PIXL instrument's capabilities with highly accurate distance measurements. Optical observations of planetary bodies and satellites are utilized to determine the inertial position of a spacecraft. A software module is developed, tested and verified by both ground based and in...

  20. Isolating Flow-field Discontinuities while Preserving Monotonicity and High-order Accuracy on Cartesian Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/09/2017 Briefing Charts 01 January 2017 - 31 January 2017 Isolating Flow -field Discontinuities while...Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 18 V. Sanakaran N/A Isolating Flow -field Discontinuities while Preserving Monotonicity and High-order

  1. Lower confidence bounds for prediction accuracy in high dimensions via AROHIL Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K; Cooke, Stephanie

    2011-11-15

    Implementation and development of statistical methods for high-dimensional data often require high-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations are used to assess performance, evaluate robustness, and in some cases for implementation of algorithms. But simulation in high dimensions is often very complex, cumbersome and slow. As a result, performance evaluations are often limited, robustness minimally investigated and dissemination impeded by implementation challenges. This article presents a method for converting complex, slow high-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations into simpler, faster lower dimensional simulations. We implement the method by converting a previous Monte Carlo algorithm into this novel Monte Carlo, which we call AROHIL Monte Carlo. AROHIL Monte Carlo is shown to exactly or closely match pure Monte Carlo results in a number of examples. It is shown that computing time can be reduced by several orders of magnitude. The confidence bound method implemented using AROHIL outperforms the pure Monte Carlo method. Finally, the utility of the method is shown by application to a number of real microarray datasets.

  2. Exploration and Development of High Entropy Alloys for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Miracle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C, medium (≤450 °C and high (≥1,100 °C use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives methods to build HEAs from these palettes. We show that intermetallic phases are consistent with HEA definitions, and the strategy developed here includes both single-phase, solid solution HEAs and HEAs with intentional addition of a 2nd phase for particulate hardening. A thermodynamic estimate of the effectiveness of configurational entropy to suppress or delay compound formation is given. A 3-stage approach is given to systematically screen and evaluate a vast number of HEAs by integrating high-throughput computations and experiments. CALPHAD methods are used to predict phase equilibria, and high-throughput experiments on materials libraries with controlled composition and microstructure gradients are suggested. Much of this evaluation can be done now, but key components (materials libraries with microstructure gradients and high-throughput tensile testing are currently missing. Suggestions for future HEA efforts are given.

  3. Accuracy of identification of low or high risk lifting during standardised lifting situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Madeleine, Pascal; Samani, Afshin

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to classify lifting activities into low and high risk categories (according to The Danish Working Environment Authority guidelines) based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and trunk inclination (tri-axial accelerometer) measurements. Lifting tasks with different weights, horizontal...... biomechanical loads, based on individual sEMG and kinematics from an entire working day. These methods may be more cost-effective and may complement observations commonly used by practitioners....

  4. High-Accuracy Ion Range Measurements using Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Klimpki, Grischa

    2012-01-01

    Novel fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) are based on single aluminum oxide crystals doped with carbon and magnesium and laser scanning fluorescent microscopy. The detector crystals contain high concentrations of colour centres, consisting of two oxygen vacancies charge compensated by two magnesium ions. These colour centres exhibit radiochromic transformations under ionising radiation. Laser-induced fluorescence can then be stimulated with a red laser without photoionisation of the ...

  5. Exploring Attributes of High-Value Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melora; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Frankfort, Jim; Margolius, David; Murphy, Julia; Paita, Luis; Wang, Thomas; Milstein, Arnold

    2017-11-01

    Medicare's merit-based incentive payment system and narrowing of physician networks by health insurers will stoke clinicians' and policy makers' interest in care delivery attributes associated with value as defined by payers. To help define these attributes, we analyzed 2009 to 2011 commercial health insurance claims data for more than 40 million preferred provider organization patients attributed to over 53,000 primary care practice sites. We identified sites ranking favorably on both quality and low total annual per capita health care spending ("high-value") and sites ranking near the median ("average-value"). Sites were selected for qualitative assessment from 64 high-value sites and 102 average-value sites with more than 1 primary care physician who delivered adult primary care and provided services to enough enrollees to permit meaningful spending and quality ranking. Purposeful sampling ensured regional diversity. Physicians experienced in primary care assessment and blinded to site rankings visited 12 high-value sites and 4 average-value sites to identify tangible attributes of care delivery that could plausibly explain a high ranking on value. Thirteen attributes of care delivery distinguished sites in the high-value cohort. Six attributes attained statistical significance: decision support for evidence-based medicine, risk-stratified care management, careful selection of specialists, coordination of care, standing orders and protocols, and balanced physician compensation. Awareness of care delivery attributes that distinguish their high-value peers may help physicians respond successfully to incentives from Medicare and private payers to lower annual health care spending and improve quality of care. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  6. Two-dimensional DOA Estimation with High Accuracy for MIMO Radar Using Cross Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the estimation of the Two-Dimensional (2D Direction Of Arrival (DOA in monostatic multiple-input–multiple-output radar with cross array and propose a novel, highly accurate DOA estimation method based on unitary transformation. First, we design a new unitary matrix using the central symmetry of a cross array at transmit and receive sites. Then, the rotational invariance relationships of these arrays with long and short baselines can be transformed into a real-value field via unitary transformation. In addition, non-ambiguous and highly accurate 2D DOA estimations can be obtained using a unitary dual-resolution ESPRIT algorithm. Simulations show that the proposed method can estimate 2D highly accurate spatial angles using automatic pairing without incurring the expense of array aperture and peak searching. Compared with traditional unitary transformation, the steering vectors of transmit and receive arrays can be transformed into real-value fields via the unitary matrix and the transformation method of our scheme, respectively. This effectively overcomes the problem of shift invariance factors in real-value fields that cannot be extracted using traditional algorithms. Therefore, the proposed method can absolutely compute eigenvalue decomposition and estimate parameters in a real-value field, resulting in lower computational complexity compared with traditional methods. Simulation results verify both the correctness of our theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Algorithm of dynamic regulation of a system of duct, for a high accuracy climatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbatskiy, A. A.; Afonina, G. N.; Glazov, V. S.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, major part of climatic system, are stationary in projected mode only. At the same time, many modern industrial sites, require constant or periodical changes in technological process. That is 80% of the time, the industrial site is not require ventilation system in projected mode and high precision of climatic parameters must maintain. While that not constantly is in use for climatic systems, which use in parallel for different rooms, we will be have a problem for balance of duct system. For this problem, was created the algorithm for quantity regulation, with minimal changes. Dynamic duct system: Developed of parallel control system of air balance, with high precision of climatic parameters. The Algorithm provide a permanent pressure in main duct, in different a flow of air. Therefore, the ending devises air flow have only one parameter for regulation – flaps open area. Precision of regulation increase and the climatic system provide high precision for temperature and humidity (0,5C for temperature, 5% for relative humidity). Result: The research has been made in CFD-system – PHOENICS. Results for velocity of air in duct, for pressure of air in duct for different operation mode, has been obtained. Equation for air valves positions, with different parameters for climate in room’s, has been obtained. Energy saving potential for dynamic duct system, for different types of a rooms, has been calculated.

  8. Exploring the Characteristics of Principals in High Leadership Capacity Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Leslie C.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the characteristics of principals in high leadership capacity schools. Lambert (1998) defines leadership capacity as broad-based, skillful participation in the work of leadership. Data were collected from a total of nine study participants, one Assistant Superintendent, two principals, and six certified professional…

  9. Implementation of two telemeter designs for high accuracy laser ranging of kilometer scale distances in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courde, C.; Phung, D. H.; Brillet, A.; Lintz, M.

    2017-11-01

    We present two different laser ranging systems under development, both based on the use of a high frequency modulated beam. The first range meter makes no use of interferometry: only the phase of the return beam is detected, in a way that rejects cyclic errors due to optical and electronic crosstalk. An Allan deviation slightly better than 10nm has been obtained with this simple system. The other range meter should provide better resolution, at the expense of a somewhat more sophisticated procedure, as it involves both time-of-flight and interferometry measurements.

  10. An experimental study on the development and application of ultra-high-accuracy and high-speed groove die set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-hoi; So, Jung D.; Kwon, Kyu-sik; Byun, Jong-won

    2007-12-01

    This research designed and developed a groove type die set which improved life span of the die set by eliminating pointcontacts of steel balls with the guide post. The guide post consisted of a steel-ball retainer, a steel-ball retainer stopper, a guide bush, a guide pin, a snap ring, and a spring. The steel-ball retainer has 72 holes with 8 columns of 9 holes in each column. The inner surface of the guide bush was grinded (surface roughness: Ra = 0.2μm, accuracy: 0 ~ -0.002 mm) after NC turning and it was treated with heat. Also, a line of small intermediate pocket was processed inside of the guide bush for lubrication and elimination of foreign materials. Guide grooves for steel balls were processed using a wire EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) after the heat treatment. With such a design of the guide post stated above, loads against steel balls could be dispersed greatly by the line contacts through the guide groove between the guide pin and the guide bush, and the life span of the guide post could be expanded semi-permanently.

  11. Modelling and Control of Stepper Motors for High Accuracy Positioning Systems Used in Radioactive Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Picatoste Ruilope, Ricardo; Masi, Alessandro

    Hybrid Stepper Motors are widely used in open-loop position applications. They are the choice of actuation for the collimators in the Large Hadron Collider, the largest particle accelerator at CERN. In this case the positioning requirements and the highly radioactive operating environment are unique. The latter forces both the use of long cables to connect the motors to the drives which act as transmission lines and also prevents the use of standard position sensors. However, reliable and precise operation of the collimators is critical for the machine, requiring the prevention of step loss in the motors and maintenance to be foreseen in case of mechanical degradation. In order to make the above possible, an approach is proposed for the application of an Extended Kalman Filter to a sensorless stepper motor drive, when the motor is separated from its drive by long cables. When the long cables and high frequency pulse width modulated control voltage signals are used together, the electrical signals difer greatl...

  12. High-accuracy measurement of the emission spectrum of liquid xenon in the vacuum ultraviolet region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Keiko, E-mail: fujii-keiko-nv@ynu.jp [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Endo, Yuya; Torigoe, Yui; Nakamura, Shogo [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan); Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Kasami, Katsuyu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Mihara, Satoshi; Saito, Kiwamu; Sasaki, Shinichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate School of Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tawara, Hiroko [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    The emission spectrum of cryogenic liquid xenon in the vacuum ultraviolet region was measured by irradiating liquid xenon with gamma-rays from a radioactive source. To achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio, we employed coincident photon counting. Additionally, the charge of the photo-sensor signals was measured to estimate the number of detected photons accurately. In addition, proper corrections were incorporated for the wavelength; response functions of the apparatus obtained using a low-pressure mercury lamp, and photon detection efficiencies of the optical system were considered. The obtained emission spectrum is found to be in the shape of a Gaussian function, with the center at 57,199±34 (stat.)±33 (syst.) cm{sup −1} (174.8±0.1 (stat.)±0.1 (syst.) nm) and the full width at half maximum of 3328±72 (stat.)±65 (syst.) cm{sup −1} (10.2±0.2 (stat.)±0.2 (sys.) nm). These results are the most accurate values obtained in terms of the data acquisition method and the calibration for the experimental system and provide valuable information regarding the high-precision instruments that employ a liquid-xenon scintillator.

  13. High accuracy mantle convection simulation through modern numerical methods - II: realistic models and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heister, Timo; Dannberg, Juliane; Gassmöller, Rene; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Computations have helped elucidate the dynamics of Earth's mantle for several decades already. The numerical methods that underlie these simulations have greatly evolved within this time span, and today include dynamically changing and adaptively refined meshes, sophisticated and efficient solvers, and parallelization to large clusters of computers. At the same time, many of the methods - discussed in detail in a previous paper in this series - were developed and tested primarily using model problems that lack many of the complexities that are common to the realistic models our community wants to solve today. With several years of experience solving complex and realistic models, we here revisit some of the algorithm designs of the earlier paper and discuss the incorporation of more complex physics. In particular, we re-consider time stepping and mesh refinement algorithms, evaluate approaches to incorporate compressibility, and discuss dealing with strongly varying material coefficients, latent heat, and how to track chemical compositions and heterogeneities. Taken together and implemented in a high-performance, massively parallel code, the techniques discussed in this paper then allow for high resolution, 3-D, compressible, global mantle convection simulations with phase transitions, strongly temperature dependent viscosity and realistic material properties based on mineral physics data.

  14. Exploring Self - Confidence Level of High School Students Doing Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Emir Ekinci

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.

  15. Exploring taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (∼100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ∼0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  17. Combination volumetric and gravimetric sorption instrument for high accuracy measurements of methane adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Jacob; Bethea, Donald; Troub, Brandon

    2017-05-01

    The accurate measurement of adsorbed gas up to high pressures (˜100 bars) is critical for the development of new materials for adsorbed gas storage. The typical Sievert-type volumetric method introduces accumulating errors that can become large at maximum pressures. Alternatively, gravimetric methods employing microbalances require careful buoyancy corrections. In this paper, we present a combination gravimetric and volumetric system for methane sorption measurements on samples between ˜0.5 and 1 g. The gravimetric method described requires no buoyancy corrections. The tandem use of the gravimetric method allows for a check on the highest uncertainty volumetric measurements. The sources and proper calculation of uncertainties are discussed. Results from methane measurements on activated carbon MSC-30 and metal-organic framework HKUST-1 are compared across methods and within the literature.

  18. Accuracy optimization of high-speed AFM measurements using Design of Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is being increasingly employed in industrial micro/nano manufacturing applications and integrated into production lines. In order to achieve reliable process and product control at high measuring speed, instrument optimization is needed. Quantitative AFM measurement......, the estimated dimensions of measured features. The definition of scan settings is based on a comprehensive optimization that targets maximization of information from collected data and minimization of measurement uncertainty and scan time. The Design of Experiments (DOE) technique is proposed and applied...... to perform the optimization of AFM measurements on calibrated one-dimensional silicon grating featuring a triangular periodical profile (slopes of 54.7 degrees, period of 3 μm)....

  19. Synthetic Conditions for High-Accuracy Size Control of PbS Quantum Dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianbing; Crisp, Ryan W.; Gao, Jianbo; Kroupa, Daniel M.; Beard, Matthew C.; Luther, Joseph M.

    2015-05-21

    Decreasing the variability in quantum dot (QD) syntheses is desirable for better uniformity of samples for use in QD-based studies and applications. Here we report a highly reproducible linear relationship between the concentration of ligand (in this case oleic acid, OA) and the lowest energy exciton peak position (nm) of the resulting PbS QDs for various hot-injection temperatures. Thus, for a given injection temperature, the size of the PbS QD product is purely controlled by the amount of OA. We used this relationship to study PbS QD solar cells that are fabricated from the same size of PbS QDs but synthesized using four different injection temperatures: 95, 120, 150, and 185 °C. We find that the power conversion efficiency does not depend on injection temperature but that the Voc is higher for QDs synthesized at lower temperatures while the Jsc is improved in higher temperature QDs.

  20. Driving the LHC Collimators’ Stepping Motors over 1 km with High Accuracy avoiding EMI Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, A; Losito, R; Martino, M

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators are exposed to very high levels of radiation, which means that the power drivers must be installed far from the stepping motors that they drive. Due to the geometry of the underground installations, the distances can be up to 1 km. The long cables that connect the drivers to the motors behave as transmission lines modifying dramatically the impedance seen by the drivers and consequently jeopardizing the control performance of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) drivers. In this paper we address this problem, provide an analytical model of the driver-cable-motor system and describe the analog solution we have developed to improve the performance of a typical off the shelf driver. Finally we characterize the improvement of the performances with measurements of positioning repeatability and show that electromagnetic emissions from the long cables are drastically reduced, making the use of stepping motors compatible with extremely sensitive instrumentation such as the LHC Beam Loss Monitors (BLM).

  1. Accuracy of W' Recovery Kinetics in High Performance Cyclists - Modelling Intermittent Work Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jason C; Thewlis, Dominic; Martin, David T; Norton, Kevin I

    2017-10-16

    With knowledge of an individual's critical power (CP) and W' the SKIBA 2 model provides a framework with which to track W' balance during intermittent high intensity work bouts. There are fears the time constant controlling the recovery rate of W' (τW') may require refinement to enable effective use in an elite population. Four elite endurance cyclists completed an array of intermittent exercise protocols to volitional exhaustion. Each protocol lasted approximately 3.5-6 minutes and featured a range of recovery intensities, set in relation to athlete's CPs (DCP). Using the framework of the SKIBA 2 model, the τW' values were modified for each protocol to achieve an accurate W' at volitional exhaustion. Modified τW' values were compared to equivalent SKIBA 2 τW' values to assess the difference in recovery rates for this population. Plotting modified τW' values against DCP showed the adjusted relationship between work-rate and recovery-rate. Comparing modified τW' values against the SKIBA 2 τW' values showed a negative bias of 112±46s (mean±95%CL), suggesting athlete's recovered W' faster than predicted by SKIBA 2 (p=0.0001). The modified τW' to DCP relationship was best described by a power function: τW'=2287.2∗DCP(-0.688)(R(2) = 0.433). The current SKIBA 2 model is not appropriate for use in elite cyclists as it under predicts the recovery rate of W'. The modified τW' equation presented will require validation, but appears more appropriate for high performance athletes. Individual τW' relationships may be necessary in order to maximise the model's validity.

  2. High Speed and High Accuracy Control of Industrial Articulated Robot Arms with Jerk Restraint by Spline Interpolated Taught Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Satoru; Iwanaga, Takuya; Kyura, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    In industrial robot arms, high speed and high accurate operation is required. However in case of high speed operation, it often arises high jerk, i, e., rapid change of acceleration. Jerk causes deterioration of control performance such as vibration of a tip of a robot arm. It is, therefore, important to reduce jerk during robot arm operation. In this research, spline interpolation is used to reduce jerk under torque and speed constraints. Effectiveness of the proposed method was assured by experimental results and simulation results of an actual robot arm.

  3. High-accuracy local positioning network for the alignment of the Mu2e experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejdukova, Jana B. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    This Diploma thesis describes the establishment of a high-precision local positioning network and accelerator alignment for the Mu2e physics experiment. The process of establishing new network consists of few steps: design of the network, pre-analysis, installation works, measurements of the network and making adjustments. Adjustments were performed using two approaches. First is a geodetic approach of taking into account the Earth’s curvature and the metrological approach of a pure 3D Cartesian system on the other side. The comparison of those two approaches is performed and evaluated in the results and compared with expected differences. The effect of the Earth’s curvature was found to be significant for this kind of network and should not be neglected. The measurements were obtained with Absolute Tracker AT401, leveling instrument Leica DNA03 and gyrotheodolite DMT Gyromat 2000. The coordinates of the points of the reference network were determined by the Least Square Meth od and the overall view is attached as Annexes.

  4. High Accuracy ab Initio Calculations of Rotational-Vibrational Levels of the HCN/HNC System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnev, Vladimir Yu; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A; Zobov, Nikolai F; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Polyansky, Oleg L

    2018-02-08

    Highly accurate ab initio calculations of vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels of the HCN/HNC (hydrogen cyanide/hydrogen isocyanide) isomerising system are presented for several isotopologues. All-electron multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) electronic structure calculations were performed using basis sets up to aug-cc-pCV6Z on a grid of 1541 geometries. The ab initio energies were used to produce an analytical potential energy surface (PES) describing the two minima simultaneously. An adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer diagonal correction (BODC) correction surface as well as a relativistic correction surface were also calculated. These surfaces were used to compute vibrational and rotational-vibrational energy levels up to 25 000 cm -1 which reproduce the extensive set of experimentally known HCN/HNC levels with a root-mean-square deviation σ = 1.5 cm -1 . We studied the effect of nonadiabatic effects by introducing opportune radial and angular corrections to the nuclear kinetic energy operator. Empirical determination of two nonadiabatic parameters results in observed energies up to 7000 cm -1 for four HCN isotopologues (HCN, DCN, H 13 CN, and HC 15 N) being reproduced with σ = 0.37 cm -1 . The height of the isomerization barrier, the isomerization energy and the dissociation energy were computed using a number of models; our best results are 16 809.4, 5312.8, and 43 729 cm -1 , respectively.

  5. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.B.; Breyer, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwest by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that forms the reservoir in Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons are trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of a more extensive-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary-mouth bars prograded seaward depositing the bar-finger sands that are the reservoirs in Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present where small down-to-the-north faults associated with the Sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from the established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary-mouth bar coalesced to form a broad delt-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand near the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated deposition of the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields remaining to be discovered in the United States are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps may be a key to finding these subtle traps.

  6. A high-accuracy three-dimensional coordinate digitizing system for reconstructing the geometry of diarthrodial joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, T L; Hull, M L; Howell, S M

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes the design and performance evaluation of a three-dimensional (3-D) coordinate digitizing system (3-DCDS) for measuring both soft and hard biological tissue. The system incorporates a visible semiconducting laser beam and an X-Y positioning table to directly measure 3-D coordinates that define surface points. Experiments conducted to evaluate the performance of the system showed that it delivers an accuracy of 0.1 microm in the Z-direction and 1.4 microm in the X-Y plane, and an overall system root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 8 microm on surfaces with slopes of less than 45 degrees . This error is lower than that of previously reported measurement techniques. The 3-DCDS measures 3-D coordinates of surface points uniformly separated by 500 microm in the X-Y plane. Because the 3-DCDS is automated, the coordinates are measured efficiently and the accuracy is independent of operator skill. These highly accurate coordinates can be easily incorporated into nodal values for 3-D finite element models (FEM) of diarthrodial joints. To show the use of the 3-DCDS, the 3-D surface coordinates of human menisci were measured from a cadaver specimen.

  7. A new TEC interpolation method based on the least squares collocation for high accuracy regional ionospheric maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Paweł; Jarmołowski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    The ionosphere plays a crucial role in space weather that affects satellite navigation as the ionospheric delay is one of the major errors in GNSS. On the other hand, GNSS observations are widely used to determine the amount of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). An important aspect in the electron content estimation at regional and global scale is adopting the appropriate interpolation strategy. In this paper we propose and validate a new method for regional TEC modeling based on least squares collocation (LSC) with noise variance estimation. This method allows for providing accurate TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such maps may be used to support precise GNSS positioning and navigation, e.g. in RTK mode and also in the ionosphere studies. To test applicability of new TEC maps to positioning, double-difference ionospheric corrections were derived from the maps and their accuracy was analyzed. In addition, the corrections were applied to GNSS positioning and validated in ambiguity resolution domain. The tests were carried out during a strong ionospheric storm when the ionosphere is particularly difficult to model. The performance of the new approach was compared to IGS and UPC global, and CODE regional TEC maps. The results showed an advantage of our solution with resulting accuracy of the relative ionospheric corrections usually better than 10 cm, even during the ionospheric disturbances. This proves suitability of our regional TEC maps for, e.g. supporting fast ambiguity resolution in kinematic GNSS positioning.

  8. Exploring the positional identities of high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Edith Lavonne

    The identity of the teacher has been determined to influence classroom practices. Positional identity is defined as one's perception of self relative to others. This qualitative research study investigates the positional identity of five high school science teachers of different ethnicities and how their positional identities influence their classroom practices. Positional identity is thought to be determined by one's perception of how one's race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion and socioeconomic status position one relative to others. The methods of data collection included classroom observations, structured and semi-structured interviews, book club meetings, teacher journals, and researcher journals, demographic and online questionnaires. The teachers that overcame stereotypes based on race/ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic status felt empowered in their positional identities and were able to empower their students. The data also identified those teachers that struggle the most with finding their power within their positional identities were the immigrants that were not able to merge their personal identities within the pre-determined social positions they encountered in this society. The empowerment or powerlessness of the science teachers' positional identities impacted instruction and practices within the science classroom.

  9. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  10. Exploring Students Perception and ICT Use in Indonesian High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Suratno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of technological innovation along with the sophistication of the ICT gadgets have shapped and transformed the realm of learning and teaching including in that of English Language. Alongside, ICT has become more and more inextricable part of human businesses and put a higher level of demand for technological literacy in the part of English learners in order for them to be convident in the digital era membership and participation. This study surveyed 400 high school students as regards: (a their ICT gadgets perceived ownership; (b their day-to-day outside and in-school use and; (c their activities using ICT gadgets for English learning. Findings from the descriptive analyses of the mixed-method study, disclose the positive perception about the gadget ownership. Interestingly, the current study also discovers that there has been a mismatch between the positively perceived ownership of the ICT gadgets and the real day-to-day use as facilitative media for learning, in particular as a useful aids for English language learning. Focusing on the result discussion, issues with regard to discrepancies in the provision of infrastructures and the lack of the support system by school institutions emerge from the FGD analysis highlighting the importance for all decision makers, school institutions, and teachers to consciously start doing something about it. By highlighting the pivotal role of the technology, the researcher suggested a real action for responding to the call for a change in both policy makers and institutonal levels to start integrating the technology into the school curricula.

  11. Simplifying and expanding analytical capabilities for various classes of doping agents by means of direct urine injection high performance liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Wachsmuth, Philipp; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-11-30

    So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography and high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for more than 200 analytes of various classes of doping agents far below the required detection limits in sports drug testing. Here, classic groups of drugs as diuretics, stimulants, β2-agonists, narcotics and anabolic androgenic steroids as well as various newer target compounds like hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), plasma volume expanders and other doping related compounds, listed in the 2016 WADA prohibited list were implemented. As a main achievement, growth hormone releasing peptides could be implemented, which chemically belong to the group of small peptides (0.99), limit of detection (0.1-25ng/mL; 3'OH-stanozolol glucuronide: 50pg/mL; dextran/HES: 10μg/mL) and matrix effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Double-pattern triangular pulse width modulation technique for high-accuracy high-speed 3D shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajun; Jiang, Chufan; Zhang, Song

    2017-11-27

    Using 1-bit binary patterns for three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement has been demonstrated as being advantageous over using 8-bit sinusoidal patterns in terms of achievable speeds. However, the phase quality generated by binary pattern(s) typically are not high if only a small number of phase-shifted patterns are used. This paper proposes a method to improve the phase quality by representing each pattern with the difference of two binary patterns: the first binary pattern is generated by triangular pulse width modulation (TPWM) technique, and the second being π shifted from the first pattern that is also generated by TPWM technique. The phase is retrieved by applying a three-step phase-shifting algorithm to the difference patterns. Through optimizing the modulation frequency of the triangular carrier signal, we demonstrate that a high-quality phase can be generated for a wide range of fringe periods (e.g., from 18 to 1140 pixels) with only six binary patterns. Since only 1-bit binary patterns are required for 3D shape measurement, this paper will present a real-time 3D shape measurement system that can achieve 30 Hz.

  13. Seismic refraction analysis with high accuracy based on traveltime modeling; Basu keisan wo base to shita kussekiho jishin tansa kaiseki no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Hayashi, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the purpose of enhancing the efficiency of analytical processes so that those not equipped with high skill may perform a certain level of analysis and that analysis precision may be improved, some analytical techniques based on path calculation were examined. As the result, a flow of work has become feasible, wherein an early model is constructed by use of a tomography-assisted analysis to be accomplished automatedly and the result is then converted into a layer system with the velocity and thickness to be automatically corrected for the determination of the ultimate velocity layer section. Following this flow of work, almost all the parts of the work may be accomplished automatically once the travel time curve is completed. Furthermore, the calculated travel time obtained by this method can be easily compared with the observed travel time creating an opportunity to show the high reliability of this method, for this to be accepted as a standard for evaluating the accuracy of exploration. It has also been found that this method may be applied to more complicated structures which fail to satisfy the conditions for a structure to be treated by other methods such as `Hagiwara`s method.` 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-19

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  15. Novel technique to suppress hydrocarbon contamination for high accuracy determination of carbon content in steel by FE-EPMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takako; Tanaka, Yuji; Yagoshi, Masayasu; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2016-07-01

    In multiphase steels, control of the carbon contents in the respective phases is the most important factor in alloy design for achieving high strength and high ductility. However, it is unusually difficult to determine the carbon contents in multiphase structures with high accuracy by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) due to the unavoidable effect of hydrocarbon contamination during measurements. We have investigated new methods for suppressing hydrocarbon contamination during field emission (FE) EPMA measurements as well as a conventional liquid nitrogen trap. Plasma cleaner inside the specimen chamber results in a improvement of carbon-content determination by point analysis, increasing precision tenfold from the previous 0.1 mass%C to 0.01 mass%C. Stage heating at about 100 °C dramatically suppresses contamination growth during continuous point measurement and mapping. By the combination of above two techniques, we successfully visualized the two-dimensional carbon distribution in a dual-phase steel. It was also noted that the carbon concentrations at the ferrite/martensite interfaces were not the same across all interfaces, and local variation was observed. The developed technique is expected to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms of mechanical properties and microstructural evolution, thereby contributing to the design of new steel products with superior properties.

  16. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier: a novel device for measuring small electric currents with high accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drung, D; Krause, C; Becker, U; Scherer, H; Ahlers, F J

    2015-02-01

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MΩ reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA's transfer coefficient is highly stable versus time, temperature, and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of ±5 nA. The low noise level of 2.4 fA/√Hz helps to keep averaging times short at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Within one week after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations and drift of the transresistance is about 0.1 parts per million (ppm). The long-term drift is typically 5 ppm/yr. A high-accuracy variant is available that shows improved stability of the input gain at the expense of a higher noise level of 7.5 fA/√Hz. The ULCA also allows the traceable generation of small electric currents or the calibration of high-ohmic resistors.

  17. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  18. The CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery total score detects and predicts Alzheimer disease dementia with high diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Köhler, Mirjam; Bachmann, Cadja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To establish the diagnostic accuracy of the Total Score of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) both for cross-sectional discrimination of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia and short-term prediction of incident AD dementia. Longitudinal cohort study with two assessments at a 1.5-year interval. Primary care sample randomly recruited via medical record registries. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe), a sample of elderly individuals (N = 1,606; mean age: 84 years) was assessed. Subjects were assessed with the CERAD-NP and followed up for 18 months (97.6% follow-up rate). Logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CERAD-NP Total Score (CTS) with that of single CERAD-NP scores and the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE) score. ROC curve analysis resulted in excellent (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.97) cross-sectional discrimination between non-AD and AD dementia subjects. Prediction of incident AD dementia with the CTS was also very good (AUC: 0.89), and was significantly better than prediction based on the MMSE. The cross-sectional results confirm that the CTS is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting AD dementia in elderly primary care patients. In addition, we provide evidence that the CTS is also accurate for the prediction of incident AD dementia. These findings further support the validity of the CTS as an index of overall cognitive functioning for detection and prediction of AD dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE IMPACT OF MODERATE AND HIGH INTENSITY TOTAL BODY FATIGUE ON PASSING ACCURACY IN EXPERT AND NOVICE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lyons

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged importance of fatigue on performance in sport, ecologically sound studies investigating fatigue and its effects on sport-specific skills are surprisingly rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate and high intensity total body fatigue on passing accuracy in expert and novice basketball players. Ten novice basketball players (age: 23.30 ± 1.05 yrs and ten expert basketball players (age: 22.50 ± 0.41 yrs volunteered to participate in the study. Both groups performed the modified AAHPERD Basketball Passing Test under three different testing conditions: rest, moderate intensity and high intensity total body fatigue. Fatigue intensity was established using a percentage of the maximal number of squat thrusts performed by the participant in one minute. ANOVA with repeated measures revealed a significant (F 2,36 = 5.252, p = 0.01 level of fatigue by level of skill interaction. On examination of the mean scores it is clear that following high intensity total body fatigue there is a significant detriment in the passing performance of both novice and expert basketball players when compared to their resting scores. Fundamentally however, the detrimental impact of fatigue on passing performance is not as steep in the expert players compared to the novice players. The results suggest that expert or skilled players are better able to cope with both moderate and high intensity fatigue conditions and maintain a higher level of performance when compared to novice players. The findings of this research therefore, suggest the need for trainers and conditioning coaches in basketball to include moderate, but particularly high intensity exercise into their skills sessions. This specific training may enable players at all levels of the game to better cope with the demands of the game on court and maintain a higher standard of play

  20. Comparison of the temperature accuracy between smart phone based and high-end thermal cameras using a temperature gradient phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H.; van der Veen, Albert; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, low cost smart phone based thermal cameras are being considered to be used in a clinical setting for monitoring physiological temperature responses such as: body temperature change, local inflammations, perfusion changes or (burn) wound healing. These thermal cameras contain uncooled micro-bolometers with an internal calibration check and have a temperature resolution of 0.1 degree. For clinical applications a fast quality measurement before use is required (absolute temperature check) and quality control (stability, repeatability, absolute temperature, absolute temperature differences) should be performed regularly. Therefore, a calibrated temperature phantom has been developed based on thermistor heating on both ends of a black coated metal strip to create a controllable temperature gradient from room temperature 26 °C up to 100 °C. The absolute temperatures on the strip are determined with software controlled 5 PT-1000 sensors using lookup tables. In this study 3 FLIR-ONE cameras and one high end camera were checked with this temperature phantom. The results show a relative good agreement between both low-cost and high-end camera's and the phantom temperature gradient, with temperature differences of 1 degree up to 6 degrees between the camera's and the phantom. The measurements were repeated as to absolute temperature and temperature stability over the sensor area. Both low-cost and high-end thermal cameras measured relative temperature changes with high accuracy and absolute temperatures with constant deviations. Low-cost smart phone based thermal cameras can be a good alternative to high-end thermal cameras for routine clinical measurements, appropriate to the research question, providing regular calibration checks for quality control.

  1. Exploring properties of high-density matter through remnants of neutron-star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauswein, Andreas [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Heidelberg (Germany); Stergioulas, Nikolaos [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Remnants of neutron-star mergers are essentially massive, hot, differentially rotating neutron stars, which are initially strongly oscillating. As such they represent a unique probe for high-density matter because the oscillations are detectable via gravitational-wave measurements and are strongly dependent on the equation of state. The impact of the equation of state for instance is apparent in the frequency of the dominant oscillation mode of the remnant. For a fixed total binary mass a tight relation between the dominant postmerger oscillation frequency and the radii of nonrotating neutron stars exists. Inferring observationally the dominant postmerger frequency thus determines neutron star radii with high accuracy of the order of a few hundred meters. By considering symmetric and asymmetric binaries of the same chirp mass, we show that the knowledge of the binary mass ratio is not critical for this kind of radius measurements. We perform simulations which show that initial intrinsic neutron star rotation is unlikely to affect this method of constraining the high-density equation of state. We also summarize different possibilities about how the postmerger gravitational-wave emission can be employed to deduce the maximum mass of nonrotating neutron stars. We clarify the nature of the three most prominent features of the postmerger gravitational-wave spectrum and argue that the merger remnant can be considered to be a single, isolated, self-gravitating object that can be described by concepts of asteroseismology. We sketch how the consideration of the strength of secondary gravitational-wave peaks leads to a classification scheme of the gravitational-wave emission and postmerger dynamics. The understanding of the different mechanisms shaping the gravitational-wave signal yields a physically motivated analytic model of the gravitational-wave emission, which may form the basis for template-based gravitational-wave data analysis. We explore the observational

  2. DVR3DUV: a Suite for High Accuracy Calculations of Ro-Vibronic Spectra of Triatomic MOLECUlES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Emil J.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a computer code (DVR3DUV) for calculations of high-accuracy ro-vibronic spectra of triatomic molecules. The current implementation is an extension to the DVR3D suite [1], which operates with the exact kinetic energy operator, a single potential energy surface and a single dipole moment surface (ro-vibrational transitions only). The main function of the new code is calculation of transition intensities between different electronic states in the rotational-vibrational resolution. As a case study, two electronic states of SO_2 molecule are considered. Ro-vibrational wavefunctions and energy levels for the ground ˜{X}^1A_1 state of SO_2 are calculated using Ames PES [2], while energy levels and wavefunctions of the ˜{C}^1B_2 state are calculated using ab initio PES (MRCI-F12-AVTZ). Transition intensities are computed using a) Franck-Condon approximation; b) ab initio dipole moment surface between the two electronic states. Results are compared to the latest theoretical and experimental works. Future applications of the DVR3DUV code will focus on highly accurate electronic spectra for atmospherically important species, such as ozone molecule. {1} J. Tennyson, M A. Kostin, P. Barletta, G. J. Harris, O L. Polyansky, J. Ramanlal, N. F. Zobov, Computer Physics Communications 163 (2004) 85-116. {2} X. Huang, D. W. Schwenke, T. J. Lee, J Chem Phys. 2014 ;140(11):11431

  3. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux in the new experimental area nTOF-EAR2 at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate-Gilarte, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Damone, L.; Belloni, F.; Mastromarco, M.; Tagliente, G.; Variale, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Gunsing, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Diakaki, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Dupont, E. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Zugec, P.; Bosnar, D. [University of Zagreb, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Zagreb (Croatia); Vlachoudis, V.; Aberle, O.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Cardella, R.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Ferrari, A.; Kadi, Y.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Montesano, S.; Rubbia, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Chen, Y.H.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/IN2P3 - IPN, Orsay (France); Stamatopoulos, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Vlastou, R. [National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Athens (Greece); Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Guerrero, C.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Villacorta, A. [University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Piscopo, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Catania (Italy); Andrzejewski, J.; Gawlik, A.; Marganiec, J.; Perkowski, J. [University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); Becares, V.; Balibrea, J.; Cano-Ott, D.; Garcia, A.R.; Gonzalez, E.; Martinez, T.; Mendoza, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bacak, M.; Weiss, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Baccomi, R.; Milazzo, P.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Barros, S.; Ferreira, P.; Goncalves, I.F.; Vaz, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Valenta, S. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Beinrucker, C.; Goebel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schmidt, S.; Weigand, M.; Wolf, C. [Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Billowes, J.; Frost, R.J.W.; Ryan, J.A.; Smith, A.G.; Warren, S.; Wright, T. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Caamano, M.; Deo, K.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Paradela, C.; Robles, M.S. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Calvino, F.; Casanovas, A.; Riego-Perez, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Castelluccio, D.M.; Lo Meo, S. [Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie (ENEA), Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Cortes, G.; Mengoni, A. [Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie (ENEA), Bologna (Italy); Domingo-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L. [Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Dressler, R.; Heinitz, S.; Kivel, N.; Maugeri, E.A.; Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villingen (Switzerland); Furman, V.; Sedyshev, P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Mirea, M.; Oprea, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele (Romania); Goverdovski, A.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation); Griesmayer, E.; Jericha, E.; Kavrigin, P.; Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Wien (Austria); Harada, H.; Kimura, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-mura (Japan); Hernandez-Prieto, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Heyse, J.; Schillebeeckx, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (BE); Jenkins, D.G. [University of York, York (GB); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (DE); Katabuchi, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (JP); Lederer, C.; Lonsdale, S.J.; Woods, P.J. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Licata, M.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Mastinu, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Legnaro, Legnaro (IT); Matteucci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (IT); Universita di Trieste, Dipartimento di Astronomia, Trieste (IT); Mingrone, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (CH); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Nolte, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (DE); Palomo-Pinto, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Sevilla (ES); Patronis, N. [University of Ioannina, Ioannina (GR); Pavlik, A. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (AT); Porras, J.I. [University of Granada, Granada (ES); Praena, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (ES); University of Granada, Granada (ES); Rajeev, K.; Rout, P.C.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (IN); Rauscher, T. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Hatfield (GB); University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (CH); Tarifeno-Saldivia, A. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (ES); Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (ES); Ventura, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Wallner, A. [Australian National University, Canberra (AU)

    2017-10-15

    A new high flux experimental area has recently become operational at the nTOF facility at CERN. This new measuring station, nTOF-EAR2, is placed at the end of a vertical beam line at a distance of approximately 20 m from the spallation target. The characterization of the neutron beam, in terms of flux, spatial profile and resolution function, is of crucial importance for the feasibility study and data analysis of all measurements to be performed in the new area. In this paper, the measurement of the neutron flux, performed with different solid-state and gaseous detection systems, and using three neutron-converting reactions considered standard in different energy regions is reported. The results of the various measurements have been combined, yielding an evaluated neutron energy distribution in a wide energy range, from 2 meV to 100 MeV, with an accuracy ranging from 2%, at low energy, to 6% in the high-energy region. In addition, an absolute normalization of the nTOF-EAR2 neutron flux has been obtained by means of an activation measurement performed with {sup 197}Au foils in the beam. (orig.)

  4. Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Hesthaven

    2012-02-06

    Final report for DOE Contract DE-FG02-98ER25346 entitled Parallel High Order Accuracy Methods Applied to Non-Linear Hyperbolic Equations and to Problems in Materials Sciences. Principal Investigator Jan S. Hesthaven Division of Applied Mathematics Brown University, Box F Providence, RI 02912 Jan.Hesthaven@Brown.edu February 6, 2012 Note: This grant was originally awarded to Professor David Gottlieb and the majority of the work envisioned reflects his original ideas. However, when Prof Gottlieb passed away in December 2008, Professor Hesthaven took over as PI to ensure proper mentoring of students and postdoctoral researchers already involved in the project. This unusual circumstance has naturally impacted the project and its timeline. However, as the report reflects, the planned work has been accomplished and some activities beyond the original scope have been pursued with success. Project overview and main results The effort in this project focuses on the development of high order accurate computational methods for the solution of hyperbolic equations with application to problems with strong shocks. While the methods are general, emphasis is on applications to gas dynamics with strong shocks.

  5. High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux in the new experimental area n_TOF-EAR2 at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N.; Gunsing, F.; Žugec, P.; Vlachoudis, V.; Chen, Y. H.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Villacorta, A.; Guerrero, C.; Damone, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthoumieux, E.; Cosentino, L.; Diakaki, M.; Finocchiaro, P.; Musumarra, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Piscopo, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Baccomi, R.; Balibrea, J.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Belloni, F.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Deo, K.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Frost, R. J. W.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Licata, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Palomo-Pinto, F. R.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M. S.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.

    2017-10-01

    A new high flux experimental area has recently become operational at the n_TOF facility at CERN. This new measuring station, n_TOF-EAR2, is placed at the end of a vertical beam line at a distance of approximately 20m from the spallation target. The characterization of the neutron beam, in terms of flux, spatial profile and resolution function, is of crucial importance for the feasibility study and data analysis of all measurements to be performed in the new area. In this paper, the measurement of the neutron flux, performed with different solid-state and gaseous detection systems, and using three neutron-converting reactions considered standard in different energy regions is reported. The results of the various measurements have been combined, yielding an evaluated neutron energy distribution in a wide energy range, from 2meV to 100MeV, with an accuracy ranging from 2%, at low energy, to 6% in the high-energy region. In addition, an absolute normalization of the n_TOF-EAR2 neutron flux has been obtained by means of an activation measurement performed with 197Au foils in the beam.

  6. High sensitivity and accuracy dissolved oxygen (DO) detection by using PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Honglin; Wang, Ying; Tian, Yanqing; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Fluorinated acrylate polymer has received great interest in recent years due to its extraordinary characteristics such as high oxygen permeability, good stability, low surface energy and refractive index. In this work, platinum octaethylporphyrin/poly(methylmethacrylate-co-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA)) oxygen sensing film was prepared by the immobilizing of PtOEP in a poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) matrix and the technological readiness of optical properties was established based on the principle of luminescence quenching. It was found that the oxygen-sensing performance could be improved by optimizing the monomer ratio (MMA/TFEMA = 1:1), tributylphosphate(TBP, 0.05 mL) and PtOEP (5 μg) content. Under this condition, the maximum quenching ratio I0/I100 of the oxygen sensing film is obtained to be about 8.16, Stern-Volmer equation is I0/I = 1.003 + 2.663[O2] (R2 = 0.999), exhibiting a linear relationship, good photo-stability, high sensitivity and accuracy. Finally, the synthesized PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film was used for DO detection in different water samples.

  7. Magnetospheric Plasma Studies Using Data from the Dynamics Explorer High and Low Altitude Plasma Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 62101F 7661 10 AB 11 TITLE (Include...primary observing platform for the research reported here was Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE-l). The DE-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument ( HAPI ) consists of...reported here was Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE-l). The DE-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument ( HAPI ) - consists of five electrostatic analyzers mounted in a fan

  8. High accuracy mass spectrometry analysis as a tool to verify and improve gene annotation using Mycobacterium tuberculosis as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Swati

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the genomic annotations of diverse lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are available, divergences between gene prediction methods are still a challenge for unbiased protein dataset generation. M. tuberculosis gene annotation is an example, where the most used datasets from two independent institutions (Sanger Institute and Institute of Genomic Research-TIGR differ up to 12% in the number of annotated open reading frames, and 46% of the genes contained in both annotations have different start codons. Such differences emphasize the importance of the identification of the sequence of protein products to validate each gene annotation including its sequence coding area. Results With this objective, we submitted a culture filtrate sample from M. tuberculosis to a high-accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer analysis and applied refined N-terminal prediction to perform comparison of two gene annotations. From a total of 449 proteins identified from the MS data, we validated 35 tryptic peptides that were specific to one of the two datasets, representing 24 different proteins. From those, 5 proteins were only annotated in the Sanger database. In the remaining proteins, the observed differences were due to differences in annotation of transcriptional start sites. Conclusion Our results indicate that, even in a less complex sample likely to represent only 10% of the bacterial proteome, we were still able to detect major differences between different gene annotation approaches. This gives hope that high-throughput proteomics techniques can be used to improve and validate gene annotations, and in particular for verification of high-throughput, automatic gene annotations.

  9. High Accuracy Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energies and Line List Calculations for ^{14}NH_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Phillip; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg; Kyuberis, Aleksandra; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a new spectroscopic potential energy surface (PES) for ^{14}NH_3, produced by refining a high accuracy ab initio PES to experimental energy levels taken predominantly from MARVEL. The PES reproduces 1722 matched J=0-8 experimental energies with a root-mean-square error of 0.035 cm-1 under 6000 cm^{-1} and 0.059 under 7200 cm^{-1}. In conjunction with a new DMS calculated using multi reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and H=aug-cc-pVQZ, N=aug-cc-pWCVQZ basis sets, an infrared (IR) line list has been computed which is suitable for use up to 2000 K. The line list is used to assign experimental lines in the 7500 - 10,500 cm^{-1} region and previously unassigned lines in HITRAN in the 6000-7000 cm^{-1} region. Oleg L. Polyansky, Roman I. Ovsyannikov, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Lorenzo Lodi, Jonathan Tennyson, Andrey Yachmenev, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Nikolai F. Zobov, J. Mol. Spec., 327 (2016) 21-30 Afaf R. Al Derzia, Tibor Furtenbacher, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Attila G. Császár, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 161 (2015) 117-130

  10. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-07-27

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations.

  11. Accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography in revealing fallopian canal fracture of patients with traumatic facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chun; He, Benhong; Wang, Xingzheng; Qin, Zhong; Li, Yefeng; Peng, Yongli

    2015-10-01

    To investigate accuracy of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone in revealing fallopian canal fracture among the patients with traumatic facial paralysis. HRCT of temporal bone with cross-sectional scanning and multi-planar reformation (MPR) was performed on 31 patients with traumatic facial paralysis, and fracture sites of fallopian canal revealed by HRCT were retrospectively analyzed and compared with surgical findings. HRCT of temporal bone showed fracture of fallopian canal at geniculate ganglion in 25 cases, at tympanic segment in 15 cases, at labyrinthine segment in 5 cases, at pyramid segment in 2 cases, and at mastoid segment in one case, while surgical findings revealed that fracture involved geniculate ganglion in 27 cases, labyrinthine segment in 5, tympanic segment in 19, pyramid segment in 12, and mastoid segment in 9; the sensitivity of HRCT of temporal bone to detect fracture at such sites was 88.9%, 100%, 52.6%, 16.7% and 11.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 96.0%, 100%, 66.7%, 100% and 100%, respectively. HRCT of temporal bone was able to accurately reveal fracture of fallopian canal at geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine segment in the vast majority cases, but severely underestimated fracture at pyramid segment and mastoid segment of fallopian canal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function at visible and NIR wavelengths – comparison with modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumont

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF were performed for four natural snow samples with a spectrogonio-radiometer in the 500–2600 nm wavelength range. These measurements are one of the first sets of direct snow BRDF values over a wide range of lighting and viewing geometry. They were compared to BRDF calculated with two optical models. Variations of the snow anisotropy factor with lighting geometry, wavelength and snow physical properties were investigated. Results show that at wavelengths with small penetration depth, scattering mainly occurs in the very top layers and the anisotropy factor is controlled by the phase function. In this condition, forward scattering peak or double scattering peak is observed. In contrast at shorter wavelengths, the penetration of the radiation is much deeper and the number of scattering events increases. The anisotropy factor is thus nearly constant and decreases at grazing observation angles. The whole dataset is available on demand from the corresponding author.

  13. The LLNL High Accuracy Volume Renderer for Unstructured Data: Capabilities, Current Limits, and Potential for ASCI/VIEWS Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P L; Max, N L

    2001-06-04

    This report describes a volume rendering system for unstructured data, especially finite element data, that creates images with very high accuracy. The system will currently handle meshes whose cells are either linear or quadratic tetrahedra, or meshes with mixed cell types: tetrahedra, bricks, prisms, and pyramids. The cells may have nonplanar facets. Whenever possible, exact mathematical solutions for the radiance integrals and for interpolation are used. Accurate semitransparent shaded isosurfaces may be embedded in the volume rendering. For very small cells, subpixel accumulation by splatting is used to avoid sampling error. A new exact and efficient visibility ordering algorithm is described. The most accurate images are generated in software, however, more efficient algorithms utilizing graphics hardware may also be selected. The report describes the parallelization of the system for a distributed-shared memory multiprocessor machine, and concludes by discussing the system's limits, desirable future work, and ways to extend the system so as to be compatible with projected ASCI/VIEWS architectures.

  14. Emergence of realism: Enhanced visual artistry and high accuracy of visual numerosity representation after left prefrontal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Saito, Fumie; Muramatsu, Taro; Yamada, Makiko; Shirahase, Joichiro; Tabuchi, Hajime; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Motoichiro

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, evidence of enhancement of drawing and painting skills due to focal prefrontal damage has accumulated. It is of special interest that most artworks created by such patients were highly realistic ones, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be understood. Our hypothesis is that enhanced tendency of realism was associated with accuracy of visual numerosity representation, which has been shown to be mediated predominantly by right parietal functions. Here, we report a case of left prefrontal stroke, where the patient showed enhancement of artistic skills of realistic painting after the onset of brain damage. We investigated cognitive, functional and esthetic characteristics of the patient׳s visual artistry and visual numerosity representation. Neuropsychological tests revealed impaired executive function after the stroke. Despite that, the patient׳s visual artistry related to realism was rather promoted across the onset of brain damage as demonstrated by blind evaluation of the paintings by professional art reviewers. On visual numerical cognition tasks, the patient showed higher performance in comparison with age-matched healthy controls. These results paralleled increased perfusion in the right parietal cortex including the precuneus and intraparietal sulcus. Our data provide new insight into mechanisms underlying change in artistic style due to focal prefrontal lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  16. Linear Discriminant Analysis Achieves High Classification Accuracy for the BOLD fMRI Response to Naturalistic Movie Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelkow, Hendrik; de Zwart, Jacco A; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI). However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and the general linear model (GLM) is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past, this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbor (NN), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB), and (regularized) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie. Results show that LDA regularized by principal component analysis (PCA) achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2 s apart during a 300 s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2 s/300 s). The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  17. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  18. Linear Discriminant Analysis achieves high classification accuracy for the BOLD fMRI response to naturalistic movie stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik eMandelkow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Naturalistic stimuli like movies evoke complex perceptual processes, which are of great interest in the study of human cognition by functional MRI (fMRI. However, conventional fMRI analysis based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM and the general linear model (GLM is hampered by a lack of accurate parametric models of the BOLD response to complex stimuli. In this situation, statistical machine-learning methods, a.k.a. multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA, have received growing attention for their ability to generate stimulus response models in a data-driven fashion. However, machine-learning methods typically require large amounts of training data as well as computational resources. In the past this has largely limited their application to fMRI experiments involving small sets of stimulus categories and small regions of interest in the brain. By contrast, the present study compares several classification algorithms known as Nearest Neighbour (NN, Gaussian Naïve Bayes (GNB, and (regularised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA in terms of their classification accuracy in discriminating the global fMRI response patterns evoked by a large number of naturalistic visual stimuli presented as a movie.Results show that LDA regularised by principal component analysis (PCA achieved high classification accuracies, above 90% on average for single fMRI volumes acquired 2s apart during a 300s movie (chance level 0.7% = 2s/300s. The largest source of classification errors were autocorrelations in the BOLD signal compounded by the similarity of consecutive stimuli. All classifiers performed best when given input features from a large region of interest comprising around 25% of the voxels that responded significantly to the visual stimulus. Consistent with this, the most informative principal components represented widespread distributions of co-activated brain regions that were similar between subjects and may represent functional networks. In light of these

  19. High Accuracy Microwave Frequency Measurement Based on Single-Drive Dual-Parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for broadband microwave frequency measurement based on bias manipulation of a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 10-3 relative error verifies a significant accuracy improvement by this method....

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of GPs when using an early-intervention decision support system: a high-fidelity simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Olga; Porat, Talya; Corrigan, Derek; Mahmoud, Samhar; Delaney, Brendan C

    2017-03-01

    Observational and experimental studies of the diagnostic task have demonstrated the importance of the first hypotheses that come to mind for accurate diagnosis. A prototype decision support system (DSS) designed to support GPs' first impressions has been integrated with a commercial electronic health record (EHR) system. To evaluate the prototype DSS in a high-fidelity simulation. Within-participant design: 34 GPs consulted with six standardised patients (actors) using their usual EHR. On a different day, GPs used the EHR with the integrated DSS to consult with six other patients, matched for difficulty and counterbalanced. Entering the reason for encounter triggered the DSS, which provided a patient-specific list of potential diagnoses, and supported coding of symptoms during the consultation. At each consultation, GPs recorded their diagnosis and management. At the end, they completed a usability questionnaire. The actors completed a satisfaction questionnaire after each consultation. There was an 8-9% absolute improvement in diagnostic accuracy when the DSS was used. This improvement was significant (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13 to 1.77, P<0.01). There was no associated increase of investigations ordered or consultation length. GPs coded significantly more data when using the DSS (mean 12.35 with the DSS versus 1.64 without), and were generally satisfied with its usability. Patient satisfaction ratings were the same for consultations with and without the DSS. The DSS prototype was successfully employed in simulated consultations of high fidelity, with no measurable influences on patient satisfaction. The substantially increased data coding can operate as motivation for future DSS adoption. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. Generation of a high-accuracy regional DEM based on ALOS/PRISM imagery of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Kaoru; Doi, Koichiro; Aoyama, Yuichi

    2017-12-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) is used to estimate ice-flow velocities for an ice sheet and glaciers via Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) processing. The accuracy of DInSAR-derived displacement estimates depends upon the accuracy of the DEM. Therefore, we used stereo optical images, obtained with a panchromatic remote-sensing instrument for stereo mapping (PRISM) sensor mounted onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), to produce a new DEM ("PRISM-DEM") of part of the coastal region of Lützow-Holm Bay in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. We verified the accuracy of the PRISM-DEM by comparing ellipsoidal heights with those of existing DEMs and values obtained by satellite laser altimetry (ICESat/GLAS) and Global Navigation Satellite System surveying. The accuracy of the PRISM-DEM is estimated to be 2.80 m over ice sheet, 4.86 m over individual glaciers, and 6.63 m over rock outcrops. By comparison, the estimated accuracy of the ASTER-GDEM, widely used in polar regions, is 33.45 m over ice sheet, 14.61 m over glaciers, and 19.95 m over rock outcrops. For displacement measurements made along the radar line-of-sight by DInSAR, in conjunction with ALOS/PALSAR data, the accuracy of the PRISM-DEM and ASTER-GDEM correspond to estimation errors of <6.3 mm and <31.8 mm, respectively.

  2. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of methane prediction equations for beef cattle fed high-forage and high-grain diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Bahamondes, P; Oba, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-01-01

    The study determined the performance of equations to predict enteric methane (CH4) from beef cattle fed forage- and grain-based diets. Many equations are available to predict CH4 from beef cattle and the predictions vary substantially among equations. The aims were to (1) construct a database of CH4 emissions for beef cattle from published literature, and (2) identify the most precise and accurate extant CH4 prediction models for beef cattle fed diets varying in forage content. The database was comprised of treatment means of CH4 production from in vivo beef studies published from 2000 to 2015. Criteria to include data in the database were as follows: animal description, intakes, diet composition and CH4 production. In all, 54 published equations that predict CH4 production from diet composition were evaluated. Precision and accuracy of the equations were evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient (r c ), root mean square prediction error (RMSPE), model efficiency and analysis of errors. Equations were ranked using a combined index of the various statistical assessments based on principal component analysis. The final database contained 53 studies and 207 treatment means that were divided into two data sets: diets containing ⩾400 g/kg dry matter (DM) forage (n=116) and diets containing ⩽200 g/kg DM forage (n=42). Diets containing between ⩽400 and ⩾200 g/kg DM forage were not included in the analysis because of their limited numbers (n=6). Outliers, treatment means where feed was fed restrictively and diets with CH4 mitigation additives were omitted (n=43). Using the high-forage dataset the best-fit equations were the International Panel on Climate Change Tier 2 method, 3 equations for steers that considered gross energy intake (GEI) and body weight and an equation that considered dry matter intake and starch:neutral detergent fiber with r c ranging from 0.60 to 0.73 and RMSPE from 35.6 to 45.9 g/day. For the high-grain diets, the 5 best

  3. Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project. High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, Brian D. [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada); Smith, Nicole [Nevada Geothermal Power Company, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-06-10

    The Crump Geyser Exploration and Drilling Project – High Precision Geophysics and Detailed Structural Exploration and Slim Well Drilling ran from January 29, 2010 to September 30, 2013. During Phase 1 of the project, collection of all geophysical surveys was completed as outlined in the Statement of Project Objectives. In addition, a 5000-foot full sized exploration well was drilled by Ormat, and preexisting drilling data was discovered for multiple temperature gradient wells within the project area. Three dimensional modeling and interpretation of results from the geophysical surveys and drilling data gave confidence to move to the project into Phase 2 drilling. Geological and geophysical survey interpretations combined with existing downhole temperature data provided an ideal target for the first slim-hole drilled as the first task in Phase 2. Slim-hole 35-34 was drilled in September 2011 and tested temperature, lithology, and permeability along the primary range-bounding fault zone near its intersection with buried northwest-trending faults that have been identified using geophysical methods. Following analysis of the results of the first slim-hole 35-34, the second slim hole was not drilled and subsequent project tasks, including flowing differential self-potential (FDSP) surveys that were designed to detail the affect of production and injection on water flow in the shallow aquifer, were not completed. NGP sold the Crump project to Ormat in August 2014, afterwards, there was insufficient time and interest from Ormat available to complete the project objectives. NGP was unable to continue managing the award for a project they did not own due to liability issues and Novation of the award was not a viable option due to federal award timelines. NGP submitted a request to mutually terminate the award on February 18, 2015. The results of all of the technical surveys and drilling are included in this report. Fault interpretations from surface geology, aeromag

  4. Predicting change over time in career planning and career exploration for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A; Patton, Wendy; Prideaux, Lee-Ann

    2007-06-01

    This study assessed 166 high school students in Grade 8 and again in Grade 10. Four models were tested: (a) whether the T1 predictor variables (career knowledge, indecision, decision-making self efficacy, self-esteem, demographics) predicted the outcome variable (career planning/exploration) at T1; (b) whether the T1 predictor variables predicted the outcome variable at T2; (c) whether the T1 predictor variables predicted change in the outcome variable from T1-T2; and (d) whether changes in the predictor variables from T1-T2 predicted change in the outcome variable from T1-T2. Strong associations (R(2)=34%) were identified for the T1 analysis (confidence, ability and paid work experience were positively associated with career planning/exploration). T1 variables were less useful predictors of career planning/exploration at T2 (R(2)=9%; having more confidence at T1 was associated with more career planning/exploration at T2) and change in career planning/exploration from T1-T2 (R(2)=11%; less confidence and no work experience were associated with change in career planning/exploration from T1-T2). When testing effect of changes in predictor variables predicting changes in outcome variable (R(2)=22%), three important predictors, indecision, work experience and confidence, were identified. Overall, results indicated important roles for self-efficacy and early work experiences in current and future career planning/exploration of high school students.

  5. Interactive Data Exploration for High-Performance Fluid Flow Computations through Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Perovic, Nevena

    2014-09-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Huge data advent in high-performance computing (HPC) applications such as fluid flow simulations usually hinders the interactive processing and exploration of simulation results. Such an interactive data exploration not only allows scientiest to \\'play\\' with their data but also to visualise huge (distributed) data sets in both an efficient and easy way. Therefore, we propose an HPC data exploration service based on a sliding window concept, that enables researches to access remote data (available on a supercomputer or cluster) during simulation runtime without exceeding any bandwidth limitations between the HPC back-end and the user front-end.

  6. Exploring the Relative Effectiveness of Reading Interventions for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Laura; Torgesen, Joseph; Vogel, William; Chanter, Carol; Lefsky, Evan; Petscher, Yaacov

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relative effectiveness of intensive reading interventions for struggling high school readers. A yearlong randomized control study was conducted to estimate causal effects, as measured by the criterion-referenced state assessment test, for 1,265 ninth-grade students in 89 classes across 7 high schools…

  7. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  8. A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangote, B.; Gallais, L.; Zerrad, M.; Lemarchand, F.; Gao, L. H.; Commandré, M.; Lequime, M.

    2012-01-01

    A laser damage test facility delivering pulses from 100 fs to 3 ps and designed to operate at 1030 nm is presented. The different details of its implementation and performances are given. The originality of this system relies the online damage detection system based on Nomarski microscopy and the use of a non-conventional energy detection method based on the utilization of a cooled CCD that offers the possibility to obtain the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) with high accuracy. Applications of this instrument to study thin films under laser irradiation are presented. Particularly the deterministic behavior of the sub-picosecond damage is investigated in the case of fused silica and oxide films. It is demonstrated that the transition of 0-1 damage probability is very sharp and the LIDT is perfectly deterministic at few hundreds of femtoseconds. The damage process in dielectric materials being the results of electronic processes, specific information such as the material bandgap is needed for the interpretation of results and applications of scaling laws. A review of the different approaches for the estimation of the absorption gap of optical dielectric coatings is conducted and the results given by the different methods are compared and discussed. The LIDT and gap of several oxide materials are then measured with the presented instrument: Al2O3, Nb2O5, HfO2, SiO2, Ta2O5, and ZrO2. The obtained relation between the LIDT and gap at 1030 nm confirms the linear evolution of the threshold with the bandgap that exists at 800 nm, and our work expands the number of tested materials.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE antibodies measurements in occupational airway allergy to high molecular weight agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zgorzelska-Kowalik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance of specific inhalation challenge test (SICT – reference method in diagnostics of occupational allergy – has some limitations due to health status of a particular patient. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify usefulness of other tests, and the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of commercially available serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE kits to the most common high molecular weight agents has been launched. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 141 subjects – 110 bakers and 31 farmers – with suspicion of occupational airway allergy. All patients underwent evaluation of serum sIgE to occupational allergens with the use of Phadia and Allergopharma kits: in bakers to flour mix and α-amylase, in farmers to epithelium of cow, pig and feathers. Specific inhalation challenge test with workplace allergens performed in all subjects was a reference method for further analysis. Results: Serum specific IgE to flour mix had the highest sensitivity (Phadia – 95.6%, Allergopharma – 88.3%, while its specificity was relatively low (Phadia – 47.8%, Allergopharma – 25%. There were numerous discrepancies between the results of sIgE estimation for particular single allergens (k87, e4, e83, as well as for their mixtures (fx901, fx20, ex71, performed with the kits of both companies (Phadia vs. Allergopharma. Conclusions: Evaluation of serum specific IgE is characterized by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive value to take the place of specific inhalation challenge test in diagnostics of occupational respiratory allergy. Med Pr 2017;68(1:31–43

  10. Anti-aliasing filters for deriving high-accuracy DEMs from TLS data: A case study from Freeport, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lin.; Wang, Guoquan; Wessel, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also known as ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), has been frequently applied to build bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) for high-accuracy geomorphology studies. The point clouds acquired from TLS often achieve a spatial resolution at fingerprint (e.g., 3 cm×3 cm) to handprint (e.g., 10 cm×10 cm) level. A downsampling process has to be applied to decimate the massive point clouds and obtain manageable DEMs. It is well known that downsampling can result in aliasing that causes different signal components to become indistinguishable when the signal is reconstructed from the datasets with a lower sampling rate. Conventional DEMs are mainly the results of upsampling of sparse elevation measurements from land surveying, satellite remote sensing, and aerial photography. As a consequence, the effects of aliasing caused by downsampling have not been fully investigated in the open literature of DEMs. This study aims to investigate the spatial aliasing problem of regridding dense TLS data. The TLS data collected from the beach and dune area near Freeport, Texas in the summer of 2015 are used for this study. The core idea of the anti-aliasing procedure is to apply a low-pass spatial filter prior to conducting downsampling. This article describes the successful use of a fourth-order Butterworth low-pass spatial filter employed in the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software package as an anti-aliasing filter. The filter can be applied as an isotropic filter with a single cutoff wavelength or as an anisotropic filter with two different cutoff wavelengths in the X and Y directions. The cutoff wavelength for the isotropic filter is recommended to be three times the grid size of the target DEM.

  11. Exploring the Impact of Visual Complexity Levels in 3d City Models on the Accuracy of Individuals' Orientation and Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, V.; Çöltekin, A.; Coetzee, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report results from a qualitative user experiment (n=107) designed to contribute to understanding the impact of various levels of complexity (mainly based on levels of detail, i.e., LoD) in 3D city models, specifically on the participants' orientation and cognitive (mental) maps. The experiment consisted of a number of tasks motivated by spatial cognition theory where participants (among other things) were given orientation tasks, and in one case also produced sketches of a path they `travelled' in a virtual environment. The experiments were conducted in groups, where individuals provided responses on an answer sheet. The preliminary results based on descriptive statistics and qualitative sketch analyses suggest that very little information (i.e., a low LoD model of a smaller area) might have a negative impact on the accuracy of cognitive maps constructed based on a virtual experience. Building an accurate cognitive map is an inherently desired effect of the visualizations in planning tasks, thus the findings are important for understanding how to develop better-suited 3D visualizations such as 3D city models. In this study, we specifically discuss the suitability of different levels of visual complexity for development planning (urban planning), one of the domains where 3D city models are most relevant.

  12. Context, accuracy, and level of inclusion of nature of science concepts in current high school physics textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamrani, Saeed Mohammed

    To improve K-12 students' images of the nature of science (NOS) through science textbooks, two issues must be addressed: (a) the level of NOS that ought to be included in science textbooks and (b) the treatment of this level in those textbooks. Science educators achieved a consensus level of agreement regarding what NOS aspects should be taught for K-12 science learners; however, there is a need for more clarification regarding the actual treatment of NOS in science textbooks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the NOS inclusion in high school physics textbooks. To be specific, this study examines the included NOS aspects, the frequency of NOS inclusion, the contexts exist for NOS inclusion, and the accuracy of NOS inclusion. This study utilized 12 science education studies to develop the Master Aspects of Nature of Science [MA-NOS] which includes 12 NOS aspects that ought to be included in K-12 science curriculum. The analyzed textbooks in this study are seven textbooks identified by The American Institute of Physics as the most widely used high school physics textbooks in the United States in 2005. These textbooks were used in teaching five academic levels: (a) Regular First-Year Physics, (b) Physics for Non-Science Students, (c) Honors Physics, (d) AP-B Physics, and (e) AP-C Physics. The researcher selected exclusively physics textbooks because physics is his main interest. To facilitate the content analysis of the selected textbooks, the study developed The Collection Data Coding Guide which includes six parts describing the MA-NOS aspects and the process of identifying and collecting data. For each NOS aspect, a description and one or more selected ideal indicators were provided to facilitate data collecting and judging the accuracy of NOS inclusion. This coding guide was reviewed for its content validity by two science educators who specialize in NOS. However, two types of reliability were conducted to identify the consistency of selecting NOS units

  13. Strategy for high-accuracy-and-precision retrieval of atmospheric methane from the mid-infrared FTIR network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a strategy (MIR-GBM v1.0 for the retrieval of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4 with a precision <0.3% (1-σ diurnal variation, 7-min integration and a seasonal bias <0.14% from mid-infrared ground-based solar FTIR measurements of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, comprising 22 FTIR stations. This makes NDACC methane data useful for satellite validation and for the inversion of regional-scale sources and sinks in addition to long-term trend analysis. Such retrievals complement the high accuracy and precision near-infrared observations of the younger Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON with time series dating back 15 years or so before TCCON operations began.

    MIR-GBM v1.0 is using HITRAN 2000 (including the 2001 update release and 3 spectral micro windows (2613.70–2615.40 cm−1, 2835.50–2835.80 cm−1, 2921.00–2921.60 cm−1. A first-order Tikhonov constraint is applied to the state vector given in units of per cent of volume mixing ratio. It is tuned to achieve minimum diurnal variation without damping seasonality. Final quality selection of the retrievals uses a threshold for the goodness of fit (χ2 < 1 as well as for the ratio of root-mean-square spectral noise and information content (<0.15%. Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions are calculated using the retrieved methane profiles and four-times-daily pressure-temperature-humidity profiles from National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP interpolated to the time of measurement.

    MIR-GBM v1.0 is the optimum of 24 tested retrieval strategies (8 different spectral micro-window selections, 3 spectroscopic line lists: HITRAN 2000, 2004, 2008. Dominant errors of the non-optimum retrieval strategies are systematic HDO/H2O-CH4 interference errors leading to a seasonal bias up to ≈5%. Therefore interference

  14. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  15. High-accuracy and high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongming; Wu, Tao; Lauraguais, Amélie; Semenov, Vladimir; Coeur, Cecile; Cassez, Andy; Fertein, Eric; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong

    2017-09-15

    A spectroscopic instrument based on a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) was developed for high-accuracy measurements of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) at the ppbv-level. A specific concentration retrieval algorithm was developed to remove, from the broadband absorption spectrum of N2O5, both etalon fringes resulting from the EC-QCL intrinsic structure and spectral interference lines of H2O vapour absorption, which led to a significant improvement in measurement accuracy and detection sensitivity (by a factor of 10), compared to using a traditional algorithm for gas concentration retrieval. The developed EC-QCL-based N2O5 sensing platform was evaluated by real-time tracking N2O5 concentration in its most important nocturnal tropospheric chemical reaction of NO3 + NO2 ↔ N2O5 in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Based on an optical absorption path-length of Leff = 70 m, a minimum detection limit of 15 ppbv was achieved with a 25 s integration time and it was down to 3 ppbv in 400 s. The equilibrium rate constant Keq involved in the above chemical reaction was determined with direct concentration measurements using the developed EC-QCL sensing platform, which was in good agreement with the theoretical value deduced from a referenced empirical formula under well controlled experimental conditions. The present work demonstrates the potential and the unique advantage of the use of a modern external cavity quantum cascade laser for applications in direct quantitative measurement of broadband absorption of key molecular species involved in chemical kinetic and climate-change related tropospheric chemistry.

  16. High Sensitive Precise 3D Accelerometer for Solar System Exploration with Unmanned Spacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenko, Y. V.; Demyanenko, P. O.; Zinkovskiy, Y. F.

    measuring, by analogue FOS, has been ˜ 10-4 %. Substantially accessible values are yet worse on 2-3 order. The reason of poor precise performances of measurers on the basis of analogue FOS is metrologically poor quality of a stream of optical radiation carrying out role of the carrier and receptor of the information. It is a high level of photon noise and a small blanket intensity level. First reason reflects the fact of discreteness of flow of high-energy photons, and it is consequence of second one - smallness, on absolute value, of inserted power into OF from available radiation sources (RS). Works on improvement of FO elements are carrying out. Certainly, it will be created RS allow to insert enough of power into standard OF. But simple increasing of optical flow power in measuring path of FOS will not be able to decide radically the problem of increasing of measuring prices: with raising of power in proportion of square root of its value there is raising a power of photon noises - 1000-times increase of power promises only 30-times increase of measuring precise; insertion into OF more large power (˜ 1 W for standard silicon OF) causes an appearance of non-linear effects in it, which destroying an operating principle of analogue FOS. Thus, it is needed to constatate impossibility of building, at that time, measurers of analogue FOS, concurated with traditional (electrical) measurers on measuring precise. At that all, advantages of FO, as basis of building of FO MD requires to find ways for decision of these problems. Analysis of problem of sensitivity of usual (analogue) FOS has brought us to conclusion about necessity of reviewing of principles of information signal forming in FOS and principles its next electronic processing. For radical increasing of accuracy of measurements with using FOS it is necessary to refuse analogue modulation of optical flow and to transfer to discreet its modulations, entering thus in optical flow new, non-optical, parameters, which will

  17. The accuracy of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in detecting depression and measuring depression severity in high-risk groups in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittkampf, K.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Baas, K.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Schene, A.; Bindels, P.; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Weert, H. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Only half of patients with depressive disorder are diagnosed by their family physicians. Screening in high-risk groups might reduce this hidden morbidity. This study aims to determine the accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) in (a) screening for depressive disorder, (b)

  18. High Accuracy Radiation TSP-type Thermometers for Radiometric Scale Realization in the Temperature Range from 600 to 3200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylov, M. L.; Ogarev, S. A.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Khromchenko, V. B.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2003-09-01

    We have designed at VNIIOFI a high-accuracy radiation thermometer, model TSP-2 (Transfer Standard Pyrometer), for radiometric scale dissemination within the temperature range from 600°C to 3200 °C. This thermometer has been recently modified and investigated. The new TSP-4 model of radiation thermometer is under development now.

  19. Continuous assessment of land mapping accuracy at High Resolution from global networks of atmospheric and field observatories -concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Martin-lauzer, François-regis

    2017-04-01

    In the context of global climate change and adjustment/resilience policies' design and implementation, there is a need not only i. for environmental monitoring, e.g. through a range of Earth Observations (EO) land "products" but ii. for a precise assessment of uncertainties of the aforesaid information that feed environmental decision-making (to be introduced in the EO metadata) and also iii. for a perfect handing of the thresholds which help translate "environment tolerance limits" to match detected EO changes through ecosystem modelling. Uncertainties' insight means precision and accuracy's knowledge and subsequent ability of setting thresholds for change detection systems. Traditionally, the validation of satellite-derived products has taken the form of intensive field campaigns to sanction the introduction of data processors in Payload Data Ground Segments chains. It is marred by logistical challenges and cost issues, reason why it is complemented by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites which can provide near-continuous observations at a high temporal resolution (e.g. RadCalNet). Unfortunately, most of the ground-level monitoring sites, in the number of 100th or 1000th, which are part of wider observation networks (e.g. FLUXNET, NEON, IMAGINES) mainly monitor the state of the atmosphere and the radiation exchange at the surface, which are different to the products derived from EO data. In addition they are "point-based" compared to the EO cover to be obtained from Sentinel-2 or Sentinel-3. Yet, data from these networks, processed by spatial extrapolation models, are well-suited to the bottom-up approach and relevant to the validation of vegetation parameters' consistency (e.g. leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Consistency means minimal errors on spatial and temporal gradients of EO products. Test of the procedure for land-cover products' consistency assessment with field measurements delivered by worldwide

  20. GDP: A new source for shallow high-resolution seismic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Mohamed A.

    2009-06-01

    Gas-Driven Piston (GDP) is a new source for shallow seismic exploration. This source works by igniting a small amount of gas inside a closed chamber connected to a vertical steel cylinder. The gas explosion drives a steel piston, mounted inside the cylinder, downward so that the piston's thick head hits a steel base at the end of the cylinder generating a strong shock wave into the ground. Experimental field tests conducted near Ismailia, Egypt, prove that the portable, inexpensive and environmentally benign GDP generates stronger seismic waves than the sledgehammer that is commonly used in shallow seismic exploration. Tests also show that GDP is a highly repeatable and controllable and that its seismic waves contain a good amount of high frequencies which makes the GDP an excellent source for shallow seismic exploration.

  1. Performing elemental microanalysis with high accuracy and high precision by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    Electron-excited X-ray microanalysis performed in the scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a core technique for characterization of the microstructure of materials. The recent advances in EDS performance with the silicon drift detector (SDD) enable accuracy and precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength-dispersive spectrometer employed on the electron probe microanalyzer platform. SDD-EDS throughput, resolution, and stability provide practical operating conditions for measurement of high-count spectra that form the basis for peak fitting procedures that recover the characteristic peak intensities even for elemental combination where severe peak overlaps occur, such PbS, MoS2, BaTiO3, SrWO4, and WSi2. Accurate analyses are also demonstrated for interferences involving large concentration ratios: a major constituent on a minor constituent (Ba at 0.4299 mass fraction on Ti at 0.0180) and a major constituent on a trace constituent (Ba at 0.2194 on Ce at 0.00407; Si at 0.1145 on Ta at 0.0041). Accurate analyses of low atomic number elements, C, N, O, and F, are demonstrated. Measurement of trace constituents with limits of detection below 0.001 mass fraction (1000 ppm) is possible within a practical measurement time of 500 s.

  2. Fine-Motion-Control Method for Realizing High-Accuracy and High-Speed Contact Motion of Industrial Robots by Employing Sensorless Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Naoki; Yoshioka, Takashi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Miyazaki, Toshimasa

    This paper proposes a new fine-motion-control method for realizing high-accuracy and high-speed contact motion of industrial robots by employing sensorless force control. Today, although industrial robots have become considerably important in the modern industrial society, their functions are limited. A typical limited function is the positioning motion control of robots used in the manufacturing industry. Contact motion is necessary for almost all new applications. In this study, by employing the proposed motion control, smooth and quick contact motion of industrial robots is realized by using a sensorless I-P (Integral-Proportional) force feedback controller. The proposed method is simple and effective, takes into account both the inertia of a robot and the behavior of the I-P force controller. In the experiments, a three-degree-of-freedom robot is brought into contact with an object (a concrete block or a rubber board) by the I-P force control using the proposed method. Further, in the experiment, the motion of the robot's end-effector was considered. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by using a six-axis force sensor and an acceleration sensor in the contact motion experiments.

  3. Exploring Rural High School Learners' Experience of Mathematics Anxiety in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, Dipane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 learners doing mathematics in…

  4. Dress Codes Blues: An Exploration of Urban Students' Reactions to a Public High School Uniform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCosta, Kneia

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explores the responses of 22 U.S. urban public high school students when confronted with their newly imposed school uniform policy. Specifically, the study assessed students' appraisals of the policy along with compliance and academic performance. Guided by ecological human development perspectives and grounded in…

  5. Scaling Personalization: Exploring the Implementation of an Academic and Social-Emotional Innovation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Brown, Stephanie; Petrova, Kitchka

    2017-01-01

    Scaling in educational settings has tended to focus on replication of external programs with less focus on the nature of adaptation. In this article, we explore the scaling of Personalization for Academic and Social-emotional Learning (PASL), a systemic high school reform effort that was intentionally identified, developed, and implemented with…

  6. Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

    2011-01-01

    With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

  7. Classroom Interactions: Exploring the Practices of High- and Low-Expectation Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie-Davies, Christine M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Early research exploring teacher expectations concentrated on the dyadic classroom interactions of teachers with individual students. More recent studies have shown whole class factors to have more significance in portraying teachers' expectations. Recently teachers having high or low expectations for all their students have been…

  8. Health Care, Heal Thyself! An Exploration of What Drives (and Sustains) High Performance in Organizations Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason A.

    2008-01-01

    What happens when researching the radical unveils the simplest of solutions? This article tells the story of the 2007 ISPI Annual Conference Encore Presentation, Healthcare, Heal Thyself, sharing the findings of an exploration into high-performance health care facilities and their relevance to all organizations today. It shows how to overcome…

  9. Exploring options to combine high yields with high nitrogen use efficiencies in irrigated rice in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Keulen, van H.; Cao, W.

    2007-01-01

    In Jiangsu province, Southeast China, high irrigated rice yields (6-8000 kg ha(-1)) are supported by high nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs (260-300 kg N ha(-1)) and low fertilizer N use efficiencies (recoveries of 30-35%). Improvement of fertilizer N use efficiency can increase farmers' profitability

  10. Research on the classification result and accuracy of building windows in high resolution satellite images: take the typical rural buildings in Guangxi, China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baishou; Gao, Yujiu

    2015-12-01

    The information extracted from the high spatial resolution remote sensing images has become one of the important data sources of the GIS large scale spatial database updating. The realization of the building information monitoring using the high resolution remote sensing, building small scale information extracting and its quality analyzing has become an important precondition for the applying of the high-resolution satellite image information, because of the large amount of regional high spatial resolution satellite image data. In this paper, a clustering segmentation classification evaluation method for the high resolution satellite images of the typical rural buildings is proposed based on the traditional KMeans clustering algorithm. The factors of separability and building density were used for describing image classification characteristics of clustering window. The sensitivity of the factors influenced the clustering result was studied from the perspective of the separability between high image itself target and background spectrum. This study showed that the number of the sample contents is the important influencing factor to the clustering accuracy and performance, the pixel ratio of the objects in images and the separation factor can be used to determine the specific impact of cluster-window subsets on the clustering accuracy, and the count of window target pixels (Nw) does not alone affect clustering accuracy. The result can provide effective research reference for the quality assessment of the segmentation and classification of high spatial resolution remote sensing images.

  11. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 6: Cost, accuracy and consistency comparisons of land use maps made from high-altitude aircraft photography and ERTS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Fitzpatrick, K. A.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Level 2 land use maps produced at three scales (1:24,000, 1:100,000, and 1:250,000) from high altitude photography were compared with each other and with point data obtained in the field. The same procedures were employed to determine the accuracy of the Level 1 land use maps produced at 1:250,000 from high altitude photography and color composite ERTS imagery. Accuracy of the Level 2 maps was 84.9 percent at 1:24,000, 77.4 percent at 1:100,000 and 73.0 percent at 1:250,000. Accuracy of the Level 1 1:250,000 maps was 76.5 percent for aerial photographs and 69.5 percent for ERTS imagery. The cost of Level 2 land use mapping at 1:24,000 was found to be high ($11.93 per sq km). The cost of mapping at 1:100,000 ($1.75) was about two times as expensive as mapping at 1:250,000 ($.88), and the accuracy increased by only 4.4 percent.

  12. Canopy Temperature and Vegetation Indices from High-Throughput Phenotyping Improve Accuracy of Pedigree and Genomic Selection for Grain Yield in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkoski, Jessica; Poland, Jesse; Mondal, Suchismita; Autrique, Enrique; Pérez, Lorena González; Crossa, José; Reynolds, Matthew; Singh, Ravi

    2016-09-08

    Genomic selection can be applied prior to phenotyping, enabling shorter breeding cycles and greater rates of genetic gain relative to phenotypic selection. Traits measured using high-throughput phenotyping based on proximal or remote sensing could be useful for improving pedigree and genomic prediction model accuracies for traits not yet possible to phenotype directly. We tested if using aerial measurements of canopy temperature, and green and red normalized difference vegetation index as secondary traits in pedigree and genomic best linear unbiased prediction models could increase accuracy for grain yield in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., using 557 lines in five environments. Secondary traits on training and test sets, and grain yield on the training set were modeled as multivariate, and compared to univariate models with grain yield on the training set only. Cross validation accuracies were estimated within and across-environment, with and without replication, and with and without correcting for days to heading. We observed that, within environment, with unreplicated secondary trait data, and without correcting for days to heading, secondary traits increased accuracies for grain yield by 56% in pedigree, and 70% in genomic prediction models, on average. Secondary traits increased accuracy slightly more when replicated, and considerably less when models corrected for days to heading. In across-environment prediction, trends were similar but less consistent. These results show that secondary traits measured in high-throughput could be used in pedigree and genomic prediction to improve accuracy. This approach could improve selection in wheat during early stages if validated in early-generation breeding plots. Copyright © 2016 Rutkoski et al.

  13. Canopy Temperature and Vegetation Indices from High-Throughput Phenotyping Improve Accuracy of Pedigree and Genomic Selection for Grain Yield in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rutkoski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection can be applied prior to phenotyping, enabling shorter breeding cycles and greater rates of genetic gain relative to phenotypic selection. Traits measured using high-throughput phenotyping based on proximal or remote sensing could be useful for improving pedigree and genomic prediction model accuracies for traits not yet possible to phenotype directly. We tested if using aerial measurements of canopy temperature, and green and red normalized difference vegetation index as secondary traits in pedigree and genomic best linear unbiased prediction models could increase accuracy for grain yield in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., using 557 lines in five environments. Secondary traits on training and test sets, and grain yield on the training set were modeled as multivariate, and compared to univariate models with grain yield on the training set only. Cross validation accuracies were estimated within and across-environment, with and without replication, and with and without correcting for days to heading. We observed that, within environment, with unreplicated secondary trait data, and without correcting for days to heading, secondary traits increased accuracies for grain yield by 56% in pedigree, and 70% in genomic prediction models, on average. Secondary traits increased accuracy slightly more when replicated, and considerably less when models corrected for days to heading. In across-environment prediction, trends were similar but less consistent. These results show that secondary traits measured in high-throughput could be used in pedigree and genomic prediction to improve accuracy. This approach could improve selection in wheat during early stages if validated in early-generation breeding plots.

  14. Coping without doping: Exploring associations between psychological stress and chemical assistance in high performance rugby.

    OpenAIRE

    Didymus, FF; Backhouse, SH

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between rugby players’ stressful experiences, their coping resources, and their use of chemical assistance.\\ud DESIGN: A qualitative research design was adopted. Lazarus’ (1999) cognitive-motivational-relational theory was used as the theoretical lens to address the study objectives.\\ud METHODS: Ten male (n=7) and female (n=3) high level rugby league and union players (Mage = 22.6, SD = 2.80) were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. A high level p...

  15. High angular accuracy manufacture method of micro v-grooves based on tool alignment by on-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Jiang, Lili; Zeng, Zhen; Fang, Fengzhou; Liu, Xianlei

    2015-10-19

    Micro v-groove has found wide applications in optical areas as one of the most important structures. However, its performance is significantly affected by its angular geometry accuracy. The diamond cutting has been commonly used as the fabrication method of micro v-groove, but it is still difficult to guarantee the cutting tool angle, which is limited by the measurement accuracy in the manufacture and mounting of the diamond tool. A cutting tool alignment method based on the on-machine measurement is proposed to improve the fabricated quality of the v-groove angle. An on-machine probe is employed to scan the v-groove geometrical deviation precisely. The system errors model, data processing algorithm and tool alignment methods are analyzed in details. Experimental results show that the measurement standard deviation within 0.01° can be achieved. Retro-reflection mirrors are fabricated and measured finally by the proposed method for verification.

  16. Evaluation of Argos Telemetry Accuracy in the High-Arctic and Implications for the Estimation of Home-Range Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Christin

    Full Text Available Animal tracking through Argos satellite telemetry has enormous potential to test hypotheses in animal behavior, evolutionary ecology, or conservation biology. Yet the applicability of this technique cannot be fully assessed because no clear picture exists as to the conditions influencing the accuracy of Argos locations. Latitude, type of environment, and transmitter movement are among the main candidate factors affecting accuracy. A posteriori data filtering can remove "bad" locations, but again testing is still needed to refine filters. First, we evaluate experimentally the accuracy of Argos locations in a polar terrestrial environment (Nunavut, Canada, with both static and mobile transmitters transported by humans and coupled to GPS transmitters. We report static errors among the lowest published. However, the 68th error percentiles of mobile transmitters were 1.7 to 3.8 times greater than those of static transmitters. Second, we test how different filtering methods influence the quality of Argos location datasets. Accuracy of location datasets was best improved when filtering in locations of the best classes (LC3 and 2, while the Douglas Argos filter and a homemade speed filter yielded similar performance while retaining more locations. All filters effectively reduced the 68th error percentiles. Finally, we assess how location error impacted, at six spatial scales, two common estimators of home-range size (a proxy of animal space use behavior synthetizing movements, the minimum convex polygon and the fixed kernel estimator. Location error led to a sometimes dramatic overestimation of home-range size, especially at very local scales. We conclude that Argos telemetry is appropriate to study medium-size terrestrial animals in polar environments, but recommend that location errors are always measured and evaluated against research hypotheses, and that data are always filtered before analysis. How movement speed of transmitters affects location

  17. Geometric Accuracy Investigations of SEVIRI High Resolution Visible (HRV Level 1.5 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Kocaman Aksakal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available GCOS (Global Climate Observing System is a long-term program for monitoring the climate, detecting the changes, and assessing their impacts. Remote sensing techniques are being increasingly used for climate-related measurements. Imagery of the SEVIRI instrument on board of the European geostationary satellites Meteosat-8 and Meteosat-9 are often used for the estimation of essential climate variables. In a joint project between the Swiss GCOS Office and ETH Zurich, geometric accuracy and temporal stability of 1-km resolution HRV channel imagery of SEVIRI have been evaluated over Switzerland. A set of tools and algorithms has been developed for the investigations. Statistical analysis and blunder detection have been integrated in the process for robust evaluation. The relative accuracy is evaluated by tracking large numbers of feature points in consecutive HRV images taken at 15-minute intervals. For the absolute accuracy evaluation, lakes in Switzerland and surroundings are used as reference. 20 lakes digitized from Landsat orthophotos are transformed into HRV images and matched via 2D translation terms at sub-pixel level. The algorithms are tested using HRV images taken on 24 days in 2008 (2 days per month. The results show that 2D shifts that are up to 8 pixels are present both in relative and absolute terms.

  18. When do high-context communicators speak up? Exploring contextual communication orientation and employee voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Anna-Katherine; Ravlin, Elizabeth C; Klaas, Brian S; Ployhart, Robert E; Buchan, Nancy R

    2016-10-01

    Past research suggests that individuals oriented toward high-context communication are less likely than are others to voice (i.e., speak up) at work. In the current article, we rely on high-/low-context theory to explore potential boundary conditions of this relationship. We conducted 2 studies exploring the relationship between contextual communication orientation and 2 distinct types of voice (prohibitive and promotive). As hypothesized, both studies showed that the negative relationship between contextual communication orientation and voice was weaker for prohibitive (compared with promotive) voice. Results of Study 1 showed that, as hypothesized, leader-member exchange (LMX) moderated the relationship between contextual communication orientation and promotive voice, such that the relationship was negative when LMX was low but not significant when high. The interaction was not significant in predicting prohibitive voice in Study 1 or in predicting either voice type in Study 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Trajectories for High Specific Impulse High Specific Power Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, T.; Adams, R. B.; Brady, Hugh J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for two methods to approximate the mission performance of high specific impulse high specific power vehicles. The first method is based on an analytical approximation derived by Williams and Shepherd and can be used to approximate mission performance to outer planets and interstellar space. The second method is based on a parametric analysis of trajectories created using the well known trajectory optimization code, VARITOP. This parametric analysis allows the reader to approximate payload ratios and optimal power requirements for both one-way and round-trip missions. While this second method only addresses missions to and from Jupiter, future work will encompass all of the outer planet destinations and some interstellar precursor missions.

  20. Very high precision and accuracy analysis of triple isotopic ratios of water. A critical instrumentation comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkinis, Vasileios; Holme, Christian; Morris, Valerie; Thayer, Abigail Grace; Vaughn, Bruce; Kjaer, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Simonsen, Marius; Jensen, Camilla Marie; Svensson, Anders; Maffrezzoli, Niccolo; Vinther, Bo; Dallmayr, Remi

    2017-04-01

    We present a performance comparison study between two state of the art Cavity Ring Down Spectrometers (Picarro L2310-i, L2140-i). The comparison took place during the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) campaign for the measurement of the Renland ice core, over a period of three months. Instant and complete vaporisation of the ice core melt stream, as well as of in-house water reference materials is achieved by accurate control of microflows of liquid into a homemade calibration system by following simple principles of the Hagen-Poiseuille law. Both instruments share the same vaporisation unit in a configuration that minimises sample preparation discrepancies between the two analyses. We describe our SMOW-SLAP calibration and measurement protocols for such a CFA application and present quality control metrics acquired during the full period of the campaign on a daily basis. The results indicate an unprecedented performance for all 3 isotopic ratios (δ2H, δ17O, δ18O ) in terms of precision, accuracy and resolution. We also comment on the precision and accuracy of the second order excess parameters of HD16O and H217O over H218O (Dxs, Δ17O ). To our knowledge these are the first reported CFA measurements at this level of precision and accuracy for all three isotopic ratios. Differences on the performance of the two instruments are carefully assessed during the measurement and reported here. Our quality control protocols extend to the area of low water mixing ratios, a regime in which often atmospheric vapour measurements take place and Cavity Ring Down Analysers show a poorer performance due to the lower signal to noise ratios. We address such issues and propose calibration protocols from which water vapour isotopic analyses can benefit from.

  1. Dimension projection matrix/tree: interactive subspace visual exploration and analysis of high dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Ren, Donghao; Wang, Zuchao; Guo, Cong

    2013-12-01

    For high-dimensional data, this work proposes two novel visual exploration methods to gain insights into the data aspect and the dimension aspect of the data. The first is a Dimension Projection Matrix, as an extension of a scatterplot matrix. In the matrix, each row or column represents a group of dimensions, and each cell shows a dimension projection (such as MDS) of the data with the corresponding dimensions. The second is a Dimension Projection Tree, where every node is either a dimension projection plot or a Dimension Projection Matrix. Nodes are connected with links and each child node in the tree covers a subset of the parent node's dimensions or a subset of the parent node's data items. While the tree nodes visualize the subspaces of dimensions or subsets of the data items under exploration, the matrix nodes enable cross-comparison between different combinations of subspaces. Both Dimension Projection Matrix and Dimension Project Tree can be constructed algorithmically through automation, or manually through user interaction. Our implementation enables interactions such as drilling down to explore different levels of the data, merging or splitting the subspaces to adjust the matrix, and applying brushing to select data clusters. Our method enables simultaneously exploring data correlation and dimension correlation for data with high dimensions.

  2. Exploring silicon allotropy and chemistry by high pressure – high temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakevych, O. O.; Le Godec, Y.; Strobel, T. A.; Kim, D. Y.; Crichton, W. A.; Guignard, J.

    2017-10-01

    Silicon is the second abundant element, after oxygen, in the earth crust. It is essential for today’s electronics because of its ability to show various electronic behaviors that allow covering the numerous fields of cutting-edge applications. Moreover, silicon is not a pollutant and, therefore, is an ideal candidate to replace the actual materials in photovoltaics, like compounds based on the arsenic and heavy metals. It has not replaced them so far because Si is an indirect gap semiconductor and cannot absorb directly the solar photons without thermal agitations of crystal lattice (phonons). This puts it apart from the next-generation applications (light diode, high-performance transistor). That justifies the attempts to create silicon materials with direct gap that can absorb and emit light. Our recent high-pressure studies of the chemical interaction and phase transformations in the Na-Si system, revealed a number of interesting routes to new and known silicon compounds and allotropes. The pressure-temperature range of their formation is suitable for large-volume synthesis and future industrial scaling. The variety of properties observed (e.g. quasi-direct bandgap of open-framework allotrope Si24) allows us to suggest future industrial applications.

  3. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. Results On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. Conclusion The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  4. High-temperature nuclear closed Brayton cycle power conversion system for the space exploration initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, D.J. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, Garrett Fluid Systems Division, 1300 West Warner Road, Tempe, Arizona 85284-2896 (US))

    1991-01-05

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) has stated goals of colonizing the moon and conducting manned exploration of the planet Mars. Unlike previous ventures into space, both manned and unmanned, large quantities of electrical power will be required to provide the energy for lunar base sustenance and for highly efficient propulsion systems for the long trip to mars and return. Further, the requirement for electrical power of several megawatts will necessitate the use of nuclear reactor driven power conversion systems. This paper discusses a particle bed reactor closed Brayton cycle space power system that uses advanced materials technology to achieve a high-temperature, low-specific-weight modular system capable of providing the requisite electrical power for both a lunar base and a Mars flight vehicle propulsion system.

  5. High-accuracy fiber optical microphone in a DBR fiber laser based on a nanothick silver diaphragm by self-mixing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhengting; Lu, Liang; Zhang, Wenhua; Yang, Bo; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Yunhe; Xu, Feng; Wang, Zhiping; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Benli

    2013-12-16

    A high-accuracy fiber optical microphone (FOM) is first applied by self-mixing technique in a DBR fiber laser based on a nanothick silver diaphragm. The nanothick silver diaphragm fabricated by the convenient and low cost electroless plating method is functioned as sensing diaphragm due to critically susceptible to the air vibration. Simultaneously, micro-vibration theory model of self-mixing interference fiber optical microphone is deduced based on quasi-analytical method. The dynamic property to frequencies and amplitudes are experimentally carried out to characterize the fabricated FOM and also the reproduced sound of news and music can clearly meet the ear of the people which shows the technique proposed in this paper guarantee steady, high signal-noise ratio operation and outstanding accuracy in the DBR fiber laser which is potential to medical and security applications such as real-time voice reproduction for throat and voiceprint verification.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging techniques for treatment response evaluation in patients with high-grade glioma, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijken, Bart R.J. van [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Laar, Peter Jan van; Hoorn, Anouk van der [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Holtman, Gea A. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of General Practice, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-10-15

    Treatment response assessment in high-grade gliomas uses contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI, but is unreliable. Novel advanced MRI techniques have been studied, but the accuracy is not well known. Therefore, we performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of anatomical and advanced MRI for treatment response in high-grade gliomas. Databases were searched systematically. Study selection and data extraction were done by two authors independently. Meta-analysis was performed using a bivariate random effects model when ≥5 studies were included. Anatomical MRI (five studies, 166 patients) showed a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 68% (95%CI 51-81) and 77% (45-93), respectively. Pooled apparent diffusion coefficients (seven studies, 204 patients) demonstrated a sensitivity of 71% (60-80) and specificity of 87% (77-93). DSC-perfusion (18 studies, 708 patients) sensitivity was 87% (82-91) with a specificity of 86% (77-91). DCE-perfusion (five studies, 207 patients) sensitivity was 92% (73-98) and specificity was 85% (76-92). The sensitivity of spectroscopy (nine studies, 203 patients) was 91% (79-97) and specificity was 95% (65-99). Advanced techniques showed higher diagnostic accuracy than anatomical MRI, the highest for spectroscopy, supporting the use in treatment response assessment in high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  7. High-accuracy absolute rotation rate measurements with a large ring laser gyro: establishing the scale factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Robert B; Mayerbacher, Marinus; Gebauer, Andre; Schreiber, K Ulrich; Wells, Jon-Paul R

    2017-02-01

    Large ring lasers have exceeded the performance of navigational gyroscopes by several orders of magnitude and have become useful tools for geodesy. In order to apply them to tests in fundamental physics, remaining systematic errors have to be significantly reduced. We derive a modified expression for the Sagnac frequency of a square ring laser gyro under Earth rotation. The modifications include corrections for dispersion (of both the gain medium and the mirrors), for the Goos-Hänchen effect in the mirrors, and for refractive index of the gas filling the cavity. The corrections were measured and calculated for the 16  m2 Grossring laser located at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell. The optical frequency and the free spectral range of this laser were measured, allowing unique determination of the longitudinal mode number, and measurement of the dispersion. Ultimately we find that the absolute scale factor of the gyroscope can be estimated to an accuracy of approximately 1 part in 108.

  8. Presenting a high accuracy Theta-Phi-style fiber-positioner prototype with a 15-mm pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuser, Marco; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Richter, Josef; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Degwert, Adrian; Karasz, Adolf; Kosyra, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf

    2014-07-01

    We present a Θ - Φ-style fiber-positioner prototype, which will be controlled via the EMI-robust CAN-Bus. Our positioner points without iterations or a metrology system. Due to the overlapping patrol disc of 17.3 mm diameter, we reach a filling factor of 100 %. The positioners diameter is 14.6 mm, containing the control electronics on a contemporary PCB of 13.5 mm width. While moving, the power consumption does not lead to a significant rise in temperature. Given a mechanical reference point measured by stall detection, the absolute accuracy is 27 μm (1σ = 14 µm) and pointings are repeatable with 7 μm (1σ = 4 μm). Better positioning may be reachable with upcoming calibration.

  9. Reader Accuracy and Confidence in Diagnosing Diffuse Lung Disease on High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Lungs: Impact of Sampling Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, B.; Gross, B.H.; Oh, E.; Mueller, N.; Myles, J.D.; Kazerooni, E.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Michigan Institute for Clinical Health Research, Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States))

    2008-10-15

    Background: The accuracy of the number of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images necessary to diagnose diffuse lung disease (DLD) is not well established. Purpose: To evaluate the impact of HRCT sampling frequency on reader confidence and accuracy for diagnosing DLD. Material and Methods: HRCT images of 100 consecutive patients with proven DLD were reviewed. They were: 48 usual interstitial pneumonia, 22 sarcoidosis, six hypersensitivity pneumonitis, five each of desquamative interstitial pneumonitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and nine others. Inspiratory images at 1-cm increments throughout the lungs and three specified levels formed complete and limited examinations. In random order, three experts (readers 1, 2, and 3) ranked their top three diagnoses and rated confidence for their top diagnosis, independently and blinded to clinical information. Results: Using the complete versus limited examinations for correct first-choice diagnosis, accuracy for reader 1 (R1) was 81% versus 80%, respectively, for reader 2 (R2) 70% versus 70%, and for reader 3 (R3) 64% versus 59%. Reader accuracy within their top three choices for complete versus limited examinations was: R1 91% versus 91% of cases, respectively, R2 84% versus 83%, and R3 79% versus 72% of cases. No statistically significant differences were found between the diagnosis methods (P=0.28 for first diagnosis and P=0.17 for top three choices). The confidence intervals for individual raters showed considerable overlap, and the point estimates are almost identical. The mean interreader agreement for complete versus limited HRCT for both top and top three diagnoses were the same (moderate and fair, respectively). The mean intrareader agreement between complete and limited HRCT for top and top three diagnoses were substantial and moderate, respectively. Conclusion: Overall reader accuracy and confidence in diagnosis did not significantly differ when fewer or more HRCT images

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy of Quantitative PCR (Xpert MTB/RIF) for Tuberculous Meningitis in a High Burden Setting: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinod B.; Theron, Grant; Lenders, Laura; Matinyena, Brian; Connolly, Cathy; Singh, Ravesh; Coovadia, Yacoob; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is difficult to diagnose promptly. The utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of TBM remains unclear, and the effect of host- and sample-related factors on test performance is unknown. This study sought to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of TBM. Methods and Findings 235 South-African patients with a meningeal-like illness were categorised as having definite (culture or Amplicor PCR positive), probable (anti-TBM treatment initiated but microbiological confirmation lacking), or non-TBM. Xpert MTB/RIF accuracy was evaluated using 1 ml of uncentrifuged and, when available, 3 ml of centrifuged cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To evaluate the incremental value of MTB/RIF over a clinically based diagnosis, test accuracy was compared to a clinical score (CS) derived using basic clinical and laboratory information. Of 204 evaluable patients (of whom 87% were HIV-infected), 59 had definite TBM, 64 probable TBM, and 81 non-TBM. Overall sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) were 62% (48%–75%) and 95% (87%–99%), respectively. The sensitivity of Xpert MTB/RIF was significantly better than that of smear microscopy (62% versus 12%; p = 0.001) and significantly better than that of the CS (62% versus 30%; p = 0.001; C statistic 85% [79%–92%]). Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity was higher when centrifuged versus uncentrifuged samples were used (82% [62%–94%] versus 47% [31%–61%]; p = 0.004). The combination of CS and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert MTB/RIF performed if CSMTB/RIF alone but with a ∼10% reduction in test usage. This overall pattern of results remained unchanged when the definite and probable TBM groups were combined. Xpert MTB/RIF was not useful in identifying TBM among HIV-uninfected individuals, although the sample was small. There was no evidence of PCR inhibition, and the limit of detection was ∼80 colony forming units per millilitre. Study limitations included a

  11. High accuracy navigation information estimation for inertial system using the multi-model EKF fusing adams explicit formula applied to underwater gliders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haoqian; Chen, Xiyuan; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The underwater navigation system, mainly consisting of MEMS inertial sensors, is a key technology for the wide application of underwater gliders and plays an important role in achieving high accuracy navigation and positioning for a long time of period. However, the navigation errors will accumulate over time because of the inherent errors of inertial sensors, especially for MEMS grade IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) generally used in gliders. The dead reckoning module is added to compensate the errors. In the complicated underwater environment, the performance of MEMS sensors is degraded sharply and the errors will become much larger. It is difficult to establish the accurate and fixed error model for the inertial sensor. Therefore, it is very hard to improve the accuracy of navigation information calculated by sensors. In order to solve the problem mentioned, the more suitable filter which integrates the multi-model method with an EKF approach can be designed according to different error models to give the optimal estimation for the state. The key parameters of error models can be used to determine the corresponding filter. The Adams explicit formula which has an advantage of high precision prediction is simultaneously fused into the above filter to achieve the much more improvement in attitudes estimation accuracy. The proposed algorithm has been proved through theory analyses and has been tested by both vehicle experiments and lake trials. Results show that the proposed method has better accuracy and effectiveness in terms of attitudes estimation compared with other methods mentioned in the paper for inertial navigation applied to underwater gliders. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-accuracy diagnostic tool for electron cloud observation in the LHC based on synchronous phase measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban Müller, J F; Shaposhnikova, E; Valuch, D; Mastoridis, T

    2014-01-01

    Electron cloud effects such as heat load in the cryogenic system, pressure rise and beam instabilities are among the main limitations for the LHC operation with 25 ns spaced bunches. A new observation tool was developed to monitor the e-cloud activity and has been successfully used in the LHC during Run 1 (2010-2012). The power loss of each bunch due to the e-cloud can be estimated using very precise bunch-by-bunch measurement of the synchronous phase shift. In order to achieve the required accuracy, corrections for reflection in the cables and some systematic errors need to be applied followed by a post-processing of the measurements. Results clearly show the e-cloud build-up along the bunch trains and its evolution during each LHC fill as well as from fill to fill. Measurements during the 2012 LHC scrubbing run reveal a progressive reduction in the e-cloud activity and therefore a decrease in the secondary electron yield (SEY). The total beam power loss can be computed as a sum of the contributions from all...

  13. High-accuracy fourier transform interferometry, without oversampling, with a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daria, V R; Saloma, C

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique for performing accurate Fourier transform interferometry with a 1-bit analog-to-digital (AD) converter that does not require oversampling of the interferogram, unlike in other 1-bit coding schemes that rely on delta-sigma modulation. Sampling aims at locating the intersections {z(i)} of the modulation term s(z) of the interferogram and a reference sinusoid r(z) = A cos(2pif(r)z), where z is the optical path difference. A new autocorrelation-based procedure that includes the accurate recovery of the equally sampled amplitude representation {s(k)} of s(z) from {z(i)} is utilized to calculate the square of the emission spectrum of the light source (sample). The procedure is suitable for interferograms that are corrupted with additive noise. Sinusoid-crossing sampling satisfies the Nyquist sampling criterion, and a z(i) exists within each sampling interval Delta = 1/2f(r), if A >or= |s(z)| for all z, and f(r) >or= f(c), where f(c) is the highest frequency component of s(z). By locating a crossing at an accuracy of 1 part in 2(16), we determine the multimode spectrum of an argon-ion laser with a 1-bit AD converter that performs like a 13-bit amplitude-sampling AD converter.

  14. On the Static Accuracy of Charge-Discharge Units Intended for Electrical Tests of High Capacity Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrah, E. A.; Lobanov, D. K.; Kopylov, E. A.; Balakirev, R. V.; Fedchenko, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    Performing of the cycle testing according to the principles of Dynamic Stress Test can significantly reduce the overall time of development and production of batteries, which in turn allows reducing the cost of designing and testing of the spacecraft power systems. Performing of Dynamic Stress Test require special charge-discharge units that allows to perform a full cycle of electrical tests of batteries, including cyclic testing. Providing the required accuracy of measurement and stabilization of certain attributes of Li-ion battery operating modes is one of the problems that arise during thedevelopment of such charge-discharge units. The following attributes are of particular interest: charge and discharge currents, discharge powers, battery voltages. Analysis of the charge-discharge unit as a control system allows evaluating the steady-state stabilization error of the required attributes of the developed device. Moreover, using a digital integrator in the control system of the charge-discharge unit allows providing specified values of steady-state stabilization error of required attributes in different test modes.

  15. Porter, PaleAle 4.0: high-accuracy prediction of protein secondary structure and relative solvent accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Claudio; Pollastri, Gianluca

    2013-08-15

    Protein secondary structure and solvent accessibility predictions are a fundamental intermediate step towards protein structure and function prediction. We present new systems for the ab initio prediction of protein secondary structure and solvent accessibility, Porter 4.0 and PaleAle 4.0. Porter 4.0 predicts secondary structure correctly for 82.2% of residues. PaleAle 4.0's accuracy is 80.0% for prediction in two classes with a 25% accessibility threshold. We show that the increasing training set sizes that come with the continuing growth of the Protein Data Bank keep yielding prediction quality improvements and examine the impact of protein resolution on prediction performances. Porter 4.0 and PaleAle 4.0 are freely available for academic users at http://distillf.ucd.ie/porterpaleale/. Up to 64 kb of input in FASTA format can be processed in a single submission, with predictions now being returned to the user within a single web page and, optionally, a single email.

  16. Exploration of Organizing in Chinese High-Tech Companies Located in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    have enacted an industrial world and a civic world. Furthermore, it is suggested that controversies also occur when Chinese managers enact a fuzzy world. Different worlds collide in these types of test scenarios, creating ambiguity about the worth of the persons involved and the organizing principles...... in their practices. The Chinese and the Danes deal with the ambiguity in many different ways. Research limitation: Few cases exist and the data is limited. Practical implications: The analysis creates learning opportunities for Chinese and Danish managers and highly qualified employees. Keywords: Chinese high......Purpose: Very little research has been done to find out what happens to organizing in Chinese companies that are located in countries characterized by cooperative capitalism. I focus on this phenomenon and explore what happens to organizing in two Chinese high-tech companies located in Denmark...

  17. HAVOC: High Altitude Venus Operational Concept - An Exploration Strategy for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A lighter-than-air vehicle can carry either a host of instruments and probes, or a habitat and ascent vehicle for a crew of two astronauts to explore Venus for up to a month. The mission requires less time to complete than a crewed Mars mission, and the environment at 50 km is relatively benign, with similar pressure, density, gravity, and radiation protection to the surface of Earth. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30 day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. With advances in technology and further refinement of the concept, missions to the Venusian atmosphere can expand humanity's future in space.

  18. High diagnostic accuracy of low-dose gated-SPECT with solid-state ultrafast detectors: preliminary clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Marzullo, Paolo [CNR, Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Bottai, Matteo [University of South Carolina, Division of Biostatistics, Columbia, SC (United States); Karolinska Institutet, Division of Biostatistics, Stockholm (Sweden); Di Martino, Fabio [AOUP, UO Fisica Sanitaria, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-01-15

    Appropriate use of SPECT imaging is regulated by evidence-based guidelines and appropriateness criteria in an effort to limit the burden of radiation administered to patients. We aimed at establishing whether the use of a low dose for stress-rest single-day nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging on an ultrafast (UF) cardiac gamma camera using cadmium-zinc-telluride solid-state detectors could be used routinely with the same accuracy obtained with standard doses and conventional cameras. To this purpose, 137 consecutive patients (mean age 61 {+-} 8 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. They underwent single-day low-dose stress-rest myocardial perfusion imaging using UF SPECT and invasive coronary angiography. Patients underwent the first scan with a 7-min acquisition time 10 min after the end of the stress protocol (dose range 185 to 222 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin). The rest scan (dose range 370 to 444 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin) was acquired with a 6-min acquisition time. The mean summed stress scores (SSS) and mean summed rest scores (SRS) were obtained semiquantitatively. Coronary angiograms showed significant epicardial CAD in 83% of patients. Mean SSS and SRS were 10 {+-} 5 and 3 {+-} 3, respectively. Overall the area under the ROC curve for the SSS values was 0.904, while the areas under the ROC curves for each vascular territory were 0.982 for the left anterior descending artery, 0.931 for the left circumflex artery and 0.889 for the right coronary artery. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a low-dose single-day stress-rest fasting protocol performed using UF SPECT, with good sensitivity and specificity in detecting CAD at low patient exposure, opening new perspectives in the use of myocardial perfusion in ischaemic patients. (orig.)

  19. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring shows high accuracy within 6 hours after sensor calibration: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yue

    Full Text Available Accurate and timely glucose monitoring is essential in intensive care units. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS has been advocated for many years to improve glycemic management in critically ill patients. In order to determine the effect of calibration time on the accuracy of CGMS, real-time subcutaneous CGMS was used in 18 critically ill patients. CGMS sensor was calibrated with blood glucose measurements by blood gas/glucose analyzer every 12 hours. Venous blood was sampled every 2 to 4 hours, and glucose concentration was measured by standard central laboratory device (CLD and by blood gas/glucose analyzer. With CLD measurement as reference, relative absolute difference (mean±SD in CGMS and blood gas/glucose analyzer were 14.4%±12.2% and 6.5%±6.2%, respectively. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was 74.8% in CGMS, and 98.4% in blood gas/glucose analyzer. The relative absolute difference of CGMS obtained within 6 hours after sensor calibration (8.8%±7.2% was significantly less than that between 6 to 12 hours after calibration (20.1%±13.5%, p<0.0001. The percentage of matched points in Clarke error grid zone A was also significantly higher in data sets within 6 hours after calibration (92.4% versus 57.1%, p<0.0001. In conclusion, real-time subcutaneous CGMS is accurate in glucose monitoring in critically ill patients. CGMS sensor should be calibrated less than 6 hours, no matter what time interval recommended by manufacturer.

  20. The accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET/CT in primary lymph node staging in high-risk prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oebek, Can; Doganca, Tuenkut [Acibadem Taksim Hospital, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Demirci, Emre [Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ocak, Meltem [Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul (Turkey); Kural, Ali Riza [Acibadem University, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yildirim, Asif [Istanbul Medeniyet University, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Yuecetas, Ugur [Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Demirdag, Cetin [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Istanbul (Turkey); Erdogan, Sarper M. [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Istanbul (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent [Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Collaboration: Members of Urooncology Association, Turkey

    2017-10-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of {sup 68}Ga-PSMA PET in predicting lymph node (LN) metastases in primary N staging in high-risk and very high-risk nonmetastatic prostate cancer in comparison with morphological imaging. This was a multicentre trial of the Society of Urologic Oncology in Turkey in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department of Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul University. Patients were accrued from eight centres. Patients with high-risk and very high-risk disease scheduled to undergo surgical treatment with extended LN dissection between July 2014 and October 2015 were included. Either MRI or CT was used for morphological imaging. PSMA PET/CT was performed and evaluated at a single centre. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated for the detection of lymphatic metastases by PSMA PET/CT and morphological imaging. Kappa values were calculated to evaluate the correlation between the numbers of LN metastases detected by PSMA PET/CT and by histopathology. Data on 51 eligible patients are presented. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PSMA PET in detecting LN metastases in the primary setting were 53%, 86% and 76%, and increased to 67%, 88% and 81% in the subgroup with of patients with ≥15 LN removed. Kappa values for the correlation between imaging and pathology were 0.41 for PSMA PET and 0.18 for morphological imaging. PSMA PET/CT is superior to morphological imaging for the detection of metastatic LNs in patients with primary prostate cancer. Surgical dissection remains the gold standard for precise lymphatic staging. (orig.)

  1. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Yeol [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  2. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between

  3. Inter-comparison of two high-accuracy fast-response spectroscopic sensors of carbon dioxide: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Flowers

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunable diode laser absorption (TDL and cavity ring-down spectroscopic (CRDS sensors for atmospheric carbon dioxide were co-deployed during summer and fall of 2010 in field and laboratory conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both sensors were characterized for accuracy and precision for ambient carbon dioxide measurements at ground level and compared using both laboratory and ambient field data. After post-processing that included water vapor correction and calibration to WMO reference standards, overall mean [12C16O2] = 392.05 ± 8.92 ppm and [12C16O2] = 392.22 ± 9.05 ppm were observed between 29 July and 16 August 2010. The mean difference between the CRDS and TDL data for 12CO2 was 0.04 ± 1.80 ppm (±1σ in 60 s for ambient field data, demonstrating the sensors meet the WMO/IAEA compatibility standard. The observations show over the 19-day period the [CO2]CRDS'/[CO2]TDL ratio exhibits a Gaussian distribution centered at x0 = 1.003 ± 3.38 × 10−5 (±1σ, indicating the ratio is dominated by random noise as opposed to a bias in the output of either sensor. The CRDS sensor is capable of measuring [12C16O2] to a precision of 23 ppb in 1 min and decreases to 6.5 ppb in 58 min. At one and 58-min, the TDL exhibits precisions of 29 ppb and 53 ppb. The CRDS is compact, fast, and stable; the TDL is larger and requires frequent calibrations to maintain its precision. The sensors also exhibit consistent hourly averaged diurnal values underscoring the interplay of biological, anthropogenic, and transport processes regulating CO2 at the site.

  4. First principles exploration of near-equiatomic NiFeCrCo high entropy alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A.J.; Koch, C.C.; Irving, D.L., E-mail: dlirving@ncsu.edu

    2016-07-05

    High entropy alloy NiFeCrCo was systematically studied in the range of near-equal atomic concentrations, i.e., 10–40 at.%, by first-principles tools and high throughput calculations. Enthalpy of mixing, lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B), and shear modulus (G) were calculated by the exact muffin-tin orbital method combined with coherent potential approximation (EMTO-CPA) for over 2700 compositions of the NiFeCrCo alloy as a single-phase solid solution in paramagnetic state. It was found that certain elements have the most significant influence on each property, namely, Cr on enthalpy of mixing, Co on a{sub 0}, Fe on B, Co on G, and Cr on the ratio of B/G. An equation to predict the enthalpy of mixing by use of binary enthalpy data was evaluated and was found to have a good accuracy with a root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 42 meV per formula unit in the prediction. A similar equation to predict bulk modulus with weighted contribution from first–shell interaction is proposed and tested on all alloys. This equation was also found to be accurate with a RMSD of 6 GPa. Finally, it was found that shear moduli of all tested alloys are largely dependent on C{sub 44}, while the concentration of Co has a noticeable control on C{sub 44}. Spin polarized calculations were performed for a select group of alloys with both EMTO-CPA and the Vienna ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) with special quasi-random structure models for comparison. Good agreement was found between these methods. - Highlights: • 2700 + compositions of non-equiatomic HEAs simulated. • Trends in a{sub o}, ΔH{sub mix}, B, G, and B/G as a function of composition are predicted. • Accuracy of empirical equation for calculation of ΔH{sub mix} is evaluated. • New semi empirical rule to predict bulk modulus from binary data is proposed. • Predicted chemical trends could be used to tune properties of non-equiatomic HEAs.

  5. Stereotactic CT-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Liver Tumors With the Use of High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: An Accuracy and Procedural Safety Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Jennie; Toporek, Grzegorz; Harbut, Piotr; Jonas, Eduard; Nilsson, Henrik; Freedman, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy and safety of antenna placement performed with the use of a CT-guided stereotactic navigation system for percutaneous ablation of liver tumors and to assess the safety of high-frequency jet ventilation for target motion control. Twenty consecutive patients with malignant liver lesions for which surgical resection was contraindicated or that were not readily visible on ultrasound or not accessible by ultrasound guidance were included in the study. Patients were treated with percutaneous microwave ablation performed using a CT-guided stereotactic navigation system. High-frequency jet ventilation was used to reduce liver motion during all interventions. The accuracy of antenna placement, the number of needle readjustments required, overall safety, and the radiation doses were assessed. Microwave ablation was completed for 20 patients (28 lesions). Performance data could be evaluated for 17 patients with 25 lesions (mean [± SD] lesion diameter, 14.9 ± 5.9 mm; mean lesion location depth, 87.5 ± 27.3 mm). The antennae were placed with a mean lateral error of 4.0 ± 2.5 mm, a depth error of 3.4 ± 3.2 mm, and a total error of 5.8 ± 3.2 mm in relation to the intended target. The median number of antenna readjustments required was zero (range, 0-1 adjustment). No major complications were related to either the procedure or the use of high-frequency jet ventilation. The mean total patient radiation dose was 957.5 ± 556.5 mGy × cm, but medical personnel were not exposed to irradiation. Percutaneous microwave ablation performed with CT-guided stereotactic navigation provides sufficient accuracy and requires almost no repositioning of the needle. Therefore, it is technically feasible and applicable for safe treatments.

  6. The Pedagogical Challenges of Teaching High School Bioethics: Insights from the Exploring Bioethics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Mildred Z; Vannier, David; Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Miller, Jacqueline S; Paget, Katherine F

    2016-01-01

    A belief that high school students have the cognitive ability to analyze and assess moral choices and should be encouraged to do so but have rarely been helped to do so was the motivation for developing Exploring Bioethics, a six-module curriculum and teacher guide for grades nine through twelve on ethical issues in the life sciences. A multidisciplinary team of bioethicists, science educators, curriculum designers, scientists, and high school biology teachers worked together on the curriculum under a contract between the National Institutes of Health and Education Development Center, a nonprofit research and development organization with a long history of innovation in science education. At the NIH, the Department of Bioethics within the Clinical Center and the Office of Science Education within the Office of the Director guided the project.Our overarching goal for Exploring Bioethics was to introduce students to bioethics as a field of inquiry and to enable them to develop ethical reasoning skills so they could move beyond "gut reactions" to more nuanced positions. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  7. The Subspace Voyager: Exploring High-Dimensional Data along a Continuum of Salient 3D Subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Mueller, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    Analyzing high-dimensional data and finding hidden patterns is a difficult problem and has attracted numerous research efforts. Automated methods can be useful to some extent but bringing the data analyst into the loop via interactive visual tools can help the discovery process tremendously. An inherent problem in this effort is that humans lack the mental capacity to truly understand spaces exceeding three spatial dimensions. To keep within this limitation, we describe a framework that decomposes a high-dimensional data space into a continuum of generalized 3D subspaces. Analysts can then explore these 3D subspaces individually via the familiar trackball interface while using additional facilities to smoothly transition to adjacent subspaces for expanded space comprehension. Since the number of such subspaces suffers from combinatorial explosion, we provide a set of data-driven subspace selection and navigation tools which can guide users to interesting subspaces and views. A subspace trail map allows users to manage the explored subspaces, keep their bearings, and return to interesting subspaces and views. Both trackball and trail map are each embedded into a word cloud of attribute labels which aid in navigation. We demonstrate our system via several use cases in a diverse set of application areas-cluster analysis and refinement, information discovery, and supervised training of classifiers. We also report on a user study that evaluates the usability of the various interactions our system provides.

  8. Impact of the Career Explorers program on high school students' perceptions of the pharmacy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Sarah M; Stensland, Sheri L; Warholak, Terri L; Mattingly, Lisa

    2008-06-15

    To determine the effect of a 5-week Career Explorers Program (CEP) on high school students' perceptions of pharmacists' characteristics, duties, and training. A 16-item survey instrument with attitudinal, frequency, and relative quantity response options was completed by all CEP students on the first and last day of the program. The survey assessed students' attitudes concerning pharmacist characteristics, duties, and training. All students who participated in the CEP in 2003 completed the survey instrument (n = 50). Seventy percent of respondents' answers to the attitudinal subscale questions significantly changed from preassessment to postassessment. A 5-week CEP provided high school students with more realistic perceptions of pharmacists' roles, duties, and training before the students entered the pharmacy program.

  9. "Dilute-and-inject" multi-target screening assay for highly polar doping agents using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry for sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görgens, Christian; Guddat, Sven; Orlovius, Anne-Katrin; Sigmund, Gerd; Thomas, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2015-07-01

    In the field of LC-MS, reversed phase liquid chromatography is the predominant method of choice for the separation of prohibited substances from various classes in sports drug testing. However, highly polar and charged compounds still represent a challenging task in liquid chromatography due to their difficult chromatographic behavior using reversed phase materials. A very promising approach for the separation of hydrophilic compounds is hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Despite its great potential and versatile advantages for the separation of highly polar compounds, HILIC is up to now not very common in doping analysis, although most manufacturers offer a variety of HILIC columns in their portfolio. In this study, a novel multi-target approach based on HILIC high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry is presented to screen for various polar stimulants, stimulant sulfo-conjugates, glycerol, AICAR, ethyl glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, and myo-inositol trispyrophosphate after direct injection of diluted urine specimens. The usage of an effective online sample cleanup and a zwitterionic HILIC analytical column in combination with a new generation Hybrid Quadrupol-Orbitrap® mass spectrometer enabled the detection of highly polar analytes without any time-consuming hydrolysis or further purification steps, far below the required detection limits. The methodology was fully validated for qualitative and quantitative (AICAR, glycerol) purposes considering the parameters specificity; robustness (rRT  0.99); intra- and inter-day precision at low, medium, and high concentration levels (CV < 20%); limit of detection (stimulants and stimulant sulfo-conjugates < 10 ng/mL; norfenefrine; octopamine < 30 ng/mL; AICAR < 10 ng/mL; glycerol 100 μg/mL; ETG < 100 ng/mL); accuracy (AICAR 103.8-105.5%, glycerol 85.1-98.3% at three concentration levels) and ion suppression/enhancement effects.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Aerial Photogrammetry for 3d Modelling of High-Alpine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legat, K.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Bollmannb, E.

    2016-03-01

    cameras of Microsoft's UltraCam series and the in-house processing chain centred on the Dense-Image-Matching (DIM) software SURE by nFrames. This paper reports the work carried out at AVT for the surface- and terrain modelling of several high-alpine areas using DIM- and ALS-based approaches. A special focus is dedicated to the influence of terrain morphology, flight planning, GNSS/IMU measurements, and ground-control distribution in the georeferencing process on the data quality. Based on the very promising results, some general recommendations for aerial photogrammetry processing in high-alpine areas are made to achieve best possible accuracy of the final 3D-, 2.5D- and 2D products.

  11. Exploring the transcriptome of non-model oleaginous microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta through high-throughput sequencing and high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lina; Tan, Kenneth Wei Min; Tan, Tin Wee; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2017-02-22

    RNA-Seq technology has received a lot of attention in recent years for microalgal global transcriptomic profiling. It is widely used in transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression., particularly for microalgal strains with potential as biofuel sources. However, insufficient genomic or transcriptomic information of non-model microalgae has limited the understanding of their regulatory mechanisms and hampered genetic manipulation to enhance biofuel production. As such, an optimal microalgal transcriptomic database construction is a subject of urgent investigation. Dunaliella tertiolecta, a non-model oleaginous microalgal species, was sequenced via Illumina MISEQ and HISEQ 4000 in RNA-Seq studies. The high quality high-throughout sequencing data were explored using high performance computing (HPC) in a petascale data center and subjected to de novo assembly and parallelized mpiBLASTX search with multiple species. As a result, a transcriptome database of 17,845 was constructed (~95% completeness). This enlarged database constructed fueled the RNA-Seq data analysis, which was validated by a nitrogen deprivation (ND) study that induces triacylglycerol (TAG) production. The new paralleled assembly and annotation method under HPC presented here allows the solution of large-scale data processing problems in acceptable computation time. There is significant increase in the number of transcriptomic data achieved and observable heterogeneity in the performance to identify differentially expressed genes in the ND treatment paradigm. The results provide new insights as to how response to ND treatment in microalgae is regulated. ND analyses highlight the advantages of this database generated in this study that could also serve as a useful resource for future gene manipulation and transcriptome-wide analysis. We thus demonstrate the usefulness of exploring the transcriptome as an informative platform for functional studies and genetic manipulations in similar species.

  12. A high spatial resolution double-pulse Thomson scattering diagnostic; description, assessment of accuracy and examples of applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, M. N. A.; Barth, C. J.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    1999-01-01

    A high spatial resolution (3 mm full width half maximum, i.e. 2% of the minor radius) double-pulse multiposition Thomson scattering system was in operation at the Rijnhuizen tokamak project RTP from March 1996 until September 1998. It upgrades the previously installed single-pulse Thomson scattering

  13. Dose prediction accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm and pencil beam convolution algorithm beyond high density heterogeneity interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that photon beam radiation therapy requires dose calculation algorithms. The objective of this study was to measure and assess the ability of pencil beam convolution (PBC and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA to predict doses beyond high density heterogeneity. Materials and Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom of five layers was created in Eclipse planning system (version 8.6.15. Each layer of phantom was assigned in terms of water (first or top, air (second, water (third, bone (fourth, and water (fifth or bottom medium. Depth doses in water (bottom medium were calculated for 100 monitor units (MUs with 6 Megavoltage (MV photon beam for different field sizes using AAA and PBC with heterogeneity correction. Combinations of solid water, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC, and Styrofoam were then manufactured to mimic phantoms and doses for 100 MUs were acquired with cylindrical ionization chamber at selected depths beyond high density heterogeneity interface. The measured and calculated depth doses were then compared. Results: AAA′s values had better agreement with measurements at all measured depths. Dose overestimation by AAA (up to 5.3% and by PBC (up to 6.7% was found to be higher in proximity to the high-density heterogeneity interface, and the dose discrepancies were more pronounced for larger field sizes. The errors in dose estimation by AAA and PBC may be due to improper beam modeling of primary beam attenuation or lateral scatter contributions or combination of both in heterogeneous media that include low and high density materials. Conclusions: AAA is more accurate than PBC for dose calculations in treating deep-seated tumor beyond high-density heterogeneity interface.

  14. The Drift Diffusion Model can account for the accuracy and reaction time of value-based choices under high and low time pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Milosavljevic

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An important open problem is how values are compared to make simple choices. A natural hypothesis is that the brain carries out the computations associated with the value comparisons in a manner consistent with the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM, since this model has been able to account for a large amount of data in other domains. We investigated the ability of four different versions of the DDM to explain the data in a real binary food choice task under conditions of high and low time pressure. We found that a seven-parameter version of the DDM can account for the choice and reaction time data with high-accuracy, in both the high and low time pressure conditions. The changes associated with the introduction of time pressure could be traced to changes in two key model parameters: the barrier height and the noise in the slope of the drift process.

  15. Relative accuracy of cervical and anal cytology for detection of high grade lesions by colposcope guided biopsy: a cut-point meta-analytic comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R Cachay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported, using a receiver operating characteristic area metric, the first meta-analytic comparison of the relative accuracy of cervical and anal cytology in detecting moderate or severe histopathologic lesions by magnification directed punch biopsy. The aim of the present research was to meta-analytically examine cut-point specific operating characteristics (sensitivity, specificity of cervical and anal cytology in detecting high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL histopathology by colposcope directed punch biopsy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The primary eligibility requirement was availability of tabulated cytology (normal, atypical cells of unclear significance [ASCUS], low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, HSIL or atypical squamous cells cannot rule out high grade [ASC-H] and biopsy (accuracy was performed with examination of study quality criteria and heterogeneity. Thirty-three cervical and 11 anal publications were eligible between 1990 and 2010. Meta-analytically cut-point analysis showed that using a cut-point of ASCUS the sensitivity in both settings is similar while anal cytology is less specific than cervical cytology (specificity [95% confidence interval] 0.33 [0.20-0.49] vs. 0.53[0.40-0.66], p = 0.04 for the detection of HSIL histopathology by colposcope directed punch biopsy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a cytology cut-point of HSIL or ASC-H, anal cytology is less sensitive but comparably specific to cervical cytology. However, using a cut-point of ASCUS, differences in accuracy were of borderline significance.

  16. Preferences, constraints or schemas of devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers' withdrawals from high-commitment careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halrynjo, Sigtona; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2009-06-01

    Despite decades of focus on gender equality and work-family balance, parenthood still affects mothers' and fathers' careers differently. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Norwegian mothers who are relinquishing high-commitment careers of law and consultancy, this paper questions the adequacy of established explanations emphasizing constraints vs. individual preferences. Our sample of female professionals living in a well-developed welfare state is particularly apt to explore the processes and mechanisms upholding the statistically gendered pattern of women reducing their work commitment after childbirth. These doubly privileged mothers might be considered to have the best odds for combining career and work commitment with motherhood. Thus, we argue that the approach emphasizing practical constraints does not sufficiently account for the withdrawal from high-commitment careers among these female professionals. Nevertheless, we are not content with the claim of Preference Theory that this shift in commitment is merely a matter of 'not-so-dedicated' women discovering their 'genuine' preferences. Rather, in order to understand why and how this shift occurs, we explore the culturally constructed rationalities and schemas of both work and family devotions. We specifically examine the circumstances, mechanisms and steps in a seemingly individual process of making the shift in commitment from a promising career to a family-friendly job. Moreover, the analysis demonstrates how generous parental leave arrangements designed to enhance gender equality and work-family balance by simply reducing practical constraints may have limited--or even counterproductive--impact within high-commitment occupations where the 'irreplaceability' of workers is taken for granted. Our findings indicate that unless the culturally (re)produced discourses, demands and expectations of both work and family are exposed and challenged, even intentionally gender neutral work-family policies will

  17. Three-dimensional ultrasound demonstration of the fetal palate in high-risk patients: the accuracy of prenatal visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindes, Liat; Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Zajicek, Michal; Weisz, Boaz; Shrim, Alon; Tzadikevitch Geffen, Keren; Mendes, David; Kuint, Jaacov; Berkenstadt, Michal; Achiron, Reuven

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound for demonstrating the palate of fetuses at high risk for cleft palate. Fifty-seven fetuses at high risk for cleft palate were referred for specialist ultrasound at 12-40 weeks' gestation. A detailed assessment of palate was made using both two-dimensional and 3D ultrasounds on the axial plane. Antenatal diagnoses were compared with postnatal findings. Cleft palate was suspected in 13 (22.8%); a normal palate was demonstrated in 38 (67%), and in six (10.2%), the palate view could not be obtained. Mean gestational age at the first visit was 27 weeks 6 days (range of 12-40 weeks 3 days). Examination after delivery revealed that one of the 38 fetuses with presumed normal palate had a cleft hard palate, and one had a cleft soft palate (false negative 5%). Among the 13 fetuses with suspected cleft palate, three had an intact palate (false-positive 23%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of detection of palatal clefts were 71.4%, 91.9%, 62.5%, and 94.4%, respectively. Using 3D technology, we diagnosed a cleft palate in 83% of high-risk cases, with 5% false negative. 3D technology might produce some technical artifacts resulting in a 23% false-positive rate. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  20. Exploration of the horizontally staggered light guides for high concentration CPV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, Ozgur; Turan, Rasit

    2012-08-13

    The material and processing costs are still the major drawbacks of the c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology. The wafer cost comprises up to 35-40% of the total module cost. New approaches and system designs are needed in order to reduce the share of the wafer cost in photovoltaic energy systems. Here we explore the horizontally staggered light guide solar optics for use in Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. This optical system comprises a lens array system coupled to a horizontal light guide which directs the incoming light beam to its edge. We have designed and simulated this system using a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). The system is more compact, thinner and more robust compared to the conventional CPV systems. Concentration levels as high as 1000x can easily be reached when the system is properly designed. With such a high concentration level, a good acceptance angle of + -1 degree is still be conserved. The analysis of the system reveals that the total optical efficiency of the system could be as high as %94.4 without any anti-reflection (AR) coating. Optical losses can be reduced by just accommodating a single layer AR coating on the initial lens array leading to a %96.5 optical efficiency. Thermal behavior of high concentration linear concentrator is also discussed and compared with a conventional point focus CPV system.

  1. High-accuracy imputation for HLA class I and II genes based on high-resolution SNP data of population-specific references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, S-S; Yang, W; Kawashima, M; Kamitsuji, S; Zheng, X; Nishida, N; Sawai, H; Toyoda, H; Miyagawa, T; Honda, M; Kamatani, N; Tokunaga, K

    2015-12-01

    Statistical imputation of classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles is becoming an indispensable tool for fine-mappings of disease association signals from case-control genome-wide association studies. However, most currently available HLA imputation tools are based on European reference populations and are not suitable for direct application to non-European populations. Among the HLA imputation tools, The HIBAG R package is a flexible HLA imputation tool that is equipped with a wide range of population-based classifiers; moreover, HIBAG R enables individual researchers to build custom classifiers. Here, two data sets, each comprising data from healthy Japanese individuals of difference sample sizes, were used to build custom classifiers. HLA imputation accuracy in five HLA classes (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1) increased from the 82.5-98.8% obtained with the original HIBAG references to 95.2-99.5% with our custom classifiers. A call threshold (CT) of 0.4 is recommended for our Japanese classifiers; in contrast, HIBAG references recommend a CT of 0.5. Finally, our classifiers could be used to identify the risk haplotypes for Japanese narcolepsy with cataplexy, HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*06:02, with 100% and 99.7% accuracy, respectively; therefore, these classifiers can be used to supplement the current lack of HLA genotyping data in widely available genome-wide association study data sets.

  2. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeini-Jazani, Mehrad; Knoeferle, Klemens; de Moliere, Laura; Gatti, Elia; Warlop, Luk

    2017-01-01

    Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental

  3. Fast converging with high accuracy estimates of satellite attitude and orbit based on magnetometer augmented with gyro, star sensor and GPS via extended Kalman filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this work is to extend the work done in, Tamer (2009, to provide high accuracy satellite attitude and orbit estimates needed for imaging purposes and also before execution of spacecraft orbital maneuvers for the next Egyptian scientific satellite. The problem of coarse satellite attitude and orbit estimation based on magnetometer measurements has been treated in the literature. The current research expands the field of application from coarse and slow converging estimates to accurate and fast converging attitude and orbit estimates within 0.1°, and 10 m for attitude angles and spacecraft location respectively (1-σ. The magnetometer is used for both spacecraft attitude and orbit estimation, aided with gyro to provide angular velocity measurements, star sensor to provide attitude quaternion, and GPS receiver to provide spacecraft location. The spacecraft under consideration is subject to solar radiation pressure forces and moments, aerodynamics forces and moments, earth’s oblateness till the fourth order (i.e. J4, gravity gradient moments, and residual magnetic dipole moments. The estimation algorithm developed is powerful enough to converge quickly (actually within 10 s despite very large initial estimation errors with sufficiently high accuracy estimates.

  4. ShapeGrabber FootScanner: a low cost high accuracy 3D system for the acquisition of human feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Francois; Bisson, Joel A.; Williams, Steve; Robertson, Nancy; Rozin, Serge; Nelson, Andrew

    2000-03-01

    This paper presents a new acquisition method and the application of the technology for the acquisition of a person's foot. The sensor is designed to meet the requirements of measuring a variety of feet under various ambient optical conditions that can, in other circumstances, seriously affect the data measurements and reduce the reliability of the system. The most important distinction between this ranging method and other more classical approaches is the high tolerance of the method to external optical perturbations as well as reflections form other sensor heads. This allows its use in conventional 'store' or 'medical offices' that are usually bright places.

  5. Hypersexuality and high sexual desire: exploring the structure of problematic sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Vieira, Armando L; Jurin, Tanja

    2015-06-01

    The concept of hypersexuality has been accompanied by fierce debates and conflicting conclusions about its nature. One of the central questions under the discussion is a potential overlap between hypersexuality and high sexual desire. With the relevant research in its early phase, the structure of hypersexuality remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to systematically explore the overlap between problematic sexuality and high sexual desire. A community online survey was carried out in Croatia in 2014. The data were first cluster analyzed (by gender) based on sexual desire, sexual activity, perceived lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral consequences. Participants in the meaningful clusters were then compared for psychosocial characteristics. To complement cluster analysis (CA), multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the same four constructs was carried out. Indicators representing the proposed structure of hypersexuality were included: sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral outcomes. Psychosocial characteristics such as religiosity, attitudes toward pornography, and general psychopathology were also evaluated. CA pointed to the existence of two meaningful clusters, one representing problematic sexuality, that is, lack of control over one's sexuality and negative outcomes (control/consequences cluster), and the other reflecting high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity (desire/activity cluster). Compared with the desire/activity cluster, individuals from the control/consequences cluster reported more psychopathology and were characterized by more traditional attitudes. Complementing the CA findings, CFA pointed to two distinct latent dimensions-problematic sexuality and high sexual desire/activity. Our study supports the distinctiveness of hypersexuality and high sexual desire/activity, suggesting that problematic sexuality might be more

  6. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  7. Explorative analysis of long time series of very high resolution spatial rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Emma Dybro; Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Scheibel, Marc

    2017-01-01

    variables a weather generator should employ. Both principal component analysis and cluster analysis show patterns that are in accordance with our understanding of physical properties of rainfall. In particular it seems that the differences between hourly and daily extremes can be described by relatively...... and daily extreme rainfall with the purpose of identifying suitable characteristics that can be used in a spatial weather generator of similar resolution. The spatial and temporal properties of the extreme events are explored by means of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and linear models...... simple scaling across the set of variables, i.e. the level of each variable varies signicantly, but not the overall structure of the spatial precipitation. The analysis show that there is a good potential for making a spatial weather generator for high spatio-temporal precipitation for precipitation...

  8. High-predation habitats affect the social dynamics of collective exploration in a shoaling fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos C; Ramnarine, Indar W; Torney, Colin J

    2017-05-01

    Collective decisions play a major role in the benefits that animals gain from living in groups. Although the mechanisms of how groups collectively make decisions have been extensively researched, the response of within-group dynamics to ecological conditions is virtually unknown, despite adaptation to the environment being a cornerstone in biology. We investigate how within-group interactions during exploration of a novel environment are shaped by predation, a major influence on the behavior of prey species. We tested guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from rivers varying in predation risk under controlled laboratory conditions and find the first evidence of differences in group interactions between animals adapted to different levels of predation. Fish from high-predation habitats showed the strongest negative relationship between initiating movements and following others, which resulted in less variability in the total number of movements made between individuals. This relationship between initiating movements and following others was associated with differentiation into initiators and followers, which was only observed in fish from high-predation rivers. The differentiation occurred rapidly, as trials lasted 5 min, and was related to shoal cohesion, where more diverse groups from high-predation habitats were more cohesive. Our results show that even within a single species over a small geographical range, decision-making in a social context can vary with local ecological factors.

  9. Picture This: Exploring the Lived Experience of High-Functioning Stroke Survivors Using Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratos, Marie; Huynh, Linh; Tan, Julia; Lui, Jordon; Jarus, Tal

    2016-07-01

    An increasing number of high-functioning stroke survivors are present with minimal functional impairments and are often discharged with reduced access to community reintegration. Our objectives were to explore the lived experience of high-functioning stroke survivors and to identify gaps in community and rehabilitation services. Photovoice was used with five high-functioning stroke survivors to photo-document their experiences. A modified inductive thematic analysis was used, and meanings behind the photographs were elicited through four focus group sessions followed by photography exhibitions. Five themes emerged: lack of understanding and consideration for persons with disability, emotional and behavioral impacts after stroke, self-reliance and dependence on others, importance of appropriate and accessible services, and financial determinants of quality of life. By including service users' voices; investing in adapted, community-based programs; and providing educational programs for creating attitudinal change among service providers, the polarization between who can and cannot access services will be reduced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. High-accuracy de novo assembly and SNP detection of chloroplast genomes using a SMRT circular consensus sequencing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiushi; Li, Ying; Song, Jingyuan; Xu, Haibin; Xu, Jiang; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Xiwen; Gao, Huanhuan; Dong, Linlin; Qian, Jun; Sun, Chao; Chen, Shilin

    2014-12-01

    A circular consensus sequencing (CCS) strategy involving single molecule, real-time (SMRT) DNA sequencing technology was applied to de novo assembly and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection of chloroplast genomes. Chloroplast DNA was purified from enriched chloroplasts of pooled individuals to construct a shotgun library for each species. The sequencing reactions were performed on a PacBio RS platform. CCS sub-reads were generated from polymerase reads that passed the native dumbbell-shaped DNA templates multiple times. The complete chloroplast genome sequence was generated by mapping all reads to the draft sequence constructed in a step-by-step manner. The full-chain, PCR-free approach eliminates the possible context-specific biases in library construction and sequencing reaction. The chloroplast genome was easily and completely assembled using the data generated from one SMRT Cell without requiring a reference genome. Comparisons of the three assembled Fritillaria genomes to 34.1 kb of validation Sanger sequences revealed 100% concordance, and the detected intraspecies SNPs at a minimum variant frequency of 15% were all confirmed. This simple approach with potential for parallel sequencing yields high-quality chloroplast genomes for sensitive SNP detection and comparative analyses. We recommend this approach for its powerful applicability for evolutionary genetics and genomics studies in plants based on the sequences of chloroplast genomes. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. arXiv Interferometer-based high-accuracy white light measurement of neutral rubidium density and gradient at AWAKE

    CERN Document Server

    Batsch, Fabian; Oez, Erdem; Moody, Joshua; Gschwendtner, Edda; Caldwell, Allen; Muggli, Patric

    The AWAKE experiment requires an automated online rubidium (Rb) plasma density and gradient diagnostic for densities between 1 and 10$\\cdot$10$^{14}$ cm$^{-3}$. A linear density gradient along the plasma source at the percent level may be useful to improve the electron acceleration process. Because of full laser ionization of Rb vapor to Rb$^{+}$ within a radius of 1 mm, the plasma density equals the vapor density. We measure the Rb vapor densities at both ends of the source, with high precision using, white light interferometry. At either source end, broadband laser light passes a remotely controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometer built out of single mode fibers. The resulting interference signal, influenced by dispersion in the vicinity of the Rb D1 and D2 transitions, is dispersed in wavelength by a spectrograph. Fully automated Fourier-based signal conditioning and a fit algorithm yield the density with an uncertainty between the measurements at both ends of 0.11 to 0.46 $\\%$ over the entire density range. T...

  12. Assessment of geometry in 2D immune systems using high accuracy laser-based bioprinting techniques (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzurica, Sara; Márquez, Andrés.; Molpeceres, Carlos; Notario, Laura; Gómez-Fontela, Miguel; Lauzurica, Pilar

    2017-02-01

    The immune system is a very complex system that comprises a network of genetic and signaling pathways subtending a network of interacting cells. The location of the cells in a network, along with the gene products they interact with, rules the behavior of the immune system. Therefore, there is a great interest in understanding properly the role of a cell in such networks to increase our knowledge of the immune system response. In order to acquire a better understanding of these processes, cell printing with high spatial resolution emerges as one of the promising approaches to organize cells in two and three-dimensional patterns to enable the study the geometry influence in these interactions. In particular, laser assisted bio-printing techniques using sub-nanosecond laser sources have better characteristics for application in this field, mainly due to its higher spatial resolution, cell viability percentage and process automation. This work presents laser assisted bio-printing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in two-dimensional geometries, placing cellular components on a matrix previously generated on demand, permitting to test the molecular interactions between APCs and lymphocytes; as well as the generation of two-dimensional structures designed ad hoc in order to study the mechanisms of mobilization of immune system cells. The use of laser assisted bio-printing, along with APCs and lymphocytes emulate the structure of different niches of the immune system so that we can analyse functional requirement of these interaction.

  13. High accuracy thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous cryoprotective agents and semi-rigid biological tissues using a microfabricated thermal sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin M; Sekar, Praveen K; Zhao, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Huang, Zhongping; Ding, Weiping; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Dayong

    2015-05-20

    An improved thermal-needle approach for accurate and fast measurement of thermal conductivity of aqueous and soft biomaterials was developed using microfabricated thermal conductivity sensors. This microscopic measuring device was comprehensively characterized at temperatures from 0 °C to 40 °C. Despite the previous belief, system calibration constant was observed to be highly temperature-dependent. Dynamic thermal conductivity response during cooling (40 °C to -40 °C) was observed using the miniaturized single tip sensor for various concentrations of CPAs, i.e., glycerol, ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Chicken breast, chicken skin, porcine limb, and bovine liver were assayed to investigate the effect of anatomical heterogeneity on thermal conductivity using the arrayed multi-tip sensor at 20 °C. Experimental results revealed distinctive differences in localized thermal conductivity, which suggests the use of approximated or constant property values is expected to bring about results with largely inflated uncertainties when investigating bio-heat transfer mechanisms and/or performing sophisticated thermal modeling with complex biological tissues. Overall, the presented micro thermal sensor with automated data analysis algorithm is a promising approach for direct thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous solutions and soft biomaterials and is of great value to cryopreservation of tissues, hyperthermia or cryogenic, and other thermal-based clinical diagnostics and treatments.

  14. Inkjet metrology: high-accuracy mass measurements of microdroplets produced by a drop-on-demand dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, R Michael; Verkouteren, Jennifer R

    2009-10-15

    We describe gravimetric methods for measuring the mass of droplets generated by a drop-on-demand (DOD) microdispenser. Droplets are deposited, either continuously at a known frequency or as a burst of known number, into a cylinder positioned on a submicrogram balance. Mass measurements are acquired precisely by computer, and results are corrected for evaporation. Capabilities are demonstrated using isobutyl alcohol droplets. For ejection rates greater than 100 Hz, the repeatability of droplet mass measurements was 0.2%, while the combined relative standard uncertainty (u(c)) was 0.9%. When bursts of droplets were dispensed, the limit of quantitation was 72 microg (1490 droplets) with u(c) = 1.0%. Individual droplet size in a burst was evaluated by high-speed videography. Diameters were consistent from the tenth droplet onward, and the mass of an individual droplet was best estimated by the average droplet mass with a combined uncertainty of about 1%. Diameters of the first several droplets were anomalous, but their contribution was accounted for when dispensing bursts. Above the limits of quantitation, the gravimetric methods provided statistically equivalent results and permit detailed study of operational factors that influence droplet mass during dispensing, including the development of reliable microassays and standard materials using DOD technologies.

  15. High accuracy thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous cryoprotective agents and semi-rigid biological tissues using a microfabricated thermal sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin M.; Sekar, Praveen K.; Zhao, Gang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Huang, Zhongping; Ding, Weiping; Zhang, Qingchuan; Gao, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    An improved thermal-needle approach for accurate and fast measurement of thermal conductivity of aqueous and soft biomaterials was developed using microfabricated thermal conductivity sensors. This microscopic measuring device was comprehensively characterized at temperatures from 0 °C to 40 °C. Despite the previous belief, system calibration constant was observed to be highly temperature-dependent. Dynamic thermal conductivity response during cooling (40 °C to –40 °C) was observed using the miniaturized single tip sensor for various concentrations of CPAs, i.e., glycerol, ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Chicken breast, chicken skin, porcine limb, and bovine liver were assayed to investigate the effect of anatomical heterogeneity on thermal conductivity using the arrayed multi-tip sensor at 20 °C. Experimental results revealed distinctive differences in localized thermal conductivity, which suggests the use of approximated or constant property values is expected to bring about results with largely inflated uncertainties when investigating bio-heat transfer mechanisms and/or performing sophisticated thermal modeling with complex biological tissues. Overall, the presented micro thermal sensor with automated data analysis algorithm is a promising approach for direct thermal conductivity measurement of aqueous solutions and soft biomaterials and is of great value to cryopreservation of tissues, hyperthermia or cryogenic, and other thermal-based clinical diagnostics and treatments. PMID:25993037

  16. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  17. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  18. Accuracy of high-field intraoperative MRI in the detectability of residual tumor in glioma grade IV resections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Mager, Ann-Kathrin [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neurologie; Goetz, Claudia; Kremer, Paul [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Detsch, Oliver [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Theisgen, Hannah-Katharina [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Friese, Michael; Gottschalk, Joachim [Asklepios-Klinik Nord, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Pathology and Neuropathology; Schwindt, Wolfram [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2017-06-15

    To assess the sensitivity/specificity of tumor detection by T1 contrast enhancement in intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) in comparison to histopathological assessment as the gold standard in patients receiving surgical resection of grade IV glioblastoma. 68 patients with a primary or a recurrent glioblastoma scheduled for surgery including fluorescence guidance and neuronavigation were included (mean age: 59 years, 26 female, 42 male patients). The ioMRI after the first resection included transverse FLAIR, DWI, T2-FFE and T1 - 3 d FFE ± GD-DPTA. The second resection was performed whenever residual contrast-enhancing tissue was detected on ioMRI. Resected tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated (gold standard). Additionally, we evaluated the early postoperative MRI scan acquired within 48 h post-OP for remaining enhancing tissue and compared them with the ioMRI scan. In 43 patients ioMRI indicated residual tumorous tissue, which could be confirmed in the histological specimens of the second resection. In 16 (4 with recurrent, 12 with primary glioblastoma) cases, ioMRI revealed truly negative results without residual tumor and follow-up MRI confirmed complete resection. In 7 cases (3 with recurrent, 4 with primary glioblastoma) ioMRI revealed a suspicious result without tumorous tissue in the histopathological workup. In 2 (1 for each group) patients, residual tumorous tissue was detected in spite of negative ioMRI. IoMRI had a sensitivity of 95 % (94 % recurrent and 96 % for primary glioblastoma) and a specificity of 69.5 % (57 % and 75 %, respectively). The positive predictive value was 86 % (84 % for recurrent and 87 % for primary glioblastoma), and the negative predictive value was 88 % (80 % and 92 %, respectively). ioMRI is effective for detecting remaining tumorous tissue after glioma resection. However, scars and leakage of contrast agent can be misleading and limit specificity. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) presents with a high sensitivity for residual

  19. An examination of direct selection typing rate and accuracy for persons with high-level spinal cord injury using QWERTY and default on-screen keyboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, M; Ottenbacher, K J

    1992-01-01

    A single-subject rapid alternating treatment design with replication was used to compare the efficiency of two keyboard layouts, QWERTY and default, for persons with high-level spinal cord injury. The LIAISON system and proportional-drive chin controller provided computer access/writing to four subjects. Three efficiency characteristics were examined: keystrokes per minute, keystroke accuracy, and keystroke corrections. Baseline sessions were followed by 10 to 12 alternating treatment sessions for all subjects. Each alternating treatment session involved six text entry trials--three text entry trials using the QWERTY keyboard layout and three using the default keyboard layout. Four follow-up sessions were completed for each subject using the default keyboard configuration. Data analysis revealed that the default keyboard layout provided greater keystrokes per minute for two of the subjects. The keystroke accuracy was between 98% and 100% for all subjects on both keyboard layouts. The findings of this investigation revealed no clinically significant difference in typing performance across the two keyboard layouts for the participating subjects. The results also indicate that previous experience with a keyboard configuration is an important factor in determining performance. A possible treatment interaction or carryover effect between the two keyboard configurations was noted and has implications for the type of single-subject design used in future investigations.

  20. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum characterization and sensitive quantification in food matrices by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection--validation using accuracy profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, G; Campargue, C

    2012-11-02

    Interest concerning functional ingredients and especially dietary fibres has been growing in recent years. At the same time, the variety of ingredient accepted as dietary fibres and their mixing at low level in complex matrices have considerably complicated their quantitative analysis by approved AOAC methods. These reasons have led to the specific development of an innovative analytical method performed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) to detect and quantify partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) in fruit preparation and dairy matrices. The analytical methodology was divided in two steps which could be deployed separately or in conjunction. The first, consists in a complete characterization of PHGG by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection and HPAEC-PAD to determine its physico-chemical properties and galactomannans content, and the second step is the development of a new HPAEC-PAD method for PHGG direct quantification in complex matrices (dairy product). Validation in terms of detection and quantification limits, linearity of the analytical range, average accuracy (recovery, trueness) and average uncertainty were statistically carried out with accuracy profile. Overall, this new chromatographic method has considerably improved the possibility to quantify without fractionation treatment, low level of dietary fibres emerging from specific galactomannans, in complex matrices and many foodstuffs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cause and Cure-Deterioration in Accuracy of CFD Simulations with Use of High-Aspect-Ratio Triangular/Tetrahedral Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji

    2017-01-01

    In the multi-dimensional space-time conservation element and solution element16 (CESE) method, triangles and tetrahedral mesh elements turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial grids, respectively. As such, the CESE method is naturally compatible with the simplest 2D and 3D unstructured grids and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because (a) accurate solution of a high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall requires that the grid intervals along the direction normal to the wall be much finer than those in a direction parallel to the wall and, as such, the use of grid cells with extremely high aspect ratio (103 to 106) may become mandatory, and (b) unlike quadrilateral hexahedral grids, it is well-known that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular tetrahedral grids tends to deteriorate rapidly as cell aspect ratio increases. As a result, the use of triangular tetrahedral grid cells near a solid wall has long been deemed impractical by CFD researchers. In view of (a) the critical role played by triangular tetrahedral grids in the CESE development, and (b) the importance of accurate resolution of high-Reynolds number flow field near a solid wall, as will be presented in the main paper, a comprehensive and rigorous mathematical framework that clearly identifies the reasons behind the accuracy deterioration as described above has been developed for the 2D case involving triangular cells. By avoiding the pitfalls identified by the 2D framework, and its 3D extension, it has been shown numerically.

  2. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  3. Exploring High Energy Interactions with CMS at the LHC”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulak, Lawrence R. [; Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This High Energy Physics research project achieved its goal of exploring high-energy interactions with 7, 8 and 13 TeV data accumulated by CMS at the Energy Frontier. For the original hadron calorimeter (HCAL) and for its upgrade during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), the PI helped propose and implement the upgrading the phototubes, new electronics, and fast timing of the hadronic forward (HF) and hadronic outer (HO) calorimeters of CMS, projects which he had forcefully advocated since the inception of CMS. The PI and his colleagues Prof. J. Rohlf and chief electronics engineer E. Hazen, his post-docs A. Heister and S. Girgis, and his graduate students (P. Lawson and D. Arcaro) contributed software tools used in perfecting of μTCA and Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC13) electronics, the PC board that provides clock, timing and DAQ service for HCAL (and now many other subdetectors and central systems in the upgraded CMS detector). This Task reaped the benefits of these hardware contributions 1) to hermiticity for missing energy searches, and 2) to forward tagging jets for Vector Boson Fusion processes by analyzing and publishing early data, including that for the Higgs discovery and for exotic and supersymmetric searches.

  4. Exploring the mechanism of high degree of delignification inhibits cellulose conversion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dayong; Zhou, Xia; You, Tingting; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Xueming; Xu, Feng

    2018-02-01

    This study explored the mechanism that high degree of delignification (DD) inhibits enzymatic hydrolysis. Sample with DD of 86.22% achieved the highest cellulose conversion of 68.26%, and the cell wall exhibited defibrillation of macrofibrils and erosion of microfibrils during enzymatic hydrolysis. Cracks between microfibrils are formed within the cell wall, getting the largest specific surface area, which greatly enhanced cellulose conversion. However, high DD of 96.58% resulted in dramatic reduction of cellulose conversion to 56.60% which was evidenced to be the synergistic effect of internal cell wall collapse and microfibrils reaggregation. These ultrastructural changes dominated upon this condition and induced a more compact surface structure which significantly hinders the accessibility of cellulase. The CrI value increased after delignification but changed little with the increased DD, suggesting limited influence of DD on crystalline structure. The results indicate that certain amount of lignin retained may be essential to enhance cellulose conversion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring sequence characteristics related to high-level production of secreted proteins in Aspergillus niger.

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    Bastiaan A van den Berg

    Full Text Available Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large set, over 600 homologous and nearly 2,000 heterologous fungal genes, were overexpressed in Aspergillus niger using a standardized expression cassette and scored for high versus no production. Subsequently, sequence-based machine learning techniques were applied for identifying relevant DNA and protein sequence features. The amino-acid composition of the protein sequence was found to be most predictive and interpretation revealed that, for both homologous and heterologous gene expression, the same features are important: tyrosine and asparagine composition was found to have a positive correlation with high-level production, whereas for unsuccessful production, contributions were found for methionine and lysine composition. The predictor is available online at http://bioinformatics.tudelft.nl/hipsec. Subsequent work aims at validating these findings by protein engineering as a method for increasing expression levels per gene copy.

  6. Exploring the development of classroom group identities in an urban high school chemistry class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Stefania

    A key to achieving academic success in science is providing students with meaningful experiences and skills to negotiate how these experiences affect them and the society in which they live. Although students strive for academic success, a challenge that faces many urban science students and their teachers is finding ways to promote student engagement in the science classroom. In order to support students in urban settings and to better identify the ways in which students may better learn science concepts and develop a sense of belonging or affiliation to science, this qualitative research study explores the development of a classroom group identity (CGI) based on the frameworks of social identity theory, interaction ritual chain theory, and communities of practice. The interactions and experiences of eighteen student participants in a Bronx high school chemistry class were studied over the course of a full school year. Using a conceptual lens of classroom group identity, a model construct and definition were built identifying four stages of CGI development. At the culmination of the study, a positive change in perceptions, attitudes, leadership skills, and classroom behaviors in learning science was primarily observed by two students developing a CGI. The study has implications for the teaching and learning of high school sciences.

  7. Exploration of a High Luminosity 100 TeV Proton Antiproton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveros, Sandra J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, Lucien [Mississippi U.; Acosta, John [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, David [Fermilab

    2017-04-12

    New physics is being explored with the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and with Intensity Frontier programs at Fermilab and KEK. The energy scale for new physics is known to be in the multi-TeV range, signaling the need for a future collider which well surpasses this energy scale. We explore a 10$^{\\,34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ luminosity, 100 TeV $p\\bar{p}$ collider with 7$\\times$ the energy of the LHC but only 2$\\times$ as much NbTi superconductor, motivating the choice of 4.5 T single bore dipoles. The cross section for many high mass states is 10 times higher in $p\\bar{p}$ than $pp$ collisions. Antiquarks for production can come directly from an antiproton rather than indirectly from gluon splitting. The higher cross sections reduce the synchrotron radiation in superconducting magnets and the number of events per beam crossing, because lower beam currents can produce the same rare event rates. Events are more centrally produced, allowing a more compact detector with less space between quadrupole triplets and a smaller $\\beta^{*}$ for higher luminosity. A Fermilab-like $\\bar p$ source would disperse the beam into 12 momentum channels to capture more antiprotons. Because stochastic cooling time scales as the number of particles, 12 cooling ring sets would be used. Each set would include phase rotation to lower momentum spreads, equalize all momentum channels, and stochastically cool. One electron cooling ring would follow the stochastic cooling rings. Finally antiprotons would be recycled during runs without leaving the collider ring by joining them to new bunches with synchrotron damping.

  8. Look little, look often: the influence of gaze frequency on drawing accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J

    2005-08-01

    The present article attempts to determine what those who draw accurately do differently than those who do not. Four experiments explore the relation between drawing accuracy and the rate at which artists glance between their drawing and the stimulus (termed gaze frequency). Experiment 1 revealed a positive relation between gaze frequency and drawing accuracy (r2 = .33). Experiments 2, 3, and 4 demonstrated that gaze frequency directly influences drawing accuracy. High gaze frequencies may facilitate drawing accuracy by (1) allowing the artist to hold less information in working memory, (2) reducing memory distortion, and (3) facilitating the reduction of context effects through inattentional blindness.

  9. An Efficient Vector-Raster Overlay Algorithm for High-Accuracy and High-Efficiency Surface Area Calculations of Irregularly Shaped Land Use Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface is uneven, and conventional area calculation methods are based on the assumption that the projection plane area can be obtained without considering the actual undulation of the Earth’s surface and by simplifying the Earth’s shape to be a standard ellipsoid. However, the true surface area is important for investigating and evaluating land resources. In this study, the authors propose a new method based on an efficient vector-raster overlay algorithm (VROA-based method to calculate the surface areas of irregularly shaped land use patches. In this method, a surface area raster file is first generated based on the raster-based digital elevation model (raster-based DEM. Then, a vector-raster overlay algorithm (VROA is used that considers the precise clipping of raster cells using the vector polygon boundary. Xiantao City, Luotian County, and the Shennongjia Forestry District, which are representative of a plain landform, a hilly topography, and a mountain landscape, respectively, are selected to calculate the surface area. Compared with a traditional method based on triangulated irregular networks (TIN-based method, our method significantly reduces the processing time. In addition, our method effectively improves the accuracy compared with another traditional method based on raster-based DEM (raster-based method. Therefore, the method satisfies the requirements of large-scale engineering applications.

  10. Experience Corps Baltimore: Exploring the Stressors and Rewards of High-intensity Civic Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Carlson, Michelle C; Parisi, Jeanine M; Tanner, Elizabeth K; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P; Song, Linda H; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2015-12-01

    Experience Corps (EC) represents a high-intensity, intergenerational civic engagement activity where older adults serve as mentors and tutors in elementary schools. Although high-intensity volunteer opportunities are designed to enhance the health and well being of older adult volunteers, little is known about the negative and positive aspects of volunteering unique to intergenerational programs from the volunteer's perspective. Stressors and rewards associated with volunteering in EC were explored in 8 focus group discussions with 46 volunteers from EC Baltimore. Transcripts were coded for frequently expressed themes. Participants reported stressors and rewards within 5 key domains: intergenerational (children's problem behavior, working with and helping children, observing/facilitating improvement or transformation in a child, and developing a special connection with a child); external to EC (poor parenting and children's social stressors); interpersonal (challenges in working with teachers and bonding/making social connections); personal (enjoyment, self-enhancement/achievement, and being/feeling more active); and structural (satisfaction with the structural elements of the EC program). Volunteers experienced unique intergenerational stressors related to children's problem behavior and societal factors external to the EC program. Overall, intergenerational, interpersonal, and personal rewards from volunteering, as well as program structure may have balanced the stress associated with volunteering. A better understanding of stressors and rewards from high-intensity volunteer programs may enhance our understanding of how intergenerational civic engagement volunteering affects well being in later life and may inform project modifications to maximize such benefits for future volunteers and those they serve. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  11. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances Part 4: Assessment of Spacecraft Pointing Accuracy Capabilities Required For Large Ka-Band Reflector Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Richard E.; Sands, O. Scott; Huang, John; Bassily, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Improved surface accuracy for deployable reflectors has brought with it the possibility of Ka-band reflector antennas with extents on the order of 1000 wavelengths. Such antennas are being considered for high-rate data delivery from planetary distances. To maintain losses at reasonable levels requires a sufficiently capable Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) onboard the spacecraft. This paper provides an assessment of currently available ADCS strategies and performance levels. In addition to other issues, specific factors considered include: (1) use of "beaconless" or open loop tracking versus use of a beacon on the Earth side of the link, and (2) selection of fine pointing strategy (body-fixed/spacecraft pointing, reflector pointing or various forms of electronic beam steering). Capabilities of recent spacecraft are discussed.

  12. Test of the FDTD accuracy in the analysis of the scattering resonances associated with high-Q whispering-gallery modes of a circular cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskin, Artem V; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Rolland, Anthony; Sauleau, Ronan; Nosich, Alexander I

    2008-05-01

    Our objective is the assessment of the accuracy of a conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code in the computation of the near- and far-field scattering characteristics of a circular dielectric cylinder. We excite the cylinder with an electric or magnetic line current and demonstrate the failure of the two-dimensional FDTD algorithm to accurately characterize the emission rate and the field patterns near high-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonances. This is proven by comparison with the exact series solutions. The computational errors in the emission rate are then studied at the resonances still detectable with FDTD, i.e., having Q-factors up to 10(3).

  13. Development of X-Y Servo Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Hybrid Actuators for Position Control with High Response, Large Stroke and Nanometer Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hsiung Chiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a X-Y dual-axial intelligent servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator for position control with high response, large stroke (250 mm, 200 mm and nanometer accuracy (20 nm. In each axis, the rodless pneumatic actuator serves to position in coarse stroke and the piezoelectric actuator compensates in fine stroke. Thus, the overall control systems of the single axis become a dual-input single-output (DISO system. Although the rodless pneumatic actuator has relatively larger friction force, it has the advantage of mechanism for multi-axial development. Thus, the X-Y dual-axial positioning system is developed based on the servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuator. In addition, the decoupling self-organizing fuzzy sliding mode control is developed as the intelligent control strategies. Finally, the proposed novel intelligent X-Y dual-axial servo pneumatic-piezoelectric hybrid actuators are implemented and verified experimentally.

  14. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry provides high accuracy in identification of Salmonella at species level but is limited to type or subtype Salmonella serovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Li, Nan; Li, Ping; Zhou, Yang; Gao, Shan; Gao, Hongwei; Xin, Wenwen; Wang, Jinglin

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella can cause global foodborne illnesses in humans and many animals. The current diagnostic gold standard used for detecting Salmonella infection is microbiological culture followed by serological confirmation tests. However, these methods are complicated and time-consuming. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis offers some advantages in rapid identification, for example, simple and fast sample preparation, fast and automated measurement, and robust and reliable identification up to genus and species levels, possibly even to the strain level. In this study, we established a reference database for species identification using whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS; the database consisted of 12 obtained main spectra of the Salmonella culture collection strains belonged to seven serotypes. Eighty-two clinical isolates of Salmonella were identified using established database, and partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing and serological method were used as comparison. We found that MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry provided high accuracy in identification of Salmonella at species level but was limited to type or subtype Salmonella serovars. We also tried to find serovar-specific biomarkers and failed. Our study demonstrated that (a) MALDI-TOF MS was suitable for identification of Salmonella at species level with high accuracy and (b) that MALDI-TOF MS method presented in this study was not useful for serovar assignment of Salmonella currently, because of its low matching with serological method and (c) MALDI-TOF MS method presented in this study was not suitable to subtype S. typhimurium because of its low discriminatory ability.

  15. Multiplex Immunochips for High-Accuracy Detection of AFP-L3% Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering: Implications for Early Liver Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Sun, Xiaoying; Chen, Lei; Cheng, Weina; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; He, Chengyan

    2017-09-05

    α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is an important tumor biomarker. In particular, the overexpression of AFP-L3 is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Accordingly, several hospitals have begun to employ the ratio of AFP-L3 to the total AFP level (AFP-L3%) as new diagnostic evidence for HCC owing to its high diagnostic accuracy. However, current methods of detection for AFP and AFP-L3 are time-consuming, require multiple samples, and lack in sensitivity and specificity. Herein, we present a novel concept for the early diagnosis of HCC based on the combination of Raman frequency shift and intensity change, and developed surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunochips via AFP-L3%. In the first step of the study, the frequency shift of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) was applied for the quantitative determination of total AFP based on the AFP and anti-AFP interaction on MBA-modified silver chips. 5,5-Dithiobis(succinimidyl-2-nitrobenzoate) (DSNB)-modified immunogold was then incorporated with AFP-L3 antibodies for sandwich immunoreaction on the chips. As a result, we found that a typical Raman band intensity of DSNB presented an exponential linear relationship with the concentration of AFP-L3. Thus, the AFP-L3% can be calculated according to the concentrations of AFP-L3 and total AFP. The most important advantage of the proposed method is the combination of AFP-L3% and frequency shifts of SERS, which exhibits excellent reproducibility and high accuracy, and significantly simplifies the conventional detection procedure of AFP-L3%. Application of the proposed method with the serum of patients with HCC demonstrated its great potential in early liver cancer diagnosis.

  16. High-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 using the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Chow

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 during the BARCA (Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia phase B campaign in Brazil in May 2009 were accomplished using a newly available analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS technique. This analyzer was flown without a drying system or any in-flight calibration gases. Water vapor corrections associated with dilution and pressure-broadening effects for CO2 and CH4 were derived from laboratory experiments employing measurements of water vapor by the CRDS analyzer. Before the campaign, the stability of the analyzer was assessed by laboratory tests under simulated flight conditions. During the campaign, a comparison of CO2 measurements between the CRDS analyzer and a nondispersive infrared (NDIR analyzer on board the same aircraft showed a mean difference of 0.22±0.09 ppm for all flights over the Amazon rain forest. At the end of the campaign, CO2 concentrations of the synthetic calibration gases used by the NDIR analyzer were determined by the CRDS analyzer. After correcting for the isotope and the pressure-broadening effects that resulted from changes of the composition of synthetic vs. ambient air, and applying those concentrations as calibrated values of the calibration gases to reprocess the CO2 measurements made by the NDIR, the mean difference between the CRDS and the NDIR during BARCA was reduced to 0.05±0.09 ppm, with the mean standard deviation of 0.23±0.05 ppm. The results clearly show that the CRDS is sufficiently stable to be used in flight without drying the air or calibrating in flight and the water corrections are fully adequate for high-accuracy continuous airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4.

  17. High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were

  18. INTRODUCING NOVEL GENERATION OF HIGH ACCURACY CAMERA OPTICAL-TESTING AND CALIBRATION TEST-STANDS FEASIBLE FOR SERIES PRODUCTION OF CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nekouei Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in the field of computer-vision have opened the doors of many opportunities for taking advantage of these techniques and technologies in many fields and applications. Having a high demand for these systems in today and future vehicles implies a high production volume of video cameras. The above criterions imply that it is critical to design test systems which deliver fast and accurate calibration and optical-testing capabilities. In this paper we introduce new generation of test-stands delivering high calibration quality in single-shot calibration of fisheye surround-view cameras. This incorporates important geometric features from bundle-block calibration, delivers very high (sub-pixel calibration accuracy, makes possible a very fast calibration procedure (few seconds, and realizes autonomous calibration via machines. We have used the geometrical shape of a Spherical Helix (Type: 3D Spherical Spiral with special geometrical characteristics, having a uniform radius which corresponds to the uniform motion. This geometrical feature was mechanically realized using three dimensional truncated icosahedrons which practically allow the implementation of a spherical helix on multiple surfaces. Furthermore the test-stand enables us to perform many other important optical tests such as stray-light testing, enabling us to evaluate the certain qualities of the camera optical module.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of sensitive or high-sensitive troponin on presentation for myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankur Sethi,1 Anurag Bajaj,2 Gurveen Malhotra,1 Rohit R Arora,1 Sandeep Khosla1 1Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Wright Center of Graduate Medical Education, Scranton, PA, USA Background: Recently, high-sensitive troponin (hsTrop assays consistent with professional societies' recommendations became available. We aimed to summarize the evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of hsTrop on presentation. Methods: We searched electronic databases for studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of hsTrop in suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients. Random effect meta-analyses and meta-regression were performed. Primary and secondary analyses were restricted to studies using conventional Trop and hsTrop in the reference standard, respectively. Results: Fifteen studies with a total of 8,628 patients met the inclusion criteria for the primary analysis. hsTrop T (Hoffman-La Roche Ltd and hsTrop I (Siemens had sensitivities of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–0.91 and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87–0.92 and specificities of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.77–0.80 and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.87–0.90, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the area under the curve between hsTrop (95% CI: 0.920 and conventional Trop (95% CI: 0.929 at the 99th percentile (P=0.62. hsTrop at the level of detection had a sensitivity of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.96–0.98 and a specificity of 0.41 (95% CI: 0.40–0.42. The studies using a cut-off at coefficient of variance <10% as opposed to the 99th percentile for the conventional assay used for diagnosis reported higher diagnostic accuracy (relative diagnostic odds ratio =2.13, P=0.02. Five studies were included in the secondary analysis; hsTrop T (Hoffman-La Roche Ltd had a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.89–0.93 and a specificity of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.63–0.70. There was significant heterogeneity among the

  20. Exploring rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipane Hlalele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore rural high school learners' experience of mathematics anxiety in academic settings. Mathematics anxiety has been found to have an adverse effect on confidence, motivation and achievement. This quantitative study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. The participants were 403 learners doing mathematics in 18 rural schools in the Free State province of South Africa. Participants completed a 20-item questionnaire and 373 (92.5% questionnaires were found to contain valid responses and were analysed by a professional statistician at the University of the Free State using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 17.0. The questionnaire was testedfor reliability using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and was found to have a reliability score of .841, indicating an acceptable reliability coefficient. Findings reveal that all learners sometimes, often, or always experience mathematics anxiety in academic settings. It is therefore important for teachers and authorities in education to observe its prevalence and to implement strategies toward the alleviation of the effects ofmathematics anxiety.

  1. Highly Sensitive Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometers for In Situ Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Ram; Mansour, Kamjou; Webster, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes highly sensitive tunable diode laser spectrometers suitable for in situ planetary exploration. The technology developed at JPL is based on wavelength modulated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. It is capable of sensitively detecting chemical signatures of life through the abundance of biogenic molecules and their isotopic composition, and chemicals such as water necessary for habitats of life. The technology would be suitable for searching for biomarkers, extinct life, potential habitats of extant life, and signatures of ancient climates on Mars; and for detecting biomarkers, prebiotic chemicals and habitats of life in the outer Solar System. It would be useful for prospecting for water on the Moon and asteroids, and characterizing its isotopic composition. Deployment on the Moon could provide ground truth to the recent remote measurements and help to uncover precious records of the early bombardment history of the inner Solar System buried at the shadowed poles, and elucidate the mechanism for the generation of near-surface water in the illuminated regions. The technology would also be useful for detecting other volatile molecules in planetary atmospheres and subsurface reservoirs, isotopic characterization of planetary materials, and searching for signatures of extinct life preserved in solid matrices.

  2. Exploring Graphics Processing Unit (GPU Resource Sharing Efficiency for High Performance Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incorporation of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs as accelerators has been one of the forefront High Performance Computing (HPC trends and provides unprecedented performance; however, the prevalent adoption of the Single-Program Multiple-Data (SPMD programming model brings with it challenges of resource underutilization. In other words, under SPMD, every CPU needs GPU capability available to it. However, since CPUs generally outnumber GPUs, the asymmetric resource distribution gives rise to overall computing resource underutilization. In this paper, we propose to efficiently share the GPU under SPMD and formally define a series of GPU sharing scenarios. We provide performance-modeling analysis for each sharing scenario with accurate experimentation validation. With the modeling basis, we further conduct experimental studies to explore potential GPU sharing efficiency improvements from multiple perspectives. Both further theoretical and experimental GPU sharing performance analysis and results are presented. Our results not only demonstrate the significant performance gain for SPMD programs with the proposed efficient GPU sharing, but also the further improved sharing efficiency with the optimization techniques based on our accurate modeling.

  3. High-performance computer simulation of wave processes in geological media in seismic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, I. E.; Petrov, I. B.

    2012-02-01

    A class of problems arising in seismic exploration are investigated, namely, seismic signal propagation in multilayered geological rock and near-surface disturbance propagation in massive rock with heterogeneities, such as empty or filled fractures and cavities. Numerical solutions are obtained for wave propagation in such highly heterogeneous media, including those taking into account the plastic properties of the rock, which can be manifested near a seismic gap or a wellbore. All types of explosion-generated elastic and elastoplastic waves and waves reflected from fractures and the boundaries of the integration domain are analyzed. The identification of waves in seismograms recorded with near-surface receivers is addressed. The grid-characteristic method is used on triangular, parallelepipedal, and tetrahedral meshes with boundary conditions set on the rock-fracture interface and on free surfaces in explicit form. The numerical method proposed is suitable for the study of the interaction between seismic waves and heterogeneous inclusions, since it ensures the most correct design of computational algorithms on the boundaries of the integration domain and at media interfaces. A parallel software code implemented with the help of OpenMP and MPI was used to execute computations on parallelepipedal and tetrahedral grids.

  4. Using virtual reality to explore self-regulation in high-risk settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Tracey C; Carlson, Charles R; Ellzey, Antonio; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Beck, Kelly Battle; McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N

    2014-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) models allow investigators to explore high-risk situations carefully in the laboratory using physiological assessment strategies and controlled conditions not available in field settings. This article introduces the use of a virtual experience to examine the influence of self-regulatory skills training on female participants' reactions to a high-risk encounter with an aggressive male. Sixty-three female participants were recruited for the study. Demographic data indicated that 54% of the participants were not currently in a relationship, 36.5% were in a committed relationship, and 9.5% were occasionally dating. After obtaining informed consent, participants were assigned randomly to either a diaphragmatic breathing training condition or an attention control condition. Results indicated that both groups rated the virtual environment as equally realistic; the aggressive advances of the male were also perceived as equally real across the two experimental groups. Physiological data indicated that there were no differences between the groups on respiration or cardiovascular measures during baseline or during the VR task. After the VR experience, however, the participants in the breathing training condition had lower respiration rates and higher heart rate variability measures than those in the control condition. The results suggest that VR platforms provide a realistic and challenging environment to examine how self-regulation procedures may influence behavioral outcomes. Real-time dynamic engagement in a virtual setting affords investigators with an opportunity to evaluate the utility of self-regulatory skills training for improving safety in situations where there are uncertain and risky outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Exploring Self-Regulation in Language Learning: A Study of Japanese High School EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsuko; Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning explores learners' complex intrinsic factors, including their learning strategies and motivation to learn. It offers learners the opportunity to become autonomous--a situation that is essential for ensuring that Japanese students acquire English proficiency. This study aims to explore the factors involved in self-regulated…

  6. Immune system changes during simulated planetary exploration on Devon Island, high arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effenhauser Rainer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during spaceflight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions have yet to be established. Also, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive immune assessment on field team members participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of mission-associated stressors on the human immune system. To perform the study, the development of techniques for processing immune samples in remote field locations was required. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, whole-blood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles, plasma cortisol and EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were 30 days prior to mission start, mid-mission and 60 days after mission completion. Results The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed on Devon Island, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in astronauts

  7. Percentage depth dose calculation accuracy of model based algorithms in high energy photon small fields through heterogeneous media and comparison with plastic scintillator dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagar, Ananda Giri Babu; Mani, Ganesh Kadirampatti; Karunakaran, Kaviarasu

    2016-01-08

    Small fields smaller than 4 × 4 cm2 are used in stereotactic and conformal treatments where heterogeneity is normally present. Since dose calculation accuracy in both small fields and heterogeneity often involves more discrepancy, algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated for achieving better treatment results. This report aims at evaluating accuracy of four model-based algorithms, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) from Monaco, Superposition (SP) from CMS-Xio, AcurosXB (AXB) and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) from Eclipse are tested against the measurement. Measurements are done using Exradin W1 plastic scintillator in Solid Water phantom with heterogeneities like air, lung, bone, and aluminum, irradiated with 6 and 15 MV photons of square field size ranging from 1 to 4 cm2. Each heterogeneity is introduced individually at two different depths from depth-of-dose maximum (Dmax), one setup being nearer and another farther from the Dmax. The central axis percentage depth-dose (CADD) curve for each setup is measured separately and compared with the TPS algorithm calculated for the same setup. The percentage normalized root mean squared deviation (%NRMSD) is calculated, which represents the whole CADD curve's deviation against the measured. It is found that for air and lung heterogeneity, for both 6 and 15 MV, all algorithms show maximum deviation for field size 1 × 1 cm2 and gradually reduce when field size increases, except for AAA. For aluminum and bone, all algorithms' deviations are less for 15 MV irrespective of setup. In all heterogeneity setups, 1 × 1 cm2 field showed maximum deviation, except in 6MV bone setup. All algorithms in the study, irrespective of energy and field size, when any heterogeneity is nearer to Dmax, the dose deviation is higher compared to the same heterogeneity far from the Dmax. Also, all algorithms show maximum deviation in lower-density materials compared to high-density materials.

  8. Exploring the Effects of Active Learning on High School Students' Outcomes and Teachers' Perceptions of Biotechnology and Genetics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ashley L.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Orvis, Kathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    Active learning can engage high school students to learn science, yet there is limited understanding if active learning can help students learn challenging science concepts such as genetics and biotechnology. This quasi-experimental study explored the effects of active learning compared to passive learning regarding high school students'…

  9. Evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids: an IDEAL prospective exploration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Li, Y; Wang, Z; McCulloch, P; Hu, L; Chen, W; Liu, G; Li, J; Lang, J

    2017-04-19

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and surgery in treating uterine fibroids, and prepare for a definitive randomised trial. Prospective multicentre patient choice cohort study (IDEAL Exploratory study) of HIFU, myomectomy or hysterectomy for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. 20 Chinese hospitals. 2411 Chinese women with symptomatic fibroids. Prospective non-randomised cohort study with learning curve analysis (IDEAL Stage 2b Prospective Exploration Study). Complications, hospital stay, return to normal activities, and quality of life (measured with UFS-Qol and SF-36 at baseline, 6 and 12 months), and need for further treatment. Quality-of-life outcomes were adjusted using regression modelling. HIFU treatment quality was evaluated using LC-CUSUM to identify operator learning curves. A health economic analysis of costs was performed. 1353 women received HIFU, 472 hysterectomy and 586 myomectomy. HIFU patients were significantly younger (P HIFU than after surgery (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively at 6 months), but absolute differences were small. Major adverse events occurred in 3 (0.2%) of HIFU and in 133 (12.6%) of surgical cases (P HIFU caused substantially less morbidity than surgery, with similar longer-term QoL. Despite group baseline differences and lack of blinding, these findings support the need for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIFU treatment for fibroids. The IDEAL Exploratory design facilitated RCT protocol development. HIFU had much better short-term outcomes than surgery for fibroids in 2411-patient Chinese IDEAL format study. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Knots: Attractive Places with High Path Tortuosity in Mouse Open Field Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Anna; Szechtman, Henry; Golani, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this “home base” highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior. Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them—knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling. In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene. PMID:20090825

  11. Knots: attractive places with high path tortuosity in mouse open field exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dvorkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this "home base" highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior.Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them-knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling.In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene.

  12. High Measurement Channel Density Sensor Array Impedance Analyzer for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary exploration missions, such as those planned by NASA and other space agencies over the next few decades, require advanced chemical and biological marker...

  13. High-Efficiency Reliable Stirling Generator for Space Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs advanced power-conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of power conversion for space exploration missions. We propose to develop...

  14. CuPIDS: An Exploration of Highly Focused, Co-Processor-Based Information System Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Paul D; Spafford, Eugene H

    2005-01-01

    The Co-Processing Intrusion Detection System (CuPID S) project is exploring how torn improve information system security by dedicating computational resources to system security tasks in a shared resource, multi-processor (MP) architecture...

  15. ExoMol molecular line lists XIX: high-accuracy computed hot line lists for H218O and H217O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyansky, Oleg L.; Kyuberis, Aleksandra A.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolai F.

    2017-04-01

    Hot line lists for two isotopologues of water, H218O and H217O, are presented. The calculations employ newly constructed potential energy surfaces (PES), which take advantage of a novel method for using the large set of experimental energy levels for H216O to give high-quality predictions for H218O and H217O. This procedure greatly extends the energy range for which a PES can be accurately determined, allowing an accurate prediction of higher lying energy levels than are currently known from direct laboratory measurements. This PES is combined with a high-accuracy, ab initio dipole moment surface of water in the computation of all energy levels, transition frequencies and associated Einstein A coefficients for states with rotational excitation up to J = 50 and energies up to 30 000 cm-1. The resulting HotWat78 line lists complement the well-used BT2 H216O line list. Full line lists are made available online as Supporting Information and at www.exomol.com.

  16. Using ProSight PTM and related tools for targeted protein identification and characterization with high mass accuracy tandem MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Richard D; Kelleher, Neil L

    2007-09-01

    ProSight PTM v2.0, neuroProSight, and the Sequence Gazer allow the identification and characterization of proteins from high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometric data of intact proteins and large peptides. Input data consists of one or more neutral precursor ion masses and a set of neutral b/y or c/z(.) fragment ions masses. This data is compared against "shotgun annotated" proteome databases or known protein sequences. With these tools it is possible to not only identify unknown proteins, but to determine the location of post-translational modifications (PTM) with 100% sequence coverage. Collectively, the tools create a search environment that allows five different search modes, including absolute mass and sequence tag searching, which are conveniently employed via a graphical user interface. Data management and chemical noise reduction tools are also available. These tools provide a complete environment for the identification and characterization of proteins from high resolution tandem mass spectrometry of intact proteins and large peptides. Copyright 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. High accuracy measurement of the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction cross-section in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range

    CERN Multimedia

    The analysis of the neutron flux of n_TOF (in EAR1) revealed an anomaly in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range. While the flux extracted on the basis of the $^{6}$Li(n,t)$^{4}$He and $^{10}$B(n,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Li reactions mostly agreed with each other and with the results of FLUKA simulations of the neutron beam, the one based on the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction was found to be systematically lower, independently of the detection system used. A possible explanation is that the $^{235}$U(n,f) crosssection in that energy region, where in principle should be known with an uncertainty of 1%, may be systematically overestimated. Such a finding, which has a negligible influence on thermal reactors, would be important for future fast critical or subcritical reactors. Furthermore, its interest is more general, since the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction is often used at that energy to determine the neutron flux, or as reference in measurements of fission cross section of other actinides. We propose to perform a high-accuracy, high-r...

  18. Comparing the accuracy of high-dimensional neural network potentials and the systematic molecular fragmentation method: A benchmark study for all-trans alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastegger, Michael; Kauffmann, Clemens; Behler, Jörg; Marquetand, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Many approaches, which have been developed to express the potential energy of large systems, exploit the locality of the atomic interactions. A prominent example is the fragmentation methods in which the quantum chemical calculations are carried out for overlapping small fragments of a given molecule that are then combined in a second step to yield the system's total energy. Here we compare the accuracy of the systematic molecular fragmentation approach with the performance of high-dimensional neural network (HDNN) potentials introduced by Behler and Parrinello. HDNN potentials are similar in spirit to the fragmentation approach in that the total energy is constructed as a sum of environment-dependent atomic energies, which are derived indirectly from electronic structure calculations. As a benchmark set, we use all-trans alkanes containing up to eleven carbon atoms at the coupled cluster level of theory. These molecules have been chosen because they allow to extrapolate reliable reference energies for very long chains, enabling an assessment of the energies obtained by both methods for alkanes including up to 10 000 carbon atoms. We find that both methods predict high-quality energies with the HDNN potentials yielding smaller errors with respect to the coupled cluster reference.

  19. Meteorological predictions for Mars 2020 Exploration Rover high-priority landing sites throug MRAMS Mesoscale Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) is used to predict meteorological conditions that are likely to be encountered by the Mars 2020 Exploration Rover at several proposed landing sites during entry, descent, and landing (EDL). The meteorology during the EDL window at most of the sites is dynamic. The intense heating of the lower atmosphere drives intense thermals and mesoscale thermal circulations. Moderate mean winds, wind shear, turbulence, and vertical air currents associated with convection are present and potentially hazardous to EDL [1]. Nine areas with specific high-priority landing ellipses of the 2020 Rover, are investigated: NE Syrtis, Nili Fossae, Nili Fossae Carbonates, Jezero Crater Delta, Holden Crater, McLaughlin Crater, Southwest Melas Basin, Mawrth Vallis and East Margaritifer Chloride. MRAMS was applied to the landing site regions using nested grids with a spacing of 330 meters on the innermost grid that is centered over each landing site. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' atmospheric thermal circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [2, 3]. Horizontal wind speeds, both vertical profiles and vertical cross-sections wind speeds, are studied. For some landing sites simulations, two example configurations -including and not including Hellas basin in the mother domain- were generated, in order to study how the basin affects the innermost grids circulations. Afternoon circulations at all sites pose some risk entry, descent, and landing. Most of the atmospheric hazards are not evident in current observational data and general circulation model simulations and can only be ascertained through mesoscale modeling of the region. Decide where to go first and then design a system that can tolerate the environment would greatly minimize risk. References: [1] Rafkin, S. C. R., and T. I. Michaels (2003), J. Geophys. Res., 108(E12

  20. High accuracy of mesoscopic epi-fluorescence tomography for non-invasive quantitative volume determination of fluorescent protein-expressing tumours in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Doleschel, Dennis; Kiessling, Fabian; Lederle, Wiltrud [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Bjoern, Saskia; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Schulz, Ralf [Technische Universitaet Muenchen and Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Neuherberg (Germany); Hoffman, Robert M. [University of California and AntiCancer Inc., Department of Surgery, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    To compare mesoscopic epi-fluorescence tomography (MEFT) and EPRI-illumination reflectance imaging (EPRI) for quantitative tumour size assessment in mice. Tumour xenografts of green/red fluorescent protein (GFP/RFP)-expressing colon cancer cells were measured using MEFT, EPRI, ultrasound (US) and micro computed tomography ({mu}CT) at day 14 post-injection (n = 6). Results from MEFT and EPRI were correlated with each other and with US and {mu}CT (reference methods). Tumour volumes were measured ex vivo by GFP and RFP fluorescence imaging on cryoslices and compared with the in vivo measurements. High correlation and congruency were observed between MEFT, US and {mu}CT (MEFT/US: GFP: r {sup 2} = 0.96; RFP: r {sup 2} = 0.97, both P < 0.05; MEFT/{mu}CT: GFP: r {sup 2} = 0.93; RFP: r {sup 2} = 0.90; both P < 0.05). Additionally, in vivo MEFT data were highly correlated and congruent with ex vivo cryoslice imaging results (GFP: r {sup 2} = 0.96; RFP: r {sup 2} = 0.99; both P < 0.05). In comparison, EPRI significantly overestimated tumour volumes (P < 0.05), although there was a significant correlation with US and {mu}CT (EPRI/US: GFP: r {sup 2} = 0.95; RFP: r {sup 2} = 0.94; both P < 0.05; EPRI/{mu}CT GFP: r {sup 2} = 0.86; RFP: r {sup 2} = 0.86; both P < 0.05). Fluorescence distribution reconstruction using MEFT affords highly accurate three-dimensional (3D) tumour volume data showing superior accuracy compared to EPRI. Thus, MEFT is a very suitable technique for quantitatively assessing fluorescence distribution in superficial tumours at high spatial resolution. (orig.)

  1. Fusion of lens-free microscopy and mobile-phone microscopy images for high-color-accuracy and high-resolution pathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Wu, Yichen; Zhang, Yun; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Digital pathology and telepathology require imaging tools with high-throughput, high-resolution and accurate color reproduction. Lens-free on-chip microscopy based on digital in-line holography is a promising technique towards these needs, as it offers a wide field of view (FOV >20 mm2) and high resolution with a compact, low-cost and portable setup. Color imaging has been previously demonstrated by combining reconstructed images at three discrete wavelengths in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum, i.e., the RGB combination method. However, this RGB combination method is subject to color distortions. To improve the color performance of lens-free microscopy for pathology imaging, here we present a wavelet-based color fusion imaging framework, termed "digital color fusion microscopy" (DCFM), which digitally fuses together a grayscale lens-free microscope image taken at a single wavelength and a low-resolution and low-magnification color-calibrated image taken by a lens-based microscope, which can simply be a mobile phone based cost-effective microscope. We show that the imaging results of an H&E stained breast cancer tissue slide with the DCFM technique come very close to a color-calibrated microscope using a 40x objective lens with 0.75 NA. Quantitative comparison showed 2-fold reduction in the mean color distance using the DCFM method compared to the RGB combination method, while also preserving the high-resolution features of the lens-free microscope. Due to the cost-effective and field-portable nature of both lens-free and mobile-phone microscopy techniques, their combination through the DCFM framework could be useful for digital pathology and telepathology applications, in low-resource and point-of-care settings.

  2. Not Driven by High-Stakes Tests: Exploring Science Assessment and College Readiness of Students from an Urban Portfolio Community High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshman, Robin Earle

    2017-01-01

    This case study seeks to explore three research questions: (1) What science teaching and learning processes, perspectives, and cultures exist within the science classroom of an urban portfolio community high school? (2) In what ways does the portfolio-based approach prepare high school students of color for college level science coursework,…

  3. Checking the predictive accuracy of basic symptoms against ultra high-risk criteria and testing of a multivariable prediction model: Evidence from a prospective three-year observational study of persons at clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, M P; Heekeren, K; Dvorsky, D; Walitza, S; Rössler, W; Theodoridou, A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine the prognostic validity of various clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria alone and in combination with additional clinical characteristics. A total of 188 CHR positive persons from the region of Zurich, Switzerland (mean age 20.5 years; 60.2% male), meeting ultra high-risk (UHR) and/or basic symptoms (BS) criteria, were followed over three years. The test battery included the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), verbal IQ and many other screening tools. Conversion to psychosis was defined according to ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia (F20) or brief psychotic disorder (F23). Altogether n=24 persons developed manifest psychosis within three years and according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the projected conversion rate was 17.5%. The predictive accuracy of UHR was statistically significant but poor (area under the curve [AUC]=0.65, Ppredict psychosis beyond mere chance (AUC=0.52, P=.730). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.83 and 0.47 for UHR, and 0.96 and 0.09 for BS. UHR plus BS achieved an AUC=0.66, with sensitivity and specificity of 0.75 and 0.56. In comparison, baseline antipsychotic medication yielded a predictive accuracy of AUC=0.62 (sensitivity=0.42; specificity=0.82). A multivariable prediction model comprising continuous measures of positive symptoms and verbal IQ achieved a substantially improved prognostic accuracy (AUC=0.85; sensitivity=0.86; specificity=0.85; positive predictive value=0.54; negative predictive value=0.97). We showed that BS have no predictive accuracy beyond chance, while UHR criteria poorly predict conversion to psychosis. Combining BS with UHR criteria did not improve the predictive accuracy of UHR alone. In contrast, dimensional measures of both positive symptoms and verbal IQ showed excellent prognostic validity. A critical re-thinking of binary at-risk criteria is necessary in order to improve the prognosis of psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson

  4. Exploring high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeleger, W.; Katsman, C.; Sterl, A.; Beersma, J.

    2009-04-01

    Sea level rise, changing storm frequency and intensity, and increased river discharge resulting from climate change pose a particular threat to low-lying countries like the Netherlands and create many new challenges for them. With these threats and challenges in mind, the Dutch cabinet established a special committee, the Delta Committee, charged with the development of effective planning-, management- and adaptation strategies for climate proofing the Netherlands. At the request of the Dutch Delta Committee, an international scientific assessment has been carried out to explore high-end climate change scenarios for flood protection of the Netherlands. Upper-bound values and longer-term projections (up to 2200) of climate-induced sea level rise, changing storm surge conditions, and peak discharge of the river Rhine have been considered. The assessment builds on a review of recent studies, model projections and expert opinions. For the scenarios for sea level rise, thermal expansion of the ocean, the shrinking of small glaciers, the Greenland and the Antarctic Ice Sheets, and changes in terrestrial water storage are considered separately, along with their uncertainties. Except for the contribution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet all contributions are assumed to depend (at least in part) on the rise in global mean atmospheric temperature rise. To arrive at a projection for local sea level, elastic and gravity effects of elastic deformation of the Earth's crust arising from mass redistribution due to the melting of land-based ice masses, local expansion differences with respect to the global mean (dominated by ocean circulation changes) and local land movement were accounted for. Depending on the adopted impact of the elastic and gravity effects, a high-end projection for local sea level rise of 0.50 - 1.15 m and 0.05 - 1.25 m is projected for the Dutch coast for 2100. For 2200 these ranges are 1.5 - 4 m and 0.5 - 4.0 m. Besides sea level rise, the height of storm surges

  5. Merging high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys to reduce exploration risk at glass buttes, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Patrick [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Fercho, Steven [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Perkin, Doug [Ormat Nevada, Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Martini, Brigette [Corescan Inc., Ascot (Australia); Boshmann, Darrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The engineering and studies phase of the Glass Buttes project was aimed at reducing risk during the early stages of geothermal project development. The project’s inclusion of high resolution geophysical and geochemical surveys allowed Ormat to evaluate the value of these surveys both independently and in combination to quantify the most valuable course of action for exploration in an area where structure, permeability, and temperature are the most pressing questions. The sizes of the thermal anomalies at Glass Buttes are unusually large. Over the course of Phase I Ormat acquired high resolution LIDAR data to accurately map fault manifestations at the surface and collected detailed gravity and aeromagnetic surveys to map subsurface structural features. In addition, Ormat collected airborne hyperspectral data to assist with mapping the rock petrology and mineral alteration assemblages along Glass Buttes faults and magnetotelluric (MT) survey to try to better constrain the structures at depth. Direct and indirect identification of alteration assemblages reveal not only the geochemical character and temperature of the causative hydrothermal fluids but can also constrain areas of upflow along specific fault segments. All five datasets were merged along with subsurface lithologies and temperatures to predict the most likely locations for high permeability and hot fluids. The Glass Buttes temperature anomalies include 2 areas, totaling 60 km2 (23 mi2) of measured temperature gradients over 165° C/km (10° F/100ft). The Midnight Point temperature anomaly includes the Strat-1 well with 90°C (194 °F) at 603 m (1981 ft) with a 164 °C/km (10°F/100ft) temperature gradient at bottom hole and the GB-18 well with 71°C (160 °F) at 396 m (1300 ft) with a 182°C/km (11°F/100ft) gradient. The primary area of alteration and elevated temperature occurs near major fault intersections associated with Brothers Fault Zone and Basin and Range systems. Evidence for faulting is

  6. The high accuracy model of the 19 July 2012 solar flare: kinetic description, calculations of X-Ray and microwave emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsyk, Pavel; Somov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    The limb white-light solar flare M7.7 class was observed at the 19 July 2012 at 05:58UT by RHESSI, GOES and SDO with high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. These new data make possible to test modern models of solar flares. The flare, which considered here, locates in the picture plane, so we well see two different hard X-ray sources: footpoint and above-the-loop-top. The loop was observed in whit-light and microwave wavelengths. The key part of the presented work is high accuracy kinetic model, which describe behavior of electrons in the target - solar flare loop. We interpret the footpoint source in approximation of the thick target model with reverse current and above-the-loop-top source - in the thin target approximation. The microwave spectrum in the range from 1 to 50 GHz was calculated. Our results fit well the observational data, particularly so important parameter as hard X-Ray spectral index. But intensity of emission of the coronal source was estimated incorrect, it was low than observed. This problem can be solved by taking into account effects of particles acceleration in the collapsing magnetic trap, when fast electrons receive additional energy without changing the index of their energy spectrum. In the result we have flux ~ 5 1010 erg cm-2 s-1 for electrons with energies more then 15 keV, that ~ 5 times larger then in the case classical thick target model. Accordingly , so high flux of electrons to the Chromosphere provides effective heating of the cold plasma in the target, but the reverse current electric field restrict depth of the electron penetration. Received in this work estimates may be used for interpretation of the solar flare optical source formation and evolution.

  7. [High throughput-targeted sequencing panel for exploring radiosensitivity associated genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y; Hu, C X; Song, D A; Li, S Q; Zhou, L H; Jiang, X D

    2017-08-23

    Objective: To explore radiosensitivity-associated genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by targeted sequencing panel. Methods: The peripheral blood from 22 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients received radiotherapy alone were collected, respectively. The genomic DNA (gDNA) of peripheral blood was extracted and used to create a library of gDNA restriction fragments. The gDNA restriction fragments were hybridized to the HaloPlex probe capture library, which comprises 356 cancer genes selected from the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (Cosmic) database of 2011 updated edition. The sequencing data were aligned by the Genome Analysis Toolkit GATK (version 3.0) and Picar. The single nucleotide polymorphism and inserted-deletion (SNP/InDel) variations were annotated by online database. The pathway enrichment was analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA). Moreover, according to the short-period curative effect, 22 patients were divided into two groups: the radiation- sensitivity group (CR+ PR) and the radiation-resistant group (PD+ SD). The nonsynonymous mutation sites were statistically analyzed and the genes associated with radiosensitivity of ESCC were screened. Results: More than 97% sequencing reads were aligned to human genome reference sequence and more than 90% sequencing reads were the target sequences. SNP/InDel database annotation results showed that the mutations of 22 cases mainly distributed in exons, and the mutant types were mainly missense and synonymous single nucleotide variant (SNV). There were 23 genes of high-frequency mutation associated with esophageal cancer. Pathway enrichment by IPA showed that 3 pathways were associated with the development of esophageal cancer, which were roles of BRCA1 in DNA damage response pathway, DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end joining pathway and ATM signaling pathway. According to the curative effect, five genes including mismatch repair system component (PMS1

  8. Accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test on the diagnosis of malaria infection and of malaria - attributable fever during low and high transmission season in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinto Halidou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria management policies currently recommend that the treatment should only be administered after laboratory confirmation. Where microscopy is not available, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are the usual alternative. Conclusive evidence is still lacking on the safety of a test-based strategy for children. Moreover, no formal attempt has been made to estimate RDTs accuracy on malaria-attributable fever. This study aims at estimating the accuracy of a RDT for the diagnosis of both malaria infection and malaria - attributable fever, in a region of Burkina Faso with a typically seasonal malaria transmission pattern. Methods Cross-sectional study. Subjects: all patients aged > 6 months consulting during the study periods. Gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria infection was microscopy. Gold standard for malaria-attributable fever was the number of fevers attributable to malaria, estimated by comparing parasite densities of febrile versus non-febrile subjects. Exclusion criteria: severe clinical condition needing urgent care. Results In the dry season, 186/852 patients with fever (22% and 213/1,382 patients without fever (15% had a Plasmodium falciparum infection. In the rainy season, this proportion was 841/1,317 (64% and 623/1,669 (37%, respectively. The attributable fraction of fever to malaria was 11% and 69%, respectively. The RDT was positive in 113/400 (28.3% fever cases in the dry season, and in 443/650 (68.2% in the rainy season. In the dry season, the RDT sensitivity and specificity for malaria infection were 86% and 90% respectively. In the rainy season they were 94% and 78% respectively. In the dry season, the RDT sensitivity and specificity for malaria-attributable fever were 94% and 75%, the positive predictive value (PPV was 9% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 99.8%. In the rainy season the test sensitivity for malaria-attributable fever was 97% and specificity was 55%. The PPV ranged from 38% for

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of high-risk HPV genotyping in women with high-grade cervical lesions: evidence for improving the cervical cancer screening strategy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huihui; Lin, Aifen; Shao, Xiujuan; Shi, Weiwu; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Weihua

    2016-12-13

    Currently, clinical data for primary HPV screening alone are lacking in China. Here, we evaluate cervical cancer screening with primary HPV genotyping, as well as possible future screening strategy. Overall, high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence was 18.2% among hospital-based population in Taizhou area. For cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+), the sensitivity of primary hrHPV genotyping strategy and current cervical cancer screening strategy were 93.5%, and 71.1%, respectively; whereas the specificity was 17.5%, and 62.4%, respectively. Current cervical screening strategy had slightly higher positive predictive values (28.4%) for CIN2+ than hrHPV genotyping strategy (21.9%), whereas primary hrHPV genotyping strategy demonstrated higher negative predictive values (94.7%) than current cervical screening strategy (91.1%). Compared to HPV35/39/45/51/56/59/66/68 genotypes, the odds ratios (OR) for CIN2+ in HPV16/18/31/33/52/58 infection women were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.1). Primary hrHPV genotyping strategy provides a better predictive value than HPV16/18 genotyping alone in guiding the clinical management of the current cervical cancer screening. HPV testing without adjunctive cytology may be sufficiently sensitive for primary cervical cancer screening.

  10. Exploring Critical Factors of Self Concept among High Income Community College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Nor, Ahmad Rosli Mohd; Amat, Salleh; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the critical factors influencing the self-concept of community college graduates in the development of their careers. Individuals with a positive self-concept are often associated with a good career choices and a well-panned career development path. Hence community college students should be girded with a…

  11. Exploring Sequence Characteristics Related to High- Level Production of Secreted Proteins in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.A.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hulsman, M.; Wu, L.; Pel, H.J.; Roubos, J.A.; De Ridder, D.

    2012-01-01

    Protein sequence features are explored in relation to the production of over-expressed extracellular proteins by fungi. Knowledge on features influencing protein production and secretion could be employed to improve enzyme production levels in industrial bioprocesses via protein engineering. A large

  12. Self-Concept--Performance Congruence: An Exploration of Patterns among High-Achieving Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Janice E.

    1998-01-01

    Self-concept to performance congruence among academically able adolescents (54 females, 49 males) in both math and English was explored. Although analyses revealed similar congruence patterns for females and males in both subject areas, the overall majority of these able learners fell outside the congruent range. (Author/CR)

  13. Exploration of Teaching Skills of Pre-Service High School Teachers' through Self-Regulated Learning Based on Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi; Kuswanto, Heru; Yanti, Fitri April

    2017-01-01

    An expert in the field of science is often difficult to teach his knowledge to students. Conversely someone who is expert in the field of education is certainly more expert in transferring knowledge. The purpose of this research is to explore the skill of teaching skill preservice of physics teacher of High School. Samples were taken randomly as…

  14. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  15. Fostering Safe and Inclusive Spaces for LGBTQ Students: Phenomenographic Exploration of High School Administrators' Perceptions about GSAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Andy K.; Perry, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. secondary school environment often is hostile and exclusionary toward LGBTQ students. Queer theoretical perspectives have served as the conceptual foundation for a phenomenographic study exploring seven high school administrators' perceptions of their experiences with Gay-Straight Alliances. The study results support prior research that…

  16. Exploration of the Professional Development Needs of New York City High School Principals with Less than 5 Years Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Margaret Lacey

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study was conducted to explore the professional development needs of New York City high school principals with less than five years' experience based on the McREL balanced leadership framework. The purpose of this research is to answer the three research questions below in hopes of contributing to the field. The research for…

  17. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  18. High School Students' Accuracy in Estimating the Cost of College: A Proposed Methodological Approach and Differences among Racial/Ethnic Groups and College Financial-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny; Oshio, Toko

    2017-01-01

    High school students' accuracy in estimating the cost of college (AECC) was examined by utilizing a new methodological approach, the absolute-deviation-continuous construct. This study used the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) data and examined 10,530 11th grade students in order to measure their AECC for 4-year public and private…

  19. Exploring the High-Pressure Behavior of PETN: A Combined Quantum Mechanical and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    calculations to explore the hypothesized compression-induced polymorphic phase transition [Gruzdkov 2004]. The initial crystal in these Figure 4...Scuseria, G.E., and Chabalowski, C.F. 2004: An ab Initio Study of Solid Nitromethane, HMX , RDX, and CL20: Successes and Failures of DFT. J. Phys. Chem...RDX, HMX , HNIW, and PETN Crystals. J. Phys. Chem. B, 103, 6783. Trotter, J., 1963: Bond lengths and angles in Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate. Acta

  20. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of cervical pre-cancer detection methods in a high-risk area in East Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, S; Arbyn, M; Lie, A K; Ryd, W; Borge, B; Berle, E J; Skomedal, H; Kadima, T M; Kyembwa, L; Billay, E M; Mukwege, D; Chirimwami, R B; Mvula, T M; Snijders, P J; Meijer, C J L M; Karlsen, F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the high burden of cervical cancer in low-income settings, there is a need for a convenient and affordable method for detecting and treating pre-cancerous lesions. Methods: Samples for comparing the accuracy of cytology, virology and histology were collected. Identification of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was performed using PreTect HPV-Proofer. HPV DNA detection was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR, followed by reverse line blot (RLB) for typing. Results: A total of 343 women, aged 25–60 years, attending gynaecological polyclinics in DR Congo were included for sample enrolment. The test positivity rate was conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) at cutoff ASCUS+ of 6.9 and 6.6%, respectively; PreTect HPV-Proofer of 7.3% and consensus DNA PCR for 14 HR types of 18.5%. Sixteen cases of CIN2+ lesions were identified. Of these, conventional cytology identified 66.7% with a specificity of 96.2%, LBC identified 73.3% with a specificity of 96.9%, all at cutoff ASCUS+. HR-HPV DNA detected all CIN2+ cases with a specificity of 85.9%, whereas PreTect HPV-Proofer gave a sensitivity of 81.3% and a specificity of 96.6%. Conclusion: Both HPV detection assays showed a higher sensitivity for CIN2+ than did cytological methods. Detecting E6/E7 mRNA from only a subset of HR HPVs, as is the case with PreTect HPV-Proofer, resulted in a similar specificity to cytology and a significantly higher specificity than consensus HR HPV DNA (P<0.0001). PMID:20197765

  2. High Dose MicroCT Does Not Contribute Toward Improved MicroPET/CT Image Quantitative Accuracy and Can Limit Longitudinal Scanning of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. McDougald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining accurate quantitative measurements in preclinical Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT imaging is of paramount importance in biomedical research and helps supporting efficient translation of preclinical results to the clinic. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1 to investigate the effects of different CT acquisition protocols on PET/CT image quality and data quantification; and (2 to evaluate the absorbed dose associated with varying CT parameters.Methods: An air/water quality control CT phantom, tissue equivalent material phantom, an in-house 3D printed phantom and an image quality PET/CT phantom were imaged using a Mediso nanoPET/CT scanner. Collected data was analyzed using PMOD software, VivoQuant software and National Electric Manufactures Association (NEMA software implemented by Mediso. Measured Hounsfield Unit (HU in collected CT images were compared to the known HU values and image noise was quantified. PET recovery coefficients (RC, uniformity and quantitative bias were also measured.Results: Only less than 2 and 1% of CT acquisition protocols yielded water HU values < −80 and air HU values < −840, respectively. Four out of 11 CT protocols resulted in more than 100 mGy absorbed dose. Different CT protocols did not impact PET uniformity and RC, and resulted in <4% overall bias relative to expected radioactive concentration.Conclusion: Preclinical CT protocols with increased exposure times can result in high absorbed doses to the small animals. These should be avoided, as they do not contributed toward improved microPET/CT image quantitative accuracy and could limit longitudinal scanning of small animals.

  3. Accuracy of third-order bends of nickel-titanium wires and the effect of high and low pressure during memorizing heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Wiechmann, Dirk; Sütfeld, Jan; Helm, Dirk

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of third-order bends of nickel-titanium wires and determined the effect of high and low pressure for maintaining the wire shape during memorizing heat treatment. A computer-aided bending machine was used to incorporate 200 randomly determined torsional angles between 0 degrees and 60 degrees into 30 linear 0.016 x 0.022-in NeoSentalloy F80 (GAC International, Central Islip, NY) wires. The torsional bendings were randomized into 2 groups. Bends assigned to group 1 (n = 100) received heat treatment of 1.6 MPa (16 bar) pressure, and bends assigned to group 2 (n = 100) received heat treatment of 50 MPa (500 bar) pressure. Cross-sectional cuts from the bent wires were prepared by using standard metallurgical techniques, and the torsional angles were analyzed under computer control. The results of our study show that third-order bends 30 degrees but 40 degrees , the bending error with both methods is clinically unacceptable. In addition to the variability in the dimension and composition of nickel-titanium wires, the scale of the incorporated plastic deformations makes a substantial contribution to the bending error. As far as permitted by the clinical situation, then, the bend should be distributed over the maximum possible wire length. Third-order bends in the first rectangular pseudoelastic nickel-titanium wires represent an efficient means of effecting torque at an early stage. This individualization allows the full therapeutic potential of these archwires to be exploited right from the initial phase of treatment.

  4. Using Metaphor Analysis to Explore High School Students' Attitudes towards Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the attitudes of Anatolian high school and vocational high school students towards learning mathematics were examined by using the metaphor analysis method. The study included 669 12th grade students (317 female, 352 male) of two Anatolian and two vocational high schools located in a city center in the Aegean region of Turkey. The…

  5. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  6. Vision Algorithm for the Solar Aspect System of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Alexander Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    This work covers the design and test of a machine vision algorithm for generating high- accuracy pitch and yaw pointing solutions relative to the sun on a high altitude balloon. It describes how images were constructed by focusing an image of the sun onto a plate printed with a pattern of small cross-shaped fiducial markers. Images of this plate taken with an off-the-shelf camera were processed to determine relative position of the balloon payload to the sun. The algorithm is broken into four problems: circle detection, fiducial detection, fiducial identification, and image registration. Circle detection is handled by an "Average Intersection" method, fiducial detection by a matched filter approach, and identification with an ad-hoc method based on the spacing between fiducials. Performance is verified on real test data where possible, but otherwise uses artificially generated data. Pointing knowledge is ultimately verified to meet the 20 arcsecond requirement.

  7. Rethinking Empathic Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Meadors, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a methodological examination of the implicit empathic accuracy measure introduced by Zaki, Ochsner, and Bolger (2008). Empathic accuracy (EA) is defined as the ability to understand another person's thoughts and feelings (Ickes, 1993). Because this definition is similar to definitions of cognitive empathy (e.g., Shamay-Tsoory, 2011) and because affective empathy does not appear to be related to empathic accuracy (Zaki et al., 2008), the Basic Empathy Scale--which measures...

  8. Detection of high energy cosmic rays with the resonant gravitational wave detector NAUTILUS and EXPLORER

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, P; Bassan, M; Bonifazi, P; Cavallari, G; Coccia, E; D'Antonio, S; Fafone, V; Giordano, G; Ligi, C; Marini, A; Mazzitelli, G; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I; Modestino, G; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Pizzella, G; Quintieri, L; Rocchi, A; Ronga, F; Terenzi, R; Visco, M

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic resonant gravitational wave detectors NAUTILUS and EXPLORER, made of an aluminum alloy bar, can detect cosmic ray showers. At temperatures above 1 K, when the material is in the normal conducting state, the measured signals are in good agreement with the values expected based on the cosmic rays data and on the thermo-acoustic model. When NAUTILUS was operated at the temperature of 0.14 K, in superconductive state, large signals produced by cosmic ray interactions, more energetic than expected, were recorded. The NAUTILUS data in this case are in agreement with the measurements done by a dedicated experiment on a particle beam. The biggest recorded event was in EXPLORER and excited the first longitudinal mode to a vibrational energy of about K, corresponding to about 360 TeV absorbed in the bar. Cosmic rays can be an important background in future acoustic detectors of improved sensitivity. At present, they represent a useful tool to verify the gravitational wave antenna performance.

  9. Distribution trend of high-rise buildings worldwide and factor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This paper elaborates the development phenomenon of high-rise buildings nowadays. The development trend of super high-rise buildings worldwide is analyzed based on data from the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, taking the top 100 high-rise buildings in different continents and with the time development and building type as the objects. Through analysis, the trend of flourishing of UAE super high-rise buildings and stable development of European and American high-rise buildings is obtained. The reasons for different development degrees of the regions are demonstrated from the aspects of social development, economy, culture and consciousness. This paper also presents unavoidable issues of super high-rise buildings and calls for rational treatment to these buildings.

  10. Preliminary Explorations on the Statistical Profiles of Highly-Rated Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel Ángel

    As learning object repositories grow and accumulate resources and metadata, the concern for quality has increased, leading to several approaches for quality assessment. The availability of on-line evaluations in some repositories has opened the opportunity to examine the characteristics of learning objects that are evaluated positively, in search of features that can be used as a priori predictors of quality. This paper reports a preliminary exploration of some learning object attributes that can be automatically analyzed and might serve as quality metrics, using a sample from the MERLOT repository. The bookmarking of learning objects in personal collections was found to be a potential predictor of quality. Among the initial metrics considered, the number of images has been found to be also a predictor in most of the disciplines and the only candidate for the Art discipline. More attributes have to be studied across disciplines to come up with automated analysis tools that have a degree of reliability.

  11. Exploring the Changing Meaning of Work for American High School Seniors from 1976 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Briddell, Laine; Osgood, D. Wayne; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Monitoring the Future study, this article presents historical trends in U.S. high school seniors' work values across 30 years (1976-2005). Adolescents across three decades highly valued most aspects of work examined. Recent cohorts showed declines in the importance of work, values for job security, and various potential…

  12. Exploring the Impact of Career Mentoring on High School Dropout: A Qualitative Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffington Ameir, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    According to Department of Education reports on public high school dropout rates for 2009, a national average of 44.3% of dropouts left their secondary school education in the 11th and 12th grades. The majority of school dropouts attributed the reason for dropping out of school to boredom. High social and economic costs associated with dropping…

  13. The Impact of Strategy Instruction and Timing of Estimates on Low and High Working-Memory Capacity Readers' Absolute Monitoring Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Zhao, Qin

    2008-01-01

    Working-memory capacity, strategy instruction, and timing of estimates were investigated for their effects on absolute monitoring accuracy, which is the difference between estimated and actual reading comprehension test performance. Participants read two expository texts under one of two randomly assigned reading strategy instruction conditions…

  14. Architectural Exploration and Design of Time-Interleaved SAR Arrays for Low-Power and High Speed A/D Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Nani, Claudio; van der Plas, Geert; Fanucci, Luca

    Time-interleaved (TI) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are frequently advocated as a power-efficient solution to realize the high sampling rates required in single-chip transceivers for the emerging communication schemes: ultra-wideband, fast serial links, cognitive-radio and software-defined radio. However, the combined effects of multiple distortion sources due to channel mismatches (bandwidth, offset, gain and timing) severely affect system performance and power consumption of a TI ADC and need to be accounted for since the earlier design phases. In this paper, system-level design of TI ADCs is addressed through a platform-based methodology, enabling effective investigation of different speed/resolution scenarios as well as the impact of parallelism on accuracy, yield, sampling-rate, area and power consumption. Design space exploration of a TI successive approximation ADC is performed top-down via Monte Carlo simulations, by exploiting behavioral models built bottom-up after characterizing feasible implementations of the main building blocks in a 90-nm 1-V CMOS process. As a result, two implementations of the TI ADC are proposed that are capable to provide an outstanding figure-of-merit below 0.15pJ/conversion-step.

  15. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  16. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  17. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  18. Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astronomy and Sp