WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploration field trials

  1. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  2. Water Column Exploration Field Trial I (EX0904, EM302) aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gorda Ridge, off the coasts of Oregon and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a water column exploration field trial cruise, designed to test and refine operations for conducting water column exploration using NOAA Ship Okeanos...

  3. Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II (EX0905, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are to test use of EX mapping sensors to characterize complex geological areas (i.e. volcanic field) and develop protocols to...

  4. Mapping Field Trial IV Habitat Characterization (EX0907, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Cordell Bank & Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are more operational than exploratory. Like other field trials, this cruise has primary and secondary goals and objectives....

  5. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  6. Student Participation in Rover Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Nelson, S. V.; Sherman, D. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    2001-12-01

    The LAPIS program was developed in 1999 as part of the Athena Science Payload education and public outreach, funded by the JPL Mars Program Office. For the past three years, the Athena Science Team has been preparing for 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission operations using the JPL prototype Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover in extended rover field trials. Students and teachers participating in LAPIS work with them each year to develop a complementary mission plan and implement an actual portion of the annual tests using FIDO and its instruments. LAPIS is designed to mirror an end-to-end mission: Small, geographically distributed groups of students form an integrated mission team, working together with Athena Science Team members and FIDO engineers to plan, implement, and archive a two-day test mission, controlling FIDO remotely over the Internet using the Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) and communicating with each other by email, the web, and teleconferences. The overarching goal of LAPIS is to get students excited about science and related fields. The program provides students with the opportunity to apply knowledge learned in school, such as geometry and geology, to a "real world" situation and to explore careers in science and engineering through continuous one-on-one interactions with teachers, Athena Science Team mentors, and FIDO engineers. A secondary goal is to help students develop improved communication skills and appreciation of teamwork, enhanced problem-solving skills, and increased self-confidence. The LAPIS program will provide a model for outreach associated with future FIDO field trials and the 2003 Mars mission operations. The base of participation will be broadened beyond the original four sites by taking advantage of the wide geographic distribution of Athena team member locations. This will provide greater numbers of students with the opportunity to actively engage in rover testing and to explore the possibilities of

  7. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  8. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  9. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  10. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  11. Photovoltaic domestic field trial. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    An update on a photovoltaics field trial that has been running for four years is presented. The PV Domestic Field Trial was set up to use the design, construction, performance and monitoring of PV units to generate data for utilities, builders and other current and potential users of PVs. Subjects covered were appearance of the systems, architectural integration, fixing methods, cost effectiveness, opinions of users, monitoring and results. During the past 12 months, most of the human effort has gone into collation of data from 22 of the 28 projects. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  12. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  13. Malaria vaccines: lessons from field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Struchiner

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine candidates have already been tested and new trials are being carried out. We present a brief description of specific issues of validity that are relevant when assessing vaccine efficacy in the field and illustrate how the application of these principles might improve our interpretation of the data being gathered in actual malaria vaccine field trials. Our discussion assumes that vaccine evaluation shares the same general principles of validity with epidemiologic causal inference, i.e., the process of drawing inferences from epidemiologic data aiming at the identification of causes of diseases. Judicious exercise of these principles indicates that, for meaningful interpretation, measures of vaccine efficacy require definitions based upon arguments conditional on the amount of exposure to infection, and specification of the initial and final states in which one believes the effect of interest takes place.

  14. Field efficacy trials with sylvatic plague vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richgels, Katherine; Russell, Robin E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2017-01-01

    These data were collected as part of a field trial to test the efficacy of a sylvatic plague vaccine. Treatment and control sites were selected randomly from the available sites at each location. Site pairs were a minimum of 20 acres, (with a few exceptions). Prairie dog trapping took place a minimum of two weeks post-baiting and trapping procedures were approved by the NWHC Animal Care and Use Committee as well as individual states as required.

  15. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  16. Exploring Literate Lives: Returning to the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robyn; Woods, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of conducting lengthy fieldwork in today's busy academic world have impacted the types of research that are able to be carried out. In particular, traditional educational ethnography has become problematic for research beyond initial doctoral research programs. This article analyzes data collected during a return to the field of a…

  17. Exploring the offshore wind farm far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platis, Andreas; Emeis, Stefan; Siedersleben, Simon; Neumann, Tom; Canadillas, Beatriz; Lampert, Astrid; Djath, Nathacha; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Bärfuss, Konrad; Bange, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Offshore wind farms contribute a considerable part of today's production of renewable electric energy. In the last years a massive built-up in offshore wind energy farms has occurred with a concentration of the wind farms in group and cluster. This arrangement affects one another through increased wake losses. The German Government is presently funding a research project called WIPAFF (WInd PArk Far Field) which is dedicated to the the analysis of properties and impacts of offshore wind park far fields and wake losses. The focus is on the analysis of wind farm wakes, their interaction among each other and their regional climate impact. This is done by in-situ, extensive aircraft and satellite measurements and by operating meso-scale wind field models and an analytical wind farm model. We will present this project and show preliminary results of the the first in situ evidence by airborne measurements of these wakes behind off shore windfarms with a wind deficit zones and enhanced turbulence.

  18. Families in the Field: exploring northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Kelda

    2017-04-01

    Northeastern Illinois topography is dominated by evidence of the Pleistocene: glacial moraines, kettle lakes, bogs, and of course, Lake Michigan - the fifth largest freshwater lake in the world. My high school students have grown up within this landscape and their familiarity provides a springboard for us to dive deeper into their understanding of continental glaciers and Ice Ages. However, these features have merely functioned as a background to their lives. My goal is to inspire, by having them stand in the field and imagine how it all would have appeared 11,000 years ago. For the past five years, the Geology teachers at Warren Township High School have been leading voluntary weekend hikes with our students and their families. The Geology teachers guide the hike with a more technical explanation of the landscape, and our students rise to the occasion as they share what they know with their parents, siblings, and peers. This opens lines of communication, increases student motivation, enhances the course material, and allows us to see on our landscape within the context of dynamic Earth systems.

  19. Tongonan geothermal field Leyte, Philippines. Report on exploration and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Geothermal exploration and development in the Philippines are reviewed. The geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the Tongonan geothermal field are described. The well drilling, power development, and plans for a 112 MW power plant are included. (MHR)

  20. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  1. Exploring the ethical and regulatory issues in pragmatic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-10-01

    The need for high-quality evidence to support decision making about health and health care by patients, physicians, care providers, and policy-makers is well documented. However, serious shortcomings in evidence persist. Pragmatic clinical trials that use novel techniques including emerging information and communication technologies to explore important research questions rapidly and at a fraction of the cost incurred by more "traditional" research methods promise to help close this gap. Nevertheless, while pragmatic clinical trials can bridge clinical practice and research, they may also raise difficult ethical and regulatory challenges. In this article, the authors briefly survey the current state of evidence that is available to inform clinical care and other health-related decisions and discuss the potential for pragmatic clinical trials to improve this state of affairs. They then propose a new working definition for pragmatic research that centers upon fitness for informing decisions about health and health care. Finally, they introduce a project, jointly undertaken by the National Institutes of Health Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), which addresses 11 key aspects of current systems for regulatory and ethical oversight of clinical research that pose challenges to conducting pragmatic clinical trials. In the series of articles commissioned on this topic published in this issue of Clinical Trials, each of these aspects is addressed in a dedicated article, with a special focus on the interplay between ethical and regulatory considerations and pragmatic clinical research aimed at informing "real-world" choices about health and health care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2015-10-25

    PathlinesExplorer is a novel image-based tool, which has been designed to visualize large scale pathline fields on a single computer [7]. PathlinesExplorer integrates explorable images (EI) technique [4] with order-independent transparency (OIT) method [2]. What makes this method different is that it allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, PathlinesExplorer combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  3. Strategic foresight for collaborative exploration of new business fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heger, Tobias; Rohrbeck, René

    2012-01-01

    To ensure long-term competitiveness, companies need to develop the ability to explore, plan, and develop new business fields. A suitable approach faces multiple challenges because it needs to (1) integrate multiple perspectives, (2) ensure a high level of participation of the major stakeholders a...

  4. EX0909 Legs 1 through 4 Mapping Field Trials V through VIII Hawaiian Islands (EX0909, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands, Necker Ridge, Mauna Kea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer arrived in Honolulu, HI on 7 August, 2009. The ship planned to stay and work in Hawaii till March / April 2009. A total of 77 days-at-sea...

  5. Exploring the ticagrelor-statin interplay in the PLATO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicolantonio, James J; Serebruany, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on a ticagrelor-aspirin (ASA) interaction in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, despite this particular interaction being inconclusive. However, a potential ticagrelor-statin interplay occurred and may be important in PLATO, especially considering the remarkable and yet unexplained mortality advantage. To explore the ticagrelor-statin interaction in the PLATO trial. The background statin use in hospital or at discharge was similar between ticagrelor (89.7%) and clopidogrel (89.2%) PLATO arms, respectively. In patients on statins, ticagrelor significantly decreased all-cause mortality (30 day and through study end), vascular mortality (30 day and through study end) and exhibited a trend in benefit for 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared to clopidogrel: hazard ratio, HR = 0.55, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.36-0.84 (p = 0.005), and HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.52-0.92 (p = 0.012); HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51-0.96 (p = 0.030), and HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49-0.94 (p = 0.020), and HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.55-1.01 (p = 0.057), respectively. These results may be attributed to the fact that ticagrelor, in contrast to clopidogrel, significantly increases the potency of CYP3A4-metabolized statins, which in turn may increase the vascular benefit derived from the statin, giving an unfair advantage to ticagrelor. Moreover, inappropriate statin dosing restrictions (underdosing of simvastatin and lovastatin) were deliberately utilized in PLATO, potentially contributing to the beneficial effect of ticagrelor. In patients on statins, both vascular and all-cause mortality rates were significantly reduced with ticagrelor in the PLATO trial. However, this benefit may in part be driven by an increased efficacy of CYP3A4-metabolized statins on top of ticagrelor and/or from the inappropriate dose restriction of simvastatin and lovastatin in the clopidogrel arm. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. 7 CFR 1755.3 - Field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... modifications that its suitability cannot be determined based on laboratory data and/or field experience, a... concepts untried within the telephone industry is defined as “an experiment” and shall be handled as a... be reproduced by the user as needed. This category includes: (i) Voice frequency repeaters; (ii...

  7. Empirical trials of plant field guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, W D; Cable, S; Marshall, C A M

    2014-06-01

    We designed 3 image-based field guides to tropical forest plant species in Ghana, Grenada, and Cameroon and tested them with 1095 local residents and 20 botanists in the United Kingdom. We compared users' identification accuracy with different image formats, including drawings, specimen photos, living plant photos, and paintings. We compared users' accuracy with the guides to their accuracy with only their prior knowledge of the flora. We asked respondents to score each format for usability, beauty, and how much they would pay for it. Prior knowledge of plant names was generally low (<22%). With a few exceptions, identification accuracy did not differ significantly among image formats. In Cameroon, users identifying sterile Cola species achieved 46-56% accuracy across formats; identification was most accurate with living plant photos. Botanists in the United Kingdom accurately identified 82-93% of the same Cameroonian species; identification was most accurate with specimens. In Grenada, users accurately identified 74-82% of plants; drawings yielded significantly less accurate identifications than paintings and photos of living plants. In Ghana, users accurately identified 85% of plants. Digital color photos of living plants ranked high for beauty, usability, and what users would pay. Black and white drawings ranked low. Our results show the potential and limitations of the use of field guides and nonspecialists to identify plants, for example, in conservation applications. We recommend authors of plant field guides use the cheapest or easiest illustration format because image type had limited bearing on accuracy; match the type of illustration to the most likely use of the guide for slight improvements in accuracy; avoid black and white formats unless the audience is experienced at interpreting illustrations or keeping costs low is imperative; discourage false-positive identifications, which were common; and encourage users to ask an expert or use a herbarium for

  8. Overview of NASA Finesse (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D.S.S.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, B.; Sears, D.; Neish, C.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Downs, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint Institute supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD). As such, FINESSE is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our Moon, Mars moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. FINESSE embodies the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science".

  9. Exploring Willingness to Participate in Clinical Trials by Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariera, Katrina L; Murphy, Sheila T; Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret L

    2017-08-01

    African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans are disproportionately affected by cancer, yet underrepresented in cancer clinical trials. Because of this, it is important to understand how attitudes and beliefs about clinical trials vary by ethnicity. A national, random sample of 860 adults was given an online survey about attitudes toward clinical trials. We examined willingness to participate in clinical trials, attitudes toward clinical trials, trust in doctors, attitudes toward alternative and complementary medicine, and preferred information channels. Results indicate that African-American and Hispanic-American participants have more negative attitudes about clinical trials, more distrust toward doctors, more interest in complementary and alternative medicine, and less willingness to participate in clinical trials than white/non-Hispanics, although specific factors affecting willingness to participate vary. The channels people turn to for information on clinical trials also varied by ethnicity. These results help explain the ethnic disparities in cancer clinical trial enrollment by highlighting some potential underlying causes and drawing attention to areas of importance to these groups.

  10. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-09

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  11. Field Trial of the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikael A.; Baldwin, George T.; Hymel, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the field trial of EDAS was to demonstrate the utility of secure branching of operator instrumentation for nuclear safeguards, identify any unforeseen implementation and application issues with EDAS, and confirm whether the approach is compatible with operator concerns and constraints.

  12. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  13. A randomized controlled feasibility trial exploring partnered ballroom dancing for people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, D; Fitton, C; Roberts, L; Pickering, R M; Roberts, H C; Wiles, R; Hulbert, S; Robison, J; Ashburn, A

    2017-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of a Dance Centre delivering a programme of mixed dances to people with Parkinson's and identify suitable outcomes for a future definitive trial. A two-group randomized controlled feasibility trial. People with Parkinson's were randomized to a control or experimental group (ratio 15:35), alongside usual care. In addition, participants in the experimental group danced with a partner for one hour, twice-a-week for 10 weeks; professional dance teachers led the classes and field-notes were kept. Control-group participants were given dance class vouchers at the end of the study. Blinded assessments of balance, mobility and function were completed in the home. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a subsample to explore the acceptability of dance. A total of 51 people with Parkinson's (25 male) with Hoehn and Yahr scores of 1-3 and mean age of 71 years (range 49-85 years), were recruited to the study. Dance partners were of similar age (mean 68, range 56-91 years). Feasibility findings focused on recruitment (target achieved); retention (five people dropped out of dancing); outcome measures (three measures were considered feasible, changes were recommended). Proposed sample size for a Phase III trial, based on the 6-minute walk test at six months was 220. Participants described dance as extremely enjoyable and the instructors were skilled in instilling confidence and motivation. The main organizational challenges for a future trial were transport and identifying suitable dance partners. We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting the study through a Dance Centre and recommend a Phase III trial.

  14. Assessment and evaluation in interprofessional education: exploring the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Amy V; Chesluk, Benjamin J; Conforti, Lisa N; Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    The practice of interprofessional education (IPE) is expanding rapidly in the United States and globally. The publication of competencies from the Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) was a significant step forward to recognize the importance of health professions collaboration and to guide institutions for educational program development. However, there remains substantial difficulty in implementation, as well as considerable variability in assessment of learners' interprofessional collaborative knowledge and skills and evaluation of IPE programs. We conducted a multi-methods project which included 20 key informant interviews, a literature review, and a meeting of an expert panel. Our goals were 1) explore the current field of IPE, 2) identify and disseminate best practices to institutions wishing to implement/augment IPE assessment and evaluation processes, 3) uncover gaps in current IPE assessment and evaluation practices, and 4) recommend next steps for the field. A small and growing literature indicates evidence of the effectiveness of IPE. A diverse collection of methods and tools are used to assess and evaluate IPE learners and programs; these are often used without an explicit program-evaluation framework. For the field to advance and to align with the demands of changing clinical care systems, robust assessment and evaluation methods, standardized use of common tools, and longitudinal assessment from diverse data streams are needed for IPE.

  15. Exploring the Magnetic Field Configuration in BL Lac Using GMVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Rani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA. With an angular resolution of ∼50 micro-arcseconds (μas at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to ∼450 gravitational radii (for a 10 9 solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1. We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7 mm/3 mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  16. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  17. Field Trial of a Pasteurella multocida Extract Vaccine in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Suckow, Mark A; Haab, Rudolph W; Miloscio, Lawrence J; Guilloud, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a bacterial pathogen that can cause significant disease and subsequent effects on research activities involving rabbits. Although several vaccines have been tested under laboratory conditions, field trials of vaccines for the control of P. multocida in rabbits are few. We used a potassium thiocyanate extract (PTE) produced from P. multocida serotype D:3,12,15 to vaccinate Pasteurella-free rabbits at their introduction into a colony having endemic infection with P. mul...

  18. Clinical trials in allied medical fields: A cross-sectional analysis of World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.

  19. Bibliometric and content analysis of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field specialized register of controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, L. Susan; Manheimer, Eric; Sampson, Margaret; Barnabas, Jabez Paul; Bouter, Lex M.; Cho, Kiho; Lee, Myeong Soo; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping; Moher, David; Okabe, Tetsuro; Pienaar, Elizabeth D.; Shin, Byung Cheul; Tharyan, Prathap; Tsutani, Kiichiro; van der Windt, Daniëlle A.; Berman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The identification of eligible controlled trials for systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions can be difficult. To increase access to these difficult to locate trials, the Cochrane Collaboration Complementary Medicine Field (CAM Field) has

  20. Exploring Bayesian model selection methods for effective field theory expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Taylor; Yamauchi, Yukari; Furnstahl, Richard

    2017-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of the microscopic properties and interactions of nuclei has long evaded physicists due to the complex nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One approach to modeling nuclear interactions is known as chiral effective field theory (EFT). Today, the method's greatest limitation lies in the approximation of interaction potentials and their corresponding uncertainties. Computing EFT expansion coefficients, known as Low-Energy Constants (LECs), from experimental data reduces to a problem of statistics and fitting. In the conventional approach, the fitting is done using frequentist methods that fail to evaluate the quality of the model itself (e.g., how many orders to use) in addition to its fit to the data. By utilizing Bayesian statistical methods for model selection, the model's quality can be taken into account, providing a more controlled and robust EFT expansion. My research involves probing different Bayesian model checking techniques to determine the most effective means for use with estimating the values of LECs. In particular, we are using model problems to explore the Bayesian calculation of an EFT expansion's evidence and an approximation to this value known as the WAIC (Widely Applicable Information Criterion). This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1306250.

  1. Virtual field trips: exploring a new approach to ocean education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, C.; Bryant, T.

    2003-04-01

    During the past four years with primary support from the National Science Foundation, the University of Delaware College of Marine Studies has launched the "Extreme series" of virtual field trips to get students and the public excited -- and learning -- about science by enabling them to follow along with researchers as they explore hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. The Extreme series has blossomed from a small pilot project involving about 800 students in 14 schools primarily in Delaware, to a thriving program that last year welcomed aboard more than 500 schools representing over 42,000 students from across the United States and in several foreign countries. Participants range from small, rural schools on American Indian reservations and in the landlocked states of America's "heartland," to large public schools in major coastal cities such as New York and Los Angeles. Each participating teacher receives a resource package containing student guides, curricula, evaluation tools, and a documentary video. During the expedition, an interactive Web site serves as the program's "lifeline." Education coordinators aboard ship -- a UD graduate student and a schoolteacher -- post daily journals, conduct experiments submitted by classrooms, and relay photos and video clips back to shore each day for uploading to the Web site. The project also involves selected classrooms in teleconferences with scientists working live on the seafloor aboard the submersible Alvin. Evaluated for its educational quality and impact, the Extreme series continues to grow and develop with the enthusiastic support of teachers.

  2. Informed consent in field trials of gene-drive mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopack, Pamela A; Lavery, James V

    2017-12-11

    The US National Academies' (NAS) recent report 'Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values' examines the requirements of responsible conduct in research involving gene drives in non-human organisms. Many of the complex ethical issues raised by the introduction of gene drive technologies for mosquito population control have been anticipated during the development and field-testing of earlier-generation genetic engineering approaches with mosquitoes. One issue-the requirement for informed consent in field trials-is not addressed explicitly in the NAS' report. Some commentators have presumed that informed consent should play a role as a protection for research participants in studies of genetically modified mosquitoes. Others have argued that there are no human subjects of field trials, so the informed consent requirement does not apply. It is both ethically and practically important that these presumptions are adequately scrutinized to ensure that any applications of informed consent in these trials are properly justified. We argue that informed consent from individual research participants in gene drive trials may be required: (1) when blood and other forms of clinical data are collected from them, as will likely be the case in some studies involving epidemiological endpoints, such as the incidence of new infections with dengue and malaria; (2) when they participate in social science and/or behavioral research involving the completion of surveys and questionnaires; or (3) when their home or property is accessed and the location recorded as a spatial variable for the release or collection of mosquitoes because the precise location of the household is important for entomological reasons and these data constitute identifiable private information at the household level. Importantly, most regulations and guidelines allow these requirements to be waived or modified, to various degrees, according to the

  3. Electrokinetic and hydraulic emplacement of amendments at a field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Head, N.; Inglis, A.; Garcia, A. N.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Auger, M.; Austrins, L. M.; Hayman, J.; West, J.; Sidebottom, A.

    2016-12-01

    A range of innovative contaminated site remediation technologies have been developed and implemented, including reduction and oxidation based processes. However, achievement of remediation goals at many contaminated sites is still difficult achieve due to challenges associated with delivering amendments uniformly throughout contaminated zones, including low permeability media. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which electrokinetics and hydraulic injection of amendments could uniformly distribute amendments in heterogeneous porous media, including clay, at a contaminated site. Electrokinetics is uniquely suited to uniformly distribute amendments in impermeable media, such as clay. The electrokinetic phase of the field study included five distinct transects: 1) Electrokinetics + an oxidant2) Electrokinetics + nanometals3) Electrokinetics + lactate4) Electrokinetics with no amendment5) ControlThis design enabled an assessment of the ability of electrokinetics to enhance the transport of amendments. Electrokinetics can induce amendment transport due to electromigration of dissolved constituents (e.g., oxidant and lactate), electrophoresis of charged particles (e.g., nanometals) or electroosmosis (i.e., transport of the bulk water phase). The extent to which these mechanisms transport amendments in the field will be discussed.Results from the electrokinetic field trial will be compared to a field trial where nanometals were hydraulically emplaced into heterogeneous porous media that included fill. This study provides crucial information needed for the design of uniform amendment delivery at contaminated sites for subsequent contaminant degradation.

  4. PV domestic field trial. Third annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, F.; Davies, N.; Munzinger, M.; Pearsall, N.; Martin, C.

    2004-07-01

    This report summaries the results of a field trials investigating the design, construction and operation of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed during 2003 to provide information for utilities, building developers and those involved in PV installations and operations. Topics examined include the appearance of the systems, their architectural integration, the different fixing methods, the cost effectiveness of the systems, problems encountered, and monitoring activities. Key issues discussed include communication and co-ordination between interested bodies, siting and location, and good practice. Details are given of monitoring inspection visits, and performance analysis.

  5. A centralised public information resource for randomised trials: a scoping study to explore desirability and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entwistle Vikki A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently several concerns about the ways in which people are recruited to participate in randomised controlled trials, the low acceptance rates among people invited to participate, and the experiences of trial participants. An information resource about on-going clinical trials designed for potential and current participants could help overcome some of these problems. Methods We carried out a scoping exercise to explore the desirability and feasibility of establishing such a resource. We sought the views of a range of people including people who were considering taking part in a trial, current trial participants, people who had been asked but refused to participate in a trial, consumer group representatives and researchers who design and conduct trials. Results There was broad-based support for the concept of a centralised information resource for members of the public about on-going and recently completed clinical trials. Such an information resource could be based on a database containing standardised information for each trial relating to the purpose of the trial; the interventions being compared; the implications of participation for participants; and features indicative of scientific quality and ethical probity. The usefulness of the database could be enhanced if its search facility could allow people to enter criteria such as a disease and geographic area and be presented with all the trials relevant to them, and if optional display formats could allow them to view information in varying levels of detail. Access via the Internet was considered desirable, with complementary supported access via health information services. The development of such a resource is technically feasible, but the collation of the required information would take a significant investment of resources. Conclusion A centralised participant oriented information resource about clinical trials could serve several purposes. A more detailed

  6. Multidisciplinary exploration of the Tendaho Graben geothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armadillo, Egidio; Rizzello, Daniele; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Marini, Luigi; Meqbel, Naser; Stimac, Jim; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesch; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede

    2017-04-01

    The NW-SE trending Tendaho Graben is the major extensional feature of the Afar, Ethiopia. Rifting and volcanic activity within the graben occurred mostly between 1.8 and 0.6 Ma, but extended to at least 0.2 Ma. Very recent (0.22- 0.03 Ma) activity is focused along the southern part of the younger and active Manda Hararo Rift, which is included in the north-western part of the graben. Extension gave rise to about 1600 m of vertical displacement (verified by drilling) of the basaltic Afar Stratoid sequence, over a crust with a mean thickness of about 23 km. The infill of graben, overlying the Stratoids, consists of volcanic and sedimentary deposits that have been drilled by six exploratory wells. Within the graben, two main geothermal fields have been explored by intensive geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys over an area that approximately covers a square sector of 40x40 km. Both new and existing data sets have been integrated. The Dubti-Ayrobera system is located along the central axis of the graben. Available data, acquired in the last three decades, comprise more than two thousands gravity and magnetic stations, 229 magnetotelluric stations and structural-geological and geochemical observations. The Alalobeda system is located along the SW flank of the graben, at about 25 km from the Dubti-Ayrobera system and has been very recently studied by means of gravimetric (300 stations), magnetotelluric and TDEM (140 stations) geological and geochemical surveys. The new residual magnetic anomaly map has been used to map the younger normal polarity basalt distribution and infer the location of the unknown main rift axis. The bedrock surface resulting by the 3D inversion of the new residual Bouguer anomaly enlightens the main normal faults hindered by sediments and the secondary structures represented by horsts and grabens. The three-dimensional resistivity models allow mapping the sedimentary infill of the graben, fracture zones in the Afar Stradoids bedrock and

  7. Exploring evidence for behavioral risk compensation among participants in an HIV vaccine clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E; DiClemente, Ralph J; Jimenez, Lauren; Stuart, Theron; Sales, Jessica M; Mulligan, Mark J

    2017-06-16

    HIV vaccine trial participants may engage in behavioral risk compensation due to a false sense of protection. We conducted an ancillary study of an HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) vaccine efficacy trial to explore risk compensation among trial participants compared to persons who were willing to participate but ineligible based on previous exposure to the Ad5 virus (Ad5+) across three timepoints. Participants were drawn from the Atlanta, GA site of the HVTN 505 vaccine trial. From 2011-2013, all persons who met prescreening criteria for the clinical trial and presented for Ad5 antibody testing were invited to participate in the ancillary study. Data were collected from vaccine trial participants (n=51) and Ad5+ participants (n=60) via online surveys across three timepoints: baseline, T2 (after trial participants received 2/4 injections) and T3 (after trial participants received 4/4 injections). Data analyses assessed demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral differences at baseline and changes at each timepoint. At baseline, Ad5+ participants were less likely to have some college education (p=0.024) or health insurance (p=0.008), and were more likely to want to participate in the vaccine trial "to feel safer having unprotected sex" (p=0.005). Among vaccine trial participants, unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (p=0.05), HIV transmission worry (p=0.033), and perceived chance of getting HIV (p=0.027), decreased across timepoints. Study findings suggest that persons with previous exposure to Ad5 may be systematically different from their Ad5-negative peers. Unprotected anal sex with a casual partner significantly decreased among HIV vaccine trial participants, as did HIV worry and perceived chance of getting HIV. Findings did not support evidence of risk compensation among HIV vaccine trial participants compared to Ad5+ participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 'The trial is owned by the team, not by an individual': a qualitative study exploring the role of teamwork in recruitment to randomised controlled trials in surgical oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strong, Sean; Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Mills, Nicola; Wilson, Caroline; Donovan, Jenny L; Blazeby, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    .... Collaboration is required between clinical specialty and research teams. The aim of this study was to explore how teamwork influences recruitment to a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT...

  9. Exploring Gender Differences in a Randomized Trial of Weight Loss Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Crane, Melissa M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in reasons for losing weight, weight loss methods, and weight loss behaviors prior to and during a weight loss maintenance trial. This is a secondary analysis of data from a 24-month randomized controlled trial comparing Self-Directed or Guided phone-based weight loss maintenance interventions among adults who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the year prior to enrollment. Participants reported their weight loss meth...

  10. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  11. Clinical trials in allied medical fields: A cross-sectional analysis of World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S; Gowri, S

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials are mandatory for evidence-based practice. Hardly, any data are available regarding the number of clinical trials and their methodological quality that are conducted in allied fields of medicine. The present study was envisaged to assess methodological quality of trials in allied medical fields. Registered clinical trials in World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx) in the following fields were extracted: Acupuncture; Ayurveda; biofeedback; complementary and alternate medicine; herbal; homeopathy; massage; naturopathy; Reiki; Siddha; Unani; and yoga. The eligible studies were assessed for the following key details: Type of sponsors; health condition in which the trial has been conducted; recruitment status; study design; if randomization was present, method of randomization and allocation concealment; single or multi-centric; retrospective or prospective registration; and publication status in case of completed studies. A total of 276 clinical trials were registered majority of which have been proposed to be conducted in the field of oncology and psychiatry. Most of the clinical trials were done in single centers (87.75%), and almost all the clinical trials were investigator-initiated with pharmaceutical company sponsored studies contributing to a maximum extent of 24.5%. A large majority of the study designs were interventional where almost 85% of the studies were randomized controlled trials. However, an appropriate method of randomization was mentioned only in 27.4%, and the rate of allocation concealment was found to be just 5.5%. Only 1-2% of the completed studies were published, and the average rate of retrospective registration was found to be 23.6% in various fields. The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these

  12. FINESSE Spaceward Bound - Teacher Engagement in NASA Science and Exploration Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. J. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Sheely, T.; Karlin, J.; Johnson, S.; Rosemore, A.; Hughes, S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Lim, D. S. S.; Garry, W. B.

    2016-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, and the moons of Mars. The FINESSE science program is infused with leading edge exploration concepts since "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." The FINESSE education and public outreach program leverages the team's field investigations and educational partnerships to share the excitement of lunar, Near Earth Asteroid, and martian moon science and exploration locally, nationally, and internationally. The FINESSE education plan is in line with all of NASA's Science Mission Directorate science education objectives, particularly to enable STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education and leverage efforts through partnerships.

  13. Electrical Resistance Tomography Field Trials to Image CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R.

    2003-12-01

    If geologic formations are used to sequester or store carbon dioxide (CO2) for long periods of time, it will be necessary to verify the containment of injected CO2 by assessing leaks and flow paths, and by understanding the geophysical and geochemical interactions between the CO2 and the geologic minerals and fluids. Remote monitoring methods are preferred, to minimize cost and impact to the integrity of the disposal reservoir. Electrical methods are especially well suited for monitoring processes involving fluids, as electrical properties are most sensitive to the presence and nature of the fluids contained in the medium. High resolution tomographs of electrical properties have been used with success for site characterization, monitoring subsurface migration of fluids in instances of leaking underground tanks, water infiltration events, subsurface steam floods, contaminant movement, and assessing the integrity of subsurface barriers. These surveys are commonly conducted utilizing vertical arrays of point electrodes in a crosswell configuration. Alternative ways of monitoring the reservoir are desirable due to the high costs of drilling the required monitoring boreholes Recent field results obtained using steel well casings as long electrodes are also promising. We have conducted field trials to evaluate the effectiveness of long electrode ERT as a potential monitoring approach for CO2 sequestration. In these trials, CO2 is not being sequestered but rather is being used as a solvent for enhanced oil recovery. This setting offers the same conditions expected during sequestration so monitoring secondary oil recovery allows a test of the method under realistic physical conditions and operational constraints. Field experience has confirmed the challenges identified during model studies. The principal difficulty are the very small signals due to the fact that formation changes occur only over a small segment of the 5000 foot length of the electrodes. In addition

  14. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Garry, W. B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K. V.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  15. Overview of NASA FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) Science and Exploration Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Hughes, S.; Kobs, S.; Garry, B.; Osinski, G. R.; Hodges, K.; Kobayashi, L.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program to generate strategic knowledge in preparation for human and robotic exploration of other planetary bodies including our moon, Mars' moons Phobos and Deimos, and near-Earth asteroids. Scientific study focuses on planetary volcanism (e.g., the formation of volcanoes, evolution of magma chambers and the formation of multiple lava flow types, as well as the evolution and entrapment of volatile chemicals) and impact cratering (impact rock modification, cratering mechanics, and the chronologic record). FINESSE conducts multiple terrestrial field campaigns (Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho for volcanics, and West Clearwater Impact Structure in Canada for impact studies) to study such features as analogs relevant to our moon, Phobos, Deimos, and asteroids. Here we present the science and exploration results from two deployments to Idaho (2014, 2015) and our first deployment to Canada (2014). FINESSE was selected as a research team by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). SSERVI is a joint effort by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD).

  16. Numerical Exploration of Solid Rocket Motor Blast Tube Flow Field

    OpenAIRE

    Afroz Javed; Sinha, P.K.; Debasis Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    The blast tube flowfield of a solid rocket motor is explored numerically by solving 3-D RANS equations with SST Turbulence model using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software CFX-10. Parametric studies are carried out to find out the effect of the blast tube diameter on the total pressure loss in the rocket motor. It is observed that the total pressure loss in the rocket motor is less than 4 per cent and the blast tube is contributing less than 1 per cent. It is also found ou...

  17. Exploring the maize rhizosphere microbiome in the field

    OpenAIRE

    Peiffer, Jason A.; Ruth E. Ley

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most economically important crops in the world. Understanding how the genetics and management of this staple crop interact with local field environments is vital to securing sustainable harvests. The interface zone between the plant root and its surrounding soil, or rhizosphere, supports essential interactions between roots and local soils. These interactions include the exchange of carbon for nutrients and are strongly influenced by the microbial constituents of the soil,...

  18. New approaches to explore the Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Moretto, T.; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2002-01-01

    New strategies are presented for the analysis of the high-precision geomagnetic data that are currently obtained by the low-orbiting satellites Orsted, CHAMP and Orsted-2/SAC-C. The measured magnetic field is the sum of contributions from various sources in the core, crust, ionosphere...... multiple satellite missions measuring simultaneously over different regions of the Earth is discussed, and swarm, a proposed constellation consisting of 6 satellites in two different orbit planes, is presented....

  19. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  20. Field Survey - A Journey of Exploration and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran

    2017-04-01

    You can teach a student a lesson a day but if you teach him to learn by creating curiosity ,he will continue the learning process for life.This abstract is a manifestation of my innate desire as an educator to build students cognitive level of thinking and refine their processes to gain knowledge from the environment ,process it and put it to optimum use. This field survey has been planned and conducted for students of 12th grade (+16yrs). At this level students are introduced to various aspects of Human geography and how human intervention has harnessed environmental resources for its growth and development. They are also encouraged to observe how humans have adapted to the environment and in this process also modified it to satisfy their needs and demands. Students are also sensitized to the understand how geography has evolved as a scientific subject of enquiry. Hence it calls for a deeper understanding and analysis of issues from the local to the global level. Through the pedagogical approach of field survey, they have been oriented to the process of conducting Research -as a well-defined procedure. It involves three phases 1. Planning and preliminary preparation before the survey, 2. During the field survey 3. After the survey compilation, computation and presentation. This activity has been planned over a period of 3 months and as of now the topic and area of case study have been selected. The general concern was studying low rainfall and agriculturally less productive regions hence a case study of a drought prone village- Hiware Bazaar in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra was undertaken. The site Hiware Bazar has been selected as it is based on the principles of sustainable development and water shed development programme to combat severe drought. The statement of the problem has been defined along with the outlined objectives ,scope of study and the time frame needed to gather the information. The field visit spanned over 5 days for data collection has

  1. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  2. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  3. Field trials of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J M; del Pozo, M; Simarro, I

    1992-07-01

    Serological response and reproductive performance were estimated in field trials of an inactivated virus vaccine against porcine parvovirus. Experiments were carried out in 10 selected pig breeding herds. A total of 277 seronegative gilts were used. Two hundred and twenty animals were vaccinated twice before mating, fourteen days apart and revaccinated after farrowing. Blood samples were obtained from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated (57 animal) control gilts, one week after the 2nd dose of vaccination, at farrowing time and one week after revaccination. Although there were considerable variations among the herds, the number of returns to oestrus in all herds was higher in vaccinated gilts (11.81%) than in the controls (10.52%). This difference, however, was not statistically significant. The reproductive performance results revealed the absence of an increase in the total born, as pooled values, in vaccinated gilts compared to controls. However, when these results are interpreted in relation to serological data, many control gilts were already seropositive before mating, or remained seronegative at farrowing. According to our results, the duration of immunity with this vaccine is apparently short, as there is a clear decrease in the titres between the 1st and the 2nd sampling times (2.35 +/- 0.14 and 1.97 +/- 0.08, respectively).

  4. Premium performance heating oil - Part 2, Field trial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetter, S.M.; Hoskin, D.; McClintock, W.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Limited field trial results of a heating oil additive package developed to minimize unscheduled maintenance indicate that it achieves its goal of keeping heating oil systems cleaner. The multifunctional additive package was developed to provide improved fuel oxidation stability, improved corrosion protection, and dispersency. This combination of performance benefits was chosen because we believed it would retard the formation of sludge, as well as allow sludge already present to be carried through the system without fouling the fuel system components (dispersency should keep sludge particles small so they pass through the filtering system). Since many unscheduled maintenance calls are linked to fouling of the fuel filtering system, the overall goal of this technology is to reduce these maintenance calls. Photographic evidence shows that the additive package not only reduces the amount of sludge formed, but even removes existing sludge from filters and pump strainers. This {open_quotes}clean-up{close_quotes} performance is provided trouble free: we found no indication that nozzle/burner performance was impaired by dispersing sludge from filters and pump strainers. Qualitative assessments from specific accounts that used the premium heating oil also show marked reductions in unscheduled maintenance.

  5. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  6. Coeliac disease in China, a field waiting for exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Xia, B; von Blomberg, B M E; Zhao, C; Yang, X W; Crusius, J B A; Peña, A S

    2010-07-01

    no systematic studies on the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) have been reported from China. In western populations CD is more common in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). We have screened patients with these conditions presenting to the outpatient department of a large hospital of "Traditional Chinese Medicine" (TCM) in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, P.R. China. we tested sera of 78 unrelated Han Chinese patients (5 IDDM and 73 D-IBS), using ELISA serological tests for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (IgG-AGA) and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG). six out of 78 patients (7.7%) were positive for IgG-AGA (two men and four women) and two (2.6%) were positive for IgA-tTGs. One of the latter patients was negative for IgG-AGA. Besides, one patient had a dubious IgA-tTG antibody and a positive IgG-AGA. None of the six patients agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Two out of these six patients followed a gluten-free diet for one year. In one patient the diarrhoea ceased and his body weight increased. Another stopped losing weight. this study previously published as a letter in GUT (Wu J, Xia B, von Blomberg BME, Zhao C, Yang XW, Crusius JBA, Peña AS. Coeliac disease: emerging in China? Gut 2010; 59(3): 418-9) demonstrated that CD may exist in the Jiangsu province of P.R. China. The present article draws attention to the difficulties of following a standard protocol in China such as established in western countries and highlights important factors less well known in the west in relation to the development of CD in China. Wheat production became significant in China between 1600 and 1300 B.C. After the Han dynasty (500-200 B.C.), wheat was one of the main cereals in China. One the major wheat fields in China is located in the Jiangsu province where the research for this article was performed. A review of Chinese literature shows that the predominant HLA-DQ CD risk alleles and

  7. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  8. Debba China presentation on optimal field sampling for exploration targets and geochemicals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A presentation was done at the Chinese Academy of Geological Science in October 2008 on optimal field sampling for both exploration targets and sampling for geochemicals in mine tailing areas...

  9. Temperament in bullheads: do laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables correlate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Alexander; Engelen, Brecht; Knaepkens, Guy; Eens, Marcel

    2009-10-01

    The relevance of temperament traits for life history strategy or productivity is increasingly acknowledged. Temperament traits are often either observed in captivity or in the wild, but studies combining both observations are very rare. We examine whether exploratory behaviour in the bullhead (Cottus perifretum), assayed under laboratory conditions, predicts this behaviour under field conditions. Forty-three PIT-tagged individuals were first assayed for exploration of a novel environment in the aquarium and then released into an unfamiliar stream stretch, where they were later relocated using a mobile antenna. Explorative behaviour assayed in the laboratory was significantly positively related to the exploration in the field, thus predicting distance moved in the field release. Both in the laboratory and in the field, explorative behaviour was not related to individual body length. When bullheads that did not leave the refuge in the aquarium (laboratory assay) and, therefore, did not explore the new environment were excluded from the analysis, the correlation between laboratory and field explorative behaviour variables became weaker. However, overall, our results illustrate that exploration rate of bullheads in isolated single-individual experiments can be used to predict this behaviour in the natural ecosystem.

  10. The prospects for further natural bitumen field exploration in the Ufa deposits of the Tatar ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishev, I.M.; Shalin, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The prospects for further bitumen field exploration in the Ufa deposits of the Tatar ASSR are examined. The prospects for such exploration within this area are based on the regularities in the spatial distribution of the sandstones, their formational conditions and a physiochemical characterization of the natural bitumens within the sandstone. On the basis of the prospects identified, primary regions for natural bitumen exploration within the Ufa deposits are given.

  11. Applications of microcomputing devices to a field exploration environment: advantages and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, I.M.; Parker, W.

    1982-04-01

    Modern digital computers are able to store, manipulate, process and plot large volumes of data quickly. Most ground geological, geophysical and geochemical survey data, however, are still treated largely with paper and pencil from in-field data gathered to final plotting. The authors review the introduction of advanced micro-processor electronics into the field exploration environment.

  12. The post hoc use of randomised controlled trials to explore drug associated cancer outcomes: methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansdottir, Gudrun; Zoungas, Sophia; Chalmers, John; Knol, Miriam J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Woodward, Mark; Patel, Anushka; Grobbee, Diederick E; De Bruin, Marie L

    2013-11-01

    Drug-induced cancer risk is of increasing interest. Both observational studies and data from clinical trials have linked several widely used treatments to cancer. When a signal for a potential drug-cancer association is generated, substantiation is required to assess the impact on public health before proper regulatory action can be taken. This paper aims to discuss challenges of exploring drug-associated cancer outcomes by post-hoc analyses of Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed for other purposes. METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES TO CONSIDER: We set out to perform a post-hoc nested case-control analysis in the ADVANCE trial in order to examine the association between insulin use and cancer. We encountered several methodological challenges that made the results difficult to interpret, including short duration of exposure of interest, lack of power, and correlation between exposure and potential confounders. Considering these challenges, we concluded that using the data would not enlighten the discussion about insulin use and cancer risk and only serve to further complicate any understanding. Therefore, we decided to use our experience to illustrate methodological challenges, which need to be addressed when re-analysing trial data for cancer related outcomes. Substantial amount of information on cancer outcomes is available from RCTs. Hence, making use of such data could save time and spare patients from inclusion in further trials. However, methodological challenges must be addressed to enhance the likelihood of reliable conclusions. Advantages of post-hoc analyses of RCTs include quality of data collected and sometimes randomisation to exposure of interest. Limitations include confounding and sample size, which is fixed to suit the purposes of the trial, insufficient duration of exposure and identification of underlying biological mechanisms relating treatment to cancer to formulate the most appropriate post-hoc study design.

  13. Oil Spill Field Trial at Sea: Measurements of Benzene Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesteland, Ingrid; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Daling, Per; Bråtveit, Magne

    2017-07-01

    Characterize personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbons, particularly carcinogenic benzene, during spill of two different fresh crude oils at sea. The study included 22 participants taking part in an «oil on water» field trial in the North Sea. Two types of fresh crude oils (light and heavy) were released six times over two consecutive days followed by different oil spill response methods. The participants were distributed on five boats; three open sampling boats (A, B, and C), one release ship (RS), and one oil recovery (OR) vessel. Assumed personal exposure was assessed a priori, assuming high exposure downwind and close to the oil slick (sampling boats), low exposure further downwind (100-200 m) and upwind from the oil slick (main deck of RS and OR vessel), and background exposure indoors (bridge of RS/OR vessel). Continuous measurements of total volatile organic compounds in isobutylene equivalents were performed with photoionization detectors placed in all five boats. Full-shift personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, naphthalene, and n-hexane was measured with passive thermal desorption tubes. Personal measurements of benzene, averaged over the respective sample duration, on Day 1 showed that participants in the sampling boats (A, B, and C) located downwind and close to the oil slick were highest exposed (0.14-0.59 ppm), followed by participants on the RS main deck (0.02-0.10 ppm) and on the bridge (0.004-0.03 ppm). On Day 2, participants in sampling boat A had high benzene exposure (0.87-1.52 ppm) compared to participants in sampling boat B (0.01-0.02 ppm), on the ships (0.06-0.10 ppm), and on the bridge (0.004-0.01 ppm). Overall, the participants in the sampling boats had the highest exposure to all of the compounds measured. The light crude oil yielded a five times higher concentration of total volatile organic compounds in air in the sampling boats (max 510 ppm) than the heavy crude oil (max 100 ppm) but rapidly declined to oil

  14. Self-Guided Field Explorations: Integrating Earth Science into Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, K. C.; Kirkby, S.

    2013-12-01

    Self-guided field explorations are a simple way to transform an earth science class into a more pedagogically effective experience. Previous experience demonstrated that self-guided student explorations of museum and aquarium exhibits were both extremely popular and remarkably effective. That success led our program to test an expansion of the concept to include self-guided student explorations in outdoor field settings. Preliminary assessment indicates these self-guided field explorations are nearly as popular with students as the museum and aquarium explorations and are as pedagogically effective. Student gains on post-instruction assessment match or exceed those seen in instructor-assisted, hands-on, small group laboratory activities and completely eclipse gains achieved by traditional lecture instruction. As importantly, self-guided field explorations provide a way to integrate field experiences into large enrollment courses where the sheer scale of class trips makes them logistically impossible. This expands course breadth, integrating new topics that could not be as effectively covered by the original class structure. Our introductory program assessed two models of self-guided field explorations. A walking/cycling exploration of the Saint Anthony Falls area, a mile from campus, focuses on the intersections of geological processes with human history. Students explore the geology behind the waterfalls' evolution as well as its subsequent social and economic impacts on human history. A second exploration focuses on the campus area geology, including its building stones as well as its landscape evolution. In both explorations, the goal was to integrate geology with the students' broader understanding of the world they live in. Although the explorations' creation requires a significant commitment, once developed, self-guided explorations are surprisingly low maintenance. These explorations provide a model of a simple, highly effective pedagogical tool that is

  15. Orbit Determination for CE-2 Libration Flight and Asteroid Exploration Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Setting within the context of the flight trial of CE-2 (Chang'e 2) around the Sun-terrestrial libration point, the asteroid exploration as well as the YH-1 Mars exploration mission, this paper conducted various related studies on orbit determination techniques for deep space exploration. The research results provided high-precision orbit support for the successful photographing of the Toutatis. This paper also carried out preliminary orbit determination studies on YH-1 mission. Although the study findings can not be used directly in the Mars exploration mission, they can still be useful for the future explorations. This thesis is composed of the following five aspects. (1)Reviewed the statistical orbit determination theory, and gave a description of the spatiotemporal frame of reference, dynamical model issues, methods of estimation, perturbation analysis theory, as well as the algorithms for considering covariance analysis. (2)Developed the observational model for the deep space exploration. Based on theoretical analysis, the models of ranging, ranging rate, and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) are derived. During the modeling process, the algorithm is optimized to improve the computational efficiency without deteriorating the accuracy. In addition, with the spin-stabilized characteristic of CE-2 in its cruise phase taken into consideration, a spin stabilization correction model of the tracking data is constructed, which not only meets the requirement of data correction, but also can estimate the alignment of antenna. (3)Carried out a study on the selection of integration center for CE-2 libration flight trial. The result shows that the Earth is most suitable for orbital prediction. A precise satellite ephemeris for CE-2's flight trial is provided. The transformation relation between the spatial-fixed coordinate system and the rotation coordinate system is constructed. An orbital accuracy of 2--10 km in the whole flight process and 5 km for the stable

  16. Field Trial of Methoxyflurane, Nitrous Oxide, and Trichloroethylene as Obstetric Analgesics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; Mushin, W. W.; Jones, P. L.; Jones, E. V.

    1969-01-01

    In a field trial of 1,257 patients receiving methoxyflurane, trichloroethylene, and nitrous-oxide/oxygen for the relief of pain in labour methoxyflurane has been shown to have certain advantages which support its use in midwifery practice. The trial confirms our objective method for screening an inhalational agent as an obstetric analgesic. PMID:4895340

  17. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  18. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  19. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced ...

  20. EXPLORATION BY MEANS OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS OF GEOTHERMAL FIELDS AND CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Züheyr KAMACI

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy which is one of the reuseable energy resources, can save as much as 77 million barrels of petroleum equivalent annually when used in the production of electricity and heating-environment. Geophysical exploration methods plays in important role in the fields of geothermal exploration, development and observational studies. Thermal and geoelectrical methods are the most effective methods which shows the temperature variation anomalies and mechanical drilling places. But, when the other methods of gravity, magnetic, radiometric, well geophysics and well logs can be used in conjunction with seismic tomography, apart from the mentioned geophysical exploration method, better results could be obtained. From the above mentioned facts various case history reports are given from our country and worldwide to determine geothermal energy resources by using geophysical exploration technique application. From these results of studies a 55 °C hot water artessian aquifer is found in the Uşak-Banaz geothermal field by applying geoelectrical methods.

  1. Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  2. Research on the Field of Education Policy: Exploring Different Levels of Approach and Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardes, Jefferson; Tello, César

    2016-01-01

    This paper, of theoretical nature, explores the levels of approach and abstraction of research in the field of education policy: description, analysis and understanding. Such categories were developed based on concepts of Bourdieu's theory and on the grounds of epistemological studies focused on education policy and meta-research. This paper…

  3. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  4. Field Balancing of Magnetically Levitated Rotors without Trial Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unbalance in magnetically levitated rotor (MLR can cause undesirable synchronous vibrations and lead to the saturation of the magnetic actuator. Dynamic balancing is an important way to solve these problems. However, the traditional balancing methods, using rotor displacement to estimate a rotor’s unbalance, requiring several trial-runs, are neither precise nor efficient. This paper presents a new balancing method for an MLR without trial weights. In this method, the rotor is forced to rotate around its geometric axis. The coil currents of magnetic bearing, rather than rotor displacement, are employed to calculate the correction masses. This method provides two benefits when the MLR’s rotation axis coincides with the geometric axis: one is that unbalanced centrifugal force/torque equals the synchronous magnetic force/torque, and the other is that the magnetic force is proportional to the control current. These make calculation of the correction masses by measuring coil current with only a single start-up precise. An unbalance compensation control (UCC method, using a general band-pass filter (GPF to make the MLR spin around its geometric axis is also discussed. Experimental results show that the novel balancing method can remove more than 92.7% of the rotor unbalance and a balancing accuracy of 0.024 g mm kg−1 is achieved.

  5. Field Immune Assessment during Simulated Planetary Exploration in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Lee, Pascal; Stowe, Raymond; Jones, Jeff; Effenhauser, Rainer; Widen, Raymond; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system has been shown to occur during space flight, although the detailed nature of the phenomenon and the clinical risks for exploration class missions has yet to be established. In addition, the growing clinical significance of immune system evaluation combined with epidemic infectious disease rates in third world countries provides a strong rationale for the development of field-compatible clinical immunology techniques and equipment. In July 2002 NASA performed a comprehensive field immunology assessment on crewmembers participating in the Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) on Devon Island in the high Canadian Arctic. The purpose of the study was to evaluate mission-associated effects on the human immune system, as well as to evaluate techniques developed for processing immune samples in remote field locations. Ten HMP-2002 participants volunteered for the study. A field protocol was developed at NASA-JSC for performing sample collection, blood staining/processing for immunophenotype analysis, wholeblood mitogenic culture for functional assessments and cell-sample preservation on-location at Devon Island. Specific assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution; constitutively activated T cells, intracellular cytokine profiles and plasma EBV viral antibody levels. Study timepoints were L-30, midmission and R+60. The protocol developed for immune sample processing in remote field locations functioned properly. Samples were processed in the field location, and stabilized for subsequent analysis at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. The data indicated that some phenotype, immune function and stress hormone changes occurred in the HMP field participants that were largely distinct from pre-mission baseline and post-mission recovery data. These immune changes appear similar to those observed in Astronauts following spaceflight. The sample processing protocol developed for this study may have applications for immune assessment during

  6. The Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field, NM: An Analog for Exploring Planetary Volcanic Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, near Grants, New Mexico, is comprised of volcanic deposits from several basaltic eruptions during the last million years. This vent field exhibits a diverse group of coalesced lava flows and displays well-preserved volcanic features including a’a and pahoehoe flows, collapsed lava tubes, cinder cones and low shields. The McCartys flow is a 48-km long inflated basalt flow and is the youngest in the field at around 3000 years old. Over the last three years we have used the Zuni-Bandera volcanic field, and the McCartys flow in particular, as a terrestrial analog for exploring planetary volcanic fields, and understanding the role of lava sheet inflation in flow field development. We have conducted three different styles of analog tests, 1) basic field science focused on understanding lava sheet inflation, 2) mission operations tests related to EVA design and real-time modification of traverse plans, and 3) science enabling technology tests. The Zuni-Bandera field is an ideal location for each style of analog test because it provides easy access to a diverse set of volcanic features with variable quality of preservation. However, many limitations must also be considered in order to maximize lessons learned. The McCartys flow displays well-preserved inflation plateaus that rise up to 15 m above the surrounding field. The preservation state enables textures and morphologies indicative of this process to be characterized. However, the pristine nature of the flow does not compare well with the much older and heavily modified inflated flows of Mars and the Moon. Older flows west of McCartys add value to this aspect of analog work because of their degraded surfaces, development of soil horizons, loose float, and limited exposure of outcrops, similar to what might be observed on the Moon or Mars. EVA design tests and science enabling technology tests at the Zuni-Bandera field provide the opportunity to document and interpret the relationships

  7. Development and application of explorative tools in the field of architectural geometry: L-systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petruševski Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of L-Systems was created as base for axiomatic theory of biologic growth. L-systems are applied in computer graphics for fractal generation, as well as in models of biological structures and simulations of their growth. Within generic architecture, by applying L-systems, the natural growth mechanisms are used as generators of architectural geometry. After mathematical and logical explanations of the chosen generic concept of L-systems, this study examines its generic potential, which is the base for development of specific explorative tools in the field of architectural geometry. Within a wider research activity titled 'Generic Explorations', the original software parametric tools have been developed, allowing generation of a complex architectural geometry based on the concept of L-systems. Variation of parametric values facilitates creation and further exploration of generated spatial forms. The paper presents possibilities of developed explorative tools, their particularities, as well as an overview of their initial application results.

  8. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  9. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    influence of HF thermodynamics on the dispersion of atmospheric HF clouds. In order to test if the lift-off or enhanced mixing created by the HF release was strong enough compared to the naturally fluctuationsthe HF releases were accompanied by passive smoke release, made shortly after to obtain a reference...... downwind of the source. A comparison ofplume characteristics for HF clouds and passive smoke clouds has been made. The analysis shows no sign of any difference between the dispersion of HF and passive smoke except for one release, where a positive buoyancy effect cannot be excluded. Anenhanced mixing...... to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...

  10. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  11. Application of ionomics to plant and soil in fields under long-term fertilizer trials

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Urayama, Masaru; SHINANO, Takuro; Okada, Ryosuke; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Ionomics is the study of elemental accumulation in living organisms using high-throughput elemental profiling. In the present study, we examined the ionomic responses to nutrient deficiency in maize grown in the field in long-term fertilizer trials. Furthermore, the available elements in the field soils were analyzed to investigate their changes under long-term fertilizer treatment and the ionomic relationships between plant and soil. Maize was cultivated in a field with the following five lo...

  12. Exploring User Experience of a Telehealth System for the Danish TeleCare North Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilholt, Pernille Heyckendorff; Hæsum, Lisa Korsbakke Emtekær; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to explore user experiences of using a telehealth system (Telekit) designed for the Danish TeleCare North trial. Telekit is designed for patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in order to manage the disease and support patient empowerment. This article sums up COPD-participants' user experiences in terms of increased sense of freedom, of security, of control, and greater awareness of COPD symptoms. A consecutive sample of sixty participants (27 women, 33 men) were recruited from the TeleCare North trial. At home the participants completed a non-standardised questionnaire while a researcher was present. The questionnaire identified their health status, their use of specific technologies, and their user experiences with the telehealth system. Results from the questionnaire indicate that the majority of participants (88%) considered the Telekit system as easy to use. 43 (72%) participants felt increased sense of security, and 37 (62%) participants felt increased sense of control by using the system. 30 (50%) participants felt greater awareness of their COPD symptoms, but only 16 (27%) participants felt increased freedom. The study has provided a general picture of COPD participants' user experiences which is important to emphasise as it has a bearing on whether a given implementation will be successful or not.

  13. Exploring Gender Differences in a Randomized Trial of Weight Loss Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M; Jeffery, Robert W; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in reasons for losing weight, weight loss methods, and weight loss behaviors prior to and during a weight loss maintenance trial. This is a secondary analysis of data from a 24-month randomized controlled trial comparing Self-Directed or Guided phone-based weight loss maintenance interventions among adults who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their body weight in the year prior to enrollment. Participants reported their weight loss methods and reasons for recently losing weight at baseline. Dietary intake, physical activity, and dietary patterns were assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Participants included 419 adults (18.4% men, age 47.0 ± 10.8, BMI 28.4 ± 5.0). Women were more likely than men to report having used an organized weight loss program during their weight loss (55.9% vs. 24.7%, p .05). Men reported higher energy intake than women while physical activity was similar. Although more men self-directed their initial weight loss and more women utilized organized weight loss programs, behaviors reported during weight loss maintenance were similar. Futures studies are needed to understand if these results generalize to other men who have successfully lost weight and are participants in other weight loss maintenance interventions.

  14. Telepresence in the human exploration of Mars: Field studies in analog environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the role of telepresence in performing exploration of Mars. As part of an effort to develop telepresence to support Mars exploration, NASA is developing telepresence technology and using it to perform exploration in space analog environments. This paper describes experiments to demonstrate telepresence control of an underwater remotely operated vehicle (TROV) to perform scientific field work in isolated and hostile environments. Toward this end, we have developed a telepresence control system and interfaced it to an underwater remotely operated vehicle. This vehicle was used during 1992 to study aquatic ecosystems in Antarctica including a study of the physical and biological environment of permanently ice-covered lake. We also performed a preliminary analysis of the potential for using the TROV to study the benthic ecology under the sea ice in McMurdo sound. These expeditions are opening up new areas of research by using telepresence control of remote vehicles to explore isolated and extreme environments on Earth while also providing an impetus to develop technology which will play a major role in the human exploration of Mars. Antarctic field operations, in particular, provide an excellent analog experience for telepresence operation in space.

  15. The plasma wave and quasi-static electric field instrument /PWI/ for dynamics Explorer-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Odem, D. L.; Helliwell, R. A.; Park, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on Dynamics Explorer-A measures both plasma wave phenomena and quasi-static electric fields. The quasi-static electric fields are measured parallel to the spin axis of the spacecraft in a range of 2 mV/m to 2 V/m and perpendicular to the spin axis 0.5 mV/m to 2 V/m at 16 samples/s. The ac electric field sensors include a 200-m tip-to-tip long wire antenna and a 0.6-m short electric antenna, both of which are perpendicular to the spin axis, and a 9-m tip-to-tip tubular antenna parallel to the spin axis. AC electric wave fields are measured over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 2 MHz and over an amplitude range of 0.03 microvolt/m to 100 mV/m.

  16. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  17. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2017-11-04

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m(3) of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. "Me's me and you's you": Exploring patients' perspectives of single patient (n-of-1 trials in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolhead Gillian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-of-1 trial offers a more methodologically sound approach to determining optimum treatment for an individual patient than "trials of therapy" routinely conducted in clinical practice. However, such methodology is rarely used in the UK. This pilot study explores the acceptability of n-of-1 trials to patients in the UK. Methods Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were recruited to their own 12-week n-of-1 trial comparing either two knee supports or an NSAID with simple analgesic. Patients were interviewed at the start and completion of their trial to explore reasons for participation, understanding of the trial design and experiences of participation. Daily diaries were completed to inform future treatment. Results Nine patients participated (5 supports, 4 drugs. Patients were keen to participate, believing that the trial may lead to personal gains such as improved symptom control and quality of life. However, recruitment to the pharmacological comparison was more difficult since this could also entail risk. All patients were eager to complete the trial, even when difficulties were encountered. Completing the daily diary provided some patients with greater insight into their condition, which allowed them to improve their self-management. The n-of-1 trial design was viewed as a 'logical' design offering an efficient method of reaching a personalised treatment decision tailored to suit individual needs and preferences. Conclusion This pilot study suggests that patients perceive the n-of-1 trial as an acceptable approach to the individualisation of treatment. In addition, further benefits over and above any gained from the interventions can be derived from involvement in such a study.

  19. SIRIP exploration in offshore area of Persian Gulf Bahrgan Sar and Nowruz oil fields discoveries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosdocimo, L.; Aftabrushad, M.

    1968-09-01

    SIRIP (Societe Irano-Italienne des Petroles) explored the N. offshore part of the Persian Gulf, the E. slope of central Zagros Mts., and the N. block of Oman Gulf. Marine seismic exploration, surface geologic studies, and exploratory drilling resulted in the discovery of Bahrgan Sar and Nowrouz oil fields in the Persian Gulf. These oil fields are essentially structural. The Bahrgan Sar field produces from Asmari (Oligocene) and Saravak (Cretaceous) limestones and dolomites. Possible future reservoirs are Ghar Formation (Miocene), Nahr Umr and Yamama formations, both of Cretaceous age. The Nowrouz field produces only from the Nahr Umr Formation. The oldest rocks encountered in the Persian Gulf belong to Lower and Middle Jurassic age. These are overlain by thick sections of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. The lithologic succession in the Persian Gulf is predominantly marine carbonates, ranging from argillaceous and chalky limestones to dolomitric limestones and dolomites interbedded with marl and shale sections. Evaporite beds occur in Rus (lower Eocene) and Hith-Gotnia (Upper Jurassic) formations.

  20. Long-term fertilizer field trials: comparison of three mathematical response models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. BÄCKMAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Accession to the European Union caused a drop of nearly 60 per cent from 1994 to 1995 in prices of wheat, barley and oats in Finland. The economic use of fertilizer therefore decreased accordingly. To calculate the effect of the price changes on the economic optima, the physical production function must be known. Three physical production functions, the quadratic, the linear response and plateau (LRP and the exponential function were estimated for this purpose. The models differed little in respect of the R 2 adj value (0.82-0.90 but the calculated optimum varied, depending on the production function. Data on a long-term field trial (21 years were analysed. The field trial was established in 1973 to demonstrate the effect of mineral fertilizer in crop production. The crops grown in the trial were barley, wheat and oats. Different varieties were included in the models.

  1. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  2. The Role of Treatment Fidelity on Outcomes during a Randomized Field Trial of an Autism Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Shin, Sujie; Xie, Ming; Reisinger, Erica; Marcus, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    This randomized field trial comparing Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research and Structured Teaching enrolled educators in 33 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms and 119 students, aged 5-8 years in the School District of Philadelphia. Students were assessed at the beginning and end of the academic year using the…

  3. Looking ahead – How field trials can work in iterative and exploratory design of ubicomp systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Bødker, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    . To introduce a sophisticated version of our own prototype in the course of an iterative design process, we conducted a public field trial of the system—a new platform for mobile democratic discussions in municipal planning—that we distributed via the Android Market. However, it turned out to be surprisingly...

  4. Quantification of Mycobacterium bovis transmission in a badger vaccine field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; Frankena, K.; More, S.J.; O'Keeffe, J.; McGrath, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss

  5. A field trial on the effects of algae addition to calf feed. Project T2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Berg, van den W.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a field trial that took place between 1 July and 2 October 2015 at a Dutch rose veal farm in which a group of 30 calves was fed with formula milk of which 2% of the dry matter was substituted with concentrated freshwater algae. The control group consisted of 25 calves. The farm

  6. Application of a wide-field electromagnetic method to shale gas exploration in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Li; Li, Bo; Peng, Chuan-Sheng; Yang, Yang

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to reduce the shale gas exploration risks and costs, we applied the wide-field electromagnetic method (WFEM), because of its strong anti-interference capability, high resolution, ability to conduct exploration at large depths, and high efficiency, to the Bayan Syncline in the South Huayuan block, Hunan Province. We collected rock samples and analyzed their resistivity and induced polarization (IP) and built A series of two-dimensional models for geological conditions to investigate the applicability of WFEM to different geological structures. We also analyzed the correlation between TOC of shale and the resistivity and IP ratio to determine the threshold for identifying target formations. We used WFEM to identify the underground structures and determine the distribution, depth, and thickness of the target strata. Resistivity, IP, and total organic carbon were used to evaluate the shale gas prospects and select favorable areas (sweet spots) for exploration and development. Subsequently, drilling in these areas proved the applicability of WFEM in shale gas exploration.

  7. Exploration practices and prospect of Upper Paleozoic giant gas fields in the Ordos Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Xi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas resources is abundant in the Ordos Basin, where six gas fields with more than 100 billion cubic meters of gas reserves have been successively developed and proved, including Jingbian, Yulin, Zizhou, Wushenqi, Sulige and Shenmu. This study aims to summarize the fruitful results and functional practices achieved in the huge gas province exploration, which will be regarded as guidance and reference for the further exploration and development in this basin. Based on the past five decades' successful exploration practices made by PetroChina Changqing Oilfield Company, we first comb the presentation of geological theories at different historical stages as well as the breakthrough in the course. Then, we analyze a complete set of adaptive techniques obtained from the long-time technological research and conclude historical experiences and effective measures in terms of broadening exploration ideas, such as the fluvial delta reservoir-forming theory, giant tight gas reservoir-forming theory, the idea of sediment source system in the southern basin, etc., and innovating technical and management mechanism, such as all-digit seismic prediction, fine logging evaluation for gas formations, stimulation of tight sand reservoirs, flat project and benchmarking management, and so on.

  8. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  9. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  10. San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona, as AN Analog for Lunar and Martian Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K.; Eppler, D.; Horz, F.; Lofgren, G. E.; Hurtado, J. M.; Desert Rats Science Team

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial analog sites are an important tool that planetary geologists and engineers can use to examine both the geologic processes that shape other planetary surfaces as well as to develop and test technologies that are needed for the exploration of planetary surfaces. During the Apollo era, sites like Meteor Crater, Arizona, were used to train astronauts in the protocols and practices of field geology so that their lunar surface activities would be more geologically productive and efficient. As we enter a new period of planetary surface exploration, analogs will be increasingly important in preparing the next generation of both human and robotic planetary explorers. No single analog will be representative of another planetary surface, but testing technologies in a variety of settings will provide NASA and other space agencies with the operational knowledge needed to launch exploratory missions. The site we present here is one of many that can be used to explore surface operations on other planetary surfaces. The San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), containing both SP Crater and Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona, is currently being used as the test site for the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field test, coordinated by Johnson Space Center (JSC) and involving several other NASA centers. During the 2010 test, two habitat rovers (Space Exploration Vehicles, or SEVs) operated simultaneously, each with one astronaut crewmember and one geologist crewmember. The mission lasted 14 days and traversed some 150 km. The geologic setting of SFVF includes a series of ~2 Ma basaltic lava flows overlying Triassic sedimentary rocks, both among the predominant rock types that are found primarily on Mars. SFVF has also been identified as an analog to the Marius Hills on the Moon, a Constellation site of interest. In addition, D-RATS 2010 is simulating operational scenarios based on notional traverses near the Malapert Massif on the lunar surface. While SFVF is

  11. A framework to explore the knowledge structure of multidisciplinary research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Shahadat; Khan, Arif; Baur, Louise A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emerging areas of a multidisciplinary research field is crucial for researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders. For them a knowledge structure based on longitudinal bibliographic data can be an effective instrument. But with the vast amount of available online information it is often hard to understand the knowledge structure for data. In this paper, we present a novel approach for retrieving online bibliographic data and propose a framework for exploring knowledge structure. We also present several longitudinal analyses to interpret and visualize the last 20 years of published obesity research data.

  12. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  13. Ringing Up about Breastfeeding: a randomised controlled trial exploring early telephone peer support for breastfeeding (RUBY) – trial protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The risks of not breastfeeding for mother and infant are well established, yet in Australia, although most women initiate breastfeeding many discontinue breastfeeding altogether and few women exclusively breastfeed to six months as recommended by the World Health Organization and Australian health authorities. We aim to determine whether proactive telephone peer support during the postnatal period increases the proportion of infants who are breastfed at six months, replicating a trial previously found to be effective in Canada. Design/Methods A two arm randomised controlled trial will be conducted, recruiting primiparous women who have recently given birth to a live baby, are proficient in English and are breastfeeding or intending to breastfeed. Women will be recruited in the postnatal wards of three hospitals in Melbourne, Australia and will be randomised to peer support or to ‘usual’ care. All women recruited to the trial will receive usual hospital postnatal care and infant feeding support. For the intervention group, peers will make two telephone calls within the first ten days postpartum, then weekly telephone calls until week twelve, with continued contact until six months postpartum. Primary aim: to determine whether postnatal telephone peer support increases the proportion of infants who are breastfed for at least six months. Hypothesis: that telephone peer support in the postnatal period will increase the proportion of infants receiving any breast milk at six months by 10% compared with usual care (from 46% to 56%). Outcome data will be analysed by intention to treat. A supplementary multivariate analysis will be undertaken if there are any baseline differences in the characteristics of women in the two groups which might be associated with the primary outcomes. Discussion The costs and health burdens of not breastfeeding fall disproportionately and increasingly on disadvantaged groups. We have therefore deliberately chosen trial sites

  14. Representative taxa in field trials for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albajes, R; Lumbierres, B; Pons, X; Comas, J

    2013-12-01

    When assessing the benefits and risks of transgenic crops, one consideration is their relative effects on non-target arthropod (NTA) abundance and functions within agroecosystems. Several laboratory and field trials have been conducted in Spain since the late 1990s to assess this issue. A consideration in the design of field trials is whether it is necessary to sample most NTAs living in the crop or only representative taxa that perform main ecological functions and have a good capacity to detect small changes in their abundance. Small changes in the field abundance of an effective representative taxon should be detectable using standard experimental protocols. The ability of a species to reveal differences across treatments may be analysed by examining the detectable treatment effects for surveyed non-target organisms. Analysis of data from several NTAs recorded in 14 field trials conducted over 10 years using complete block designs allowed us to select a number of representative taxa capable of detecting changes in the density or activity of arthropod herbivores, predators, parasitoids and decomposers in transgenic and non-transgenic maize varieties. The most suitable NTA as representative taxa (with detectable treatment effects below 50%) included leafhoppers among arthropod herbivores, Orius spp., Araneae, and Carabidae among predators, chalcidids, particularly the family Mymaridae, among parasitoids and Chloropidae as decomposer. Details of sampling techniques for each sampled taxa and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is concluded that abundance of taxa is the most influential factor determining their capacity to detect changes caused by genetically modified varieties.

  15. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling Through Planetary Analogue Sampling (FELDSPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, A.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Gentry, D. M.; Kirby, J.; Jacobsen, M.; style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170003907'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003907_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003907_hide'); "> style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003907_show"> style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003907_hide">

    2017-01-01

    Exploration missions to Mars rely on rovers to perform analyses over small sampling areas; however, landing sites for these missions are selected based on large-scale, low-resolution remote data. The use of Earth analogue environments to estimate the multi-scale spatial distributions of key signatures of habitability can help ensure mission science goals are met. A main goal of FELDSPAR is to conduct field operations analogous to Mars sample return in its science, operations, and technology from landing site selection, to in-field sampling location selection, remote or stand-off analysis, in situ analysis, and home laboratory analysis. Lava fields and volcanic regions are relevant analogues to Martian landscapes due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes. Operationally, many Icelandic lava fields are remote enough to require that field expeditions address several sampling constraints that are experienced in robotic exploration, including in situ and sample return missions. The Fimmvruhls lava field was formed by a basaltic effusive eruption associated with the 2010 Eyjafjallajkull eruption. Mlifellssandur is a recently deglaciated plain to the north of the Myrdalsjkull glacier. Holuhraun was formed by a 2014 fissure eruptions just north of the large Vatnajkull glacier. Dyngjusandur is an alluvial plain apparently kept barren by repeated mechanical weathering. Informed by our 2013 expedition, we collected samples in nested triangular grids every decade from the 10 cm scale to the 1 km scale (as permitted by the size of the site). Satellite imagery is available for older sites, and for Mlifellssandur, Holuhraun, and Dyngjusandur we obtained overhead imagery at 1 m to 200 m elevation. PanCam-style photographs were taken in the field by sampling personnel. In-field reflectance spectroscopy was also obtained with an ASD spectrometer in Dyngjusandur. All sites chosen were 'homogeneous' in apparent color, morphology, moisture, grain size, and

  16. A qualitative exploration of trial-related terminology in a study involving Deaf British Sign Language users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Oram, Rosemary; Dodds, Claire; Nassimi-Green, Catherine; Belk, Rachel; Rogers, Katherine; Davies, Linda; Lovell, Karina

    2016-04-27

    Internationally, few clinical trials have involved Deaf people who use a signed language and none have involved BSL (British Sign Language) users. Appropriate terminology in BSL for key concepts in clinical trials that are relevant to recruitment and participant information materials, to support informed consent, do not exist. Barriers to conceptual understanding of trial participation and sources of misunderstanding relevant to the Deaf community are undocumented. A qualitative, community participatory exploration of trial terminology including conceptual understanding of 'randomisation', 'trial', 'informed choice' and 'consent' was facilitated in BSL involving 19 participants in five focus groups. Data were video-recorded and analysed in source language (BSL) using a phenomenological approach. Six necessary conditions for developing trial information to support comprehension were identified. These included: developing appropriate expressions and terminology from a community basis, rather than testing out previously derived translations from a different language; paying attention to language-specific features which support best means of expression (in the case of BSL expectations of specificity, verb directionality, handshape); bilingual influences on comprehension; deliberate orientation of information to avoid misunderstanding not just to promote accessibility; sensitivity to barriers to discussion about intelligibility of information that are cultural and social in origin, rather than linguistic; the importance of using contemporary language-in-use, rather than jargon-free or plain language, to support meaningful understanding. The study reinforces the ethical imperative to ensure trial participants who are Deaf are provided with optimum resources to understand the implications of participation and to make an informed choice. Results are relevant to the development of trial information in other signed languages as well as in spoken/written languages when

  17. Exploring Two-Field Inflation in the Wess-Zumino Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Mulryne, David J

    2014-01-01

    We explore inflation via the effective potential of the minimal Wess-Zumino model, considering both the real and imaginary components of the complex field. Using transport techniques, we calculate the full allowed range of $n_s$, $r$ and $f_{\\rm NL}$ for different choices of the single free parameter, $v$, and present the probability distribution of these signatures given a simple choice for the prior distribution of initial conditions. Our work provides a case study of multi-field inflation in a simple but realistic setting, with important lessons that are likely to apply more generally. For example, we find that there are initial conditions consistent with observations of $n_s$ and $r$ for values of $v$ that would be excluded if only evolutions in the real field direction were to be considered, and that these may yield enhanced values of $f_{\\rm NL}$. Moreover, we find that initial conditions fixed at high energy density, where the potential is close to quartic in form, can still lead to evolutions in a con...

  18. The Sandia/Arzamas-16 Magazine-to-Magazine Remote Monitoring Field Trial Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkanov, Boris; Blagin, Sergei; Croessmann, Dennis; Damico, Joe; Ehle, Steve; Nilsen, Curt

    1999-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (also known as Arzamas-16) are collaborating on ways to assure the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability of fissile material. For these collaborations, sensors and information technologies have been identified as important in reaching these standards in a cost-effective manner. Specifically, Sandia and VNIIEF have established a series of remote monitoring field trials to provide a mechanism for joint research and development on storage monitoring systems. These efforts consist of the ''Container-to-Container'', ''Magazine-to-Magazine'', and ''Facility-to-Facility'' field trials. This paper will describe the evaluation exercise Sandia and VNIIEF conducted on the Magazine-to-Magazine systems. Topics covered will include a description of the evaluation philosophy, how the various sensors and system features were tested, evaluation results, and lessons learned.

  19. Shoot and root growth of cereals under reduced tillage in Organic Farming in field trials in Germany and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Vakali, Christina

    2004-01-01

    In two organically cultivated field trials, located in Germany and Greece, effects of reduced primary tillage systems on root and shoot growth of cereals were investigated. The field trial in Rommersheim near Mainz, Germany, was established in 1994. A similar experiment was established in 1995 located in Athens, Greece. Mouldboard plough, two-layer plough and layer cultivator were used in Germany. Mouldboard plough, rotary hoe and zero tillage were applied in Greece. The field experiment in G...

  20. Photonic Based Marine Radar Demonstrator: from the laboratory characterization to the field trial demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Laghezza; Filippo Scotti; Paolo Ghelfi; Antonella Bogoni; Luca Banchi; Vincenzo Malaspina; Giovanni Serafino

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the field trial experiments of the first photonic-based radar system demonstrator, in a real maritime environment. The developed demonstrator exploits photonic technologies for both the generation and the detection of radar RF signals, allowing increased performance even in term of system flexibility. The photonic radar performance have been compared with a state of the art commercial system for maritime applications provide...

  1. Field trial of 160 Gbit/s DWDM-based optical packet switching and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya; Awaji, Yoshinari; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Kong, Eddie; Chan, Peter; Man, Ray; Cincotti, Gabriella; Kitayama, Ken-ichi

    2008-07-21

    We demonstrated, for the first time, a field trial of 160 (16 lambda x 10) Gbit/s, fine granularity, DWDM-based optical packet switching and transmission by newly-developed burst-mode EDFAs and an optical packet switch prototype with multiple all-optical label processors. We achieved 64 km field transmission and switching of 160 (16 lambda x 10) Gbit/s DWDM-based optical packets encapsulating almost 10 Gbit/s IP packets with error-free operation (IP-packet-loss-rate <10(-6) and bit-error-rate <10(-9)).

  2. Use of homeopathic preparations in phytopathological models and in field trials: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Majewsky, Vera; Scherr, Claudia; Shah-Rossi, Devika; Jäger, Tim; Baumgartner, Stephan

    2009-10-01

    The literature on the applications of homeopathy for controlling plant diseases in both plant pathological models and field trials was first reviewed by Scofield in 1984. No other review on homeopathy in plant pathology has been published since, though much new research has subsequently been carried out using more advanced methods. To conduct an up-to-date review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy using phytopathological models and experiments in the field. A literature search was carried out on publications from 1969 to 2009, for papers that reported experiments on homeopathy using phytopathological models (in vitro and in planta) and field trials. The selected papers were summarized and analysed on the basis of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) to identify those that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS>or=5). These were then evaluated using a Study Methods Evaluation Procedure (SMEP). A total of 44 publications on phytopathological models were identified: 19 papers with statistics, 6 studies with MIS>or=5. Publications on field were 9, 6 with MIS>or=5. In general, significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond the Avogadro's number. The prospects for homeopathic treatments in agriculture are promising, but much more experimentation is needed, especially at a field level, and on potentisation techniques, effective potency levels and conditions for reproducibility. Phytopathological models may also develop into useful tools to answer pharmaceutical questions.

  3. Acupuncture for depression: exploring model validity and the related issue of credibility in the context of designing a pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Sylvia; Kanaan, Mona; MacPherson, Hugh; Adamson, Joy

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating care that is not credible to its practitioners or patients will result in a gap between evidence and practice and the potential value, or harm, of the intervention may be underestimated. Our aim was to develop a pragmatic trial that would have better model validity and credibility than trials to date in this clinical area. In-depth interviews; a nominal consensus technique and five arm pilot trial conducted in UK primary care using counseling and usual general practitioner (GP) care as comparisons for acupuncture. Patients with long standing, severe illness that had not responded, or partially responded to conventional treatments may be interested in using acupuncture and participating in a trial. Using a database method to recruit, pilot trial patients were mostly severely depressed (87.5%); chronically ill (60% with 3+ previous episodes), with high levels of comorbidity, and medication use. Acupuncture was as credible to pilot trial participants as usual GP care and more credible than counseling: most patients (62.5%) preferred to be allocated to acupuncture, rating it more highly at baseline than counseling or usual GP care as potentially able to benefit their depression (P = 0.002). Disparities were identified in the working models of acupuncturists and counselors that suggest inherent differences between interventions in terms of the process and intended potential outcomes of therapy, as well as the interaction between patients and therapists. The Medical Research Council (MRC) framework with its phased, mixed method approach has helped to develop research that has better model validity than trials to date in this field. The next phase of research will need to involve acupuncture and counseling practitioners to help researchers to develop realistic and credible care packages for a full-scale trial, where patients are likely to be severely and chronically ill. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Novel compact photoacoustic imaging system to explore the applications in the medical imaging field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisawa, Kaku; Wada, Takatsugu; Hayakawa, Toshiro; Ishihara, Miya

    2017-04-01

    PhotoAcoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging method using the pulsed-laser light source and ultrasound detector. PA image shows the features of optical contrast in biological tissue with ultrasound-like depth and resolution. In the human body, Hemoglobin of the blood is strong optical absorber, so the high-contrast blood distribution (vascular) image is obtained by PA imaging. Recently, FUJIFILM has developed the PA imaging system to explore its application in medical imaging field. In this system, the fusion of PA and conventional ultrasound image is realized, for example, ultrasound Doppler image is superposed to the PA and B-mode image. The system features and some results of clinical studies will be introduced.

  5. An Integration of Geophysical Methods to Explore Buried Structures on the Bench and in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booterbaugh, A. P.; Lachhab, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the following study, an integration of geophysical methods and devices were implemented on the bench and in the field to accurately identify buried structures. Electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar methods, including both a fabricated electrical resistivity apparatus and an electrical resistivity device were all used in this study. The primary goal of the study was to test the accuracy and reliability of the apparatus which costs a fraction of the price of a commercially sold resistivity instrument. The apparatus consists of four electrodes, two multimeters, a 12-volt battery, a DC to AC inverter and wires. Using this apparatus, an electrical current, is injected into earth material through the outer electrodes and the potential voltage is measured across the inner electrodes using a multimeter. The recorded potential and the intensity of the current can then be used to calculate the apparent resistivity of a given material. In this study the Wenner array, which consists of four equally spaced electrodes, was used due to its higher accuracy and greater resolution when investigating lateral variations of resistivity in shallow depths. In addition, the apparatus was used with an electrical resistivity device and a ground penetrating radar unit to explore the buried building foundation of Gustavus Adolphus Hall located on Susquehanna University Campus, Selinsgrove, PA. The apparatus successfully produced consistent results on the bench level revealing the location of small bricks buried under a soil material. In the summer of 2010, seventeen electrical resistivity transects were conducted on the Gustavus Adolphus site where and revealed remnants of the foundation. In the summer of 2011, a ground penetrating radar survey and an electrical resistivity tomography survey were conducted to further explore the site. Together these methods identified the location of the foundation and proved that the apparatus was a reliable tool for regular use on the bench

  6. Present status and trend of oil/gas field exploration technology in polar region. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saka, Koji

    1988-10-01

    The supporting system necessary for the oil/gas field exploration in the polar region includes the transportation of material/equipment between the support base and production site, maintenance/repair of exploration/production equipment, salvage and other systems. For the transportation, ice breakers, supply boats, trucks, helicopters and aircrafts are used. To heighten the ice breaker in ice breaking capacity, there is progress in bow shape, paint coating and power source, of which the main feature is the adoption of spoon shaped bow and diesel or turbine engine. For the transportation of personnel and material/equipment, the aircraft, and long flight range and high transport capacity helicopter being used, the hovercraft and vertical take-off and landing aircraft will be further introduced in no distant future. Besides, Archimedian screw type amphibian vehicle is in expectation for the various work use, and manned or unmanned submarine boat for the submarine work/maintenance use, diving unit for the submarine maintenance/inspection use and submarine burying unit for the pipeline burying use are developed. 23 figures, 18 tables.

  7. Open-field arena boundary is a primary object of exploration for Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soibam, Benjamin; Mann, Monica; Liu, Lingzhi; Tran, Jessica; Lobaina, Milena; Kang, Yuan Yuan; Gunaratne, Gemunu H; Pletcher, Scott; Roman, Gregg

    2012-03-01

    Drosophila adults, when placed into a novel open-field arena, initially exhibit an elevated level of activity followed by a reduced stable level of spontaneous activity and spend a majority of time near the arena edge, executing motions along the walls. In order to determine the environmental features that are responsible for the initial high activity and wall-following behavior exhibited during exploration, we examined wild-type and visually impaired mutants in arenas with different vertical surfaces. These experiments support the conclusion that the wall-following behavior of Drosophila is best characterized by a preference for the arena boundary, and not thigmotaxis or centrophobicity. In circular arenas, Drosophila mostly move in trajectories with low turn angles. Since the boundary preference could derive from highly linear trajectories, we further developed a simulation program to model the effects of turn angle on the boundary preference. In an hourglass-shaped arena with convex-angled walls that forced a straight versus wall-following choice, the simulation with constrained turn angles predicted general movement across a central gap, whereas Drosophila tend to follow the wall. Hence, low turn angled movement does not drive the boundary preference. Lastly, visually impaired Drosophila demonstrate a defect in attenuation of the elevated initial activity. Interestingly, the visually impaired w(1118) activity decay defect can be rescued by increasing the contrast of the arena's edge, suggesting that the activity decay relies on visual detection of the boundary. The arena boundary is, therefore, a primary object of exploration for Drosophila.

  8. Shale characterization on Barito field, Southeast Kalimantan for shale hydrocarbon exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumotarto, T. A.; Haris, A.; Riyanto, A.; Usman, A.

    2017-07-01

    Exploration and exploitation in Indonesia now are still focused on conventional hydrocarbon energy than unconventional hydrocarbon energy such as shale gas. Tanjung Formation is a source rock of Barito Basin located in South Kalimantan that potentially as shale hydrocarbon. In this research, integrated methods using geochemical analysis, mineralogy, petrophysical analysis and seismic interpretation has been applied to explore the shale hydrocarbon potential in Barito Field for Tanjung formation. The first step is conducting geochemical and mineralogy analysis to the shale rock sample. Our analysis shows that the organic richness is ranging from 1.26-5.98 wt.% (good to excellent) with the depth of early mature window of 2170 m. The brittleness index is in an average of 0.44-0.56 (less Brittle) and Kerogen type is classified into II/III type that potentially produces oil and gas. The second step is continued by performing petrophysical analysis, which includes Total Organic Carbon (TOC) calculation and brittleness index continuously. The result has been validated with a laboratory measurement that obtained a good correlation. In addition, seismic interpretation based on inverted acoustic impedance is applied to map the distributions of shale hydrocarbon potential. Our interpretation shows that shale hydrocarbon potential is localized in the eastern and southeastern part of the study area.

  9. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  10. Elusive or Illuminating: Using the Web To Explore the Salem Witchcraft Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Stephanie R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents Web sites useful for teaching about the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. Includes Web sites that offer primary source material, collections of Web sites, teaching material, and sites that are interactive, including features, such as QuickTime movies. (CMK)

  11. Exploring the Scopes "Monkey" Trial in Dayton, Tennessee: A Guide to People & Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jacquelyn; Moore, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Many biology teachers visit Dayton, Tennessee, to experience "ground zero" of the evolution-creationism controversy. This article provides concise descriptions, addresses, and GPS coordinates for the trial-related sites in and around Dayton.

  12. Binocular glaucomatous visual field loss and its impact on visual exploration--a supermarket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Katrin; Kasneci, Enkelejda; Aehling, Kathrin; Heister, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Advanced glaucomatous visual field loss may critically interfere with quality of life. The purpose of this study was to (i) assess the impact of binocular glaucomatous visual field loss on a supermarket search task as an example of everyday living activities, (ii) to identify factors influencing the performance, and (iii) to investigate the related compensatory mechanisms. Ten patients with binocular glaucoma (GP), and ten healthy-sighted control subjects (GC) were asked to collect twenty different products chosen randomly in two supermarket racks as quickly as possible. The task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item. Based on the performance of control subjects, the threshold value for failing the task was defined as μ+3σ (in seconds per correctly collected item). Eye movements were recorded by means of a mobile eye tracker. Eight out of ten patients with glaucoma and all control subjects passed the task. Patients who failed the task needed significantly longer time (111.47 s ±12.12 s) to complete the task than patients who passed (64.45 s ±13.36 s, t-test, p supermarket task. However, a considerable number of patients, who compensate by frequent glancing towards the VFD, showed successful task performance. Therefore, systematic exploration of the VFD area seems to be a "time-effective" compensatory mechanism during the present supermarket task.

  13. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  14. Laboratory and field trials of Coriolis mass flow metering for three-phase flow measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feibiao; Henry, Manus; Tombs, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A new three-phase flow metering technology is discussed in this paper, which combines Coriolis mass flow and water cut readings and without applying any phase separation [1]. The system has undergone formal laboratory trials at TUV NEL (National Engineering Laboratory), UK and at VNIIR (National Flow Laboratory), Kazan, Russia; a number of field trials have taken place in Russia. Laboratory trial results from the TUV NEL will be described in detail. For the 50mm (2") metering system, the total liquid flow rate ranged from 2.4 kg/s up to 11 kg/s, the water cut ranged from 0% to 100%, and the gas volume fraction (GVF) from 0 to 50%. In a formally observed trial, 75 test points were taken at a temperature of approximately 40 °C and with a skid inlet pressure of approximately 350 kPa. Over 95% of the test results fell within the desired specification, defined as follows: the total (oil + water) liquid mass flow error should fall within ± 2.5%, and the gas mass flow error within ± 5.0%. The oil mass flow error limit is ± 6.0% for water cuts less than 70%, while for water cuts between 70% and 95% the oil mass flow error limit is ± 15.0%. These results demonstrate the potential for using Coriolis mass flow metering combined with water cut metering for three-phase (oil/water/gas) measurement.

  15. Exploring non-participation in primary care physical activity interventions: PACE-UP trial interview findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normansell, Rebecca; Holmes, Rebecca; Victor, Christina; Cook, Derek G; Kerry, Sally; Iliffe, Steve; Ussher, Michael; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Whincup, Peter; Harris, Tess

    2016-04-01

    Trials in primary care to increase physical activity (PA) typically experience poor recruitment rates and may not recruit those with lower PA levels and who are most in need of the intervention. Despite the well-publicised benefits of physical activity, the majority of adults in the UK remain inactive and, therefore, at greater risk of many health problems. Our aim was to investigate the reasons for non-participation in the PACE-UP trial, which is a primary care pedometer-based walking intervention. This is important for successful recruitment and retention in future PA trials and programmes. We conducted semi-structured audio-recorded telephone interviews with 30 participants, aged 45-75 years, purposively sampled from those declining participation in the PACE-UP trial. Recruitment continued until data saturation and a demographically balanced sample was achieved. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and subjected to thematic analysis. Interviewees supported walking as suitable exercise for most people in this age group, recognised the importance of this type of research and general practice as an appropriate setting. Key reasons for declining were: the perception of being already 'too active'; existing medical conditions; work; travel and other commitments. Less frequently cited reasons included reluctance to be randomised, the intervention's duration, wearing a pedometer, perceived inappropriateness of trial literature and a preference for a different kind of PA or for a group activity. Whilst most interviewees perceived themselves to be sufficiently active, an important minority did not participate due to existing medical conditions and other commitments. Recruitment to future PA trials might be improved by tailoring activity to compensate for medical problems, and adapting PA interventions to fit around work and travel commitments. Ensuring that patient-targeted literature is succinct and inclusive and that equipment is user-friendly are also important

  16. Interactive UHDTV at the Commonwealth Games - An Explorative Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redi, J.A.; D'Acunto, L.; Niamut, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    In conjunction with BBC R&D experiments and demonstrations at the 2014 Commonwealth Games, an explorative field trial was conducted with a live zoomable UHD video system. The unique field trial featured the world’s first live tiled streaming of 4K UHD video to end users. During the trial, we studied

  17. Initial Field Trial of a Coach-Supported Web-Based Depression Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Schueller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Early web-based depression treatments were often self-guided and included few interactive elements, instead focusing mostly on delivering informational content online. Newer programs include many more types of features. As such, trials should analyze the ways in which people use these sites in order to inform the design of subsequent sites and models of support. The current study describes of a field trial consisting of 9 patients with major depressive disorder who completed a 12-week program including weekly coach calls. Patients usage varied widely, however, patients who formed regular patterns tended to persist with the program for the longest. Future sites might be able to facilitate user engagement by designing features to support regular use and to use coaches to help establish patterns to increase long-term use and benefit.

  18. The post hoc use of randomised controlled trials to explore drug associated cancer outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, Gudrun; Zoungas, Sophia; Chalmers, John

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cancer risk is of increasing interest. Both observational studies and data from clinical trials have linked several widely used treatments to cancer. When a signal for a potential drug-cancer association is generated, substantiation is required to assess the impact on p...

  19. Why cancer patients enter randomized clinical trials: exploring the factors that influence their decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R; Whelan, Timothy J; Schiff, Susan; Dubois, Sacha; Crooks, Dauna; Haines, Patricia T; DeRosa, Diane; Roberts, Robin S; Gafni, Amiram; Pritchard, Kathleen; Levine, Mark N

    2004-11-01

    Few interventions have been designed and tested to improve recruitment to clinical trials in oncology. The multiple factors influencing patients' decisions have made the prioritization of specific interventions challenging. The present study was undertaken to identify the independent predictors of a cancer patient's decision to enter a randomized clinical trial. A list of factors from the medical literature was augmented with a series of focus groups involving cancer patients, physicians, and clinical research associates (CRAs). A series of questionnaires was developed with items based on these factors and were administered concurrently to 189 cancer patients, their physicians, and CRAs following the patient's decision regarding trial entry. Forward logistic regression modeling was performed using the items significantly correlated (by univariate analysis) with the decision to enter a clinical trial. A number of items were significantly correlated with the patient's decision. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the patient's perception of personal benefit was the most important, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.08 (P decision-making process were also important. These included whether the CRA helped with the decision (OR = 1.71; P decision was hard for the patient to make (OR = 0.52; P decision-making process while respecting the need for information and patient autonomy may also lead to meaningful improvements in accrual.

  20. Designing mobile health technology for bipolar disorder: a field trial of the monarca system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads; Szánto, Károly

    2013-01-01

    patients. We conducted a 14 week field trial in which 12 patients used the system, and we report findings focusing on their experiences. The results were positive; compared to using paper-based forms, the adherence to self-assessment improved; the system was considered very easy to use; and the perceived...... usefulness of the system was high. Based on this study, the paper discusses three HCI questions related to the design of personal health technologies; how to design for disease awareness and self-treatment, how to ensure adherence to personal health technologies, and the roles of different types...

  1. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  2. WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Padgett, D. L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rebull, L. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), California Institute of Technology, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 169-530, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of 11 outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the 'fireworks hypothesis' since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of the Evolution of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Benford, D. J.; Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Asslef, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared survey of II outer Galaxy massive star-forming regions and 3 open clusters with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using a newly developed photometric scheme to identify young stellar objects and exclude extragalactic contamination, we have studied the distribution of young stars within each region. These data tend to support the hypothesis that latter generations may be triggered by the interaction of winds and radiation from the first burst of massive star formation with the molecular cloud material leftover from that earlier generation of stars. We dub this process the "fireworks hypothesis" since star formation by this mechanism would proceed rapidly and resemble a burst of fireworks. We have also analyzed small cutout WISE images of the structures around the edges of these massive star-forming regions. We observe large (1-3 pc size) pillar and trunk-like structures of diffuse emission nebulosity tracing excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules and small dust grains at the perimeter of the massive star-forming regions. These structures contain small clusters of emerging Class I and Class II sources, but some are forming only a single to a few new stars.

  4. Local Interstellar Magnetic Field Determined from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer Ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2016-02-01

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  5. Field and modeling studies of cyclic carbonates: a predictive tool for petroleum exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    In cyclic sequences containing large numbers of 1 to 10-m carbonate cycles, lack of well-defined markers generally prevents construction of detailed stratigraphic cross sections showing detailed facies changes. Fischer plots that graph cumulative cycle thickness corrected for linear subsidence using average cycle period can be used to correlate sections and show relation of individual cycle types to third-order sea level cycles. Interaction between simple or complex sea level curves defined by various frequencies and amplitudes; the sediment-surface, water-depth dependent sedimentation rate; lag time; and subsidence through time can be shown using one-dimensional models. Isostatically balanced two-dimensional models that incorporate the above variables, plus initial platform slope and thermotectonic subsidence (divided into rotational and regional components), can be used to construct detailed cyclic facies cross sections of carbonate platforms. These can be used to define regional relations between cycles; likely vertical and lateral facies changes; distribution of disconformities, conformities, and tidal-flat caps; relative water depths of facies likely to be developed on the platform; as well as likely location of early diagenesis. The integration of field and modeling studies provides a rigorous analysis of cycle deposition that could be of great predictive value in the exploration and development of petroleum reservoirs.

  6. Trial participation as a determinant of clinical outcome: differences between trial-participants and Every Day Clinical Care patients in the field of interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sanneke P M; van Leeuwen, Maarten A H; Cheng, Jin M; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Serruys, Patrick W J C; Boersma, Eric; Lenzen, Mattie J

    2013-11-15

    This study examines differences in clinical outcome between trial-participants and non-participants after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study compromised of 11,931 consecutive patients who underwent PCI in a high volume center, during the period 2000 - 2009. Of these patients, 1787 (15%) participated in an interventional clinical trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. The maximum follow-up duration was 11.8 years, with a median of 3.8 years (IQR: 2.6 - 6.5). Baseline and procedural characteristics differed between trial-participants and non-participants. Trial-participants were more often male, were younger, had more cardiovascular risk factors and were treated more often for stable angina pectoris and single vessel disease. Overall mortality at maximum follow-up was lower for trial-participants compared to non-participants (8.1% versus 17.6%, pclinical trials in the field of interventional cardiology with a follow-up of at least six months differed considerably from non-participants in baseline and procedural characteristics. Trial-participants had better survival than non-participants. In contrast, a two-fold higher incidence of repeat PCI was observed in trial-participants. © 2013.

  7. Field trial on comparative efficacy of four fasciolicides against natural liver fluke infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitok, Bülent; Elitok, Ozgül Mukaddes; Kabu, Mustafa

    2006-02-18

    A controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the current efficacy of albendazole (ABZ), rafoxanide (RFX), triclabendazole (TRC) or clorsulon (CLS) against Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. This trial was conducted in Turkey during the spring, the time of year when liver fluke infection is endemic. Fifty crossbred cattle were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica in the feces. The cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into five groups of 10 cattle and treatments were as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control (CONT), Group 2 was treated orally with ABZ at 12 mg/kg, Group 3 was treated orally with RFX at 10 mg/kg, Group 4 received TRC orally at 12 mg/kg and Group 5 received CLS administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg. On day 0 (inclusion day), individual fecal samples were collected on days 0 (inclusion day), 7, 14, 28 and 56, after treatment. The drug efficacy was assessed as a percentage of the egg or fluke reduction and body weight gain relative to the untreated control. The results in the study showed a mean reduction of egg counts by 66.7%, 68.2%, 78% and 84.2% in Groups 2-5, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that CLS is a highly effective compound for the treatment of F. hepatica in cattle under these field conditions.

  8. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Ferrer, J; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2001-08-14

    As a novel approach for immunisation of wild rabbits, we have recently developed a transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the RHDV capsid protein [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1114]. The efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been extensively evaluated under laboratory conditions. In this study, we report the first limited field trial of the candidate vaccine that was undertaken in an island of 34 Has containing a population of around 300 rabbits. Following administration by the subcutaneous route to 76 rabbits, the vaccine induced specific antibody responses against both myxomatosis and RHDV in all the inoculated rabbits. Furthermore, the recombinant virus exhibited a limited horizontal transmission capacity, promoting seroconversion of around 50% of the uninoculated rabbit population. No evidence of undesirable effects due to the recombinant virus field release was detected.

  9. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  10. Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes

    2015-11-01

    Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.

  11. Visual Field Outcomes for the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael; Johnson, Chris A.; Cello, Kimberly E.; Zamba, K. D.; McDermott, Michael P.; Keltner, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT) showed that acetazolamide provided a modest, significant improvement in mean deviation (MD). Here, we further analyze visual field changes over the 6-month study period. Methods Of 165 subjects with mild visual loss in the IIHTT, 125 had perimetry at baseline and 6 months. We evaluated pointwise linear regression of visual sensitivity versus time to classify test locations in the worst MD (study) eye as improving or not; pointwise changes from baseline to month 6 in decibels; and clinical consensus of change from baseline to 6 months. Results The average study eye had 36 of 52 test locations with improving sensitivity over 6 months using pointwise linear regression, but differences between the acetazolamide and placebo groups were not significant. Pointwise results mostly improved in both treatment groups with the magnitude of the mean change within groups greatest and statistically significant around the blind spot and the nasal area, especially in the acetazolamide group. The consensus classification of visual field change from baseline to 6 months in the study eye yielded percentages (acetazolamide, placebo) of 7.2% and 17.5% worse, 35.1% and 31.7% with no change, and 56.1% and 50.8% improved; group differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions In the IIHTT, compared to the placebo group, the acetazolamide group had a significant pointwise improvement in visual field function, particularly in the nasal and pericecal areas; the latter is likely due to reduction in blind spot size related to improvement in papilledema. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01003639.) PMID:26934136

  12. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    CERN Document Server

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  13. Research Exploring Physical Activity in Care Homes (REACH): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Anne; Airlie, Jennifer; Birch, Karen; Cicero, Robert; Cundill, Bonnie; Ellwood, Alison; Godfrey, Mary; Graham, Liz; Green, John; Hulme, Claire; Lawton, Rebecca; McLellan, Vicki; McMaster, Nicola; Farrin, Amanda

    2017-04-19

    As life expectancy increases and the number of older people, particularly those aged 85 years and over, expands there is an increase in demand for long-term care. A large proportion of people in a care home setting spend most of their time sedentary, and this is one of the leading preventable causes of death. Encouraging residents to engage in more physical activity could deliver benefits in terms of physical and psychological health, and quality of life. This study is the final stage of a programme of research to develop and preliminarily test an evidence-based intervention designed to enhance opportunities for movement amongst care home residents, thereby increasing levels of physical activity. This is a cluster randomised feasibility trial, aiming to recruit at least 8-12 residents at each of 12 residential care homes across Yorkshire, UK. Care homes will be randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to receive either the intervention alongside usual care, or to continue to provide usual care alone. Assessment will be undertaken with participating residents at baseline (prior to care home randomisation) and at 3, 6, and 9 months post-randomisation. Data relating to changes in physical activity, physical function, level of cognitive impairment, mood, perceived health and wellbeing, and quality of life will be collected. Data at the level of the home will also be collected and will include staff experience of care, and changes in the numbers and types of adverse events residents experience (for example, hospital admissions, falls). Details of National Health Service (NHS) usage will be collected to inform the economic analysis. An embedded process evaluation will obtain information to test out the theory of change underpinning the intervention and its acceptability to staff and residents. This feasibility trial with embedded process evaluation and collection of health economic data will allow us to undertake detailed feasibility work to inform a future large-scale trial

  14. Field based geothermal exploration: Structural controls in the Tarutung Basin/North Central Sumatra (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukman, M.; Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    The Tarutung Basin is one of several basins along the prominent Sumatra Fault System (SFS) which represents a dextral strike slip fault zone segmented into individual fault strands. The basins are located at right-stepping transfer. The Tarutung Basin hosts geothermal manifestations such as hot springs and travertines indicating a geothermal system with some decent potential in the subsurface. As part of geothermal exploration, field geology is investigated focusing on how the structural setting controls the thermal manifestation distribution. A complex fault pattern is now newly mapped and evidences sinistral faults striking E-W (Silangkitang), normal faults striking SE-NW at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin (Sitompul) and normal faults striking NW-SE at the western strand of the basin (Sitaka). These structures form an angle greater than 450 with respect to the current maximum principal stress which is oriented in N-S. Secondary sinistral shear fractures identified as antithetic Riedel shears can be correlated with hot spring locations at Silangkitang, forming an angle of 500 with respect to the current maximum stress. A large angle of normal fault and antithetic Riedel shear trend with respect to the current maximum stress direction indicates that the structures have been rotated. Unidentified dextral strike slip faults might exist at the eastern strand of Tarutung Basin to accommodate the clockwise rotation between the eastern boundary of the basin and the NW-SE striking normal fault of Panabungan. Normal faults striking parallel with the SFS East of the basin are interpreted as dilatational jogs caused by the clockwise rotated block movement with respect to the NW-SE fault trend sinistral shear along ENE-WSW faults. Silicified pryroclastics in association with large discharge at hot springs at these NW-SE striking normal faults support this hypothesis. As proposed by Nivinkovich (1976) and Nishimura (1986) Sumatra has rotated 20° clockwise since the last

  15. A small scale field trial with expanded polystyrene beads for mosquito control in septic tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M S; Lian, S; Jute, N

    1995-01-01

    A field trial of the use of expanded polystyrene beads (EPSB) to control the breeding of mosquito larvae in household septic tanks was conducted in Sarawak. One week after treatment, the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus was reduced by 100% and 68.7% respectively. For both species combined, a 57.25% reduction in the adult emergence rate was achieved. No adult was caught in the emergence trap one month after treatment. A reduction in mosquito biting rates was reported by 87.3% of respondents. All households regarded the EPSB treatment as effective. This study has reduced the relatively high infestation rate of A. albopictus in the septic tanks to 16-20%. The EPSB treatment is feasible and practical. Post-treatment assessment using adult emergence traps and the implications for the vector control programme of the local authority are discussed.

  16. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  17. Single trial behavioral task classification using subthalamic nucleus local field potential signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niketeghad, Soroush; Hebb, Adam O; Nedrud, Joshua; Hanrahan, Sara J; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2014-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been a successful technique for alleviating Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms especially for whom drug therapy is no longer efficient. Existing DBS therapy is open-loop, providing a time invariant stimulation pulse train that is not customized to the patient's current behavioral task. By customizing this pulse train to the patient's current task the side effects may be suppressed. This paper introduces a method for single trial recognition of the patient's current task using the local field potential (LFP) signals. This method utilizes wavelet coefficients as features and support vector machine (SVM) as the classifier for recognition of a selection of behaviors: speech, motor, and random. The proposed method is 82.4% accurate for the binary classification and 73.2% for classifying three tasks. These algorithms will be applied in a closed loop feedback control system to optimize DBS parameters to the patient's real time behavioral goals.

  18. A Monolithic, Non-Field-Widened Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to produce a monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (a Fourier Transform Interferometer) for use in Solar System exploration. In...

  19. Detection and measurement of clinically meaningful visual field progression in clinical trials for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes, C Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Levin, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Glaucomatous visual field progression has both personal and societal costs and therefore has a serious impact on quality of life. At the present time, intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered to be the most important modifiable risk factor for glaucoma onset and progression. Reduction of IOP has been repeatedly demonstrated to be an effective intervention across the spectrum of glaucoma, regardless of subtype or disease stage. In the setting of approval of IOP-lowering therapies, it is expected that effects on IOP will translate into benefits in long-term patient-reported outcomes. Nonetheless, the effect of these medications on IOP and their associated risks can be consistently and objectively measured. This helps to explain why regulatory approval of new therapies in glaucoma has historically used IOP as the outcome variable. Although all approved treatments for glaucoma involve IOP reduction, patients frequently continue to progress despite treatment. It would therefore be beneficial to develop treatments that preserve visual function through mechanisms other than lowering IOP. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has stated that they will accept a clinically meaningful definition of visual field progression using Glaucoma Change Probability criteria. Nonetheless, these criteria do not take into account the time (and hence, the speed) needed to reach significant change. In this paper we provide an analysis based on the existing literature to support the hypothesis that decreasing the rate of visual field progression by 30% in a trial lasting 12-18 months is clinically meaningful. We demonstrate that a 30% decrease in rate of visual field progression can be reliably projected to have a significant effect on health-related quality of life, as defined by validated instruments designed to measure that endpoint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Exploration of the System Dynamics Field : A Model-Based Policy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a first look study at the field of System Dynamics. The objective of the study is to perform a model-based policy analysis in order to investigate the future advancement of the System Dynamics field. The aim of this investigation is to determine what this advancement should look

  1. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences Field Course for Quantitative Exploration, Data Management and Digital Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the French Alps, where new GIS methods were…

  2. Using GIS in an Earth Sciences field course for quantitative exploration, data management and digital mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Wouter A.; van de Grint, Liesbeth; Alberti, Koko; Karssenberg, Derek

    2017-01-01

    Field courses are essential for subjects like Earth Sciences, Geography and Ecology. In these topics, GIS is used to manage and analyse spatial data, and offers quantitative methods that are beneficial for fieldwork. This paper presents changes made to a first-year Earth Sciences field course in the

  3. Exploring the viability of using online social media advertising as a recruitment method for smoking cessation clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Mai; Walters, Julia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the viability of using social media as a recruitment tool in a clinical research trial. Sociodemographic data and smoking characteristics were assessed in 266 participants recruited to investigate the effectiveness of a behavioral support program for smoking cessation. For analysis, participants were separated into 2 groups based on whether they were recruited either using traditional means (flyers, word of mouth, or newspaper advertisement; n = 125, 47.0%) or by advertisements in online social media (n = 138, 51.9%). Participants recruited via social media were significantly younger, but there were no differences in other socioeconomic variables or smoking characteristics compared with participants recruited via other traditional means. The findings of the present study suggest that using online social media is a viable recruitment method for smoking studies and compliments other more traditional recruitment methods.

  4. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  5. A rover's geologic field campaign: Exploration of the Kimberley by Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minitti, Michelle E.

    2017-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover undertook comprehensive exploration of the Kimberley waypoint within Gale crater, Mars in order to understand its context within the larger geologic picture of Gale crater and its evidence for past Martian habitability. Coordinated observations from Curiosity's rich science payload revealed important insights into new Martian crustal compositions, the prevalence and diversity of sedimentary processes within Gale crater, and surface erosion rates. Exploration at the Kimberley, in part informed by a decade of orbital observations of Gale crater, underscored the critical synergy between landed and orbital observations and furthered understanding of complex geological processes on Mars.

  6. How To Explore Weak Ties in the Biotechnological Field: The Role of Technological Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In the recent years a number of articles have focused on the open innovation paradigm and distinguished between different inter-organisational search strategies related to innovation performance. In this paper I rely on an in-depth case study in order to examine how it is possible to explore inter......-organisational weak ties. A number of organisational practices that enable such open exploration are identified while the main argument points to the impact a general technological competence has on the potential to form boundary-spanning social relations and the related opportunity to exchange knowledge with diverse...

  7. Exploring entropic uncertainty relation in the Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jia-Ming; Shi, Jia-Dong; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we investigate the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation in a two-qubit Heisenberg XX model with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It has been found that larger coupling strength J between the two spin-chain qubits can effectively reduce the entropic uncertainty. Besides, we observe the mechanics of how the inhomogeneous field influences the uncertainty, and find out that when the inhomogeneous field parameter b1. Intriguingly, the entropic uncertainty can shrink to zero when the coupling coefficients are relatively large, while the entropic uncertainty only reduces to 1 with the increase of the homogeneous magnetic field. Additionally, we observe the purity of the state and Bell non-locality and obtain that the entropic uncertainty is anticorrelated with both the purity and Bell non-locality of the evolution state.

  8. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  9. The Hubble Frontier Fields: Engaging Multiple Audiences in Exploring the Cosmic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Summers, Frank; Ryer, Holly; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lotz, Jennifer M.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Frontier Fields is a multi-cycle program of six deep-field observations of strong-lensing galaxy clusters taken in parallel with six deep “blank fields.” The three-year long collaborative program began in late 2013 and is led by observations from NASA’s Great Observatories. The observations, now complete, allow astronomers to look deeper into the universe than ever before, and potentially uncover galaxies that are as much as 100 times fainter than what the telescopes can typically observe. The Frontier Fields science program is ideal for informing audiences about scientific advances and topics in STEM. The study of galaxy properties, statistics, optics, and Einstein’s theory of general relativity naturally leverages off of the science returns of the Frontier Fields program. As a result, the Space Telescope Science Institute’s Office of Public Outreach (OPO) has engaged multiple audiences over the past three years to follow the progress of the Frontier Fields.For over two decades, the STScI outreach program has sought to bring the wonders of the universe to the public and engage audiences in the adventure of scientific discovery. In addition, we are leveraging the reach of the new NASA’s Universe of Learning education program to bring the science of the Frontier Fields to informal education audiences. The main underpinnings of the STScI outreach program and the Universe of Learning education program are scientist-educator development teams, partnerships, and an embedded program evaluation component. OPO is leveraging the infrastructure of these education and outreach programs to bring the Frontier Fields science program to the education community and the public in a cost-effective way.This talk will feature highlights over the past three years of the program. We will highlight OPO’s strategies and infrastructure that allows for the quick delivery of groundbreaking science to the education community and public.

  10. Director Field Analysis (DFA): Exploring Local White Matter Geometric Structure in Diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Basser, Peter J

    2017-10-11

    In Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) or High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI), a tensor field or a spherical function field (e.g., an orientation distribution function field), can be estimated from measured diffusion weighted images. In this paper, inspired by the microscopic theoretical treatment of phases in liquid crystals, we introduce a novel mathematical framework, called Director Field Analysis (DFA), to study local geometric structural information of white matter based on the reconstructed tensor field or spherical function field: (1) We propose a set of mathematical tools to process general director data, which consists of dyadic tensors that have orientations but no direction. (2) We propose Orientational Order (OO) and Orientational Dispersion (OD) indices to describe the degree of alignment and dispersion of a spherical function in a single voxel or in a region, respectively; (3) We also show how to construct a local orthogonal coordinate frame in each voxel exhibiting anisotropic diffusion; (4) Finally, we define three indices to describe three types of orientational distortion (splay, bend, and twist) in a local spatial neighborhood, and a total distortion index to describe distortions of all three types. To our knowledge, this is the first work to quantitatively describe orientational distortion (splay, bend, and twist) in general spherical function fields from DTI or HARDI data. The proposed DFA and its related mathematical tools can be used to process not only diffusion MRI data but also general director field data, and the proposed scalar indices are useful for detecting local geometric changes of white matter for voxel-based or tract-based analysis in both DTI and HARDI acquisitions. The related codes and a tutorial for DFA will be released in DMRITool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) following forward planned field-in field IMRT: results from the Cambridge Breast IMRT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Mukesh B; Qian, Wendi; Wilkinson, Jennifer S; Dorling, Leila; Barnett, Gillian C; Moody, Anne M; Wilson, Charles; Twyman, Nicola; Burnet, Neil G; Wishart, Gordon C; Coles, Charlotte E

    2014-05-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer reduces clinician-assessed breast tissue toxicity including fibrosis, telangectasia and sub-optimal cosmesis. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are also important as they provide the patient's perspective. This longitudinal study reports on (a) the effect of forward planned field-in-field IMRT (∼simple IMRT) on PROMs compared to standard RT at 5 years after RT, (b) factors affecting PROMs at 5years after RT and (c) the trend of PROMs over 5 years of follow up. PROMs were assessed at baseline (pre-RT), 6, 24 and 60 months after completion of RT using global health (EORTC QLQ C30) and 4 breast symptom questions (BR23). Also, 4 breast RT-specific questions were included at 6, 24 and 60 months: change in skin appearance, firmness to touch, reduction in breast size and overall change in breast appearance since RT. The benefits of simple IMRT over standard RT at 5 years after RT were assessed using standard t-test for global health and logistic regression analysis for breast symptom questions and breast RT-specific questions. Clinical factors affecting PROMs at 5 years were investigated using a multivariate analysis. A repeated mixed model was applied to explore the trend over time for each of PROMs. (89%) 727/815, 84%, 81% and 61% patients completed questionnaires at baseline, 6, 24 and 60 months respectively. Patients reported worse toxicity for all four BR23 breast symptoms at 6 months, which then improved over time (pappearance and breast hardness over time (pappearance (p=0.13). At 5years, PROMs assessments did not demonstrate a benefit for simple IMRT over standard radiotherapy. Large breast volume, young age, baseline surgical cosmesis and post-operative infection were the most important variables to affect PROMs. This study was unable to demonstrate the benefits of IMRT on PROMs at 5years. PROMs are influenced by non-radiotherapy factors and surgical factors should be optimised to

  12. Application of ionomics to plant and soil in fields under long-term fertilizer trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Urayama, Masaru; Shinano, Takuro; Okada, Ryosuke; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Ionomics is the study of elemental accumulation in living organisms using high-throughput elemental profiling. In the present study, we examined the ionomic responses to nutrient deficiency in maize grown in the field in long-term fertilizer trials. Furthermore, the available elements in the field soils were analyzed to investigate their changes under long-term fertilizer treatment and the ionomic relationships between plant and soil. Maize was cultivated in a field with the following five long-term fertilizer treatments: complete fertilization, fertilization without nitrogen, without phosphorus, without potassium, and no fertilization. Concentrations of 22 elements in leaves at an early flowering stage and in soils after harvest were determined. The fertilizer treatments changed the availabilities of many elements in soils. For example, available cesium was decreased by 39 % and increased by 126 % by fertilizations without nitrogen and potassium, respectively. Effects of treatments on the ionome in leaves were evaluated using the translocation ratio (the concentration in leaves relative to the available concentration in soils) for each element. Nitrogen deficiency specifically increased the uptake ability of molybdenum, which might induce the enhancement of nitrogen assimilation and/or endophytic nitrogen fixation in plant. Potassium deficiency drastically enhanced the uptake ability of various cationic elements. These elements might act as alternatives to K in osmoregulation and counterion of organic/inorganic anions. Two major groups of elements were detected by multivariate analyses of plant ionome. Elements in the same group may be linked more or less in uptake and/or translocation systems. No significant correlation between plant and soil was found in concentrations of many elements, even though various soil extraction methods were applied, implying that the interactions between the target and other elements in soil must be considered when analyzing mineral

  13. Field Trials Reveal Ecotype-Specific Responses to Mycorrhizal Inoculation in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdala Gamby Diedhiou

    Full Text Available The overuse of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizer and pesticides aimed at increasing crop yield results in environmental damage, particularly in the Sahelian zone where soils are fragile. Crop inoculation with beneficial soil microbes appears as a good alternative for reducing agricultural chemical needs, especially for small farmers. This, however, requires selecting optimal combinations of crop varieties and beneficial microbes tested in field conditions. In this study, we investigated the response of rice plants to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB under screenhouse and field conditions in two consecutive seasons in Senegal. Evaluation of single and mixed inoculations with AMF and PGPB was conducted on rice (Oryza sativa variety Sahel 202, on sterile soil under screenhouse conditions. We observed that inoculated plants, especially plants treated with AMF, grew taller, matured earlier and had higher grain yield than the non-inoculated plants. Mixed inoculation trials with two AMF strains were then conducted under irrigated field conditions with four O. sativa varieties, two O. glaberrima varieties and two interspecific NERICA varieties, belonging to 3 ecotypes (upland, irrigated, and rainfed lowland. We observed that the upland varieties had the best responses to inoculation, especially with regards to grain yield, harvest index and spikelet fertility. These results show the potential of using AMF to improve rice production with less chemical fertilizers and present new opportunities for the genetic improvement in rice to transfer the ability of forming beneficial rice-microbe associations into high yielding varieties in order to increase further rice yield potentials.

  14. A Field-Based Comparison of Four Career-Exploration Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Moody, Anne

    1981-01-01

    Compares four career-exploration approaches. Results indicate that one of the most common approaches, studying career clusters, was far less effective than: the Career Maturity Inventory exercises; the Self-Directed Search; and an open-ended Career Survey in combination with the Vocational Preference Inventory. Examines other factors in choosing a…

  15. Impact of RAV1-engineering on poplar biomass production: a short-rotation coppice field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Cortés, Alicia; Ramos-Sánchez, José Manuel; Hernández-Verdeja, Tamara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Alves, Ana; Simões, Rita; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Guijarro, Mercedes; Canellas, Isabel; Sixto, Hortensia; Allona, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Early branching or syllepsis has been positively correlated with high biomass yields in short-rotation coppice (SRC) poplar plantations, which could represent an important lignocellulosic feedstock for the production of second-generation bioenergy. In prior work, we generated hybrid poplars overexpressing the chestnut gene RELATED TO ABI3/VP1 1 (CsRAV1), which featured c. 80% more sylleptic branches than non-modified trees in growth chambers. Given the high plasticity of syllepsis, we established a field trial to monitor the performance of these trees under outdoor conditions and a SRC management. We examined two CsRAV1-overexpression poplar events for their ability to maintain syllepsis and their potential to enhance biomass production. Two poplar events with reduced expression of the CsRAV1 homologous poplar genes PtaRAV1 and PtaRAV2 were also included in the trial. Under our culture conditions, CsRAV1-overexpression poplars continued developing syllepsis over two cultivation cycles. Biomass production increased on completion of the first cycle for one of the overexpression events, showing unaltered structural, chemical, or combustion wood properties. On completion of the second cycle, aerial growth and biomass yields of both overexpression events were reduced as compared to the control. These findings support the potential application of CsRAV1-overexpression to increase syllepsis in commercial elite trees without changing their wood quality. However, the syllepsis triggered by the introduction of this genetic modification appeared not to be sufficient to sustain and enhance biomass production.

  16. Field trial of a quantum secured 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission system over a single installed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Iris; Zhou, Yu Rong; Dynes, James F; Yuan, Zhiliang; Klar, Andreas; Sharpe, Andrew; Plews, Alan; Lucamarini, Marco; Radig, Christian; Neubert, Jörg; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Chunnilall, Christopher; Lepert, Guillaume; Sinclair, Alastair; Elbers, Jörg-Peter; Lord, Andrew; Shields, Andrew

    2014-09-22

    We present results from the first field-trial of a quantum-secured DWDM transmission system, in which quantum key distribution (QKD) is combined with 4 × 10 Gb/s encrypted data and transmitted simultaneously over 26 km of field installed fiber. QKD is used to frequently refresh the key for AES-256 encryption of the 10 Gb/s data traffic. Scalability to over 40 DWDM channels is analyzed.

  17. Exploring the "active ingredients" of an online smoking intervention: a randomized factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Peterson, Do; Derry, Holly; Riggs, Karin; Saint-Johnson, Jackie; Nair, Vijay; An, Lawrence; Shortreed, Susan M

    2014-08-01

    Research needs to systematically identify which components increase online intervention effectiveness (i.e., active ingredients). This study explores the effects of 4 potentially important design features in an Internet-based, population-level smoking intervention. Smokers (n = 1,865) were recruited from a large health care organization, regardless of readiness to quit. Using a full factorial design, participants were randomized to 1 of the 2 levels of each experimental factor (message tone [prescriptive vs. motivational], navigation autonomy [dictated vs. not], e-mail reminders [yes vs. no], and receipt of personally tailored testimonials [yes vs. no]) and provided access to the online intervention. Primary outcomes were self-reported 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence and confirmed utilization of adjunct treatment (pharmacotherapy or phone counseling) available through the health plan at 1 year. Outcomes were also assessed at 2 and 6 months and were examined among all enrolled participants (intent-to-treat [ITT]) and all who viewed the intervention (modified ITT). At 1 year, 13.7% were abstinent and 26.0% utilized adjunct treatment. None of the contrasting factor levels differentially influenced abstinence or treatment utilization at 12 months. In the modified ITT sample, smokers receiving testimonials were less likely to use adjunct treatment at 6 months (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.30-0.98, p = .04). None of the design features enhanced treatment outcome. The negative effect observed for testimonials is provocative, but it should be viewed with caution. This study offers a model for future research testing the "active ingredients" of online interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Exploring direct 3D interaction for full horizontal parallax light field displays using leap motion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-04-14

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  19. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  20. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Inma; Frankena, Klaas; More, Simon J.; Whelan, Clare; Martin, Wayne; Gormley, Eamonn; Corner, Leigh A. L.; Murphy, Denise; De Jong, Mart C. M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU) obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM). The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2), and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%), while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation. PMID:24983473

  1. Productivity of authors in the field of diabetes: bibliographic analysis of trial publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Frits; Uijldert, Mick; Donswijk, Lennart F.; Gale, Edwin A. M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether trial publications of glucose lowering drugs are dominated by a small group of highly prolific authors ("supertrialists") and to identify some of their characteristics. Bibliographic analysis of trial publications. We searched PubMed for all randomised controlled trials (RCTs)

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. PMID:24615761

  3. A Combined Motivation and Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Package Reduces Child Welfare Recidivism in a Randomized Dismantling Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Bard, David; Valle, Linda Anne; Gurwitch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A package of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) combined with a self-motivational (SM) orientation previously was found in a laboratory trial to reduce child abuse recidivism compared with services as usual (SAU). Objectives of the present study were to test effectiveness in a field agency rather than in a laboratory setting and to…

  4. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Wilcox, Holly C; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H; Newcomer, Alison; McKitty, Mellisha V; Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E

    2014-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients' experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. Copyright © 2013, American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve spectral resolution of semiconductor radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamilton, Allister B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor devices. Graphene could be of specific interest in the development of room-temperature, high-resolution semiconductor radiation spectrometers. Incorporating graphene into a field-effect transistor architecture could provide an extremely high sensitivity readout mechanism for sensing charge carriers in a semiconductor detector, thus enabling the fabrication of a sensitive radiation sensor. In addition, the field effect transistor architecture allows us to sense only a single charge carrier type, such as electrons. This is an advantage for room-temperature semiconductor radiation detectors, which often suffer from significant hole trapping. Here we report on initial efforts towards device fabrication and proof-of-concept testing. This work investigates the use of graphene transferred onto silicon and silicon carbide, and the response of these fabricated graphene field effect transistor devices to stimuli such as light and alpha radiation.

  7. The Geologic Exploration of the Bagnold Dune Field at Gale Crater by the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Fenton, Lori K.

    2017-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity engaged in a monthlong campaign investigating the Bagnold dune field in Gale crater. What represents the first in situ investigation of a dune field on another planet has resulted in a number of discoveries. Collectively, the Curiosity rover team has compiled the most comprehensive survey of any extraterrestrial aeolian system visited to date with results that yield important insights into a number of processes, including sediment transport, bed form morphology and structure, chemical and physical composition of aeolian sand, and wind regime characteristics. These findings and more are provided in detail by the JGR-Planets Special Issue Curiosity's Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I.

  8. Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Thomas; Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-02-17

    Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. This will be the first study to explore a new

  9. Exploring Teachers' Motivation for Teaching and Professional Development in Ethiopia : Voices from the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Gemeda, Fekede Tuli; Tynjälä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ work, learning, and professional development are central to any effort aiming at improving schools. Consequently, teachers must consider themselves as a lifelong learner, engage in continuous professional learning and apply that learning to improve student learning and achievement. This article explores teachers’ motivation for teaching and professional development in secondary schools in Ethiopia. Data were collected via interviews and focus group discussions from 32 teachers. The ...

  10. Exploring the limits of (73)Ge solid-state NMR spectroscopy at ultrahigh magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Andre; Hanson, Margaret A; Rupar, Paul A; Terskikh, Victor V; Baines, Kim M; Huang, Yining

    2010-04-28

    The ultrahigh field natural abundance (73)Ge solid-state wide-line NMR study of germanium dichloride complexed with 1,4-dioxane and tetraphenylgermane yields the largest (73)Ge quadrupolar coupling constant determined by NMR spectroscopy to date and the first direct observation of (73)Ge chemical shift anisotropy.

  11. Exploring the Emotions in Pedagogical Content Knowledge about the Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Lina; Cañada, Florentina; Mellado, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the changes in the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) about electric fields of two Colombian physics teachers (Isabel and Alejandro) at the high school level (pupils of ages 17-19), the emotions and their relationship with PCK. The research was conducted during two consecutive years, before and…

  12. Field trial of a dual-wavelength fluorescent emission (L.I.F.E.) instrument and the Magma White rover during the MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit; Weisleitner, Klemens; Hunger, Lars; Kohstall, Christoph; Frisch, Albert; Józefowicz, Mateusz; Meszyński, Sebastian; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Frischauf, Norbert; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ragonig, Christoph; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sams, Sebastian; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Soucek, Alexander; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Stumptner, Willibald; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Abstract We have developed a portable dual-wavelength laser fluorescence spectrometer as part of a multi-instrument optical probe to characterize mineral, organic, and microbial species in extreme environments. Operating at 405 and 532 nm, the instrument was originally designed for use by human explorers to produce a laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) spectral database of the mineral and organic molecules found in the microbial communities of Earth's cryosphere. Recently, our team had the opportunity to explore the strengths and limitations of the instrument when it was deployed on a remote-controlled Mars analog rover. In February 2013, the instrument was deployed on board the Magma White rover platform during the MARS2013 Mars analog field mission in the Kess Kess formation near Erfoud, Morocco. During these tests, we followed tele-science work flows pertinent to Mars surface missions in a simulated spaceflight environment. We report on the L.I.F.E. instrument setup, data processing, and performance during field trials. A pilot postmission laboratory analysis determined that rock samples acquired during the field mission exhibited a fluorescence signal from the Sun-exposed side characteristic of chlorophyll a following excitation at 405 nm. A weak fluorescence response to excitation at 532 nm may have originated from another microbial photosynthetic pigment, phycoerythrin, but final assignment awaits development of a comprehensive database of mineral and organic fluorescence spectra. No chlorophyll fluorescence signal was detected from the shaded underside of the samples.

  13. Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

  14. An experimental trial exploring the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in a cohort of male students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus G Neville

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university.Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants' experiences of the trial.Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety, participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol.The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour.

  15. A randomized, controlled field trial for the prevention of jellyfish stings with a topical sting inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulware, David R

    2006-01-01

    Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial occurred at the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA and Sapodilla Cayes, Belize. Participants were healthy volunteers planning to snorkel for 30 to 45 minutes. Ten minutes prior to swimming, each participant was directly observed applying a blinded sample of Safe Sea (Nidaria Technology Ltd, Jordan Valley, Israel) to one side of their body and a blinded sample of Coppertone (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) to the contralateral side as placebo control. Masked 26 g samples of both Safe Sea SPF15 and Coppertone SPF15 were provided in identical containers to achieve 2 mg/cm(2) coverage. Sides were randomly chosen by participants. The incidence of jellyfish stings was the main outcome measure. This was assessed by participant interview and examination as subjects exited the water. A total of 82 observed water exposures occurred. Thirteen jellyfish stings occurred during the study period for a 16% incidence. Eleven jellyfish stings occurred with placebo, two with the sting inhibitor, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 82% (95% confidence interval: 21%-96%; p= 0.02). No seabather's eruption or side effects occurred. Safe Sea is a topical barrier cream effective at preventing >80% jellyfish stings under real-world conditions.

  16. Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

    2014-09-01

    Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced

  17. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  18. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, F M; Cox, N; van der Weerden, T J; de Klein, C A M; Luo, J; Cameron, K C; Di, H J; Giltrap, D; Rys, G

    2014-03-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of atmospheric turbulence during the NATO RTG-40 land field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofsted, David; O'Brien, Sean; Yarbrough, Jimmy; Quintis, David; Bustillos, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    The NATO RTG-40 Active Imaging Land Field Trials were conducted at the High Energy Laser System Test Facility at White Sands Missile Range, NM, during November of 2005. This experiment intercompared six active imager systems operating in the visible, near-infrared, and short-wave infrared sensing bands. To characterize the atmospheric turbulence structure present during the optical measurements eight scintillometers were arranged along or near the atmospheric path to characterize the vertical and temporal structure of scintillation, and inner and outer scales of turbulence. A met mast, two 32-m met towers, and an 8-m tower complemented the scintillometer data. This report focuses on analysis of data from four 3-D sonic anemometers positioned at midrange on the 8-m tower and on four of the scintillometers arranged along the 2-km propagation path. First and second order statistics from the sonic sensors are illustrated, along with an analysis of the turbulence spectrum measured by the sonic temperature sensors. The analysis of this data should support both estimating turbulence strength using sonic anemometers as well as outer scale. The data acquired throughout the 10-day measurement period and have proved useful in characterization of the overall weather conditions present during testing and in prediction of various surface layer characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F.; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P.; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. Methods VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), ‘ANSWERS’ and ‘PoPLR’, and one based on VFs and RNFLT: ‘sANSWERS’. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. Results The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (−0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, Pstatistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Conclusions Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms. PMID:29085257

  2. How Do Clinical Trials Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / About Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical ... is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether ...

  3. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  4. Exploring Ultrahigh Magnetic Field Processing of Materials for Developing Customized Microstructures and Enhanced Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, GERALD M.

    2005-03-31

    Thermodynamic calculations based on Gibbs free energy in the magnetization-magnetic intensity-temperature (M-H-T) magnetic equation of state space demonstrate that significantly different phase equilibria may result for those material systems where the product and parent phases exhibit different magnetization responses. These calculations show that the Gibbs free energy is changed by a factor equal to -MdH, where M and H are the magnetization and applied field strength, respectively. Magnetic field processing is directly applicable to a multitude of alloys and compounds for dramatically influencing phase stability and phase transformations. This ability to selectively control microstructural stability and alter transformation kinetics through appropriate selection of the magnetic field strength promises to provide a very robust mechanism for developing and tailoring enhanced microstructures (and even nanostructures through accelerated kinetics) with superior properties for a broad spectrum of material applications. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) Advanced Materials for the Future project, ferrous alloys were studied initially since this alloy family exhibits ferromagnetism over part of its temperature range of stability and therefore would demonstrate the maximum impact of this novel processing mechanism. Additionally, with these ferrous alloys, the high-temperature parent phase, austenite, exhibits a significantly different magnetization response from the potential product phases, ferrite plus carbide or martensite; and therefore, the solid-state transformation behavior of these alloys will be dramatically influenced by the presence of ultrahigh magnetic fields. Finally, a thermodynamic calculation capability (within ThermoCalc for example) was developed during this project to enable parametric studies to be performed to predict the magnitude of the influence of magnetic processing variables on the phase stability (phase diagrams) in

  5. Exploring the Diversity of Field Strains of Brucella abortus Biovar 3 Isolated in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sanogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonotic diseases in the world, affecting both humans and domestic and wild animals. Identification and biotyping of field strains of Brucella are of key importance for a better knowledge of the epidemiology of brucellosis, for identifying appropriate antigens, for managing disease outbreaks and for setting up efficient preventive and control programmes. Such data are required both at national and regional level to assess potential threats for public health. Highly discriminative genotyping methods such as the multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA allow the comparison and assessment of genetic relatedness between field strains of Brucella within the same geographical area. In this study, MLVA biotyping data retrieved from the literature using a systematic review were compared using a clustering analysis and the Hunter-Gaston diversity index (HGDI. Thus, the analysis of the 42 MLVA genotyping results found in the literature on West Africa [i.e., from Ivory Coast (1, Niger (1, Nigeria (34, The Gambia (3, and Togo (3] did not allow a complete assessment of the actual diversity among field strains of Brucella. However, it provided some preliminary indications on the co-existence of 25 distinct genotypes of Brucella abortus biovar 3 in this region with 19 genotypes from Nigeria, three from Togo and one from Ivory Coast, The Gambia, and Niger. The strong and urgent need for more sustainable molecular data on prevailing strains of Brucella in this sub-region of Africa and also on all susceptible species including humans is therefore highlighted. This remains a necessary stage to allow a comprehensive understanding of the relatedness between field strains of Brucella and the epidemiology of brucellosis within West Africa countries.

  6. Recruiting young people with a visible difference to the YP Face IT feasibility trial: a qualitative exploration of primary care staff experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Claire; Williamson, Heidi; Harcourt, Diana

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative research methods embedded within feasibility trials are of significant value as they can provide important information for a definitive trial, often unable to be fulfilled by quantitative methods alone. In addition, such information can aid researchers running other trials or evaluating interventions on a similar topic. Aim This study aimed to explore GP and nurses' experiences of recruiting to a trial exploring the feasibility of evaluating YP Face IT, a novel online psychosocial intervention to support young people with appearance-altering conditions. During the recruitment period, a focus group with participating GPs and nurses explored recruitment challenges. In addition, at the end of the recruitment period, telephone interviews were conducted with eight GPs and nurses involved in recruiting to the study, in order to inform a definitive trial of YP Face IT. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Findings Despite reporting that the study was valuable and interesting, interviewees struggled to recruit in-consultation. They appeared to lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of a visible difference and adopted strategies to avoid mentioning the topic. Participants felt the nature of the target population, as well as pressures of the primary care environment presented challenges to recruitment, but welcomed YP Face IT as an intervention that could address unmet support needs. Primary care staff may benefit from training to help them raise the subject of a visible difference with young people in order to identify those that require additional support.

  7. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  9. The Photogrammetric Survey Methodologies Applied to Low Cost 3d Virtual Exploration in Multidisciplinary Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestini, C.; Basso, A.

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, an increase in international investment in hardware and software technology to support programs that adopt algorithms for photomodeling or data management from laser scanners significantly reduced the costs of operations in support of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, designed to generate real-time explorable digital environments integrated to virtual stereoscopic headset. The research analyzes transversal methodologies related to the acquisition of these technologies in order to intervene directly on the phenomenon of acquiring the current VR tools within a specific workflow, in light of any issues related to the intensive use of such devices , outlining a quick overview of the possible "virtual migration" phenomenon, assuming a possible integration with the new internet hyper-speed systems, capable of triggering a massive cyberspace colonization process that paradoxically would also affect the everyday life and more in general, on human space perception. The contribution aims at analyzing the application systems used for low cost 3d photogrammetry by means of a precise pipeline, clarifying how a 3d model is generated, automatically retopologized, textured by color painting or photo-cloning techniques, and optimized for parametric insertion on virtual exploration platforms. Workflow analysis will follow some case studies related to photomodeling, digital retopology and "virtual 3d transfer" of some small archaeological artifacts and an architectural compartment corresponding to the pronaus of Aurum, a building designed in the 1940s by Michelucci. All operations will be conducted on cheap or free licensed software that today offer almost the same performance as their paid counterparts, progressively improving in the data processing speed and management.

  10. THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEY METHODOLOGIES APPLIED TO LOW COST 3D VIRTUAL EXPLORATION IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palestini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in international investment in hardware and software technology to support programs that adopt algorithms for photomodeling or data management from laser scanners significantly reduced the costs of operations in support of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality, designed to generate real-time explorable digital environments integrated to virtual stereoscopic headset. The research analyzes transversal methodologies related to the acquisition of these technologies in order to intervene directly on the phenomenon of acquiring the current VR tools within a specific workflow, in light of any issues related to the intensive use of such devices , outlining a quick overview of the possible "virtual migration" phenomenon, assuming a possible integration with the new internet hyper-speed systems, capable of triggering a massive cyberspace colonization process that paradoxically would also affect the everyday life and more in general, on human space perception. The contribution aims at analyzing the application systems used for low cost 3d photogrammetry by means of a precise pipeline, clarifying how a 3d model is generated, automatically retopologized, textured by color painting or photo-cloning techniques, and optimized for parametric insertion on virtual exploration platforms. Workflow analysis will follow some case studies related to photomodeling, digital retopology and "virtual 3d transfer" of some small archaeological artifacts and an architectural compartment corresponding to the pronaus of Aurum, a building designed in the 1940s by Michelucci. All operations will be conducted on cheap or free licensed software that today offer almost the same performance as their paid counterparts, progressively improving in the data processing speed and management.

  11. Exploring the Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Processing Parameters on Polyacetylene Extraction from Carrot Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm, number of pulses (100–1500, pulse frequency (10–200 Hz and pulse width (10–30 μs were identified using response surface methodology (RSM to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH, falcarindiol (FaDOH and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001 the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2 ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%, FaDOH (164.9% and FaDOAc (166.8% levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E% ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  12. Religious belief as a coping strategy. An explorative trial in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Xander, C. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Adamietz, I.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marienhospital Herne Univ. Clinic, Herne (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  13. Variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units collected from a field trial and marketplaces in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Mohammad Dalower Hossain; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2017-10-06

    Variability of pesticide residues among food items is very important when assessing the risks and food safety for the consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the unit-to-unit residue variability factors for eggplant. In total, 120 samples from a trial field and 142 samples from different marketplaces in Thessaloniki, Greece, were collected to estimate the variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units. They were extracted by the QuEChERS method and the residues were determined by LC-MS/MS. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) obtained for cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues were 2.54 and 2.51, respectively. The mean residue levels of both pesticides were higher in the composite samples than in the individual samples. The average VFs for the marketplace samples was 3.89. The eggplant units exposed to pesticides were higher in residues than the non-exposed units. The variability factors obtained in the marketplace samples were higher than those in the samples collected from the field trial. A default VF value of 3 for field trials is appropriate for use when assessing the acute dietary intake but a VF for the marketplace samples should be reconsidered with a larger data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Exploring the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice: stories from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Teresa; Howie, Linsey

    2011-08-01

    Psychiatric nurses interested in extending their interpersonal and psychotherapeutic skills sometimes undertake postgraduate training in gestalt therapy. Little is known about how this new knowledge and psychotherapeutic skill base informs their practice. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study that aimed to explore the influence of gestalt therapy training on psychiatric nursing practice. Within a framework of narrative inquiry, four psychiatric nurses trained in gestalt therapy were invited to tell their stories of training in a gestalt approach to therapy, and recount their experiences of how it influenced their practice. In keeping with narrative analysis methods, the research findings were presented as a collection of four stories. Eight themes were derived from a thematic analysis conducted within and across the four stories. The discussion of the themes encapsulates the similarities and differences across the storied collection, providing a community and cultural context for understanding the individual stories. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2011 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Use of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of petroleum impacted soils : results of successful field trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gurska, J.; Huang, X.D.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Yu, X.M.; Nykamp, J.; MacNeill, G.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Glick, B. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology]|[Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Wang, W.; Knezevich, N. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Gerwing, P.; Cryer, K. [Earthmaster Environmental Strategies Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The multi-process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was developed to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in impacted soils. Phytoremediation of persistent contaminants in soils holds significant promise for rapid remediation kinetics. MPPS effectively removes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) from soils. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria interaction is the main element for success as it mitigates stress ethylene effects in plants, leading to high root biomass which, in turn, promotes growth of rhizosphere organisms. Field tests of the MPPS were initiated at a farm site in Sarnia, Ontario in the summer of 2004. The field was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from refinery oil sludge. The second field trial was performed for 3 consecutive years at a petroleum contaminated biopile in Turner Valley, Alberta. The paper presented the results of the successful field tests of the MPPS. It was concluded that increased root biomass is achieved in the contaminated soils, which leads to more efficient and complete removal of TPHs in the field. Three years of field trials of the MPPS showed that remediation continues with successive seasons. 28 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  17. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  18. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), 'ANSWERS' and 'PoPLR', and one based on VFs and RNFLT: 'sANSWERS'. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (-0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, P <.001); the rate of RNFLT change was not different (-1.7 vs -1.1 dB/year, P =.14). After 18 months and at 95% specificity, the sensitivity of ANSWERS and PoPLR was similar (35%); sANSWERS achieved a sensitivity of 70%. GPA, ANSWERS and PoPLR discriminated treatment groups with similar statistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms.

  19. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  20. Evaluation of supercritical extracts of algae as biostimulants of plant growth in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur. As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear and shank length. The ear number per square meter was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences. Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences.Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha. The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences. Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  1. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m(2) was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  2. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  3. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  4. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  5. Knots: Attractive Places with High Path Tortuosity in Mouse Open Field Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, Anna; Szechtman, Henry; Golani, Ilan

    2010-01-01

    When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this “home base” highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior. Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them—knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling. In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene. PMID:20090825

  6. Knots: attractive places with high path tortuosity in mouse open field exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dvorkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When introduced into a novel environment, mammals establish in it a preferred place marked by the highest number of visits and highest cumulative time spent in it. Examination of exploratory behavior in reference to this "home base" highlights important features of its organization. It might therefore be fruitful to search for other types of marked places in mouse exploratory behavior and examine their influence on overall behavior.Examination of path curvatures of mice exploring a large empty arena revealed the presence of circumscribed locales marked by the performance of tortuous paths full of twists and turns. We term these places knots, and the behavior performed in them-knot-scribbling. There is typically no more than one knot per session; it has distinct boundaries and it is maintained both within and across sessions. Knots are mostly situated in the place of introduction into the arena, here away from walls. Knots are not characterized by the features of a home base, except for a high speed during inbound and a low speed during outbound paths. The establishment of knots is enhanced by injecting the mouse with saline and placing it in an exposed portion of the arena, suggesting that stress and the arousal associated with it consolidate a long-term contingency between a particular locale and knot-scribbling.In an environment devoid of proximal cues mice mark a locale associated with arousal by twisting and turning in it. This creates a self-generated, often centrally located landmark. The tortuosity of the path traced during the behavior implies almost concurrent multiple views of the environment. Knot-scribbling could therefore function as a way to obtain an overview of the entire environment, allowing re-calibration of the mouse's locale map and compass directions. The rich vestibular input generated by scribbling could improve the interpretation of the visual scene.

  7. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of a recovery-focused group therapy intervention for adults with bipolar disorder: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Jones, Steven; Lobban, Fiona; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Attia, John; Banfield, Michelle

    2018-01-31

    Improving accessible, acceptable recovery-oriented service provision for people with bipolar disorder (BD) is an important priority. Mindfulness and acceptance-based cognitive and behavioural therapies (or 'third -wave' CBT) may prove fruitful due to the considerable overlap between these approaches and key features of personal recovery. Groups also confer therapeutic benefits consistent with personal recovery and may improve recovery-oriented service provision by adding another modality for accessing support. The primary objective of this trial is to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a new recovery-focused group therapy (RfGT) intervention for adults with BD. This is the first published feasibility assessment of a time-limited RfGTrecovery-focused group therapy intervention for BD. This protocol describes an open feasibility study, utilising a pre-treatment design versus post- treatment design and nested qualitative evaluation. Participants will be recruited from the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia, from primary care providers, specialist mental health services, non-government organisations and via self-referral. The primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability as indexed by recruitment, retention, intervention adherence, adverse events (if any) and detailed consumer feedback. Clinical outcomes and process measures will be assessed to inform future research. Primary outcome data will utiliseuse descriptive statistics (eg, summarizingsummarising recruitment, demographics, attendance, attrition and intervention adherence). Secondary outcomes will be assessed using repeated-measures analysis of covariance across all time points (including change, effect size and variability). Ethical approval has been granted by the Northern Sydney Local Health District HREChuman research ethics committee (HREC) (HREC/16/HAWKE/69) and The University of Newcastle HREC (H-2016-0107). The Ffindings will be used to improve the intervention per user

  8. Submillimeter Stacking in Overdense Environments at z>2: Exploring Galaxies’ ISM Content in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Richard; Hung, Chao-Ling; Casey, Caitlin M.; Chiang, Yi-Kuan

    2018-01-01

    A galaxy’s evolution is affected by its environment. Today, we see quiescent elliptical galaxies preferentially in the high-density environments of galaxy clusters, while star-forming galaxies are found only in lower density environments. However, this trend is less clear at z > 2, with some works arguing for a possible reversal of star formation with environmental density. While star formation is quenched in the cores of today's galaxy clusters, their progenitors likely had ongoing star formation in line with cosmic downsizing. In order to better understand when and how the cores of galaxy protoclusters formed their stars, We search for a dependence between environment and gas content in galaxy protoclusters at z > 2. To do this, we utilize the 2deg^2 COSMOS survey and SCUBA2 850 micron maps of the COSMOS field to trace galaxy gas content and environment. We conduct a stacking analysis with the code SIMSTACK to aide in our search for a relationship between environment and gas content.

  9. Exploring Dust Impacts on Tropical Systems from the NASA HS-3 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowottnick, Ed; Colarco, Pete; da Silva, Arlindo; Barahona, Donifan; Hlavka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    One of the overall scientific goals of the NASA Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS-3) field campaign is to better understand the role of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in tropical storm development. During the 2012 HS-3 deployment, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) observed dust within SAL air in close proximity to a developing Nadine (September 11, 2012). Throughout the mission, the NASA GEOS-5 modeling system supported HS-3 by providing 0.25 degrees resolution 5-day global forecasts of aerosols, which were used to support mission planning. The aerosol module was radiatively interactive within the GEOS-5 model, but aerosols were not directly coupled to cloud and precipitation processes. In this study we revisit the aerosol forecasts with an updated version of the GEOS-5 model. For the duration of Hurricane Nadine, we run multiday climate simulations leading up to each respective Global Hawk flight with and without aerosol direct interaction. For each set of simulations, we compare simulated dust mass fluxes to identify differences in SAL entrainment related to the interaction between dust aerosols and the atmosphere. We find that the direct effects of dust induce a low level anticyclonic circulation that temporarily shields Nadine from the intrusion of dry air, leading to a more intense storm.

  10. Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Several publications in the scientific literature have raised concern about the individual and public health impact of adverse non-ionizing radiation (a-NIR) from electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure emanating from certain power, electrical and wireless devices commonly found in the home, workplace, school and community. Despite the many challenges in establishing irrefutable scientific proof of harm and the various gaps in elucidating the precise mechanisms of harm, epidemiological analyses continue to suggest considerable potential for injury and affliction as a result of a-NIR exposure. As environmental health has not been emphasized in medical education, some clinicians are not fully aware of possible EMF-related health problems and, as a result, manifestations of a-NIR may remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually managed. It is important for physicians and public health officials to be aware of the fundamental science and clinical implications of EMF exposure. A review of the scientific literature relating to the link between electromagnetic radiation and human health, several public health recommendations, and four case histories are presented for consideration.

  11. Homonymous Visual Field Loss and Its Impact on Visual Exploration: A Supermarket Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Sippel, Katrin; Heister, Martin; Aehling, Katrin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Schiefer, Ulrich; Papageorgiou, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) may critically interfere with quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVFDs on a supermarket search task and to investigate the influence of visual search on task performance. Ten patients with HVFDs (four with a right-sided [HR] and six with a left-sided defect [HL]), and 10 healthy-sighted, sex-, and age-matched control subjects were asked to collect 20 products placed on two supermarket shelves as quickly as possible. Task performance was rated as "passed" or "failed" with regard to the time per correctly collected item (TC -failed = 4.84 seconds based on the performance of healthy subjects). Eye movements were analyzed regarding the horizontal gaze activity, glance frequency, and glance proportion for different VF areas. Seven of 10 HVFD patients (three HR, four HL) passed the supermarket search task. Patients who passed needed significantly less time per correctly collected item and looked more frequently toward the VFD area than patients who failed. HL patients who passed the test showed a higher percentage of glances beyond the 60° VF (P < 0.05). A considerable number of HVFD patients performed successfully and could compensate for the HVFD by shifting the gaze toward the peripheral VF and the VFD area. These findings provide new insights on gaze adaptations in patients with HVFDs during activities of daily living and will enhance the design and development of realistic examination tools for use in the clinical setting to improve daily functioning. (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01372319, NCT01372332).

  12. Children’s Mental Health Care following Hurricane Katrina: A Field Trial of Trauma-Focused Psychotherapies

    OpenAIRE

    Jaycox, Lisa H.; Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Walker, Douglas W.; Langley, Audra K.; Gegenheimer, Kate L.; Scott, Molly; Schonlau, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    New Orleans school children participated in an assessment and field trial of two interventions 15 months after Hurricane Katrina. Children (N = 195) reported on hurricane exposure, lifetime trauma exposure, peer and parent support, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms. Teachers reported on behavior. At baseline, 60.5% screened positive for PTSD symptoms and were offered a group intervention at school or individual treatment at a mental health clinic. Uptake of the men...

  13. DSM-5 field trials in the United States and Canada, Part I: study design, sampling strategy, implementation, and analytic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Narrow, William E; Regier, Darrel A; Kuramoto, S Janet; Kupfer, David J; Kuhl, Emily A; Greiner, Lisa; Kraemer, Helena C

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the design,sampling strategy, implementation,and data analytic processes of the DSM-5 Field Trials. The DSM-5 Field Trials were conducted by using a test-retest reliability design with a stratified sampling approach across six adult and four pediatric sites in the United States and one adult site in Canada. A stratified random sampling approach was used to enhance precision in the estimation of the reliability coefficients. A web-based research electronic data capture system was used for simultaneous data collection from patients and clinicians across sites and for centralized data management.Weighted descriptive analyses, intraclass kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients for stratified samples, and receiver operating curves were computed. The DSM-5 Field Trials capitalized on advances since DSM-III and DSM-IV in statistical measures of reliability (i.e., intraclass kappa for stratified samples) and other recently developed measures to determine confidence intervals around kappa estimates. Diagnostic interviews using DSM-5 criteria were conducted by 279 clinicians of varied disciplines who received training comparable to what would be available to any clinician after publication of DSM-5.Overall, 2,246 patients with various diagnoses and levels of comorbidity were enrolled,of which over 86% were seen for two diagnostic interviews. A range of reliability coefficients were observed for the categorical diagnoses and dimensional measures. Multisite field trials and training comparable to what would be available to any clinician after publication of DSM-5 provided “real-world” testing of DSM-5 proposed diagnoses.

  14. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  15. Taking the Blood Bank to the Field: The Design and Rationale of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Guyette, Francis X; Neal, Matthew D; Claridge, Jeffrey A; Daley, Brian J; Harbrecht, Brian G; Miller, Richard S; Phelan, Herb A; Adams, Peter W; Early, Barbara J; Peitzman, Andrew B; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhage and trauma induced coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. Interest in the use of prehospital plasma in hemorrhaging patients as a primary resuscitation agent has grown recently. Trauma center-based damage control resuscitation using early and aggressive plasma transfusion has consistently demonstrated improved outcomes in hemorrhaging patients. Additionally, plasma has been shown to have several favorable immunomodulatory effects. Preliminary evidence with prehospital plasma transfusion has demonstrated feasibility and improved short-term outcomes. Applying state-of-the-art resuscitation strategies to the civilian prehospital arena is compelling. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma (PAMPer) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital plasma transfusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk for traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter cluster randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with profound hypotension (SBP ≤ 70 mmHg) or hypotension (SBP 71-90 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR ≥ 108 bpm) from six level I trauma center air medical transport programs. The trial will also explore the effects of prehospital plasma transfusion on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research with an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizing a multipronged community consultation process. It is one of three ongoing Department of Defense-funded trials aimed at expanding our understanding of the optimal therapeutic approaches to coagulopathy in the hemorrhaging trauma patient.

  16. Application of short message service to control blood cholesterol: a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Shams, Mohsen; Alipour, Zahra; Saadat, Soheil; Hamidian, Reza; Shahrzad, Maryam

    2017-03-28

    Despite recommendations, many middle-age adults neglect to check their blood cholesterol levels. Short message service (SMS, also known as texting) has been seldom studied for preventive education. We estimated how SMS can be a cost-effective method in encouraging people to check their blood cholesterol levels. In a field trial, 3600 cell phone users (age > 30) were randomly assigned to the intervention (N: 1200) and the control groups (N: 2400). An SMS was sent to the intervention group for five rounds every two weeks, which targeted the cognitive and affective learning and finally advised the blood cholesterol level to be checked, if not checked during the past twelve months. Two weeks after the last round, both groups were asked for the time/level of their latest blood cholesterol, family history of early cardiac death and having a family member with coronary heart disease (CHD), and to report their attitude about whether annual blood sampling is worth the cost and time to prevent CHD. Moreover, the intervention group was asked if they remembered the SMS content. The cost-effectiveness was evaluated by estimating the "number needed to treat" (NNT) and calculating the cost of sending SMS to that number of people. In the intervention group, 629 individuals (72.0%) recalled the SMS content. The factors associated with cholesterol screening during the past two years were older age, diabetes, family history of coronary disease, higher education, female gender and being non-smoker. In both groups, women were significantly more aware of their blood cholesterol level (68.7% vs. 53.6%). The relative frequency of respondents who believed it was not worth checking their cholesterol annually was significantly lower in the intervention group (P cholesterol levels (OR:1.22) after adjustment for age, diabetes, family history of CHD and smoking. The NNT was estimated ≈ 25 for the general population and ≈ 11 for those who received SMS and had a family member

  17. Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) Project - Initial Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognstad, M. R.; Anderson, R. M.; Chayes, D. N.; Mayer, L. A.

    2005-12-01

    The Seafloor Sounding in Polar and Remote Regions (SSPARR) project, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, is developing the capability to acquire autonomous bathymetric observations in remote regions, by means of an inexpensive (expendable) depth sounder supported by a GPS navigation receiver and global satellite telemetry capability. The depth sounder component operates at 12 kHz and is packaged in a watertight housing suspended approximately 10 meters below the water surface. A sonar transducer is mounted on the bottom of the cylindrical sounder housing; electronics and batteries for powering the sounder are contained in the housing. A cable carrying data and control signals connects to the surface package, which houses the telemetry and control system, GPS receiver, and batteries. This surface package would include flotation, so the SSPARR system could be deployed as a drifting buoy or installed in suitable ice floes. The depth sounder electronics utilize a Freescale Semiconductor DSP56309 digital signal processor to synthesize the transmitted signal, and to acquire and process the acoustic echoes. The signal processing involves quadrature detection at 12 kHz, matched filtering and decimation; data are acquired for intervals ranging from 125 milliseconds to 8 seconds, depending upon the desired range. At present, the sounder software records data for the entire acquisition interval; this raw data is being used to test bottom detection algorithms. In order to minimize the likelihood that a mid-water scattering layer or ice keel mask the true bottom reflection, the desired algorithm will report multiple reflections to the control and telemetry processor when they are detected. The bottom detection function has been evaluated with field trial data will be incorporated into the final sounder design. A test of the sounder transducer was conducted in May 2004 aboard the R/V Kilo Moana, using electronics from the University of Hawaii's Integrated

  18. A search for a distant companion to the sun with the wide-field infrared survey explorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    I have used multi-epoch astrometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer to perform a search for a distant companion to the Sun via its parallactic motion. I have not found an object of this kind down to W2 = 14.5. This limit corresponds to analogs of Saturn and Jupiter at 28,000 and 82,000 AU, respectively, according to models of the Jovian planets by Fortney and coworkers. Models of brown dwarfs by Burrows and coworkers predict fainter fluxes at a given mass for the age of the solar system, producing a closer distance limit of 26,000 AU for a Jupiter-mass brown dwarf. These constraints exclude most combinations of mass and separation at which a solar companion has been suggested to exist by various studies over the years.

  19. On the Modeling of Electrical Effects Experienced by Space Explorers During Extra Vehicular Activities: Intracorporal Currents, Resistances, and Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Loizos, Kyle; Lazzi, Gianluca; Hamilton, Douglas; Lee, Raphael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that space explorers engaged in Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) may be exposed, under certain conditions, to undesired electrical currents. This work focuses on determining whether these undesired induced electrical currents could be responsible for involuntary neuromuscular activity in the subjects, possibly caused by either large diameter peripheral nerve activation or reflex activity from cutaneous afferent stimulation. An efficient multiresolution variant of the admittance method along with a millimeter-resolution model of a male human body were used to calculate induced electric fields, resistance between contact electrodes used to simulate the potential exposure condition, and currents induced in the human body model. Results show that, under realistic exposure conditions using a 15V source, current density magnitudes and total current injected are well above previously reported startle reaction thresholds. This indicates that, under the considered conditions, the subjects could experience involuntary motor response.

  20. Emerging trends on the topic of information technology in the field of educational sciences: A bibliometric exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luis GONZÁLEZ-VALIENTE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a bibliometric analysis on the topic of Information Technology (IT in the field of Educational Sciences, aimed at envisioning the research emerging trends. The ERIC data base is used as a consultation source; the results were subjected to productivity by authors, journals, and term co-occurrence analysis indicators for the period 2009-2013. The productivity of Computers & Education, and Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, as well as the preceding authors from Canada, have been emphasized. The more used terms are the following: Information technology, foreign countries, educational technology, technology integration, and student attitudes. Researches performed here seem to have a largely qualitative character, highlighting computers and internet as the mostly explored technological objects. The largest subject matter trend refers to the integration of IT in the higher education learning context, and its incidence over the teaching methods.

  1. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  2. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... help produce reliable study results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and ... trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the benefits of lowering ...

  3. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...

  4. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  5. Novel Interactive Data Visualization: Exploration of the ESCAPE Trial (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigdan, Matthew; Hill, Michael D; Jagdev, Abhijeet; Kamal, Noreen

    2018-01-01

    The ESCAPE (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) randomized clinical trial collected a large diverse data set. However, it is difficult to fully understand the effects of the study on certain patient groups and disease progression. We developed and evaluated an interactive visualization of the ESCAPE trial data. We iteratively designed an interactive visualization using Python's Bokeh software library. The design was evaluated through a user study, which quantitatively evaluated its efficiency and accuracy against traditional modified Rankin Scalegraphic. Qualitative feedback was also evaluated. The novel interactive visualization of the ESCAPE data are publicly available at http://escapevisualization.herokuapp.com/. There was no difference in the efficiency and accuracy when comparing the use of the novel with the traditional visualization. However, users preferred the novel visualization because it allowed for greater exploration. Some insights obtained through exploration of the ESCAPE data are presented. Novel interactive visualizations can be applied to acute stroke trial data to allow for greater exploration of the results. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01778335. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Using a new intelligent well technology completions strategy to increase thermal EOR recoveries-SAGD field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Joel; Bedry, Mark [Halliburton (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the bitumen and heavy oil industry, thermal recovery methods are often used to enhance oil recovery. At the moment, traditional steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) systems are being used but they present some issues: poor injectability, steam breakthrough and lack of conformance. This paper presents a new completions strategy addressing the problems of steam injection and production conformance. This strategy relies on an intelligent completion technology incorporating interval control valves, well segmentation and instrumentation. A field test of this technology is being done in an SAGD system in the Orion field of Northern Alberta. Up to now results have shown the new completions strategy to be successful with an improvement in injectivity of 35%. This paper presented a new completions strategy which has been successfully implemented in a field trial and could improve the steam oil ratio and recovery in thermal enhanced oil recovery projects.

  7. Comparing interventions and exploring neural mechanisms of exercise in Parkinson disease: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Gammon M; Duncan, Ryan P; Huang, John L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Pickett, Kristen A

    2015-02-05

    important insights regarding the effects of different modes of exercise on locomotor function in PD. The protocol is innovative because it: 1) uses group exercise approaches for all conditions including treadmill training, 2) directly compares tango to treadmill training and stretching, 3) tests participants OFF medication, and 4) utilizes two distinct neuroimaging approaches to explore mechanisms of the effects of exercise on the brain. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01768832 .

  8. Trial-to-trial noise cancellation of cortical field potentials in awake macaques by autoregression model with exogenous input (ARX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Roe, Anna W

    2011-01-15

    Gamma band synchronization has drawn increasing interest with respect to its potential role in neuronal encoding strategy and behavior in awake, behaving animals. However, contamination of these recordings by power line noise can confound the analysis and interpretation of cortical local field potential (LFP). Existing denoising methods are plagued by inadequate noise reduction, inaccuracies, and even introduction of new noise components. To carefully and more completely remove such contamination, we propose an automatic method based on the concept of adaptive noise cancellation that utilizes the correlative features of common noise sources, and implement with AutoRegressive model with eXogenous Input (ARX). We apply this technique to both simulated data and LFPs recorded in the primary visual cortex of awake macaque monkeys. The analyses here demonstrate a greater degree of accurate noise removal than conventional notch filters. Our method leaves desired signal intact and does not introduce artificial noise components. Application of this method to awake monkey V1 recordings reveals a significant power increase in the gamma range evoked by visual stimulation. Our findings suggest that the ARX denoising procedure will be an important pre-processing step in the analysis of large volumes of cortical LFP data as well as high frequency (gamma-band related) electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) applications, one which will help to convincingly dissociate this notorious artifact from gamma-band activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinematic History of a Salient-recess Junction Explored through a Combined Approach of Field Data and Analog Sandbox Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Toeneboehn, Kevin

    2016-08-05

    Within fold-thrust belts, the junctions between salients and recesses may hold critical clues to the overall kinematic history. The deformation history within these junctions is best preserved in areas where thrust sheets extend from a salient through an adjacent recess. We examine one such junction within the Sevier fold-thrust belt (western United States) along the Leamington transverse zone, northern Utah. Deformation within this junction took place by faulting and cataclastic flow. Here, we describe a protocol that examines these fault patterns to better understand the kinematic history of the field area. Fault data is supplemented by analog sandbox experiments. This study suggests that, in detail, deformation within the overlying thrust sheet may not directly reflect the underlying basement structure. We demonstrate that this combined field-experimental approach is easy, accessible, and may provide more details to the deformation preserved in the crust than other more expensive methods, such as computer modeling. In addition, the sandbox model may help to explain why and how these details formed. This method can be applied throughout fold-thrust belts, where upper-crustal rocks are well preserved. In addition, it can be modified to study any part of the upper crust that has been deformed via elastico-frictional mechanisms. Finally, this combined approach may provide more details as to how fold-thrust belts maintain critical-taper and serve as potential targets for natural resource exploration.

  10. A systematic review of trends in the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials in various research fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Grigori, Tatiana; Ioannidou, Eleni

    2009-03-01

    We sought to evaluate the trends in the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials in various medical fields. Relevant studies were retrieved by the PubMed and the ISI Web of science databases. Thirty-five out of 457 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one out of 35 selected studies reported significant improvement in at least one methodological quality factor. Overall quality scores were increased in 13 out of 26 studies providing relevant data. The most commonly separately examined key quality factors were allocation concealment and blinding in 13 out of 21 studies that reported relevant data. Allocation concealment was the quality characteristic most commonly reported as significantly improving during the reviewed period (in five out of eight studies reporting relevant comparative data). Certain aspects of methodological quality have improved significantly over time, but others remain stagnant. Further efforts to improve study design, conduct, and reporting of randomized controlled trials are warranted.

  11. Understanding the Doctoral Experience of Asian International Students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields: An Exploration of One Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tam; Gardner, Susan K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we explored the experience of Asian international doctoral students in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields at one research-extensive university. We found that Asian international doctoral students in the STEM fields at this institution were often isolated from their peers and faculty, faced an array…

  12. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2003-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NGA member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its third six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on the last system integration issues and on software development for the turning and launching routines. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Summer 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in early Fall 2003.

  13. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASOLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George C. Vradis; Hagen Schempf

    2004-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its sixth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot completed its first field demonstration in June 2004 and is undergoing further extensive endurance testing and some minor modifications in order to prepare for the second and last field demonstration planned for October 2004.

  14. Explaining Feast or Famine in Randomized Field Trials: Medical Science and Criminology Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the contrast between the frequency of randomized clinical trials in the health sciences and the relative famine of such studies in criminology. Attributes this difference to the contexts in which research is done and the difference in the status of situational research in the two disciplines. (SLD)

  15. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  16. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  17. A FIELD-TRIAL OF TWO RESTORATIVE MATERIALS USED WITH ATRAUMATIC RESTORATIVE TREATMENT IN RURAL TURKEY: 24-MONTH RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Ertugrul; Dülgergil, Ç. Türksel; Soyman, Mübin; Dalli, Mehmet; Yildirim, Isil

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. Material and Methods: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE) and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE) were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART). Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. Results: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004), according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. Conclusion: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion. PMID:19668990

  18. 640 Gbaud NRZ-OOK data signal generation and 1.19 Tbit/s PDM-NRZ-OOK field trial transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Munster, P.; Palushani, Evarist

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a field trial of a 640-Gbaud NRZ signal generated by RZ-to-NRZ conversion of a phase-coherent RZ-OTDM signal. This is employed in a 1.19-Tbit/s PDM-NRZ-OOK field transmission with BER<3.8×10−3 for all 128 tributaries.......We demonstrate a field trial of a 640-Gbaud NRZ signal generated by RZ-to-NRZ conversion of a phase-coherent RZ-OTDM signal. This is employed in a 1.19-Tbit/s PDM-NRZ-OOK field transmission with BER

  19. Eugenol specialty chemical production in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da; Yuan, Xianghe; Kim, Sung-Jin; Marques, Joaquim V; Chakravarthy, P Pawan; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Luchterhand, Randi; Herman, Barri; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2017-08-01

    A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs. other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favoured. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0.1%, respectively) of dry weight foliage tissue in field trials, as well as their corresponding aglycones in trace amounts. There were only traces of any of these metabolites in branch tissues, even after ~4-year field trials. Levels of bioproduct accumulation in foliage plateaued, even at the lowest introduced gene expression levels, suggesting limited monolignol substrate availability. Nevertheless, this level still allows foliage collection for platform chemical production, with the remaining (stem) biomass available for wood, pulp/paper and bioenergy product purposes. Several transformed lines displayed unexpected precocious flowering after 4-year field trial growth. This necessitated terminating (felling) these particular plants, as USDA APHIS prohibits the possibility of their interacting (cross-pollination, etc.) with wild-type (native plant) lines. In future, additional biotechnological approaches can be employed (e.g. gene editing) to produce sterile plant lines, to avoid such complications. While increased gene expression did not increase target bioproduct accumulation, the exciting possibility now exists of significantly increasing their amounts (e.g. 10- to 40-fold plus) in foliage and stems via systematic deployment of numerous 'omics', systems biology, synthetic biology and metabolic flux modelling approaches. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border.

  1. Preliminary Results on Behavior of Transgenic and Conventional Plum to Natural PPV Infection in a New Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Zagrai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the durability of resistance to PPV of HoneySweet transgenic plum harbouring plum pox virus (PPV capsid gene, a new field trial was recently established in Romania at Fruit Research & Development Station Bistrita. Stanley and Reine Claude d’Althan cvs. are used as control. PPV inoculum source is secured within the experimental plot. PPV monitoring was made by visual observation of symptoms development on leaves and by serological (DAS-ELISA and molecular (IC/-RT-PCR testings. Three years after planting PPV was observed and detected only on Stanley. 'HoneySweet' and  Reine Claude d’Althan cultivars remained PPV free.

  2. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  3. Training the rivers and exploring the coasts. Knowledge evolution in the Netherlands in two engineering fields between 1800 and 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Bert

    In this paper, the author wants to explore the knowledge development in two crucial fields, river management and coast management in the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century. Were there similar characteristics in this development? Which types of knowledge can be distinguished? Who were the principal actors in these processes? Did the knowledge evolution have a Dutch stamp or a rather international flavour? To structure the analysis, the author uses the concept of technology regime, a set of technical rules which shapes the know-how of engineers, their design rules and research processes. The analysis shows that the knowledge development of river management and coastal management followed different evolution paths between 1800 and 1940. In the field of river management, a substantial amount of mathematical and physical theories had been gradually developed since the end of the 17th century. After 1850, the regularization approach met gradually a widespread support. Empirical data, design rules, theoretical knowledge and engineering pivoted around the regularization approach, and a technology regime around this approach emerged. The regularization regime further developed in the 20th century, and handbooks were increasingly shaped by mathematical and physical reasoning and formulas. On the other hand, coastal management was until the 1880s a rather marginal activity. Coastal engineering was an extremely complex and multidimensional field of knowledge which no engineer was able to grasp. The foundation of a Dutch weather institute was a first important step towards a more theoretical approach. The Zuiderzee works (starting in 1925) gave probably the most important stimuli to scientific coastal research. It was also a main factor in setting up scientific institutes by Rijkswaterstaat. So from the 1920s, Rijkswaterstaat became a major producer of scientific knowledge, not only in tidal modelling but also in coastal research. Due to a multidisciplinary

  4. Clove oil as an anaesthetic for adult sockeye salmon: Field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, C.A.; Nelson, Jack L.; Ramstad, K.

    2002-01-01

    Wild migrating sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka exposed to 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 of clove oil could be handled within 3 min, recovered within 10 min, and survived 15 min exposure trials. Fish tested at 110 mg 1-1 did not recover from 15 min exposure trials. Response curves developed for induction and recovery time considered the following predictors: clove oil concentration, sex, fish length and depth. A significant positive dependence was observed between induction time and fish length for 20, 50 and 80 mg 1-1 test concentrations; no dependence was observed between induction time and length at 110 and 140 mg 1-1. Recovery time differed as a function of clove oil concentration, but not fish size. A concentration of 50 mg 1-1 is recommended for anaesthetizing sockeye salmon ranging in length from 400 to 550 mm at water temperatures averaging 9-10??C.

  5. US Highway 84 chip seal field trials and laboratory test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-23

    This report contains laboratory and field testing of US Highway 84 in Lincoln county Mississippi. A full scale field test consisting of seven polymer modified asphalt emulsions and a CRS-2 control emulsion was constructed in September of 1989 and sub...

  6. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  7. Enhanced transport of pesticides in a field trial with treated sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, E R; Dror, I; Bercovich, F C; Rosner, M

    2001-08-01

    This study was designed to provide high-density data on spatial distribution of three herbicides with different physiochemical characteristics in a sludge-amended and non-amended control field over the course of an irrigation season. The field experiment was carried out on a sandy loam Hamra Red Mediterranean soil (Rhodoxeralf) at Bet Dagan, Israel. After a single 50 mm irrigation event, the mean centers of mass (COM) in the control field were at 15.6, 14.9, and 17 cm for bromacil, atrazine and terbuthylazine, respectively; in the sludge-amended field, mean COMs were at 28.8, 31.2, and 34.1 cm, respectively. After 500 mm of irrigation in the control field, the COM depth distribution of the three pesticides was inversely correlated with octanol-water (Kow) distribution coefficients and soil sorption coefficients (Koc), and positively correlated with aqueous solubilities. After 500 mm irrigation in the sludge-amended field, the mean terbuthylazine COM was at 19.8 cm versus 13.8 cm for the control field, demonstrating a sustained enhanced effect on terbuthylazine transport. Downward transport of atrazine was also enhanced by sludge amendment, albeit less than terbuthylazine. Bromacil was preferentially accumulated in the upper soil layers of the sludge-amended field as compared with the control field after 500 mm irrigation. The enhanced transport of all three pesticides in the sludge-amended field after a single irrigation event is attributed to development of preferential flow pathways around hydrophobic clods of sludge. Enhanced transport of terbuthylazine, and to a lesser extent, atrazine, throughout the irrigation season, is attributed to their transport as complexes with dissolved, colloidal and suspended organic matter derived from sludge degradation.

  8. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George C. Vradis, Hagen Schempf

    2004-04-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fifth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The prototype robot is undergoing extensive endurance testing in order to prepare for the field demonstrations planned for June 2004.

  9. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen Schempf

    2003-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate ''EXPLORER'', a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the Northeast Gas Association (formerly New York Gas Group), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) The present report summarizes the accomplishments of the project during its fourth six-month period. The project has in general achieved its goals for this period as outlined in the report. The fabrication of the prototype is complete and is now been tested in the laboratory mainly focusing on endurance testing and testing of launching procedures. Testing of the prototype in the lab is expected to be completed by Fall 2003, to be followed by two field demonstrations in Winter 2003-2004.

  10. Exploring MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchi, M; Mazzarelli, A; Piscini, A; Di Caro, A; Cannas, A; Leo, S; Russo, S; Arrigoni, N

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for a rapid and correct identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) field isolates. MALDI-TOF MS approach is becoming one of the most popular tests for the identification of intact bacterial cells which has been shown to be fast and reliable. For this purpose, 36 MAP field isolates were analysed through MALDI-TOF MS and the spectra compared with two different databases: one provided by the vendor of the system employed (Biotyper ver. 3·0; Bruker Daltonics) and a homemade database containing spectra from both tuberculous and nontuberculous Mycobacteria. Moreover, principal component analysis procedure was employed to confirm the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate between very closely related subspecies. Our results suggest MAP can be differentiated from other Mycobacterium species, both when the species are very close (M. intracellulare) and when belonging to different subspecies (M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. silvaticum). The procedure applied is fast, easy to perform, and achieves an earlier accurate species identification of MAP and nontuberculous Mycobacteria in comparison to other procedures. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis is still isolation of MAP by cultural methods, but additional assays, such as qPCR and subculturing for determination of mycobactin dependency are required to confirm its identification. We have provided here evidence pertaining to the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS approach for a rapid identification of this mycobacterium among other members of M. avium complex. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  12. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. Sequence stratigraphic analysis as an exploration and production tool in the Ceuta Eocene field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argenis, R. (Intevep S.A., Caracas (Venezuela))

    1990-05-01

    Oil plays in Ceuta field, as in other areas of the Maracaibo Lake were delineated using the common methodology of standard seismic reflection interpretation. Prospective structures were defined and drilled, and suites of logs were then used for petrophysical evaluation of the section of interest. These established seismic and petrophysical techniques for delineating oil-bearing intervals in the Maracaibo basin failed to perform as expected in Ceuta Eocene. Here, after drilling and coring well VLG-3726 in a prospective structure, it was proven that although logs showed high resistivity in sand intervals with good porosity, it did not necessarily mean commercial hydrocarbon accumulation. To explain this phenomenon, a sequence stratigraphic analysis of the cored 600-ft (200-m) section was done. Results showed that petrophysical evaluation correctly identified sand intervals with good porosity, but in particular instances this porosity was unconnected. For example, sand facies S1 and S2, with good secondary, uneffective porosity was not oil bearing. These facts could explain their sand-log response, high resistivity, and noncommercial oil accumulation. This analysis also explained the role played by depositional and diagenetic processes in delineating sand body geometries and reservoir qualities for proposing an exploration or development program. From this study, the author was concluded that application of rock data through a facies analyst subordinates seismic and petrophysical consideration for hydrocarbon evaluation in this and other areas with similar sedimentological characteristics.

  14. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-10-01

    This program is undertaken in order to construct and field-demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6- inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The modular design of the system allows it to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system being built under this project will include all the basic modules needed, i.e. the locomotor, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has already been designed, constructed and tested, having exceeded performance expectations. The full prototype system will be comprehensively tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The system under development significantly advances the state of the art in inspection systems for gas distribution mains, which presently consist of tethered systems of limited range (about 500 ft form the point of launch) and limited inspection views. Also current inspection systems have no ability to incorporate additional modules to expand their functionality. This development program is a joint effort among the New York Gas Group (NYGAS; a trade association of the publicly owned gas utilities in New York State), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU) National Robotics Engineering Consortium (NREC), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The DOE's contribution to this current phase of the project is $499,023 out of a total of $780,735 (not including NASA's contribution). The

  15. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  16. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  17. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots.

  18. Exploratory field trial of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB): Considerations on the acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Thompson, Jason; Fitzharris, Michael; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-11-16

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation. The tests were conducted along a rectilinear path at nominal speed of 40 km/h and with mean deceleration of 0.15 g (15% of full braking) deployed at random times. Riders were also exposed to one final undeclared brake activation with the aim of providing genuinely unexpected automatic braking events. Participants were consistently able to manage automatic decelerations of the vehicle with minor to moderate effort. Results of undeclared activations were consistent with those of standard runs. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a moderate automatic deceleration in a scenario of motorcycle travelling in a straight path, supporting the notion that the application of AEB on motorcycles is practicable. Furthermore, the proposed field trial can be used as a reference for future regulation or consumer tests in order to address safety and acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations on a motorcycle.

  19. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Five-year field trials using preservative-treated, second-growth Douglas-fir exposed in ground contact in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney C. De Groot; Douglas M. Crawford; Jack Norton; John Keith

    2000-01-01

    The durability of preservative-treated stakes of second-growth Coastal Douglas-fir was evaluated in a field plot in northern Queensland, Australia. Results from this field trial indicate that second-growth Douglas-fir can be treated with preservatives to meet Australian standards and will provide long-term durability in adverse environments. Data presented indicate...

  1. Employing Autonomous Underwater Vehicles to Develop New Techniques for Astrobiological Exploration: Recent Field Results and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Jakuba, M. V.; Bowen, A. D.; Yoerger, D. R.; Whitcomb, L.; Camilli, R.; German, C. R.; Valentine, D. L.

    2010-04-01

    We report two recent expeditions funded by NASA's Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program that demonstrate how advances in telemetry and autonomy can advance investigation astrobiological exploration methodologies.

  2. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Asadollahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026. Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants.

  3. Pyrolysis of attapulgite clay blended with yak dung enhances pasture growth and soil health: Characterization and initial field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Joseph, Stephen D; Li, Fei; Bai, Yanfu; Shang, Zhanhuan; Rawal, Aditya; Hook, James M; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Taherymoosavi, Sara; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Mohammed, Mohanad; Horvat, Joseph; Marjo, Christopher E; Wagner, Avital; Wang, Yanlong; Ye, Jun; Long, Rui-Jun

    2017-12-31

    Recent studies have shown that the pyrolysis of biomass combined with clay can result in both lower cost and increase in plant yields. One of the major sources of nutrients for pasture growth, as well as fuel and building materials in Tibet is yak dung. This paper reports on the initial field testing in a pasture setting in Tibet using yak dung, biochar, and attapulgite clay/yak dung biochars produced at ratios of 10/90 and 50/50 clay to dung. We found that the treatment with attapulgite clay/yak dung (50/50) biochar resulted in the highest pasture yields and grass nutrition quality. We also measured the properties and yields of mixtures of clay/yak dung biochar used in the field trials produced at 400°C and 500°C to help determine a possible optimum final pyrolysis temperature and dung/clay ratio. It was observed that increasing clay content increased carbon stability, overall biochar yield, pore size, carboxyl and ketone/aldehyde functional groups, hematite and ferrous/ferric sulphate/thiosulphate concentration, surface area and magnetic moment. Decreasing clay content resulted in higher pH, CEC, N content and an enhanced ability to accept and donate electrons. The resulting properties were a complex function of both processing temperature and the percentage of clay for the biochars processed at both 400°C and 500°C. It is possible that the increase in yield and nutrient uptake in the field trial is related to the higher concentration of C/O functional groups, higher surface area and pore volume and higher content of Fe/O/S nanoparticles of multiple oxidation state in the 50/50 clay/dung. These properties have been found to significantly increase the abundance of beneficial microorganisms and hence improve the nutrient cycling and availability in soil. Further field trials are required to determine the optimum pyrolysis production conditions and application rate on the abundance of beneficial microorganisms, yields and nutrient quality. Copyright © 2017

  4. Implications of the UK field trial of building mounted horizontal axis micro-wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P.A.B.; Sissons, M.F.; Myers, L.E.; Bahaj, A.S.; Anwar, A. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, School of Civil Engineering and Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO19 1BJ (United Kingdom); Bradford, J.; Green, S. [Energy Saving Trust, 21 Dartmouth Street, London SW1H 9BP (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Building mounted micro-wind turbines and photovoltaics have the potential to provide widely applicable carbon free electricity generation at the building level. Photovoltaic systems are well understood and it is easy to predict performance using software tools or widely accepted yield estimates. Micro-wind, however, is far more complex and in comparison poorly understood. This paper presents the key findings of the building mounted (<2 kWp) turbine component of the UK micro-wind trial undertaken by the Energy Saving Trust in 2008/09. The monitored performance of 39 horizontal axis turbines in urban, suburban and rural locations is discussed alongside the accuracy of predictive wind speed tools for the sites. The performance of urban and suburban micro-wind sites in the trial was poor with annual generation of less than 75 kWh/m{sup 2} swept area, the majority of which were less than 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. Good rural sites had an annual generation of between 100 and 280 kWh/m{sup 2}, far less than the nominal 360 kWh/m{sup 2} (10% load factor for a typical turbine) that is often assumed. In the light of these findings, the potential impact of the UK's latest policy instrument, the 2010 micro-generation tariffs, is considered for both micro-wind and photovoltaics. (author)

  5. Progression of visual field defects in leber hereditary optic neuropathy: experience of the LHON treatment trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Nancy J; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Steven A; Bhatti, M Tariq; Hamilton, Steven R; Farris, Bradley K; Lesser, Robert L; Turbin, Roger E

    2006-06-01

    To describe the visual fields of patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a maternally inherited disorder characterized by bilateral, often sequential vision loss, before and during progressive visual deterioration. Prospective longitudinal follow-up of serial visual fields in patients enrolled onto an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study of topical brimonidine purite as prophylactic treatment after first eye involvement in LHON. Nine molecularly confirmed primary mutation patients with LHON with monocular vision loss for less than six months and normal visual function in the other eye were followed prospectively for up to two years. Visual fields were performed on automated perimetry at baseline and on many follow-up visits. Despite normal visual acuity at baseline in all patients, seven patients had some minimal changes in the central visual field of the second eye. All patients had subsequent deterioration of visual acuity, mean deviation, and foveal sensitivity in their second eye. The earliest pattern of abnormality was typically a cecocentral defect enlarging to become a central defect, often with a superior or inferior predilection. The visual field defects in the two eyes of any given patient were remarkably similar. LHON may be a bilateral condition at onset more frequently than appreciated. Automated static perimetry of the "normal" eye may reveal subclinical findings that typically worsen rapidly over weeks to months to similar central scotomatous damage. Quantitative automated static perimetry is helpful in elucidating the natural history of LHON and in understanding the underlying pathology and pathophysiology of this disease.

  6. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Fahlenkamp

    Full Text Available Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV. We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis.220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2 undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up.Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044. Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138. After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014, was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups.In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea.EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  7. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Stoppe, Christian; Cremer, Jan; Biener, Ingeborg A; Peters, Dirk; Leuchter, Ricarda; Eisert, Albrecht; Apfel, Christian C; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis. 220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2) undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up. Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044). Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138). After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014), was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups. In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea. EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  8. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined.......An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  9. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  10. Exploring ART intake scenes in a human rights-based intervention to improve adherence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cáritas Relva; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju Santa; Caraciolo, Joselita Maria Magalhães; Paiva, Vera; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistela

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psychosocial individual intervention to improve adherence to ART in a Brazilian reference-center, consenting PLHIV with viral load >50 copies/ml were selected. After 4 weeks of MEMS cap use, participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) (n = 64) or control group (CG) (n = 57). CG received usual care only. The IG participated in a human rights-based intervention approach entailing four dialogical meetings focused on medication intake scenes. Comparison between IG and CG revealed no statistically significant difference in adherence measured at weeks 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Viral load (VL) decreased in both groups (p < 0.0001) with no significant difference between study groups. The lower number of eligible patients than expected underpowered the study. Ongoing qualitative analysis should provide deeper understanding of the trial results. NIH Clinical Trials: NCT00716040.

  11. EX1105: Field Trials of EM302 Multibeam Sonar Water Column Backscatter on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During this OER project in partnership with NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE),...

  12. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EXPLORER: A LONG-RANGE UNTETHERED LIVE GASLINE INSPECTION ROBOT SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George C. Vradis; Dr. Hagen Schempf

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this program is to construct and demonstrate EXPLORER, a modular, remotely controllable, self-powered, untethered robot system for the inspection of live gas distribution 150 mm (6-inch) to 200 mm (8-inch) diameter mains. The system, which was designed in an earlier effort, is built in a modular fashion in order to accommodate various components intended to accomplish different inspection, repair, sample retrieval, and other in-pipe tasks. The prototype system to be built under this project will include all the basic modules needed by the system, i.e. the locomotion, power storage, wireless communication, and camera. The camera, a solid-state fisheye-type, is used to transmit real-time video to the operator that allows for the live inspection of gas distribution pipes. This module, which incorporates technology developed by NASA, has been designed, constructed and tested in the earlier effort. In the current effort, the full prototype system will be tested in the laboratory followed by two field demonstrations in real applications in NYGAS member utilities' pipes. The purpose for EXPLORER is to be able to access live gas mains, insert the system in the piping network, and remotely ''drive'' it within the gas main and its laterals through distances of five to ten thousand feet. Its adaptable locomotion system allows the robot to function through varying diameter pipes (150 - 200 mm or 6- to 8-inches) and is powered via on-board battery-banks. The presence of fish-eye cameras in both ends of the robot allows the operator to view the forward and circumferential views of the internals live using an above-ground TV. Communication takes place via wireless link between the robot and the launch-chamber used to insert/retrieve the system. This link is based on commercial technology presently employed in wireless telecommunication networks. Communication over long distances as well as battery re-charging will be accomplished without

  13. Cover crops as a gateway to greater conservation in Iowa?: Integrating crop models, field trials, economics and farmer perspectives regarding soil resilience in light of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, G. E.; Basche, A.; Tyndall, J.; Arbuckle, J. G.; Miguez, F.; Bowman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists predict a number of climate changes for the US Midwest with expected declines in crop productivity as well as eco-hydrological impacts. More frequent extreme rain events particularly in the spring may well increase saturated soils thus complicating agronomic interests and also exacerbate watershed scale impairments (e.g., sediment, nutrient loss). In order to build more resilient production systems in light of climate change, farmers will increasingly need to implement conservation practices (singularly or more likely in combination) that enable farmers to manage profitable businesses yet mitigate consequential environmental impacts that have both in-field and off-farm implications. Cover crops are empirically known to promote many aspects of soil and water health yet even the most aggressive recent estimates show that only 1-2% of the total acreage in Iowa have been planted to cover crops. In order to better understand why farmers are reluctant to adopt cover crops across Iowa we combined agronomic and financial data from long-term field trials, working farm trials and model simulations so as to present comprehensive data-driven information to farmers in focus group discussions in order to understand existing barriers, perceived benefits and responses to the information presented. Four focus groups (n=29) were conducted across Iowa in four geographic regions. Focus group discussions help explore the nuance of farmers' responses to modeling outputs and their real-life agronomic realities, thus shedding light on the social and psychological barriers with cover crop utilization. Among the key insights gained, comprehensive data-driven research can influence farmer perspectives on potential cover crop impacts to cash crop yields, experienced costs are potentially quite variable, and having field/farm benefits articulated in economic terms are extremely important when farmers weigh the opportunity costs associated with adopting new practices. Our work

  14. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  15. Situational Awareness for first responders : Evaluation of the BIMS field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.E. van der; Ven, J.G.M. van de2; Rijk, R. van; Bras, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have shown an increase in the use of tools that enhance situational awareness. Use of GPS for navigation has become common usage. Furthermore, in many countries vehicle based computer systems are currently being fielded for first responders providing preparative information access. For

  16. Estimating load weights with Huber's Cubic Volume formula: a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Waddell

    1989-01-01

    Log weights were estimated from the product of Huber's cubic volume formula and green density. Tags showing estimated log weights were attached to logs in the field, and the weights were tallied into a single load weight as logs were assembled for aerial yarding. Accuracy of the estimated load weights was evaluated by comparing the predicted with the actual load...

  17. The Development and Field Trial of a Non-Sexist Teacher Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadker, Myra; Sadker, David

    1981-01-01

    Because a content analysis of 24 leading teacher education texts revealed little attention to sexism, the Non-Sexist Teacher Education Program (NSTEP) developed six units on sexism in education and field tested them at 27 schools of education. Results are discussed. (Part of a theme issue on women.) (SJL)

  18. Development and Field Test of the Trial Battery for Project A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Research Institute re- search efforts, with their in-house and contract components, comprise a land- mark program to develop a state-of-the- art ...pharmacology, and linguistics. The following general fields are covered: applied psychology, educacional psychology, experinental human and animal

  19. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  20. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatake, Yoshihito; Komori, Mochimitsu; Asami, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  1. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  2. Palliative care for older people – exploring the views of doctors and nurses from different fields in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nils

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing appropriate palliative care for older people is a major task for health care systems worldwide, and up to now it has also been one of the most neglected. Focusing on the German health care system, we sought to explore the attitudes of health professionals regarding their understanding of palliative care for older patients and its implementation. Methods In a qualitative study design, focus groups were established consisting of general practitioners, geriatricians, palliative care physicians, palliative care nurses and general nurses (a total of 29 participants. The group discussions were recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed using the methodological approach of Qualitative Description. Results Deficiencies in teamwork and conflicting role definitions between doctors and nurses and between family practitioners and medical specialists were found to be central problems affecting the provision of appropriate palliative care for older people. It was emphasized that there are great advantages to family doctors playing a leading role, as they usually have the longest contacts to the patients. However, the professional qualifications of family doctors were to some extent criticized. The general practitioners for their part criticized the increasing specialization on the field of palliative care. All groups complained that the German compensation system gives insufficient consideration to the time-consuming care of older patients, and about excessive bureaucracy. Conclusion General practitioners are the central health professionals in the delivery of palliative care for older people. They should however be encouraged to involve specialized services such as palliative care teams where necessary. With the German health care reform of 2007, a legal framework has been created that allows for this. As far as its realization is concerned, it must be ensured that the spotlight remains on the needs of the patients and not on

  3. Palliative care for older people - exploring the views of doctors and nurses from different fields in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, Torben; Schumacher, Martin; Schneider, Nils

    2009-06-23

    Providing appropriate palliative care for older people is a major task for health care systems worldwide, and up to now it has also been one of the most neglected. Focusing on the German health care system, we sought to explore the attitudes of health professionals regarding their understanding of palliative care for older patients and its implementation. In a qualitative study design, focus groups were established consisting of general practitioners, geriatricians, palliative care physicians, palliative care nurses and general nurses (a total of 29 participants). The group discussions were recorded, transcribed, coded and analysed using the methodological approach of Qualitative Description. Deficiencies in teamwork and conflicting role definitions between doctors and nurses and between family practitioners and medical specialists were found to be central problems affecting the provision of appropriate palliative care for older people. It was emphasized that there are great advantages to family doctors playing a leading role, as they usually have the longest contacts to the patients. However, the professional qualifications of family doctors were to some extent criticized. The general practitioners for their part criticized the increasing specialization on the field of palliative care. All groups complained that the German compensation system gives insufficient consideration to the time-consuming care of older patients, and about excessive bureaucracy. General practitioners are the central health professionals in the delivery of palliative care for older people. They should however be encouraged to involve specialized services such as palliative care teams where necessary. With the German health care reform of 2007, a legal framework has been created that allows for this. As far as its realization is concerned, it must be ensured that the spotlight remains on the needs of the patients and not on policy conflicts and rivalries between health care professionals

  4. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  5. WCDMA Uplink Parallel Interference Cancellation—System Simulations and Prototype Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Karlsson

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Interference cancellation (IC is one identified key technology to enhance WCDMA uplink performance. The goal of this contribution is to highlight the relative uplink system capacity improvement available for WCDMA, especially in realistic typical urban radio environments when employing receiver implementations including realistic channel estimation, searcher, and so forth. The performance of the selected limited-complexity parallel IC receiver is first evaluated with link-level simulations in order to provide input to system-level simulations. The system-level methodology is explained and a 40% system-level uplink capacity increase compared to utilizing the conventional RAKE receiver is found. The limited-complexity parallel IC receiver is then evaluated in a single-cell field trial. The trials show that both the mean and the variance of the outer-loop power control is reduced, which implies an overall increased capacity and an increased battery life of the terminals. Furthermore, the observed capacity gains are in accordance with system simulations.

  6. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. A field trial of the effect of improved piglet management on smallholder sow productivity in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveros, A A; More, S J

    2001-05-01

    We conducted a randomised, controlled field trial during 1998/1999 to evaluate the hypothesis that improved piglet management would improve the reproductive performance of smallholder sows. Simple changes were introduced into the treatment herds including the construction of a heated piglet-separation pen, vitamin injections, creep feeding and early weaning. The control herds were unchanged. Data were collected from all sows in each enrolled herd over two farrowings. We enrolled 176 sows, including 170 (96 treatment and 74 control) sows that remained throughout the study period. Significant differences in the reproductive performance of treatment and control sows were recorded for interfarrowing interval (median 176 versus 220 days), average number liveborn over 2 litters (11 versus 12), and average preweaning mortality over 2 litters (0 versus 37%). Based on a discount rate of 17%, the benefit-cost ratio of the treatment was 11.1 and 12.1 over 3 and 5 years, respectively.

  8. Effect of different agronomic management practices on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient cycling in a long-term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2015-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares two main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, however, regarding in each case a different agricultural management system, namely an organic farming system and an integrated farming system where the effect of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, will be enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term field trials of the organic and integrated farming system were started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to organic and integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years are being examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial and since 2012 for the organic farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for each experimental

  9. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenje, Justin; Millard, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio. 75 adult male volunteers. Outpatient primary care clinic. Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Intraoperative duration. Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result. The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups. VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  10. Library holdings for EX0904: Water Column Exploration Field Trial I on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between June 1, 2009 and June 12, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  11. A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on quality of life and depression in older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie; Moyle, Wendy; Shum, David; Harrison, Scott; Murfield, Jenny

    2010-07-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of live music on quality of life and depression in 47 older people with dementia using the Dementia Quality of Life and Geriatric Depression Scale. The control/reading group reported higher mid-point feelings of belonging than the music group (F(1, 45) = 6.672, p or= 50 per cent music session attendance found improvements in self-esteem over time (F(2, 46) = 4.471, p depressive symptoms had fewer depressive symptoms over time (F(2, 22) = 8.129, p music and reading activities can improve self-esteem, belonging and depression in some older people with dementia.

  12. Uncertainties in the mean ocean dynamic topography before the launch of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossepoel, F.C.

    2007-01-01

    In anticipation of the future observations of the gravity mission Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), the present-day accuracy of mean dynamic topography (MDT) is estimated from both observations and models. A comparison of five observational estimates illustrates that

  13. Explaining feast or famine in randomized field trials. Medical science and criminology compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2003-06-01

    A feast of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical science and comparative famine in criminology can be explained in terms of cultural and structural factors. Of central importance is the context in which the evaluation of interventions is done and the difference in status of situational research in the two disciplines. Evaluation of medical interventions has traditionally been led by practitioner (clinical) academics. This is not the case in criminal justice, where theory has had higher status than intervention research. Medical science has advanced in, or closely associated with, university teaching hospitals, but links between criminology and criminal justice services are far more tenuous. The late development of situational crime prevention seems extraordinary from a medical perspective, as does the absence of university police schools in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These structural and cultural factors explain concentration of expectation, resource, and RCT productivity in medical science. The Campbell Collaboration and the Academy of Experimental Criminology are forces which are reducing this polarization of feast and famine in RCTs. But unless scientific criminology is embedded in university schools which are responsible for the education and training of law, probation, and police practitioners, convergence in terms of RCTs and implementation of findings in practice seems unlikely.

  14. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...... and quantitative approaches have been used in this paper. One hundred vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana were covered. The individual farmers were grouped into two, namely: (1) participants and (2) non-participants of the farm-based multiple......-barrier approach field trials. The results of the study show that participation in the field trials has statistically significant effects on farmers’ awareness of the farm-based multiple-barrier approach. Compliance has, however, been undermined by the farmers’ perception that the cost of compliance is more...

  15. Onboard Science Insights and Vehicle Dynamics from Scale-Model Trials of the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Capsule at Laguna Negra, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D; Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2016-11-21

    A scale model of the proposed Titan Mare Explorer capsule was deployed at the Planetary Lake Lander field site at Laguna Negra, Chile. The tests served to calibrate models of wind-driven drift of the capsule and to understand its attitude motion in the wave field, as well as to identify dynamic and acoustic signatures of shoreline approach. This information enables formulation of onboard trigger criteria for near-shore science data acquisition. Key Words: Titan-Vehicle dynamics-Science autonomy-Lake. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  16. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  17. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  18. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  19. A Field Trial to Assess a Blood-Stage Malaria Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thera, Mahamadou A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Laurens, Matthew B.; Ouattara, Amed; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Guindo, Ando B.; Traore, Karim; Traore, Idrissa; Kouriba, Bourema; Diallo, Dapa A.; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Dolo, Amagana; Tolo, Youssouf; Sissoko, Mahamadou S.; Niangaly, Amadou; Sissoko, Mady; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Wu, Yukun; Blackwelder, William C.; Godeaux, Olivier; Vekemans, Johan; Dubois, Marie-Claude; Ballou, W. Ripley; Cohen, Joe; Thompson, Darby; Dube, Tina; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter L.; House, Brent; Lanar, David E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Heppner, D. Gray; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood-stage malaria vaccines are intended to prevent clinical disease. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A, a recombinant protein based on apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, has previously been shown to have immunogenicity and acceptable safety in Malian adults and children. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized trial, we immunized 400 Malian children with either the malaria vaccine or a control (rabies) vaccine and followed them for 6 months. The primary end point was clinical malaria, defined as fever and at least 2500 parasites per cubic millimeter of blood. A secondary end point was clinical malaria caused by parasites with the AMA1 DNA sequence found in the vaccine strain. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of the primary end point was 48.4% in the malaria-vaccine group and 54.4% in the control group; efficacy against the primary end point was 17.4% (hazard ratio for the primary end point, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63 to 1.09; P = 0.18). Efficacy against the first and subsequent episodes of clinical malaria, as defined on the basis of various parasite-density thresholds, was approximately 20%. Efficacy against clinical malaria caused by parasites with AMA1 corresponding to that of the vaccine strain was 64.3% (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.86; P = 0.03). Local reactions and fever after vaccination were more frequent with the malaria vaccine. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the primary end point, the malaria vaccine did not provide significant protection against clinical malaria, but on the basis of secondary results, it may have strain-specific efficacy. If this finding is confirmed, AMA1 might be useful in a multicomponent malaria vaccine. PMID:21916638

  20. Solar disinfection of drinking water and diarrhoea in Maasai children: a controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, R M; Elmore-Meegan, M; Joyce, T; McGuigan, K G; Barnes, J

    Solar radiation reduces the bacterial content of water, and may therefore offer a method for disinfection of drinking water that requires few resources and no expertise. We distributed plastic water bottles to 206 Maasai children aged 5-16 years whose drinking water was contaminated with faecal coliform bacteria. Children were instructed to fill the bottle with water and leave it in full sunlight on the roof of the hut (solar group), or to keep their filled bottles indoors in the shade (control group). A Maasai-speaking fieldworker who lived in the community interviewed the mother of each child once every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Occurrence and severity of diarrhoea was recorded at each follow-up visit. Among the 108 children in households allocated solar treatment, diarrhoea was reported in 439 of the 2-week reporting periods during the 12-week trial (average 4.1 [SD 1.2] per child). By comparison, the 98 children in the control households reported diarrhoea during 444 2-week reporting periods (average 4.5 [1.2] per child). Diarrhoea severe enough to prevent performance of duties occurred during 186 reporting periods in the solar group and during 222 periods in the control group (average 1.7 [1.2] vs 2.3 [1.4]). After adjustment for age, solar treatment of drinking water was associated with a reduction in all diarrhoea episodes (odds ratio 0.66 [0.50-0.87]) and in episodes of severe diarrhoea (0.65 [0.50-0.86]). Our findings suggest that solar disinfection of water may significantly reduce morbidity in communities with no other means of disinfection of drinking water, because of lack of resources or in the event of a disaster.

  1. Exploring how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity through dynamical analysis of a two-compartment neuron model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Wei, Xi-Le; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Chan, Wai-Lok; Deng, Bin; Han, Chun-Xiao

    2014-06-01

    To investigate how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity, a reduced two-compartment neuron model in the presence of electric field is introduced in this study. Depending on neuronal geometric and internal coupling parameters, the behaviors of the model have been studied extensively. The neuron model can exist in quiescent state or repetitive spiking state in response to electric field stimulus. Negative electric field mainly acts as inhibitory stimulus to the neuron, positive weak electric field could modulate spiking frequency and spike timing when the neuron is already active, and positive electric fields with sufficient intensity could directly trigger neuronal spiking in the absence of other stimulations. By bifurcation analysis, it is observed that there is saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, supercritical Hopf bifurcation and subcritical Hopf bifurcation appearing in the obtained two parameter bifurcation diagrams. The bifurcation structures and electric field thresholds for triggering neuron firing are determined by neuronal geometric and coupling parameters. The model predicts that the neurons with a nonsymmetric morphology between soma and dendrite, are more sensitive to electric field stimulus than those with the spherical structure. These findings suggest that neuronal geometric features play a crucial role in electric field effects on the polarization of neuronal compartments. Moreover, by determining the electric field threshold of our biophysical model, we could accurately distinguish between suprathreshold and subthreshold electric fields. Our study highlights the effects of extracellular electric field on neuronal activity from the biophysical modeling point of view. These insights into the dynamical mechanism of electric field may contribute to the investigation and development of electromagnetic therapies, and the model in our study could be further extended to a neuronal network in which the effects of electric fields on

  2. Human Habitation in a Lunar Electric Rover During a 14-Day Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry, Jr.; Thompson, Shelby; Howard, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Various military and commercial entities, as well as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have conducted space cabin confinement studies. However, after an extensive literature search, only one study was found using a simulated lunar rover (LUNEX II), under laboratory conditions, with a crew of two for an eighteen day lunar mission. Forty-three years later, NASA human factors engineers conducted a similar study using the Lunar Electric Rover (LER) in a dynamic real-world lunar simulation at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. The objective of the study was to obtain human-in-the-loop performance data on the vehicle s interior volume with respect to human-system interfaces, crew accommodations, and habitation over a 14-day mission. Though part of a larger study including 212 overall operational elements, this paper will discuss only the performance of fifty different daily habitational elements within the confines of the vehicle carried out by two male subjects. Objective timing data and subjective questionnaire data were collected. Results indicate, much like the LUNEX II study, the LER field study suggest that a crew of two was able to maintain a satisfactory performance of tasks throughout the 14-day field trail within a relative small vehicle volume.

  3. FIDO prototype Mars rover field trials, Black Rock Summit, Nevada, as test of the ability of robotic mobility systems to conduct field science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Baumgartner, E. T.; Schenker, P. S.; Niebur, C. S.; Larsen, K. W.; SeelosIV, F. P.; Snider, N. O.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2002-08-01

    The Field Integration Design and Operations (FIDO) prototype Mars rover was deployed and operated remotely for 2 weeks in May 2000 in the Black Rock Summit area of Nevada. The blind science operation trials were designed to evaluate the extent to which FIDO-class rovers can be used to conduct traverse science and collect samples. FIDO-based instruments included stereo cameras for navigation and imaging, an infrared point spectrometer, a color microscopic imager for characterization of rocks and soils, and a rock drill for core acquisition. Body-mounted ``belly'' cameras aided drill deployment, and front and rear hazard cameras enabled terrain hazard avoidance. Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, a high spatial resolution IKONOS orbital image, and a suite of descent images were used to provide regional- and local-scale terrain and rock type information, from which hypotheses were developed for testing during operations. The rover visited three sites, traversed 30 m, and acquired 1.3 gigabytes of data. The relatively small traverse distance resulted from a geologically rich site in which materials identified on a regional scale from remote-sensing data could be identified on a local scale using rover-based data. Results demonstrate the synergy of mapping terrain from orbit and during descent using imaging and spectroscopy, followed by a rover mission to test inferences and to make discoveries that can be accomplished only with surface mobility systems.

  4. Challenges in preparing and implementing a clinical trial at field level in an Ebola emergency: A case study in Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carazo Perez, Sara; Folkesson, Elin; Anglaret, Xavier; Beavogui, Abdoul-Habib; Berbain, Emmanuel; Camara, Alseny-Modet; Depoortere, Evelyn; Lefevre, Annabelle; Maes, Piet; Malme, Kristian Nødtvedt; Malvy, Jean-Marie Denis; Ombelet, Sien; Poelaert, Geertrui; Sissoko, Daouda; Tounkara, Alexis; Trbovic, Pierre; Piguet, Pascal; Antierens, Annick

    2017-06-01

    During the large Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa in 2014 and 2015, studies were launched to evaluate potential treatments for the disease. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the antiviral drug favipiravir was conducted in Guinea. This paper describes the main challenges of the implementation of the trial in the Ebola treatment center of Guéckédou. Following the principles of the Good Clinical Research Practices, we explored the aspects of the community's communication and engagement, ethical conduct, trial protocol compliance, informed consent of participants, ongoing benefit/risk assessment, record keeping, confidentiality of patients and study data, and roles and responsibilities of the actors involved. We concluded that several challenges have to be addressed to successfully implement a clinical trial during an international medical emergency but that the potential for collaboration between research teams and humanitarian organizations needs to be highlighted.

  5. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  6. Field Trials of the Multi-Source Approach for Resistivity and Induced Polarization Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, D. J.; Morelli, G.; Fischanger, F.; Lamoureux, P.; Brigham, R.

    2013-12-01

    with depths of exploration ranging from 150 to 450 m. The sites included shallow geothermal sites near Reno Nevada, Pomarance Italy, and Volterra Italy; a mineral exploration site near Timmins Quebec; and a landslide investigation near Vajont Dam in northern Italy. These sites provided a series of challenges in survey design and deployment including some extremely difficult terrain and a broad range of background resistivity and induced values. Despite these challenges, comparison of multi-source results to resistivity and induced polarization data collection with more traditional methods support the thesis that the multi-source approach is capable of providing substantial improvements in both depth of penetration and resolution over conventional approaches.

  7. Assessing the Consequences of Microbial Infection in Field Trials: Seen, Unseen, Beneficial, Parasitic and Pathogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Looseley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections of crop plants present an ongoing threat to agricultural production. However, in recent years, we have developed a more nuanced understanding of the ecological role of microbes and how they interact with plants. This includes an appreciation of the influence of crop physiology and environmental conditions on the expression of disease symptoms, the importance of non-pathogenic microbes on host plants and pathogens, and the capacity for plants to act as hosts for human pathogens. Alongside this we now have a variety of tools available for the identification and quantification of microbial infections on crops grown under field conditions. This review summarises some of the consequences of microbial infections in crop plants, and discusses how new and established assessment tools can be used to understand these processes. It challenges our current assumptions in yield loss relationships and offers understanding of the potential for more resilient crops.

  8. Deployable laboratory response to influenza pandemic; PCR assay field trials and comparison with reference methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J J Inglis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza A/H1N1/09 pandemic spread quickly during the Southern Hemisphere winter in 2009 and reached epidemic proportions within weeks of the official WHO alert. Vulnerable population groups included indigenous Australians and remote northern population centres visited by international travellers. At the height of the Australian epidemic a large number of troops converged on a training area in northern Australia for an international exercise, raising concerns about their potential exposure to the emerging influenza threat before, during and immediately after their arrival in the area. Influenza A/H1N1/09 became the dominant seasonal variant and returned to Australia during the Southern winter the following year. METHODS: A duplex nucleic acid amplification assay was developed within weeks of the first WHO influenza pandemic alert, demonstrated in northwestern Australia shortly afterwards and deployed as part of the pathology support for a field hospital during a military exercise during the initial epidemic surge in June 2009. RESULTS: The nucleic acid amplification assay was twice as sensitive as a point of care influenza immunoassay, as specific but a little less sensitive than the reference laboratory nucleic acid amplification assay. Repetition of the field assay with blinded clinical samples obtained during the 2010 winter influenza season demonstrated a 91.7% congruence with the reference laboratory method. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid in-house development of a deployable epidemic influenza assay allowed a flexible laboratory response, effective targeting of limited disease control resources in an austere military environment, and provided the public health laboratory service with a set of verification tools for resource-limited settings. The assay method was suitable for rapid deployment in time for the 2010 Northern winter.

  9. Seasonal performance of denitrifying bioreactors in the Northeastern United States: Field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Bahareh; Giri, Shree; Pluer, William T; Steenhuis, Tammo S; Geohring, Larry D

    2017-11-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors are increasingly being used for nitrate removal from agricultural drainage water. Filled with carbon substrates, often woodchips, denitrifying bioreactors provide a favorable anaerobic environment for denitrification. Despite performing well in loess soils in the Midwestern United States, field bioreactors have not yet been evaluated in shallow soils over glacial till that are characteristic for the Northeastern United States. This study, therefore, investigates the performance of bioreactors and provides design criteria for shallow soil with flashy discharges. Paired bioreactors, one filled with woodchips and one with a mixture of woodchip and biochar, were installed in tile drained fields in three landscapes in New York State. The bioreactors were monitored for a three-year period during which, the flow rate, temperature, nitrate (NO3--N), sulfate (SO42--S) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were measured. Results showed that the average NO3--N removal efficiency during the three years of observations was about 50%. The NO3--N removal rate ranged from 0 in winter to 72 g d-1 m-3 in summer. We found that biochar was only effective during the first year in enhancing denitrification, due to the ageing. An index for carbon availability related to NO3--N removal was developed. During winter, availability of the DOC was a limiting factor in bioreactor performance. Finally, to aid in the design of bioreactors, we developed generalizable relationships between the removal efficiency and hydraulic retention time and temperature. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-sensor field trials for detection and tracking of multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles flying at low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenzis, Martin; Hengy, Sebastien; Hommes, Alexander; Kloeppel, Frank; Shoykhetbrod, Alex; Geibig, Thomas; Johannes, Winfried; Naz, Pierre; Christnacher, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) flying at low altitude are becoming more and more a serious threat in civilian and military scenarios. In recent past, numerous incidents have been reported where small UAV were flying in security areas leading to serious danger to public safety or privacy. The detection and tracking of small UAV is a widely discussed topic. Especially, small UAV flying at low altitude in urban environment or near background structures and the detection of multiple UAV at the same time is challenging. Field trials were carried out to investigate the detection and tracking of multiple UAV flying at low altitude with state of the art detection technologies. Here, we present results which were achieved using a heterogeneous sensor network consisting of acoustic antennas, small frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) RADAR systems and optical sensors. While acoustics, RADAR and LiDAR were applied to monitor a wide azimuthal area (360°) and to simultaneously track multiple UAV, optical sensors were used for sequential identification with a very narrow field of view.

  11. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  12. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  13. Chitosans of different molecular weight enhance potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yield in a field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro B. Falcón-Rodríguez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical features of chitosan affect its biological activity on plants. In this work, the influence of chitosan molecular mass in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. yields was investigated. By using chitosan polymers of high (CH-1 and low (CH-2 molecular weight and a hydrolysed chitosan derivative (CHH, two experiments were performed under field conditions to determine the effect of these polymers on yields of two potato varieties, ‘Call White’ and ‘Santana’. For this purpose, the foliar spray of low doses of the derivatives at three cultivation moments was performed and several yield variables were determined at crop harvest. All three chitosan compounds increased the performance variables determined respect to the control, depending on the variable, the dose employed and the mass of the derivative evaluated. In most variables determined, the two lowest doses (200 and 325 mg/ha provoked the highest increments above control. Chitosans also affected distribution of mass per tuber size, particularly; in ‘Santana’ variety the two lowest doses enhanced the commercial tuber sizes. Among the polymers, CH-1 caused the greatest increases in performance, while, compared to the polymer, CHH provoked higher yields. In conclusion, foliar application at low doses of high molecular weight and hydrolysed chitosan enhanced potato yield between 15-30%.

  14. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Boutin, Sébastien; Mercier, Pierre-Luc; Loublier, Yves; Chagnon, Madeleine; Derome, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp) on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV) and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads. PMID:25993642

  15. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  16. Marine gravity field for oil and mineral exploration — Improvements in the Arctic from CryoSat-2 SAR altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Jain, Maulik; Knudsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    The availability of Cryosat-2 with its coverage throughout the Arctic Ocean up to 88N is a quantum leap forward for altimetric gravity field modeling and here we have tried to quantify the improvement of Cryosat-2 to global and particularly Arctic altimetric gravity field modeling through a compa...

  17. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  18. Studies on the traditional herbal anthelmintic Chenopodium ambrosioides L.: ethnopharmacological evaluation and clinical field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliks, M M

    1985-01-01

    Infusions and decoctions of the leaves, roots and inflorescences of the herbaceous shrub Chenopodium ambrosioides (American wormseed, goosefoot, epazote, paico) and related species indigenous to the New World have been used for centuries as dietary condiments and as traditional anthelmintics by native peoples for the treatment of intestinal worms. Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium and its active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be, used with considerable success in mass treatment campaigns. Ethnopharmacological studies in a community of Mayan subsistence farmers in Chiapas, Mexico, confirmed that decoctions containing up to 300 mg of dry plant material per kg body weight (MGKGW) were widely used and traditionally highly regarded in the treatment of ascariasis. However, therapeutic doses of up to 6000 MGKGW of powdered, dried plant had no significant anthelmintic effect on the adults of Necator, Trichuris of Ascaris. Gas-liquid chromatographic analyses of plant samples used consistently demonstrated the presence of ascaridol in the expected amounts. Possible origins of subjective belief in the efficacy of C. ambrosioides as used, may be related to the positive association of spontaneous, or peristalsis-induced passage of senescent worms immediately following a therapeutic episode. It is also possible that in the past varieties of the plant containing much more ascaridol were used. The results of these controlled field studies did not sustain widely held traditional beliefs, nor the value of therapeutic practices regarding this plant. It is, therefore, essential that all indigenous ethnomedical practices be objectively evaluated for efficacy and safety using appropriate protocols before being considered for adoptation or promotion in health care programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Exploring Outcomes Related to Anxiety and Depression in Completers of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Complicated Grief Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Kim; Shear, M Katherine; Wall, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines a more fine-grained analysis of anxiety-related and depression-related outcomes amongst a sample of treatment completers who were assigned to complicated grief treatment (CGT) (n = 35) or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) (n = 34) in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. We examined effects of antidepressant use and measures of anxiety and depression, focusing especially on guilt related to the death or deceased and grief-related avoidance in order to further understand the differential effectiveness of CGT and IPT amongst participants who received the full course of treatment. Analyses showed that CGT produced greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms including negative thoughts about the future and grief-related avoidance. CGT's advantage over IPT in lowering depression was most pronounced amongst those not taking antidepressants. Our results further elucidate CGT effects and support the idea that CG and major depressive disorder are distinct conditions. Targeted treatment for complicated grief (CG) produces benefits in associated mood and anxiety symptoms and CG symptoms. Amongst patients with CG, interpersonal psychotherapy seems relatively ineffective in ameliorating depressive symptoms. Grief-related depressive symptoms may not respond to standard treatments unless CG symptoms are also addressed. Reducing grief-related symptoms, such as anxieties about the future, guilt related to the death or deceased and avoidance of reminders of the loss may be important aspects in reducing CG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Regression to the mean and alcohol consumption: a cohort study exploring implications for the interpretation of change in control groups in brief intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; McElduff, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Reductions in drinking among individuals randomised to control groups in brief alcohol intervention trials are common and suggest that asking study participants about their drinking may itself cause them to reduce their consumption. We sought to test the hypothesis that the statistical artefact regression to the mean (RTM) explains part of the reduction in such studies. 967 participants in a cohort study of alcohol consumption in New Zealand provided data at baseline and again six months later. We use graphical methods and apply thresholds of 8, 12, 16 and 20 in AUDIT scores to explore RTM. There was a negative association between baseline AUDIT scores and change in AUDIT scores from baseline to six months, which in the absence of bias and confounding, is RTM. Students with lower baseline scores tended to have higher follow-up scores and conversely, those with higher baseline scores tended to have lower follow-up scores. When a threshold score of 8 was used to select a subgroup, the observed mean change was approximately half of that observed without a threshold. The application of higher thresholds produced greater apparent reductions in alcohol consumption. Part of the reduction seen in the control groups of brief alcohol intervention trials is likely to be due to RTM and the amount of change is likely to be greater as the threshold for entry to the trial increases. Quantification of RTM warrants further study and should assist understanding assessment and other research participation effects. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The power of statistical tests using field trial count data of non-target organisms in enviromental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Publications on power analyses for field trial count data comparing transgenic and conventional crops have reported widely varying requirements for the replication needed to obtain statistical tests with adequate power. These studies are critically reviewed and complemented with a new simulation

  2. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  3. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, P.F.; van Wezenbeek, M.R.; Kolkman, K.A.; Twiss, E.L.; Berghmans, C.H.; Dirven, P.A.; Brink, P.R.; Poeze, M.

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78

  4. Computer tablet or telephone? A randomised controlled trial exploring two methods of collecting data from drug and alcohol outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Breanne; Bryant, Jamie; Carey, Mariko; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Oldmeadow, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Both computerised and telephone surveys have potential advantages for research data collection. The current study aimed to determine the: (i) feasibility, (ii) acceptability, and (iii) cost per completed survey of computer tablet versus telephone data collection for clients attending an outpatient drug and alcohol treatment clinic. Two-arm randomised controlled trial. Clients attending a drug and alcohol outpatient clinic in New South Wales, Australia, were randomised to complete a baseline survey via computer tablet in the clinic or via telephone interview within two weeks of their appointment. All participants completed a three-month follow-up survey via telephone. Consent and completion rates for the baseline survey were significantly higher in the computer tablet condition. The time taken to complete the computer tablet survey was lower (11min) than the telephone condition (17min). There were no differences in the proportion of consenters or completed follow-up surveys between the two conditions at the 3-month follow-up. Acceptability was high across both modes of data collection. The cost of the computer tablet condition was $67.52 greater per completed survey than the telephone condition. There is a trade-off between computer tablet and telephone data collection. While both data collection methods were acceptable to participants, the computer tablet condition resulted in higher consent and completion rates at baseline, therefore yielding greater external validity, and was quicker for participants to complete. Telephone data collection was however, more cost-effective. Researchers should carefully consider the mode of data collection that suits individual study needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the diagnosis delay and ALS functional impairment at diagnosis as relevant criteria for clinical trial enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou, Bello; Marin, Benoit; Lautrette, Geraldine; Nicol, Marie; Camu, William; Corcia, Philippe; Arnes-Bes, Marie-Christine; Tranchant, Christine; Clavelou, Pierre; Hannequin, Didier; Maurice, Giroud; Beauvais, Katell; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Danel-Brunaud, Véronique; Viader, Fausto; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Couratier, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Objectives were: i) to describe the phenotypic heterogeneity of incident amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients diagnosed in 2012 in French ALS centres; ii) to look at the associations between ALSFRS-R score and ALSFRS-R slope (ΔFS) at time of diagnosis with diagnosis delay, ALS phenotypes and Airlie House diagnosis criteria (AHDC); iii) to describe the rate of progression on ΔFS, according to diagnosis delay. Incident ALS cases diagnosed in French ALS centres were included. The rate of progression was evaluated as follows: ΔFS = (48 - ALSFRS-R at time of diagnosis)/duration from onset to diagnosis (months). Fast and slow progressors were defined by ΔFS >1 and <0.5, respectively. At time of diagnosis, 476 patients were classified into eight phenotypes: bulbar (33.0%), spinal lumbar (28.2%), spinal cervical (23.1%), flail leg (4.4%), ALS/FTD (4.2%), possible flail arm (4.0%), respiratory (2.1%), dropped-head (1.0%). Median ΔFS (n = 358/476) was 1.0 [0.5-2.0]. ΔFS was associated with AHDC (p = 0.009), but not with clinical phenotype (p = 0.902). Stratification on diagnosis delay (<12 months or ≥18 months) allowed to differentiate fast progressors from slow progressors. At time of inclusion in therapeutic trial closed to diagnosis, ΔFS or diagnosis delay may discriminate the rate of progression.

  6. Exploring the reduction in myocardial infarctions in the PLATO trial: which patients benefited on ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Serebruany, Victor L

    2013-05-25

    Ticagrelor showed significant reductions in myocardial infarctions (MIs) compared to clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. However, there was no explanation as to whether there was an equal distribution of benefit throughout acute coronary syndrome (ACS) types. To ascertain the safety and efficacy of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel based on the type of ACS index event (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI] and unstable angina [UA]). The FDA Complete Response Review (CRR) indicates that when MIs were broken down by index event type, ticagrelor fared better than clopidogrel only in patients with STEMI (136/3496 [4.2%] vs. 184/3530 [5.7%], hazard ratio (HR) 0.74 [0.59-0.93]), whereas patients with NSTEMI and UA showed no significant difference (288/4005 [7.9%] vs. 324/950 [8.9%], HR 0.87 [0.74-1.02] and 76/1549 [5.2%] vs. 75/1563 [5.1%], HR 1.02 [0.75-1.42]). Moreover, STEMI patients receiving early (<24 h) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) showed an increase in 30 day MI or cardiovascular (CV) death on ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel, in both the United States (US) and outside-US (OUS) regions (5.0% vs. 1.8% and 3.2% vs. 2.9%, respectively). Ticagrelor significantly reduced MIs compared to clopidogrel only in STEMI patients, with those receiving early PCI having worse outcomes with ticagrelor. Despite, NSTEMI patients showing no significant reduction in MI with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel, CV mortality was significantly reduced. In summary, we cannot be sure what is driving the STEMI-MI benefit, the NSTEMI-CV mortality benefit, nor the overall mortality benefit for ticagrelor-treated patients compared to clopidogrel treated patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Library holdings for EX0905: Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between June 17, 2009 and June 27, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  8. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.

  9. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  10. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Monique; Buettner, Daniel [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Habeck, Matthias; Habeck, Uta; Brix, Gunnar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institut fuer Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Mainz (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Noelling, Torsten

    2015-12-15

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  11. Field-trial demonstration of an extended-reach GPON-supporting 60-GHz indoor wireless access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoulis, G.; Moraitis, N.; Argyris, N.; Dris, S.; Lessi, C.; Perdikouris, S.; Kostikidou, L.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Spatharakis, C.; Papafili, I.; Agapiou, G.; Panagopoulos, A. D.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2017-02-01

    The 5G era is nearly upon us, and poses several challenges for system designers; one important question is how the (soon to be standardized) mmWave bands of wireless mobile access can coexist harmoniously with optical links in fixed telecom networks. To this end, we present a Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) backhauling concept, interfaced to a 60-GHz indoor femto-cell via a field-installed optical fiber link. We successfully demonstrate generation of a RoF signal up to 1 Gb/s and transmit it optically over 43 km of deployed Single Mode Fiber (SMF), as well as investigate the performance of the 60-GHz access link as a function of distance. The optical link introduces negligible degradation, contrasting the effect of multipath fading in the 60-GHz wireless channel; the latter requires adaptive equalization using offline DSP. The proposed scheme is further validated by demonstration of a 60-GHz Remote Antenna Unit (RAU) concept, handling real traffic from commercial Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) equipment. Proper RAU operation at 1.25 Gb/s is achieved, accommodating true data packets from a Media Converter emitting at 1310 nm through an in-building fiber link. System performance is confirmed through Bit Error Rate (BER) and Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) measurements. EVMs of 11 and 19% are achieved with BPSK signals, for distances of 1 and 2 m respectively. As standardization of mmWave technologies moves from 5G testbeds to field-trial prototypes, successful demonstration of such 60-GHz wireless access scenarios over a telecom operator's commercial fiber infrastructure is even more relevant.

  12. Parent-child relational problem: field trial results, changes in DSM-5, and proposed changes for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamboldt, Marianne; Cordaro, Anthony; Clarke, Diana

    2015-03-01

    Caregiving relationships are significant factors in the development, mediation, or moderation of childhood mental health problems. However, epidemiological and clinical research has been limited by lack of reliable, succinct, and standardized methods of assessing parent-child relationship constructs. The Relational Processes Workgroup (ad hoc to the DSM-5 process) proposed more specific criteria to define a parent-child relational problem (PCRP). These criteria were field tested in one of the DSM-5 Field trial sites, utilizing a similar research design as DSM-5. Participants included 133 symptomatic children (5-17 years) in active treatment for a mental health problem and their primary caregiver (86% mothers). Two separate clinicians, each blinded to the assessment of the other clinician as well as the DSM-5 diagnoses, interviewed the dyads within a 2-week period, utilizing the proposed PCRP criteria. Prior to each interview, parents were asked to write about their relationship with their child, and children (over the age of 10 years) filled out the Parental Bonding Instrument, Brief Current, and the Perceived Criticism Measure. Clinicians were able to read the narratives and see results of the child report measures before assessing the dyad. The weighted prevalence of a PCRP in this sample was 34%. The interclass kappa for overall agreement between clinicians was 0.58 (0.40, 0.72), which indicates good interrater reliability. Further, clinicians found the PCRP diagnostic criteria clinically useful and an improvement over the brief description of PCRP that was presented in DSM-IV. Relationships between children and their primary caregiver can be assessed in a reliable manner, based on clinical interview with the child-caregiver dyad and several self-report measures. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  13. Phosphorus (P) balances and P availability in a field trial comparing organic and conventional farming systems since 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, Klaus; Oberson, Astrid; Emmanuel, Frossard; Gunst, Lucie; Dubois, David; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    Background: The adequate supply with phosphorus (P) is crucial to maintain constant yields in all cropping systems. It remains yet unclear whether P in organic farming systems may become a limiting factor for plant nutrition in the long term. Material and Methods: The DOK long-term field trial was established in 1978 to compare different farming systems. The trial consists of two organic (biodynamic (DYN), bioorganic (ORG)) and two conventional treatments (using farmyard manure plus mineral fertilizer (KON) and mineral fertilizer only (MIN, established in 1985)). In a control treatment (NON) no fertilizer is applied. The fertilization for the organic treatments DYN and ORG is defined on manure production of 1.4 livestock units (since 1992), while before that 1.2 livestock units were used as reference. Fertilization on the conventional treatments KON and MIN is defined by Swiss fertilization guidelines. Treatments DYN, ORG and KON are maintained at full fertilization level (2) as well as halved fertilization level (1) while treatment MIN is only maintained at fertilization level 2. All treatments are maintained with the same crop rotation with a period of 7 years. An annual P-balance was calculated, based on the input factors 1) fertilization, 2) seeds and 3) deposition and the output factors 4) removal with crop yields and 5) leaching. The factors fertilization and removal with crop yields were based on documentation since trial establishment. Factor seeds was estimated based on documented quantity of used seeds per treatment and factors deposition and leaching were estimated by values available in literature. Additionally, P availability was determined via isotopic exchange kinetics (IEK) experiments after each crop rotation period (7 years). The IEK experiments allow to estimate the rate of P exchange from soil into soil solution and thus to estimate plant P availability over a cropping period. Results and Conclusions: Main influencing parameters of the P

  14. Exploring telemonitoring and self-management by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a qualitative study embedded in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Peter; Pinnock, Hilary; Hanley, Janet; McCloughan, Lucy; Sheikh, Aziz; Pagliari, Claudia; McKinstry, Brian

    2013-12-01

    To explore patient and professional views on self-management in the context of telemonitoring in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Semi-structured interviews with patients with COPD and healthcare professionals participating in a randomized controlled trial of telemonitoring in Lothian, Scotland, explored experiences of using telemonitoring, and dynamics in patient-practitioner relationships. Transcribed data were analyzed using the Framework approach. 38 patients (mean age 67.5 years) and 32 professionals provided 70 interviews. Patients considered that telemonitoring empowered self-management by enhancing their understanding of COPD and providing additional justification for their decisions to adjust treatment or seek professional advice. Professionals discussed telemonitoring as promoting compliance with medical advice and encouraged patients to exercise personal responsibility within clinical parameters, but expressed concerns about promoting the sick role and creating dependence on telemonitoring. Telemonitoring assisted many patients to embrace greater responsibility for their health but the model of service provision remained clinician-centered. A medical model of 'compliant self-management' may paradoxically have promoted dependence on professionals. Patients and professionals shared responsibility for meeting the central objective of prompt management of exacerbations of COPD. Care is needed, however, to minimize the risk in some patients, of telemonitoring increasing dependence on practitioner support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How Do Clinicians Prefer Cultural Competence Training? Findings from the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Lam, Peter; Castillo, Enrico; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Diaz, Esperanza; Alarcón, Renato D.; van Dijk, Rob; Rohlof, Hans; Ndetei, David M.; Scalco, Monica; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bassiri, Kavoos; Deshpande, Smita; Groen, Simon; Jadhav, Sushrut; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Westermeyer, Joseph; Santos, Filipa; Vega-Dienstmaier, Johann; Anez, Luis; Boiler, Marit; Nicasio, Andel V.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study’s objective is to analyze training methods clinicians reported as most and least helpful during the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview field trial, reasons why, and associations between demographic characteristics and method preferences. Method The authors used mixed methods to analyze interviews from 75 clinicians in five continents on their training preferences after a standardized training session and clinicians’ first administration of the Cultural Formulation Interview. Content analysis identified most and least helpful educational methods by reason. Bivariate and logistic regression analysis compared clinician characteristics to method preferences. Results Most frequently, clinicians named case-based behavioral simulations as “most helpful” and video as “least helpful” training methods. Bivariate and logistic regression models, first unadjusted and then clustered by country, found that each additional year of a clinician’s age was associated with a preference for behavioral simulations: OR=1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.10; p=0.025). Conclusions Most clinicians preferred active behavioral simulations in cultural competence training, and this effect was most pronounced among older clinicians. Effective training may be best accomplished through a combination of reviewing written guidelines, video demonstration, and behavioral simulations. Future work can examine the impact of clinician training satisfaction on patient symptoms and quality of life. PMID:26449983

  16. A field trial of novel bifunctional resins for removing pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Brown, G.M.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alexandratos, S.D.; Ober, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-03-01

    A field trial using a custom-designed bifunctional synthetic resin prepared at the University of Tennessee and designed to selectively remove pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from groundwater was conducted in summer 1997 at the Northwest Plume Pump-and-Treat Facility at the US Department of Energy`s Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site. The bifunctional resin, RO-02-119, was a copolymer of vinylbenzylchloride and divinylbenzene that had been functionalized with trihexylamine and triethylamine. The experiment was a parallel test of the synthetic resin and a commercial resin, Purolite A-520E, to directly compare the performance of the two resins. Purolite resin is currently used by the treatment facility to remove Tc-99 from the contaminated groundwater containing {approximately}1,000 pCi/L TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. A total of {approximately}692,000 bed volumes of groundwater was passed through the column containing the synthetic resin (RO-02-119) whereas only {approximately}205,000 bed volumes of groundwater were passed through the Purolite resin column because of reduced hydraulic conductivity and clogging within the latter column. Despite less groundwater passing through the Purolite resin column, however, the breakthrough of TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} occurred earlier in the Purolite column than in the RO-02-119 column.

  17. On-field measurement trial of 4×128 Gbps PDM-QPSK signals by linear optical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Liu; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Feng, Yonghua; Liu, Deming

    2017-02-01

    Linear optical sampling is a promising characterization technique for advanced modulation formats, together with digital signal processing (DSP) and software-synchronized algorithm. We theoretically investigate the acquisition of optical sampling, when the high-speed signal under test is either periodic or random. Especially, when the profile of optical sampling pulse is asymmetrical, the repetition frequency of sampling pulse needs careful adjustment in order to obtain correct waveform. Then, we demonstrate on-field measurement trial of commercial four-channel 128 Gbps polarization division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signals with truly random characteristics by self-developed equipment. A passively mode-locked fiber laser (PMFL) with a repetition frequency of 95.984 MHz is used as optical sampling source, meanwhile four balanced photo detectors (BPDs) with 400 MHz bandwidth and four-channel analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) with 1.25 GS/s sampling rate are used for data acquisition. The performance comparison with conventional optical modulation analyzer (OMA) verifies that the self-developed equipment has the advantages of low cost, easy implementation, and fast response.

  18. The psychometric properties of the personality inventory for DSM-5 in an APA DSM-5 field trial sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Ayearst, Lindsay; Chmielewski, Michael; Pollock, Bruce G; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a hybrid model of personality pathology, in which dimensional personality traits are used to derive one of seven categorical personality disorder diagnoses. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants to produce a freely available instrument to assess the personality traits within this new system. To date, the psychometric properties of the PID-5 have been evaluated primarily in undergraduate student and community adult samples. In the current investigation, we extend this line of research to a psychiatric patient sample who participated in the APA DSM-5 Field Trial (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health site). A total of 201 psychiatric patients (102 men, 99 women) completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The internal consistencies of the PID-5 domain and facet trait scales were acceptable. Results supported the unidimensional structure of all trait scales but one, and the convergence between the PID-5 and analogous NEO PI-R scales. Evidence for discriminant validity was mixed. Overall, the current investigation provides support for the psychometric properties of this diagnostic instrument in psychiatric samples.

  19. Sutureless Adult Voluntary Male Circumcision with Topical Anesthetic: A Randomized Field Trial of Unicirc, a Single-Use Surgical Instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shenje

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC.Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio.75 adult male volunteers.Outpatient primary care clinic.Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.Intraoperative duration.Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result.The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p < 0.001. Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups.VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.

  20. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  1. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Hartmann, Mechthild; Seidler, Günther H; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-08-30

    . The secondary outcomes will be analyzed in an explorative, descriptive manner. This study adapts the standard EMDR treatment for traumatized patients to patients with CBP who have experienced psychological trauma. This specific, mechanism-based approach might benefit patients. This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01850875).

  2. Paper trials: a qualitative study exploring the place of portfolios in making revalidation recommendations for Responsible Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmedge, Daniel S; Griffin, Ann; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Verma, Anju; Smith, Laura-Jane; Gill, Deborah

    2016-02-17

    A portfolio of supporting information (SI) reflecting a doctor's entire medical practice is now a central aspect of UK appraisal for revalidation. Medical revalidation, introduced in 2012, is an assessment of a doctor's competence and passing results in a five yearly license to practice medicine. It assesses of a doctor's professional development, workplace performance and reflection and aims to provide assurance that doctors are up-to-date and fit to practice. The dominant assessment mechanism is a portfolio. The content of the revalidation portfolio has been increasingly prescribed and the assessment of the SI is a fundamental aspect of the appraisal process which ultimately allows Responsible Officers (ROs) to make recommendations on revalidation. ROs, themselves doctors, were the first to undergo UK revalidation. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of ROs and their appraisers about the use of this portfolio of evidence in a summative revalidation appraisal. 28 purposefully sampled London ROs were interviewed following their revalidation appraisal and 17 of their appraisers participated in focus groups and interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify commonalities and differences of experience. SI was mostly easy to provide but there were challenges in gathering certain aspects. ROs did not understand in what quantities they should supply SI or what it should look like. Appraisers were concerned about making robust judgements based on the evidence supplied. A lack of reflection from the process of collating SI and preparing for appraisal was noted and learning came more from the appraisal interview itself. More explicit guidance must be available to both appraisee and appraiser about what SI is required, how much, how it should be used and, how it will be assessed. The role of SI in professional learning and revalidation must be clarified and further empirical research is required to examine how best to use this evidence to make judgments as

  3. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and ... drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical ...

  4. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you to explore NIH Clinical Center for patient recruitment and clinical trial information. For more information, please email the NIH Clinical Center Office of Patient Recruitment at cc-prpl@cc.nih.gov or call ...

  5. Emerging Trends on the Topic of Information Technology in the Field of Educational Sciences: A Bibliometric Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valiente, Carlos Luis

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a bibliometric analysis on the topic of Information Technology (IT) in the field of Educational Sciences, aimed at envisioning the research emerging trends. The ERIC database is used as a consultation source; the results were subjected to productivity by authors, journals, and term co-occurrence analysis indicators for the…

  6. Exploring action potential initiation in neurons exposed to DC electric fields through dynamical analysis of conductance-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Jin, Qi-Tao

    2014-05-01

    Noninvasive direct current (DC) electric stimulation of central nervous system is today a promising therapeutic option to alleviate the symptoms of a number of neurological disorders. Despite widespread use of this noninvasive brain modulation technique, a generalizable explanation of its biophysical basis has not been described which seriously restricts its application and development. This paper investigated the dynamical behaviors of Hodgkin's three classes of neurons exposed to DC electric field based on a conductance-based neuron model. With phase plane and bifurcation analysis, the different responses of each class of neuron to the same stimulation are shown to derive from distinct spike initiating dynamics. Under the effects of negative DC electric field, class 1 neuron generates repetitive spike through a saddle-node on invariant circle (SNIC) bifurcation, while it ceases this repetitive behavior through a Hopf bifurcation; Class 2 neuron generates repetitive spike through a Hopf bifurcation, meanwhile it ceases this repetitive behavior also by a Hopf bifurcation; Class 3 neuron can generate single spike through a quasi-separatrix-crossing (QSC) at first, then it generates repetitive spike through a Hopf bifurcation, while it ceases this repetitive behavior through a SNIC bifurcation. Furthermore, three classes of neurons' spiking frequency f-electric field E (f-E) curves all have parabolic shape. Our results highlight the effects of external DC electric field on neuronal activity from the biophysical modeling point of view. It can contribute to the application and development of noninvasive DC brain modulation technique.

  7. Exploring the conformational and reactive dynamics of biomolecules in solution using an extended version of the glycine reactive force field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monti, Susanna; Corozzi, Alessandro; Fristrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe possible reaction mechanisms involving amino acids, and the evolution of the protonation state of amino acid side chains in solution, a reactive force field (ReaxFF-based description) for peptide and protein simulations has been developed as an expansion of the previously rep...

  8. An Exploration of Master's Degree Field Study and Teacher and Student Behavior in P.E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed two teacher and their corresponding student behavioral systems to determine whether discipline-specific ongoing education may play a role in gaining expertise in physical education. Field systems analysis (FSA) was used to analyze an all-encompassing categorical system, which was created by induction and then used to…

  9. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  10. Adapting the Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations: what works for low-income families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, Katherine L; Seim, Gretchen

    2015-10-01

    Interventions to prevent childhood obesity must consider not only how child feeding behaviours are related to child weight status but also which behaviours parents are willing and able to change. This study adapted Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to assess acceptability and feasibility of nutrition and parenting recommendations, using in-depth interviews and household trials to explore families' experiences over time. A diverse sample of 23 low-income parents of 3-11-year-olds was recruited following participation in nutrition and parenting education. Parents chose nutrition and parenting practices to try at home and were interviewed 2 weeks and 4-6 months later about behaviour change efforts. Qualitative analysis identified emergent themes, and acceptability and feasibility were rated based on parents' willingness and ability to try new practices. The nutrition goal parents chose most frequently was increasing children's vegetable intake, followed by replacing sweetened beverages with water or milk, and limiting energy-dense foods. Parents were less inclined to reduce serving sizes. The parenting practices most often selected as applicable to nutrition goals were role-modelling; shaping home environments, often with other adults; involving children in decisions; and providing positive feedback. Most recommendations were viewed as acceptable by meaningful numbers of parents, many of whom tried and sustained new behaviours. Food preferences, habits and time were common barriers; family resistance or food costs also constrained some parents. Despite challenges, TIPs was successfully adapted to evaluate complex nutrition and parenting practices. Information on parents' willingness and ability to try practices provides valuable guidance for childhood obesity prevention programmes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sucrose octasulfate dressing versus control dressing in patients with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcers (Explorer): an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michael; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Alfayate-García, Jesus Manuel; Martini, Jacques; Petit, Jean-Michel; Rayman, Gerry; Lobmann, Ralf; Uccioli, Luigi; Sauvadet, Anne; Bohbot, Serge; Kerihuel, Jean-Charles; Piaggesi, Alberto

    2017-12-20

    Diabetic foot ulcers are serious and challenging wounds associated with high risk of infection and lower-limb amputation. Ulcers are deemed neuroischaemic if peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease are both present. No satisfactory treatment for neuroischaemic ulcers currently exists, and no evidence supports one particular dressing. We aimed to assess the effect of a sucrose octasulfate dressing versus a control dressing on wound closure in patients with neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcers. We did a randomised, double-blind clinical trial (Explorer) in 43 hospitals with specialised diabetic foot clinics in France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the UK. Eligible participants were inpatients or outpatients aged 18 years or older with diabetes and a non-infected neuroischaemic diabetic foot ulcer greater than 1 cm 2 and of grade IC or IIC (as defined by the University of Texas Diabetic Wound Classification system). We excluded patients with a severe illness that might lead to them discontinuing the trial and those who had surgical revascularisation in the month before study entry. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) via a computer-generated randomisation procedure (concealed block size two); stratified by study centre and wound area (1-5 cm 2 and 5-30 cm 2 ), to treatment with either a sucrose octasulfate wound dressing or a control dressing (the same dressing without sucrose octasulfate) for 20 weeks. Both groups otherwise received the same standard of care for a 2-week screening period before randomisation and throughout the 20-week trial. Dressings were applied by nursing staff (or by instructed relatives for some outpatients). Frequencies of dressing changes were decided by the investigator on the basis of the clinical condition of the wound. Patients were assessed 2 weeks after randomisation, then monthly until week 20 or occurrence of wound closure. The primary outcome, assessed by intention-to-treat, was proportion of patients with wound closure at

  12. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  13. Seasonal foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods: An experimental assessment with field feeding trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strules, Jennifer; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Salt drive is a seasonal phenomenon common to several classes of wild herbivores. Coincident with shifts of nutrient quality when plants resume growth in the spring, sodium is secondarily lost as surplus potassium is excreted. The beaver (Castor canadensis) is an herbivore whose dietary niche closely follows that of other herbivores that are subject to salt drive, but no published studies to date have assessed the likelihood of its occurrence. To quantify if beavers experience seasonal salt drive, we designed a field experiment to measure the foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods. We used sodium-treated (salted) and control (no salt) food items (aspen [Populus tremuloides] and pine [Pinus spp.] sticks) during monthly feeding trials at beaver-occupied wetlands. If conventional ontogeny of salt drive was operant, we expected to observe greater utility of sodium-treated food items by beavers in May and June. Further, if water lilies (Nymphaea spp. and Nuphar spp.) supply beavers with sodium to meet dietary requirements as is widely speculated, we expected foraging responses to sodium-treated food items at wetlands where water lilies were absent to be greater than at wetlands where water lily was present. Aspen was selected by beavers in significantly greater amounts than pine. There was no difference between the mean percent consumed of salted and control aspen sticks by beavers at lily and non-lily wetlands, and no differences in temporal consumption associated with salted or control pine sticks at either wetland type. Salted pine was consumed in greater amounts than unsalted pine. We propose that the gastrointestinal or renal physiology of beavers may preclude solute loss, thereby preventing salt drive.

  14. [Comparative investigations of a combined vaccine against parvovirus and erysipelas and corresponding monovaccines in different vaccination schedules. 1: Field trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, M; Gerbermann, H; Gyra, H; Eichinger, H M; Heinritzi, K

    1999-05-01

    In a field trial, the development of antibodies of a combined vaccine against the porcine parvovirus (PPV) as well as against swine erysipelas was compared with corresponding mono vaccines. Furthermore, these vaccines were used in different vaccination schedules. The tests were carried out on 109 gilts in three closed farms. In all gilts, a basic immunization repeated twice was carried out at the age of six months and at intervals of three weeks. The revaccination was carried out four months after the basic immunization with half of the animals, and six months after the basic immunization with the remaining gilts. Between the combined vaccine and the mono vaccine no significant differences in the development of antibodies against PPV could be found according to different vaccination schedules. The gilts having been vaccinated with the mono vaccine and boostered six months later showed significantly higher antibody titers against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Between the remaining vaccination groups no significant difference in the development of the antibodies against swine erysipelas could be found. On only one farm, a continuous decrease of antibody titers against PPV in case of altogether 238 non-vaccinated piglets until the sixth month of life could be observed. On the two other farms, an increase of antibody titers against PPV could be found at different points of time, which indicates an infection of the piglets. Between the individual vaccination groups no significant antibody titers against PPV could be measured in milk tests. With regard to the number of piglets born alive per litter, the number of piglets born dead per litter and the number of mummies, a significant difference could neither be found between the vaccination groups 1-4.

  15. The Effects of Compensatory Scanning Training on Mobility in Patients with Homonymous Visual Field Defects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Gera A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are a common consequence of postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and often lead to mobility-related difficulties. Different types of compensatory scanning training have been developed, aimed at decreasing consequences of the HVFD by changing visual scanning. Aim The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of a compensatory scanning training program using horizontal scanning on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Method The main interest of this study is to assess the effectiveness of training on mobility-related activities and participation in daily life. Visual scanning tests, such as dot counting and visual search, and control measures for visual functions and reading have been included as well. First, it is examined how performance on scanning and mobility-related measures is affected in patients with HVFD by comparing scores with scores of a healthy control group (n = 25). Second, the effect of training is assessed using an RCT design, in which performance of 26 patients before and after training is compared to performance of 23 patients in a waiting list control group. Results Self-reported improvements after training were found, accompanied by improvements in detecting peripheral stimuli and avoiding obstacles during walking, especially in dual task situations in which a second task limits the attentional capacity available for compensatory scanning. Training only improved mobility-related activities in which detection of peripheral stimuli is important, while no improvement was found on tests that require other visual skills, such as reading, visual counting and visual search. Conclusion This is the first RCT to evaluate the effects of a compensatory scanning training that is based on a systematic horizontal scanning rhythm. This training improved mobility-related activities. The results suggest that different types of compensatory scanning strategies are appropriate for

  16. Understanding the fate of black (pyrogenic) carbon in soil: Preliminary results from a long term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Large, David; Shen, Licheng; Snape, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC, also known as pyrogenic carbon) is an 'inert' form of carbon and has been proposed as a means of long-term carbon sequestration, particularly by amending soils and sediments with BC known as biochar. While there is abundant anecdotal evidence of biochar stability over extended timescales it is essential to gain a greater understanding of the degree and mechanisms of biochar degradation in the environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the stability of biochar by investigating samples from field degradation trials first buried during 2009 in a tropical soil, and recovered after 12 and 36 month intervals. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) is a novel analytical tool for the isolation of BC [1] in which high hydrogen pressure (150 bar) and a sulphided Mo catalyst reductively remove the non-BC fraction of the chars, and so isolate the most stable portion of the biochar, defined as BC(HyPy). This method also allows for the non-BC(HyPy) fraction of a sample, which from charcoal is known to include small ring PAHs (history may also be useful. [1] Meredith, W. et al., 2012. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 97, 131-147. [2] Ascough, P.L. et al., 2010. Radiocarbon 52, 1336-1350. [3] Lockhart, R.S. et al., 2013. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 104, 640-652. [4] Hockaday, W.C. et al., 2007. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 3432-3445. [5] Jaffe, R. et al., 2013. Science 340, 345-347. [6] Zimmerman, M. et al., 2012. Global Change Biology 18, 3306-3316.

  17. Field Trial of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer for the Determination of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelmann, Thomas A; von Fricken, Michael E; Wilfong, Tara D; Aguenza, Elisa; Philippe, Taina T; Okech, Bernard A

    2017-10-01

    Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren (N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti. In this population, 19.5% of participants (67/343) had some form of G6PD deficiency (< 60% residual activity) and 9.9% (34/343) had moderate-to-severe G6PD deficiency (< 30% residual activity). Overall, 18.95% of participants had the presence of the A-allele (65/343) with 7.87% (27/343) considered at high risk for drug-induced hemolysis (hemizygous males and homozygous females). Compared with the spectrophotometric assay, the sensitivity and specificity to determine participants with < 60% residual activity were 53.7% and 94.6%, respectively; for participants with 30% residual activity, the sensitivity and specificity were 5.9% and 99.7%, respectively. The biosensor overestimated the activity in deficient individuals and underestimated it in participants with normal G6PD activity, indicating the potential for a systematic measurement error. Thus, we suggest that the current version of the biosensor lacks adequate sensitivity and should be improved prior to its use as a point-of-care diagnostic for G6PD deficiency.

  18. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment ( n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher ( n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.

  19. Direct-fed microbial supplementation and health and performance of pre- and postpartum dairy cattle: a field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, G R; Emery, K M; Kautz, W P; Nocek, J E

    2007-04-01

    A double-blind field trial was conducted on a commercial dairy to study the effects of feeding a direct-fed microbial (DFM) product consisting of 2 strains of Enterococcus faecium plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on prepartum and postpartum performance of Holstein cows. Treatments consisted of the normal pre- and post-fresh TMR supplemented with the DFM (2 g/cow per d) or a placebo. Treatments started approximately 10 d prepartum and continued until about 23 d in milk (DIM). A total of 366 Holstein cows were enrolled in 1 of 2 placebo groups or 2 DFM-supplemented groups. Groups were enrolled consecutively, starting with the placebo treatment. Sample size was limited to 4 groups because the cooperating dairy prematurely terminated the study due to increased health problems in one of the groups. Blood samples were taken during the prefresh period between 2 and 10 d prior to calving and at weekly intervals from 3 to 23 DIM. Blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids before calving and beta-hydroxy-butyrate after calving were not affected by treatment. Supplementation with the DFM product increased milk fat percentage for the first lactation cows and increased milk protein percentage for the second and greater lactation cows during the first 85 DIM. Second-lactation cows fed the DFM product received fewer antibiotic treatments before 85 DIM than cows receiving the placebo. This validated the dairy producer's concern that cows consuming one of the diets (revealed to be the placebo diet after the study was completed) were experiencing more health problems. Most measures of milk yield were numerically increased by supplementation with the DFM product. However, differences in milk yield were not significant. Key covariates for main study outcomes included milk yield in the previous (first) lactation, body condition score prior to calving, days spent in the maternity pen, and stocking density of the pre-fresh pen.

  20. Effectiveness of a community-based responsive feeding programme in rural Bangladesh: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Frances E; Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika

    2008-10-01

    Responsive complementary feeding, whereby the mother feeds her child in response to child cues of hunger state and psychomotor abilities, is a problem in some countries, and likely contributes to malnutrition. Interventions are needed to evaluate whether promoting responsive feeding would add any benefit. Using a cluster randomized field trial, we evaluated a six-session educational programme that emphasized practice of two key behaviours, namely child self-feeding and maternal responsiveness. One hundred mothers and their 12- to 24-month-olds attended the sessions as part of village clusters randomly assigned to the intervention group. A similar number of controls received sessions on foods to feed and nutritional disorders. Outcomes assessed at pre-test, 2-week post-intervention and again 5-months post-intervention included weight, mouthfuls of food taken, self-feeding and maternal responsiveness. Research assistants, blind to group assignment, observed and coded mother and child behaviours during the midday meal. Secondary measures included foods fed and feeding messages recalled. Analysis was based on intention to treat and accounted for clustering. Only 10% of each group was lost to follow-up. Weight (d = 0.28), weight gain (d = 0.48) and child self-feeding (d = 0.30) were significantly higher in the responsive feeding group. Mouthfuls of food eaten and maternal responsiveness were not significantly increased by the intervention. Mothers in the intervention gave their children more vegetables, and spontaneously recalled more feeding messages at the 5-month follow-up. These results provide evidence that self-feeding and weight gain can improve by targeting specific behaviours, while maternal responsiveness may require more intensive strategies.

  1. Assessment Data-Informed Guidance to Individualize Kindergarten Reading Instruction: Findings from a Cluster-Randomized Control Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol M; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students’ ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students’ language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students’ needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts. PMID:21818158

  2. Exploration of Quench Initiation Due to Intentional Geometrical Defects in a High Magnetic Field Region of an SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Dai, K. Zhao, G.V. Eremeev, R.L. Geng, A.D. Palczewski; Dai, J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, A. D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Eremeev, G. V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Geng, R. L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhao, K. [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2011-07-01

    A computer program which was used to simulate and analyze the thermal behaviors of SRF cavities has been developed at Jefferson Lab using C++ code. This code was also used to verify the quench initiation due to geometrical defects in high magnetic field region of SRF cavities. We built a CEBAF single cell cavity with 4 artificial defects near equator, and this cavity has been tested with T-mapping. The preheating behavior and quench initiation analysis of this cavity will be presented here using the computer program.

  3. The Animal Kingdom Is Also a Bioengineering Field: Exploring the Art and Science of Vetinary Medicine [Retrospectroscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2017-01-01

    Medical science developed in tandem with the evolution of biological species and their associated diseases. Because of the close interaction between humans and other animals, even those in the wild, taking care of the former also means caring for the latter. Several scientific forerunners delved into animals' anatomical and physiological secrets in their quest to better understand animal biology and functions, thereby laying the foundation for animal medicine. Here, I briefly explore the long and complex road that led to the current state of veterinary science and provide a few examples of its present standing. (Contributions from the ancient world and eastern countries are not considered, as they represent a different area of interest.).

  4. Validation of the DIFFAL, HPAC and HotSpot Dispersion Models Using the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials Witness Plate Deposition Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Murray; Parkes, David

    2016-05-01

    Three atmospheric dispersion models--DIFFAL, HPAC, and HotSpot--of differing complexities have been validated against the witness plate deposition dataset taken during the Full-Scale Radiological Dispersal Device (FSRDD) Field Trials. The small-scale nature of these trials in comparison to many other historical radiological dispersion trials provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the near-field performance of the models considered. This paper performs validation of these models using two graphical methods of comparison: deposition contour plots and hotline profile graphs. All of the models tested are assessed to perform well, especially considering that previous model developments and validations have been focused on larger-scale scenarios. Of the models, HPAC generally produced the most accurate results, especially at locations within ∼100 m of GZ. Features present within the observed data, such as hot spots, were not well modeled by any of the codes considered. Additionally, it was found that an increase in the complexity of the meteorological data input to the models did not necessarily lead to an improvement in model accuracy; this is potentially due to the small-scale nature of the trials.

  5. Using AMIENext Patterns Derived from AMPERE Data to Explore Hemispheric Asymmetries in Field Aligned Currents and Magnetic Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Knipp, D. J.; Matsuo, T.; Anderson, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the inter-hemispheric asymmetries that develop during a quiet time period on June 14, 2011 and an active interval on May 28 2011. Magnetic potential and field-aligned currents (FACs) patterns derived from Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) data using the new AMIENext procedure (Matsuo et al, 2015), allow us to do simultaneous northern/southern hemisphere comparisons. We generate empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) from the data to describe the primary modes of variability in magnetic potential and field-aligned currents, which helps minimize the impact of difference in data coverage resulting from relative displacement of the geomagnetic pole from geographic poles in the two hemispheres. On the quiet day we observe that when the IMF By and Bz is positive, the expected mirror symmetry in magnetic potential patterns is only partially present (Fig. a and b). More symmetry appears when Bz turns south during the middle of the day (Fig. c and d). We attribute this to seasonal conductivity difference. We also see strong cusp and region 1 current in the sunlit hemisphere while the dark hemisphere lacks clear cusp current throughout the day and lacks symmetric region 1 current for most of the day. Our preliminary result for the active days suggests strong mirror symmetry even under different sunlit conditions. We will show results for solstice and equinox to compare and contrast the hemispheric asymmetries.

  6. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Hashino

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  7. Gravitational waves and Higgs boson couplings for exploring first order phase transition in the model with a singlet scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, Katsuya, E-mail: hashino@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya, E-mail: kanemu@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ko, Pyungwon, E-mail: pko@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Matsui, Toshinori, E-mail: matsui@kias.re.kr [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-10

    We calculate the spectrum of gravitational waves originated from strongly first order electroweak phase transition in the extended Higgs model with a real singlet scalar field. In order to calculate the bubble nucleation rate, we perform a two-field analysis and evaluate bounce solutions connecting the true and the false vacua using the one-loop effective potential at finite temperatures. Imposing the Sakharov condition of the departure from thermal equilibrium for baryogenesis, we survey allowed regions of parameters of the model. We then investigate the gravitational waves produced at electroweak bubble collisions in the early Universe, such as the sound wave, the bubble wall collision and the plasma turbulence. We find that the strength at the peak frequency can be large enough to be detected at future space-based gravitational interferometers such as eLISA, DECIGO and BBO. Predicted deviations in the various Higgs boson couplings are also evaluated at the zero temperature, and are shown to be large enough too. Therefore, in this model strongly first order electroweak phase transition can be tested by the combination of the precision study of various Higgs boson couplings at the LHC, the measurement of the triple Higgs boson coupling at future lepton colliders and the shape of the spectrum of gravitational wave detectable at future gravitational interferometers.

  8. Exploring the Midwifery Training Challenges in Iran from the Viewpoint of Faculty Members and Graduates of this Field: Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleiman Ahmady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Midwifery importance is obvious due to its role in the health of mothers and children. For this reason, educating human resources trained in midwifery field as an effective measure to promote natural parturition and upgrade health services to mothers and children is attended in many countries worldwide. Ensuring efficient staffs that are capable to respond to the health needs of the target population is necessary, and education in this field is considered as a serious and crucial issue. Educational programs in this field shall be designed such that, in addition to the intellectual development of students, a platform is provided for achieving clinical skills and conversances and prepare midwives to perform tasks and skills acquisition and achieve professional independence. Some evidence indicates that there are disorganizations in maternal and child care system that, the root of many of them can be directly or indirectly traced in education for midwifery students.Methods: In this qualitative study designed with content analysis method, 14 participants (including policy-makers, faculty members and alumni of Midwifery were interviewed. Selection method of key informants was based on purposive sampling and, information were collected and implemented based on the experiences of participants in the study using semi-structured individual interviews. Interviews were gradually continued until data saturation. Using the methodology of content, thematic analysis of meaning units, primary codes, and then sub-themes and finally the main themes were extracted.Results: About 300 primary codes were extracted from the transcript of the interview that, after reduction were finally summarized to 10 sub-themes and three main themes. The main theme was " weakness of educational program " which included a sub-themes entitled: inadequate educational environment, failure of practical skills, lack of appropriate training sources and inappropriate

  9. Remote monitoring field trial. Application to automated air sampling. Report on Task FIN-E935 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ilander, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Toivonen, H.; Ylaetalo, S. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Smartt, H.; Garcia, R.; Martinez, R.; Glidewell, D.; Krantz, K. [Sandia National Labs. (United States)

    1999-01-01

    An automated air sampling station has recently been developed by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The station is furnished with equipment that allows comprehensive remote monitoring of the station and the data. Under the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards, STUK and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a field trial to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies. STUK provided means for real-lime radiation monitoring and sample authentication whereas SNL delivered means for authenticated surveillance of the equipment and its location. The field trial showed that remote monitoring can be carried out using simple means although advanced facilities are needed for comprehensive surveillance. Authenticated measurement data could be reliably transferred from the monitoring site to the headquarters without the presence of authorized personnel in the monitoring site. The operation of the station and the remote monitoring system were reliable. (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. A literature review of applied adaptive design methodology within the field of oncology in randomised controlled trials and a proposed extension to the CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pankaj; Dunn, Janet A; Marshall, Andrea

    2017-07-18

    The application of adaptive design methodology within a clinical trial setting is becoming increasingly popular. However the application of these methods within trials is not being reported as adaptive designs hence making it more difficult to capture the emerging use of these designs. Within this review, we aim to understand how adaptive design methodology is being reported, whether these methods are explicitly stated as an 'adaptive design' or if it has to be inferred and to identify whether these methods are applied prospectively or concurrently. Three databases; Embase, Ovid and PubMed were chosen to conduct the literature search. The inclusion criteria for the review were phase II, phase III and phase II/III randomised controlled trials within the field of Oncology that published trial results in 2015. A variety of search terms related to adaptive designs were used. A total of 734 results were identified, after screening 54 were eligible. Adaptive designs were more commonly applied in phase III confirmatory trials. The majority of the papers performed an interim analysis, which included some sort of stopping criteria. Additionally only two papers explicitly stated the term 'adaptive design' and therefore for most of the papers, it had to be inferred that adaptive methods was applied. Sixty-five applications of adaptive design methods were applied, from which the most common method was an adaptation using group sequential methods. This review indicated that the reporting of adaptive design methodology within clinical trials needs improving. The proposed extension to the current CONSORT 2010 guidelines could help capture adaptive design methods. Furthermore provide an essential aid to those involved with clinical trials.

  11. Exploration of ‘hot-spots’ of methane and nitrous oxide emission from the agriculture fields of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Satyendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural soils contribute towards the emission of CH4 (mainly from paddy fields and N2O (from N-fertilizer application, the two important greenhouse gases causing global warming. Most studies had developed the inventories of CH4 and N2O emission at the country level (larger scale for India, but not many studies are available at the local scale (e.g. district level on these greenhouse gases (GHGs. Assam is an important state in the North Eastern region of India. In addition to being the regional economic hub for the entire region, agriculture is the major contributor to the state’s gross domestic product. In Assam about three-fourths of the area is under paddy cultivation and rice is the staple food. With this background, a district wise inventory of CH4 and N2O emission in the North Eastern state of Assam, India was carried out using different emission factors, viz., IPCC, Indian factors and others, to highlight the discrepancies that arose in the emission estimation of these important GHGs while used at the smaller scale i.e. district level. This study emphasizes the need for better methodologies at the local level for GHGs inventories. This study also reiterates the fact that no emission factor is universally applicable across all regions. The GHGs like CH4 and N2O are highly site and crop specific and the factors required for their inventory are driven by cultural practices, agronomic management, soil resources and socio-economic drivers. Material and methods In this study, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC methodology was used for the estimation of CH4 and N2O emission. In case of N2O emission, both direct and indirect emission from agricultural soil was estimated for the various districts of Assam. Results The CH4 (base year 2000–2001 and N2O (base year 2001–2002 emission was estimated to be 121 Gg and 1.36 Gg from rice paddy and agricultural fields of Assam state respectively. Conclusions This

  12. Moving Archival Practices Upstream: An Exploration of the Life Cycle of Ecological Sensing Data in Collaborative Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullian C. Wallis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of eScience research depends not only upon effective collaboration between scientists and technologists but also upon the active involvement of data archivists. Archivists rarely receive scientific data until findings are published, by which time important information about their origins, context, and provenance may be lost. Research reported here addresses the life cycle of data from collaborative ecological research with embedded networked sensing technologies. A better understanding of these processes will enable archivists to participate in earlier stages of the life cycle and to improve curation of these types of scientific data. Evidence from our interview study and field research yields a nine-stage life cycle. Among the findings are the cumulative effect of decisions made at each stage of the life cycle; the balance of decision-making between scientific and technology research partners; and the loss of certain types of data that may be essential to later interpretation.

  13. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN BIOLOGY TEACHING: A MINIMALLY EXPLORED FIELD OF STUDY WITH A LOT OF POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project that aims to characterize the epistemological, psychological and didactic presuppositions of science teachers (Biology, Physics, Chemistry that implement Computational Modeling and Simulation (CMS activities as a part of their teaching practice. We present here a synthesis of a literature review on the subject, evidencing how in the last two decades this form of computer usage for science teaching has boomed in disciplines such as Physics and Chemistry, but in a lesser degree in Biology. Additionally, in the works that dwell on the use of CMS in Biology, we identified a lack of theoretical bases that support their epistemological, psychological and/or didactic postures. Accordingly, this generates significant considerations for the fields of research and teacher instruction in Science Education.

  14. Trial of improved practices approach to explore the acceptability and feasibility of different modes of chlorhexidine application for neonatal cord care in Pemba, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Usha; Sazawal, Sunil; Dhingra, Pratibha; Dutta, Arup; Ali, Said Mohammed; Ame, Shaali Makame; Deb, Saikat; Suleiman, Atifa Mohammed; Black, Robert E

    2015-12-28

    Infections are responsible for 30-40 % of 4 million neonatal deaths annually. Use of chlorhexidine (CHX), a broad-spectrum topical antiseptic with strong residual activity, for umbilical cord cleansing has been shown to reduce infections during the neonatal period. However, the challenge remains with regard to selection of best mode of CHX delivery. As a part of formative research, we undertook a qualitative study in Pemba Island as a pilot to explore the attitudes; beliefs and practices of the community and health workers related to delivery, newborn and cord care. During the second phase of formative research, we used Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) methodology to explore the acceptance and impediments, for the three possible modes of chlorhexidine application- 100 ml bottle with cotton swab, 10 ml single use dropper bottle and 3 g single application squeeze tube containing gel, as an umbilical cord care intervention. In this pilot study, 204 mother-newborn pairs were enrolled from hospital and community setting in Pemba, Tanzania using a randomized three period crossover design. Mothers/guardians, Trained Birth Attendants (TBA)/ medical staff and community health workers (CHWs) were requested to try three different modes of CHX application for cord cleaning. All participants were demonstrated the method of cord cleaning using all three modes of delivery; each delivery mode was used for 3 days and an interview was conducted on day 10 to collect summary of their experience. Acceptance and preference scores were calculated based on feedback from the participants. Of 204 mother-newborn pairs, 27 were lost to follow up. 177 mothers performed the intervention and applied CHX to the newborn cord for all 9 days. Mothers rated 10 ml dropper bottle (49.7 %) as most convenient in terms of ease and application. They selected 10 ml dropper bottle (44.6 %) as their first choice; gel tube (33.9 %) and 100 ml bottle (21.5 %) as their second and third choice

  15. Detection of elder abuse: exploring the potential use of the elder abuse suspicion index© by law enforcement in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkurina, Elina; Lange, Brittany C L; Lama, Sonam D; Burk-Leaver, Erin; Yaffe, Mark J; Monin, Joan K; Humphries, Debbie

    2017-09-28

    There are no known instruments to aid law enforcement officers in the assessment of elder abuse (EA), despite officers' contact with older adults. This study aimed to identify: 1) officers' perceptions and knowledge of EA, 2) barriers in detecting EA in the field, 3) characteristics officers value in a detection tool, and to explore 4) the potential for officers to use the Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI)©. Data was collected from 69 Connecticut officers who confirmed that barriers to effectively detecting EA included a lack of EA detection instruments, as well as a lack of training on warning signs and risk factors. Officers indicated that important elements of a desirable tool for helping to detect EA included ease of use, clear instructions, and information on follow-up resources. Approximately 80% of respondents could see themselves using the EASI © in the field, and a modified version has been developed for this purpose.

  16. Exploration of Inter-Die Bulk Fin-Typed Field Effect Transistor Process Variation for Reduction of Device Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Hsun; Li, Yiming

    2016-06-01

    This work first reports a novel exploration technique to systematically prioritize key fabrication in-line process parameters of 16-nm high-k metal gate (HKMG) bulk FinFET to reduce device's die-to-die variation. To extract hidden correlations and reduce decision variables among the complex in-line process parameters, a data mining technique is employed to highlight and group associated parameters. To correlate the measured data with the distribution of physical dimension of devices for all in-line processes, a sensitivity analysis is then performed. Because the variability of current process deeply affects the next process, so the sequence of fabrication process is further added into the analyzing procedure to increase the searching efficiency. The source of variation of the initial process can be monitored and traced by the proposed methodology. The result of this study indicates that the gate spacer is a key process factor and will determine the uniformity of process including, such as the source-and-drain proximity, and the depth, lateral offset and overlap of sequential doping implants. The ranked key in-line process parameters can be used to optimize process and minimize the device variability of 16-nm HKMG bulk FinFET devices.

  17. Field-trip guide for exploring pyroclastic density current deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Pollock, Nicholas; Sarocchi, Damiano; Dufek, Josef; Clynne, Michael A.

    2017-07-05

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are one of the most dangerous phenomena associated with explosive volcanism. To help constrain damage potential, a combination of field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling are used to establish conditions that influence PDC dynamics and depositional processes, including runout distance. The objective of this field trip is to explore field relations that may constrain PDCs at the time of emplacement.The PDC deposits from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens are well exposed along the steep flanks (10–30° slopes) and across the pumice plain (5–12° slopes) as far as 8 km north of the volcano. The pumice plain deposits represent deposition from a series of concentrated PDCs and are primarily thick (3–12 m), massive, and poorly sorted. In contrast, the steep east-flank deposits are stratified to cross-stratified, suggesting deposition from PDCs where turbulence strongly influenced transport and depositional processes.The PDCs that descended the west flank were largely nondepositional; they maintained a higher flow energy and carrying capacity than PDCs funneled through the main breach, as evidenced by the higher concentration of large blocks in their deposits. The PDC from the west flank collided with PDCs funneled through the breach at various points along the pumice plain. Evidence for flow collision will be explored and debated throughout the field trip.Evidence for substrate erosion and entrainment is found (1) along the steep eastern flank of the volcano, which has a higher degree of rough, irregular topography relative to the west flanks where PDCs were likely nonerosive, (2) where PDCs encountered debris-avalanche hummocks across the pumice plain, and (3) where PDCs eroded and entrained material deposited by PDCs produced during earlier phases of the eruption. Two features interpreted as large-scale (tens of meters wide) levees and a large (~200 m wide) channel scour-and-fill feature

  18. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for goalsetting and outcome measurement in primary care physiotherapy, an explorative field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Simone A; van der Wees, Philip J; Bart Staal, J; Braspenning, J C C; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-03-01

    Routine use of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) may provide an effective way of monitoring patient valued outcomes. In this study we explored (1) the current use of PROMs; (2) to what extent the goals correspond with the selected PROMs; (3) the health outcomes based on PROMs. Observational clinical cohort study. Dutch primary care physiotherapy practices (n=43). Patients (n=299) with neck pain or low back pain. The number of PROMs used per patient were calculated. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used to map the patients' goals and the percentages of PROMS selected that match the domains of the goals were calculated. Health outcomes were assessed using two approaches for estimating the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Repeated measurements with the Visual Analogue Scale, the Patient Specific Complaints questionnaire, the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, or the Neck Disability Index were completed by more than 60% of the patients. The PROMs used matched in 46% of the cases with goals for pain improvement, and in 43% with goals set at activity/participation level. The mean differences between baseline and follow up scores for all PROMs were statistically significant. Improvements of patients based on MCID varied from 57% to 90%. PROMs were used in the majority of the patients, showed improved health outcomes and fitted moderately with goals. The results of this study can be used for future research assessing the routine use of outcome measurements with PROMs. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage.

  20. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  1. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

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    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  2. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  3. Coeliac disease in China: a field waiting for exploration Enfermedad celiaca en Chica: Un campo pendiente de ser explorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: no systematic studies on the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD have been reported from China. In western populations CD is more common in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS. We have screened patients with these conditions presenting to the outpatient department of a large hospital of "Traditional Chinese Medicine" (TCM in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, P.R. China. Methods: we tested sera of 78 unrelated Han Chinese patients (5 IDDM and 73 D-IBS, using ELISA serological tests for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (IgG-AGA and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG. Results: six out of 78 patients (7.7% were positive for IgG-AGA (two men and four women and two (2.6% were positive for IgA-tTGs. One of the latter patients was negative for IgG-AGA. Besides, one patient had a dubious IgA-tTG antibody and a positive IgG-AGA. None of the six patients agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Two out of these six patients followed a gluten-free diet for one year. In one patient the diarrhoea ceased and his body weight increased. Another stopped losing weight. Conclusions: this study previously published as a letter in GUT (Wu J, Xia B, von Blomberg BME, Zhao C, Yang XW, Crusius JBA, Peña AS. Coeliac disease: emerging in China? Gut 2010; 59(3: 418-9 demonstrated that CD may exist in the Jiangsu province of P.R. China. The present article draws attention to the difficulties of following a standard protocol in China such as established in western countries and highlights important factors less well known in the west in relation to the development of CD in China. Wheat production became significant in China between 1600 and 1300 B.C. After the Han dynasty (500-200 B.C., wheat was one of the main cereals in China. One the major wheat fields in China is located in the Jiangsu province where the research for this article was performed. A review of Chinese literature

  4. Pulsed electromagnetic fields for postmenopausal osteoporosis and concomitant lumbar osteoarthritis in southwest China using proximal femur bone mineral density as the primary endpoint: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Fang; He, Hong-Chen; Yang, Lin; Yang, Zhou-Yuan; Yao, Ke; Wu, Yuan-Chao; Yang, Xi-Biao; He, Cheng-Qi

    2015-06-10

    Osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent skeletal disorders among postmenopausal women. Coexistence is common especially that of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) and lumbar OA. An hypothesis has been raised that OP and OA might share the same pathogenic mechanism, and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) were reported to have anti-osteoporosis and anti-osteoarthritis properties, but this suggestion was based primarily on biomarker data. Therefore, whether these two effects could take place simultaneously has not yet been investigated. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to explore the effect of PEMFs for PMO and concomitant lumbar OA. The study will include PMO patients (postmenopausal women; aged between 50 and 70 years; have been postmenopausal for at least 5 years and diagnosed with OP using proximal femur T-score) with concomitant lumbar OA (patients with confounding disorders like diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and previous fracture history, etcetera, will be excluded) will be randomly assigned to two arms: PEMFs group and sham PEMFs group. There will be 25 participants in each arm (50 in total) and the outcome assessment, including the primary endpoint (proximal femur bone mineral density), will be performed at 5 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after enrollment. PMO and lumbar OA are prominent public health problem, especially for postmenopausal women. We hope this RCT will provide scientific evidence to primary care of the postmenopausal women regarding the use of these nonpharmaceutical, noninvasive modalities, PEMFs, in managing PMO and lumbar OA. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-14005156 (28 August 2014).

  5. An intensive field trial to assess hazards to birds and mammals from the use of methiocarb as a bird repellent on ripening cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, A R; Westlake, G E; Lloyd, G A; Brown, P M; Greig-Smith, P W; Fletcher, M R; Tarrant, K A; Stanley, P I

    1993-03-01

    : A field trial was carried out in Kent, UK, in 1980, to assess the possible hazards to wildlife of methiocarb used as a spray to protect ripening cherries from damage by birds. A broad range of studies was undertaken on a single site subjected to a series of five applications. Ground deposition was measured by analysis of strips of chromatography paper and petri dishes placed between lines of trees. Airborne drift was measured on targets up to 11 m above the ground, and methiocarb residues were measured in samples of cherries. Birds were captured by intensive mist-netting throughout the trial, and breeding success was monitored in nest boxes and natural nest sites. Livetraps were set to catch small mammals in the orchard on five occasions during the trial. Systematic searches for possible casualties were made, resulting in the discovery of 21 birds found dead or incapacitated. Levels of activity of plasma, liver and brain esterases were measured in samples taken from several species, and liver slices from House Sparrows, Starlings and Thrushes were examined histologically for signs of cell damage. Samples of breast muscle tissue from Starlings and House Sparrows were analysed by GLC for residues of methiocarb and its principal breakdown product, methiocarb sulfoxide. Overall, the trial revealed that many birds and mammals were exposed to methiocarb, but its effects were largely transient and sublethal. Even a heavy repeated programme of spray applications did not cause any serious hazard to wildlife populations.

  6. Assessment of a CFD model for short-range plume dispersion: Applications to the Fusion Field Trial 2007 (FFT-07) diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Ngae, Pierre; Feiz, Amir-Ali; Turbelin, Grégory

    2017-11-01

    Simulations of the short-range plume dispersion under different atmospheric conditions can provide essential information for the development of source reconstruction methodologies that allows to retrieve the location and intensity of an unknown hazardous pollutant source. This process required a comprehensive assessment of the atmospheric dispersion models with tracer diffusion experiments in various stability conditions. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of a CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE is performed with the observations from available seven trials of single releases conducted in the Fusion Field Trail 2007 (FFT-07) tracer experiment. The CFD simulations are performed for each trial and it was observed that the CFD model fluidyn-PANACHE provides good agreement of the predicted concentrations with the observations in both stable and convective atmospheric conditions. A comprehensive analysis of the simulated results is performed by computing the statistical performance measures for the dispersion model evaluation. The CFD model predicts 65.4% of the overall concentration points within a factor of two to the observations. It was observed that the CFD model is predicting better in convective stability conditions in comparison to the trials conducted in stable stability. In convective conditions, 74.6% points were predicted within a factor of two to the observations which are higher than 59.3% concentration points predicted within a factor of two in the trials in stable atmospheric conditions.

  7. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT < 45%. Dysfunctional segments were further analyzed by viability (transmural extent of infarction (TEI) ≤50%.). All outcomes were stratified for randomization treatment. In the dysfunctional segments in the CTO territory recovery of SWT was better after CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI < 50%) (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 22%, p = 0.02). Furthermore in the CTO territory, recovery of SWT was significantly better in the dysfunctional segments in patients with Rentrop grade 2-3 collaterals compared to grade 0-1 collaterals to the CTO (16 ± 26% versus 11 ± 24%, p = 0.04). CTO PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  8. Results of microbial testing exploring the etiology of deep breast pain during lactation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of nonrandomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzold, Christine M

    2012-01-01

    Controversy over the etiology of deep or burning breast pain during lactation continues to persist, despite a long history of published studies and case reports. This article reviews the literature exploring the etiology of deep breast pain, summarizes the results, and identifies possible explanations for the controversies surrounding this disorder. A clinical query and a librarian-assisted search of MEDLINE were used to find articles published between 1896 and 2010. Inclusion criteria consisted of comparing microbial testing results from symptomatic and asymptomatic lactating women. Cases were restricted to those experiencing deep or burning breast pain when possible. Prospective studies consisting of 1 unmatched case-control and 6 cohorts were found. Trials typically detected higher microbial levels in the milk or nipple(s) or both of symptomatic women, irrespective of the detection method or type and range of microbes (bacterial, yeast, or fungal) studied. Case milk samples were positively associated with finding Staphylococcus aureus (relative risk ratio [RR] 7.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.25-16.36) or Candida (RR 8.45; 95% CI, 3.96-18.06). Moreover, recent reports about small-colony variants and biofilm-producing organisms may explain the atypical symptoms unique to this disorder. In lactating women reporting deep breast pain, evidence consistent with infection is persistently found, and explanations exist for the disorder's atypical characteristics. Although lactating women with deep breast pain are more likely to test positive for Candida, the risk of testing positive for S aureus is also present. Thus, these women should have cultures done. Management options include treating immediately while awaiting results or waiting until results are available to guide treatment. With either approach, providers must consider the risk of falsely negative tests. © 2012 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Causes of variation in BCG vaccine efficacy: examining evidence from the BCG REVAC cluster randomized trial to explore the masking and the blocking hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Pereira, Susan M; Genser, Bernd; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cunha, Sergio S; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2014-06-24

    BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be effective when BCG is not. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to explored the masking and blocking hypotheses by studying BCG vaccine efficacy of neonatal vaccination and when administered for the first or a second (revaccination) time at school age in two sites (Manaus close and Salvador further south from the equator). Seven hundred and sixty three state schools were matched on socio economic characteristics of the neighborhood and 239,934 children were randomized to vaccine (BCG vaccination at school age) or control group. Protection by first BCG vaccination at school age was high in Salvador (34%, 95% CI 7-53%, p=0.017) but low in Manaus (8%, 95% CI t0 39-40%, p=0.686). For revaccination at school age, protection was modest in Salvador (19%, 95% CI 3-33%, p=0.022) and absent in Manaus (1%, 95% CI to 27-23%, p=0.932). Vaccine efficacy for neonatal vaccination was similar in Salvador (40%, 95% CI 22-54%, pBCG efficacy was marked when vaccine was given at school age but absent at birth, which points towards blocking as the dominant mechanism. New tuberculosis vaccines that overcome or by pass this blocking effect could confer protection in situations where BCG is not protective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploration of cervical carotid stenosis using helical CT angiography. A prospective trial on the detection of candidates for surgery in the Gujo area, Gifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Yasuhiko [Sumi Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Kaku, Yasuhiko; Sakai, Noboru; Yamada, Hiromu

    1995-04-01

    To detect cervical carotid stenosis as a candidate for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), the authors attempted a prospective trial by exploring stenosis for one year in a rural district with a population of 20,000, employing helical CT angiography which apparently displayed three-dimensional reconstructed images of the carotid bifurcation. Thirty-three patients, 24 males and 9 females, with a mean age of 71.8 years, suffering from TIA, RIND or stroke were investigated for their carotid systems. The clinical symptoms of the patients were briefly as follows: motor weakness in 30 cases, dysarthria in 8 cases and aphasia in 4 cases; and 6 of 22 (27%) stroke cases had previously suffered an episode of TIA. The risk factors of the whole group of patients were hypertension in 13 cases, diabetes mellitus in 6, heart disease in 17, and hypercholesteremia in 4. Helical CT angiography was performed in 11 cases of TIA, 2 cases of RIND, and 16 cases of stroke. Only 3 cases of the TIA group and 3 cases of the stroke group were found to have extracranial carotid stenosis of more than 50%, which subsequently required conventional angiography. For the detection of stenosis, CT angiography was beneficial as well as conventional angiography. Finally, CEA was performed in 2 of 3 cases with severe carotid stonosis in the TIA group, while such cases in the stroke group were only observed. The above results meant that the occurrence of extracranial carotid stenosis was 6 out of 6,589 elderly inhabitants (over 60 years old), although the possible detection rate of candidates for CEA was 2 out of 20,000 population per year. (author).

  11. Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia M. Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises. Pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies and conduction velocities of the median nerve, functional status scale and hand grip strength were assessed pre- and post-treatment. There was a significant decrease (P  0.05. In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome.

  12. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Joshaghani; Mohammad Taghi Yasami; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Javad Mahmoudi-Gharaei; Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-01-01

    "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and afte...

  13. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...... increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu...

  14. Nematode diversity in soil from a field trial with decomposing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    H. W. Karuri; R. L. Amata; N. O. Amugune; C. N. Waturu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of decomposing plant materials may affect the soil community structure. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of decomposing Bt cotton and its isoline on soil nematode diversity. Bt cotton (06Z604D), isoline (99M03) and HART 89M (local non-Bt cotton cultivar) were planted for two seasons in a completely randomized block design in a confined field trial at Mwea, Kenya. After harvest the plant material was incorporated into soil and the nematode diversity was determined. ...

  15. Among friends: a qualitative exploration of the role of peers in young people's alcohol use using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, field and capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Georgie J; Jacob, Nina; Pound, Pandora; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2017-01-01

    Drinking is viewed by young people as a predominantly social activity which provides an opportunity for entertainment and bonding with friends. Using Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, field and capital, this article explores young people's attitudes and beliefs around alcohol use, influences on behaviour, and the role of peers, with a view to informing the development of preventive interventions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 young people aged 18-20 in the south west of England. We describe how friends were integral in drinking experiences, and drinking with friends was equated with fun and enjoyment. In this way, the desire for social and symbolic capital appeared to be a key motivator for adolescent drinking. Critically, however, wider cultural norms played the predominant role in shaping behaviour, via the internalisation of widely accepted practice and the subsequent externalisation of norms through the habitus. Applying Bourdieu's theory suggests that population-level interventions that regulate alcohol consumption, and thus disrupt the field, are likely to facilitate behaviour change among young people by driving a response in habitus. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  16. Theoretical exploration of optical response of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide nanoparticle system within dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, M. A.; Kusumaatmadja, R.; Fauzi, A. D.; Phan, W. Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.; Rusydi, A.

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical conductivity and its related optical response of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticle system. Experimental data of magnetization of the Fe3O4-rGO nanoparticle system have shown that the saturation magnetization can be enhanced by controlling the rGO content with the maximum enhancement reached at the optimal rGO content of about 5 weight percentage. We hypothesize that the magnetization enhancement is due to spin-flipping of Fe ions at tetrahedral sites induced by oxygen vacancies at the Fe3O4 nanoparticle boundaries. These oxygen vacancies are formed due to adsorption of oxygen atoms by rGO flakes around the Fe3O4 nanoparticle. In this study, we aim to explore the implications of this effect to the optical response of the system as a function of the rGO content. Our model incorporates Hubbard-repulsive interactions between electrons occupying the e g orbitals of Fe3+ and Heisenberg-like interactions between electron spins and spins of Fe3+ ions. We treat the relevant interactions within mean-field and dynamical mean-field approximations. Our results are to be compared with the existing experimental reflectance data of Fe3O4 nanoparticle system.

  17. Exploration of the functions of health impact assessment in real-world policymaking in the field of social health inequality: towards a conception of conceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyaerts, Gille; Deguerry, Murielle; Deboosere, Patrick; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2017-06-01

    With the implementation of health impact assessment (HIA)'s conceptual model into real-world policymaking, a number of fundamental issues arise concerning its decision-support function. Rooted in a rational vision of the decision-making process, focus regarding both conceptualisation and evaluation has been mainly on the function of instrumental policy-learning. However, in the field of social health inequalities, this function is strongly limited by the intrinsic 'wickedness' of the policy issue. Focusing almost exclusively on this instrumental function, the real influence HIA can have on policymaking in the longer term is underestimated and remains largely unexploited. Drawing insights from theoretical models developed in the field of political science and sociology, we explore the different decision-support functions HIA can fulfill and identify conceptual learning as potentially the most important. Accordingly, dominant focus on the technical engineering function, where knowledge is provided in order to 'rationalise' the policy process and to tackle 'tame' problems, should be complemented with an analysis of the conditions for conceptual learning, where knowledge introduces new information and perspectives and, as such, contributes in the longer term to a paradigm change.

  18. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity: Study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Skovbjerg, Sine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a promising new treatment for refractory depression and can be targeted at the brain, thereby activating biochemical cell processes.Methods/Design: In a parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at the Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, the effects of PEMF in MCS...... follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia......, immunological markers in serum, and quality of life.Discussion: This trial will assess the effects of PEMF therapy for MCS. Currently, there is no treatment with a documented effect on MCS, and in terms of healthcare there is very little to offer these patients. There is thus a great need for well...

  19. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial to explore the effects of personalized lifestyle advices and tandem skydives on pleasure in anhedonic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roekel, Eeske; Masselink, Maurits; Vrijen, Charlotte; Heininga, Vera E; Bak, Tom; Nederhof, Esther; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-06-04

    Anhedonia is generally defined as the inability to feel pleasure in response to experiences that are usually enjoyable. Anhedonia is one of the two core symptoms of depression and is a major public health concern. Anhedonia has proven particularly difficult to counteract and predicts poor treatment response generally. It has often been hypothesized that anhedonia can be deterred by a healthy lifestyle. However, it is quite unlikely that a one-size-fits-all approach will be effective for everyone. In this study the effects of personalized lifestyle advice based on observed individual patterns of lifestyle behaviors and experienced pleasure will be examined. Further, we will explore whether a tandem skydive following the personalized lifestyle advice positively influences anhedonic young adults' abilities to carry out the recommended lifestyle changes, and whether this ultimately improves their self-reported pleasure. Our study design is an exploratory intervention study, preceded by a cross-sectional survey as a screening instrument. For the survey, 2000 young adults (18-24 years old) will be selected from the general population. Based on survey outcomes, 72 individuals (36 males and 36 females) with persistent anhedonia (i.e., more than two months) and 60 individuals (30 males and 30 females) without anhedonia (non-anhedonic control group) will be selected for the intervention study. The non-anhedonic control group will fill out momentary assessments of pleasure and lifestyle behaviors three times a day, for one month. The anhedonic individuals will fill out momentary assessments for three consecutive months. After the first month, the anhedonic individuals will be randomly assigned to (1) no intervention, (2) lifestyle advice only, (3) lifestyle advice plus tandem skydive. The personalized lifestyle advice is based on patterns observed in the first month. The present study is the first to examine the effects of a personalized lifestyle advice and tandem skydive on

  20. Randomized trial for superiority of high field strength intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging guided resection in pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vivek; Raheja, Amol; Suri, Ashish; Chandra, P Sarat; Kale, Shashank S; Kumar, Rajinder; Garg, Ajay; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandey, Ravindra M; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2017-03-01

    Till date there are no randomized trials to suggest the superiority of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI) guided trans-sphenoidal pituitary resection over two dimensional fluoroscopic (2D-F) guided resections. We conducted this trial to establish the superiority of IOMRI in pituitary surgery. Primary objective was to compare extent of tumor resection between the two study arms. It was a prospective, randomized, outcome assessor and statistician blinded, two arm (A: IOMRI, n=25 and B: 2D-F, n=25), parallel group clinical trial. 4 patients from IOMRI group cross-over to 2D-F group and were consequently analyzed in latter group, based on modified intent to treat method. A total of 50 patients were enrolled till completion of trial (n=25 in each study arm). Demographic profile and baseline parameters were comparable among the two arms (p>0.05) except for higher number of endoscopic procedures and experienced neurosurgeons (>10years) in arm B (p=0.02, 0.002 respectively). Extent of resection was similar in both study arms (A, 94.9% vs B, 93.6%; p=0.78), despite adjusting for experience of operating surgeon and use of microscope/endoscope for surgical resection. We observed that use of IOMRI helped optimize the extent of resection in 5/20 patients (25%) for pituitary tumor resection in-group A. Present study failed to observe superiorty of IOMRI over conventional 2D-F guided resection in pituitary macroadenoma surgery. By use of this technology, younger surgeons could validate their results intra-operatively and hence could increase EOR without causing any increase in complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Field Trials of the Nereus Hybrid Underwater Robotic Vehicle in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    required for successful operation. Our studies indicated that the develop- ment of a variable buoyancy trim system would be undesirable because of its...The setup for the 2009 Nereus sea trials involved one EDO /Straza SP23 transducer mounted on the forward starboard brow of the vehi- cle, facing upwards...was complicated by extreme variability in currents as a consequence of “chimney effect” forces in the water column in proximal situations

  2. Field performance of Valencia trees on US-942 and US-812 rootstocks in trials challenged by HLB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation will include a summary of background and field performance for the two USDA rootstocks, US-942 and US-812, with special focus on performance of trees with Valencia scion and when infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Field performance will be compared and contrasted with ...

  3. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  4. Field trial of Bacillus sphaericus strain B-101 (serotype H5a, 5b) against filariasis and Japanese encephalitis vectors in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R S; Sharma, V P; Upadhyay, A K

    1997-06-01

    A large-scale operational field trial was conducted from June 1993 to October 1994 to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus (strain B-101, serotype H5a,5b) for control of the vectors of filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui) in Rourkela city. Application of B. sphaericus, when sprayed at 1 g/m2 in storm drains, wastewater pools, abandoned masonry tanks, peripheral paddy fields, ditches, and other small water collections and at 4 g/m2 in domestic septic tanks, significantly reduced larval and pupal counts (P < 0.0001) and significantly reduced the percentage of habitats containing larvae (3rd-4th instars) (P < 0.0001) as compared with routine antilarval measures. This in turn resulted in a reduction in the indoor density of disease vectors in particular and a reduction in mosquito nuisance in general. The trial demonstrated that B. sphaericus has good potential for use against disease vectors and mosquito breeding in polluted as well as clean waters.

  5. Phytoremediation of urban soils contaminated with trace metals using Noccaea caerulescens: comparing non-metallicolous populations to the metallicolous 'Ganges' in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arnaud; Drouet, Thomas; Sterckeman, Thibault; Noret, Nausicaa

    2017-03-01

    Urban soil contamination with trace metals is a major obstacle to the development of urban agriculture as crops grown in urban gardens are prone to accumulate trace metals up to toxic levels for human consumption. Phytoextraction is considered as a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional methods such as excavation. Field trials of phytoextraction with Noccaea caerulescens were conducted on urban soils contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (respectively around 2, 150-200, 400-500, and 400-700 μg g-1 of dry soil). Metallicolous (Ganges population) and non-metallicolous (NMET) populations were compared for biomass production and trace metal uptake. Moreover, we tested the effect of compost and fertilizer addition. Maximal biomass of 5 t ha-1 was obtained with NMET populations on some plots. Compared to Ganges- the high Cd-accumulating ecotype from South of France often used in phytoextraction trials- NMET populations have an advantage for biomass production and for Zn accumulation, with an average Zn uptake of 2.5 times higher. The addition of compost seems detrimental due to metal immobilization in the soil with little or no effect on plant growth. In addition to differences between populations, variations of growth and metal accumulation were mostly explained by soil Cd and Zn concentrations and texture. Our field trials confirm the potential of using N. caerulescens for both Cd and Zn remediation of moderately contaminated soils-with uptake values of up to 200 g Cd ha-1 and 47 kg Zn ha-1-and show the interest of selecting the adequate population according to the targeted metal.

  6. Field trial of insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for environmental risk assessment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Yoko; Gondo, Takahiro; Ishigaki, Genki; Inoue, Koichi; Zaita, Norihiro; Muguerza, Melody; Akashi, Ryo

    2017-04-03

    Japan imports cottonseed mainly from Australia and the USA where more than 96% of all cotton varieties grown are genetically modified (GM). GM crops undergo an environmental risk assessment (ERA) under the Law Concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity before import into Japan. Potential adverse effects on biodiversity are comprehensively assessed based on competitiveness, production of harmful substances and outcrossing ability. Even though imported cottonseed is intended for food and feed uses and not for cultivation, the potential risks from seed spillage during transport must be evaluated. In most cases, the ERA requires data collected from in-country field trials to demonstrate how the GM crop behaves in Japan's environment. Confined field trials in Japan were conducted for the ERA of Lepidoptera-resistant and glufosinate-tolerant GM cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines GHB119 and T304-40. These lines were compared with conventional varieties for growth habit, morphological characteristics, seed dormancy, and allelopathic activity associated with competitiveness and production of harmful substances. Outcrossing ability was not a concern due to the absence of sexually compatible wild relatives in Japan. Although slight statistical differences were observed between the GM line and its conventional comparator for some morphological characteristics, transgenes or transformation were not considered to be responsible for these differences. The trial demonstrated that competitiveness and production of harmful substances by these GM cotton lines were equivalent to conventional cotton varieties that have a long history of safe use, and no potential adverse effects to biosafety in Japan were observed.

  7. Rationale and design of EXPLORE: a randomized, prospective, multicenter trial investigating the impact of recanalization of a chronic total occlusion on left ventricular function in patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the setting of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery were recently identified as a high-risk subgroup. It is unclear whether ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery should undergo additional percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion on top of optimal medical therapy shortly after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Possible beneficial effects include reduction in adverse left ventricular remodeling and preservation of global left ventricular function and improved clinical outcome during future coronary events. Methods/Design The Evaluating Xience V and left ventricular function in Percutaneous coronary intervention on occLusiOns afteR ST-Elevation myocardial infarction (EXPLORE) trial is a randomized, prospective, multicenter, two-arm trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints. Three hundred patients after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction with a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery are randomized to either elective percutaneous coronary intervention of the chronic total occlusion within seven days or standard medical treatment. When assigned to the invasive arm, an everolimus-eluting coronary stent is used. Primary endpoints are left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular end-diastolic volume assessed by cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging at four months. Clinical follow-up will continue until five years. Discussion The ongoing EXPLORE trial is the first randomized clinical trial powered to investigate whether recanalization of a chronic total occlusion in a non-infarct related artery after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction results in a better preserved residual left ventricular ejection fraction, reduced end-diastolic volume and enhanced clinical

  8. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  9. FURTHER DEFINING SPECTRAL TYPE 'Y' AND EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE FIELD BROWN DWARF MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Mainzer, Amanda K. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Burgasser, Adam J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Tinney, C. G.; Parker, Stephen; Salter, Graeme, E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-07-10

    We present the discovery of another seven Y dwarfs from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using these objects, as well as the first six WISE Y dwarf discoveries from Cushing et al., we further explore the transition between spectral types T and Y. We find that the T/Y boundary roughly coincides with the spot where the J - H colors of brown dwarfs, as predicted by models, turn back to the red. Moreover, we use preliminary trigonometric parallax measurements to show that the T/Y boundary may also correspond to the point at which the absolute H (1.6 {mu}m) and W2 (4.6 {mu}m) magnitudes plummet. We use these discoveries and their preliminary distances to place them in the larger context of the solar neighborhood. We present a table that updates the entire stellar and substellar constituency within 8 pc of the Sun, and we show that the current census has hydrogen-burning stars outnumbering brown dwarfs by roughly a factor of six. This factor will decrease with time as more brown dwarfs are identified within this volume, but unless there is a vast reservoir of cold brown dwarfs invisible to WISE, the final space density of brown dwarfs is still expected to fall well below that of stars. We also use these new Y dwarf discoveries, along with newly discovered T dwarfs from WISE, to investigate the field substellar mass function. We find that the overall space density of late-T and early-Y dwarfs matches that from simulations describing the mass function as a power law with slope -0.5 < {alpha} < 0.0; however, a power law may provide a poor fit to the observed object counts as a function of spectral type because there are tantalizing hints that the number of brown dwarfs continues to rise from late-T to early-Y. More detailed monitoring and characterization of these Y dwarfs, along with dedicated searches aimed at identifying more examples, are certainly required.

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examples of clinical trials that test principles or strategies include studies that explore whether surgery or other medical treatments ... board consists of a group of research and study topic experts. The NIH also ... alternative strategies for diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the NIH ...

  11. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  12. The effect of trial familiarisation on the validity and reproducibility of a field-based self-paced VO2max test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W; Lambrick, D; Mauger, A R; Woolley, B; Faulkner, J

    2016-09-01

    The self-paced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test (SPV), which is based on the Borg 6-20 Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale, allows participants to self-regulate their exercise intensity during a closed-loop incremental maximal exercise test. As previous research has assessed the utility of the SPV test within laboratory conditions, the purpose to this study was to assess the effect of trial familiarisation on the validity and reproducibility of a field-based, SPV test. In a cross-sectional study, fifteen men completed one laboratory-based graded exercise test (GXT) and three field-based SPV tests. The GXT was continuous and incremental until the attainment of VO2max. The SPV, which was completed on an outdoor 400m athletic track, consisted of five x 2 min perceptually-regulated (RPE11, 13, 15, 17 and 20) stages of incremental exercise. There were no differences in the VO2max reported between the GXT (63.5±10.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and each SPV test (65.5±8.7, 65.4±7.0 and 66.7±7.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) for SPV1, SPV2 and SPV3, respectively; P>.05). Similar findings were observed when comparing VO2max between SPV tests (P>.05). High intraclass correlation coefficients were reported between the GXT and the SPV, and between each SPV test (≥.80). Although participants ran faster and further during SPV3, a similar pacing strategy was implemented during all tests. This study demonstrated that a field-based SPV is a valid and reliable VO2max test. As trial familiarisation did not moderate VO2max values from the SPV, the application of a single SPV test is an appropriate stand-alone protocol for gauging VO2max.

  13. Paste pumping and deposition field trials and concepts on Syncrude's dewatered mature fine tailings MFT centrifuge cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ahmed, I.; Labelle, M.; Brown, R. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a paste pumping and deposition field study conducted on dewatered mature fine tailings (MFT) located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operation. Bench scale rheological examinations of centrifuge cakes and design field testing are used to determine the pumpability of MFT centrifuge cakes. The study included a transportation assessment for the conveyor and positive displacement pumps and pipelines, as well as geotechnical and environmental analyses of bulk materials. Flocculant optimization and centrifuge operational parameter assessments were conducted. Pressure differential and flow rate data were captured in the field studies in order to determine pipeline friction loss. The study showed that pipe friction factors can be obtained using the Bingham plastic model. A natural deposition angle was determined for the MFT centrifuged cake. The study showed that the cake must be sheared in order to reduce yield stress before pumping. It was concluded that displacement pumps can be used to reduced pipeline friction factors. tabs., figs.

  14. Exploring the Efficacy of Replacing Linear Paper-Based Patient Cases in Problem-Based Learning With Dynamic Web-Based Virtual Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. Objective A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners’ decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. Methods A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George’s University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. Results D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL–related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions

  15. Exploring the efficacy of replacing linear paper-based patient cases in problem-based learning with dynamic Web-based virtual patients: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Terry; Ellaway, Rachel H; Round, Jonathan; Jivram, Trupti; Kavia, Sheetal; Hilton, Sean

    2014-11-05

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners' decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George's University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL-related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions not related to D-PBL were all small (≤0

  16. Differential effects of subchronic phencyclidine on anxiety in the light-enhanced startle-, light/dark exploration- and open field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Thomas; Thomas, Mara; Bartsch, Dusan

    2013-04-15

    Subchronic treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) is a valuable approach to model the symptomatology of schizophrenia, a multi-facetted psychiatric disorder, in rodents. We addressed the question whether subchronic PCP (scPCP) treatment (5 mg/kg bidaily for 7 days) would affect anxiety in rats, since contradictory findings have been reported so far. Anxiety-like behaviour was assessed using the light-enhanced startle paradigm (LES), a method which measures the effect of the natural aversion to light on the startle reflex and does not depend on motivated behaviour or exploratory drive. For comparison, anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the light-dark exploration test (LDT) and in an open field environment (OFT). The scPCP-treatment did not affect baseline startle reactivity or light-enhanced startle, suggesting normal anxiety levels in treated animals. Further, normal anxiety-like behaviour was also found in the OFT. In the LDT, scPCP treated rats displayed shorter latencies to enter the lit compartment and shuttled more between the dark and lit compartments, behaviours indicative of decreased anxiety and/or increased exploratory activity. Our findings therefore suggest that the effects of scPCP-treatment on anxiety-like behaviour are task-dependent and recommend the additional use of tests independent from exploratory drive or other motivated behaviours, such as the LES paradigm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-efficiency UV/optical/NIR detectors for large aperture telescopes and UV explorer missions: development of and field observations with delta-doped arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jewell, April D.; Hoenk, Michael E.; Jones, Todd J.; Hennessy, John; Goodsall, Tim; Carver, Alexander G.; Shapiro, Charles; Cheng, Samuel R.; Hamden, Erika T.; Kyne, Gillian; Martin, D. Christopher; Schiminovich, David; Scowen, Paul; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Lupu, Roxana E.

    2017-07-01

    Exciting concepts are under development for flagship, probe class, explorer class, and suborbital class NASA missions in the ultraviolet/optical spectral range. These missions will depend on high-performance silicon detector arrays being delivered affordably and in high numbers. To that end, we have advanced delta-doping technology to high-throughput and high-yield wafer-scale processing, encompassing a multitude of state-of-the-art silicon-based detector formats and designs. We have embarked on a number of field observations, instrument integrations, and independent evaluations of delta-doped arrays. We present recent data and innovations from JPL's Advanced Detectors and Systems Program, including two-dimensional doping technology, JPL's end-to-end postfabrication processing of high-performance UV/optical/NIR arrays and advanced coatings for detectors. While this paper is primarily intended to provide an overview of past work, developments are identified and discussed throughout. Additionally, we present examples of past, in-progress, and planned observations and deployments of delta-doped arrays.

  18. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa J; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-09-13

    Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent. Findings will inform implementation of the exception to consent process in the planned definitive SQUEEZE

  19. Future Care Planning for patients approaching end-of-life with advanced heart disease: an interview study with patients, carers and healthcare professionals exploring the content, rationale and design of a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Martin A; Highet, Gill; Robertson, Shirley; Cudmore, Sarah; Reid, Janet; Ness, Andrea; Hogg, Karen; Weir, Christopher; Murray, Scott; Boyd, Kirsty

    2014-07-14

    To explore the optimal content and design of a clinical trial of an end-of-life intervention for advanced heart disease with patients, carers and healthcare professionals. Qualitative interview and focus group study. Community and hospital-based focus groups and interviews. Stable community-dwelling patients, informal carers (PC, n=15) and primary and secondary care based healthcare professionals (HCP, n=11). PC highlighted fragmentation of services and difficulty in accessing specialist care as key barriers to good care. They felt that time for discussion with HCP was inadequate within current National Health Service (NHS) healthcare systems. HCP highlighted uncertainty of prognosis, explaining mortality risk to patients and switching from curative to palliative approaches as key challenges. Patient selection, nature of the intervention and relevance of trial outcomes were identified by HCP as key challenges in the design of a clinical trial. PC and HCP expressed a number of concerns relevant to the nature and content of an end-of-life intervention for patients with advanced heart disease. The findings of this study are being used to support a phase II randomised clinical trial of Future Care Planning in advanced heart disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Future Care Planning for patients approaching end-of-life with advanced heart disease: an interview study with patients, carers and healthcare professionals exploring the content, rationale and design of a randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Martin A; Highet, Gill; Robertson, Shirley; Cudmore, Sarah; Reid, Janet; Ness, Andrea; Hogg, Karen; Weir, Christopher; Murray, Scott; Boyd, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the optimal content and design of a clinical trial of an end-of-life intervention for advanced heart disease with patients, carers and healthcare professionals. Design Qualitative interview and focus group study. Setting Community and hospital-based focus groups and interviews. Participants Stable community-dwelling patients, informal carers (PC, n=15) and primary and secondary care based healthcare professionals (HCP, n=11). Results PC highlighted fragmentation of services and difficulty in accessing specialist care as key barriers to good care. They felt that time for discussion with HCP was inadequate within current National Health Service (NHS) healthcare systems. HCP highlighted uncertainty of prognosis, explaining mortality risk to patients and switching from curative to palliative approaches as key challenges. Patient selection, nature of the intervention and relevance of trial outcomes were identified by HCP as key challenges in the design of a clinical trial. Conclusions PC and HCP expressed a number of concerns relevant to the nature and content of an end-of-life intervention for patients with advanced heart disease. The findings of this study are being used to support a phase II randomised clinical trial of Future Care Planning in advanced heart disease. PMID:25023130

  1. A cluster randomized control field trial of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention: Replication and extension of basic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella Angele Piquette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a cluster randomized control trial evaluation of teaching using ABRACADABRA (ABRA, an evidence-based and web-based literacy intervention (http://abralite.concordia.ca with 107 kindergarten and 96 grade 1 children in 24 classes (12 intervention 12 control classes from all 12 elementary schools in one school district in Canada. Children in the intervention condition received 10-12 hours of whole class instruction using ABRA between pre- and post-test. Hierarchical linear modeling of post-test results showed significant gains in letter-sound knowledge for intervention classrooms over control classrooms. In addition, medium effect sizes were evident for three of five outcome measures favoring the intervention: letter-sound knowledge (d = +.66, phonological blending (d = +.52, and word reading (d = +.52, over effect sizes for regular teaching. It is concluded that regular teaching with ABRA technology adds significantly to literacy in the early elementary years.

  2. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of candidate treatments for cognitive impairment in depression and methodological challenges in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Ott, C. V.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) but treatments targeting cognition are lacking. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated potential cognition treatments, but overall the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic search following...... the PRISMA guidelines on PubMed and PsychInfo to evaluate the extant evidence and methodological challenges in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological and behavioural candidate treatments targeting cognition in MDD. Inclusion criteria were RCTs with a placebo control assessing...... potential pro-cognitive effects of candidate treatments in MDD. Two independent authors reviewed the studies and assessed their risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration׳s Risk of Bias tool. Twenty-eight eligible studies (24 biological and four psychological or behavioural studies) were identified...

  3. Buprenorphine provides better anaesthetic conditions than butorphanol for field castration in ponies: results of a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, C; De Vries, A; Taylor, P M

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial in 47 ponies compared butorphanol and buprenorphine administered intravenously with detomidine prior to castration under anaesthesia. Detomidine 12 μg/kg intravenously was followed by butorphanol 25 μg/kg (BUT) or buprenorphine 5 μg/kg (BUP) before induction of anaesthesia with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Quality of sedation, induction and recovery from anaesthesia, response to tactile stimulation, and surgical conditions were scored. If anaesthesia was inadequate 'rescue' was given with intravenous ketamine (maximum three doses) followed by intravenous thiopental and detomidine. Time from induction to first rescue, total ketamine dose and number of rescues were recorded. Postoperative locomotor activity was scored and abnormal behaviour noted. Simple descriptive scales were used for all scoring. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, t tests, Mann-Whitney or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate; Pbuprenorphine appeared to provide better intraoperative analgesia. British Veterinary Association.

  4. A field trial comparing the efficacy of sulphamonomethoxine, penicillin, and tarantula poison in the treatment of pododermatitis circumspecta of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampa, S

    1986-06-01

    Nearly 80% of 87 cattle suffering for the first time from pododermatitis circumspecta were cured by each of the three drugs under test. Sixty and 73% of those cured by sulphamonomethoxine and penicillin, respectively, and 29% of those cured by the tarantula poison (Theranekron), showed relapses within 6 months. Of the 92 cattle with previous records of pododermatitis circumspecta, sulphamonomethoxine cured 44%, penicillin 73% and Theranekron 32%. Of the latter three groups 72-80% showed relapses within the subsequent 6 months. The results of surgical treatments were, possibly, improved by the prior administration of Theranekron. In addition, in a pilot trial, the demarcation of a gangreneous udder half of a goat suffering from blue-bag, appeared to be accelerated by the parenteral administration of Theranekron.

  5. Rehabilitation options for inland waterways impacted by sulfidic sediments--field trials in a south-eastern Australian wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark A; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Silvester, Ewen J; Whitworth, Kerry L

    2012-07-15

    The accumulation of significant pools of sulfidic sediments in inland wetlands and creeks is an emerging risk for the management of inland waterways. We used replicated plot trials to appraise the viability of various strategies for neutralizing oxidized, acidified sulfidic sediments in a highly degraded wetland. Of the twenty different treatments trialed only addition of calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate, burning of wood, and planting of Phragmites australis, Typha domingensis and Atriplex nummularia into beds prepared with CaCO3 or P. australis and T. domingensis into beds of sediment and mulch, decreased total actual acidity (TAA) in the top 5 cm of sediment in the first two weeks following treatment. Only the calcium hydroxide treatments and planting of P. australis, T. domingensis and A. nummularia into beds prepared with CaCO3 decreased TAA for a longer period of time (6 months). None of the treatments, except the planting of P. australis into beds prepared with lime, decreased TAA in the 5-30 cm layer of sediments. Therefore, the only effective treatment appears to be the application of highly alkaline ameliorants which need to be transported to the site. A survey of the wetland was undertaken to estimate the total amount of actual and potential acidity stored in the wetland's sediment and overlying water and showed that up to 1200 tonnes of calcium carbonate would be required to neutralise all of the actual and potential acidity in the 10 ha wetland. However, neutralisation of the remaining water in the wetland (about 12.5 ML) would produce approximately 2750 m3 of metal rich sludge (approximately 100 tonnes dry weight) that would require separate disposal. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of compensatory scanning training on mobility in patients with homonymous visual field defects : A randomized controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver; Heutink, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are a common consequence of postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and often lead to mobility-related difficulties. Different types of compensatory scanning training have been developed, aimed at decreasing consequences of the HVFD by changing the use

  7. Acute peripheral joint injury: cost and effectiveness of low-field-strength MR imaging--results of randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikken, J.J.; Oei, E.H.; Ginai, A.Z.; Krestin, G.P.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Vugt, A.B. van; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess prospectively if a short imaging examination performed with low-field-strength dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in addition to radiography is effective and cost saving compared with the current diagnostic imaging strategy (radiography alone) in patients with recent acute

  8. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  9. Exploring the Effects of a Universal Classroom Management Training Programme on Teacher and Child Behaviour: A Group Randomised Controlled Trial and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Grainne; McGilloway, Sinead; Hyland, Lynda; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Bywater, Tracey; Comiskey, Catherine; Lodge, Anne; Donnelly, Michael; O'Neill, Donal

    2017-01-01

    Teachers frequently struggle to cope with conduct problems in the classroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme for improving teacher competencies and child adjustment. The study involved a group randomised controlled trial which included 22 teachers and 217…

  10. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Pijnappel, F.J.; Prins, J.M.; de Bruin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this

  11. Exploring the role of the regional coordinator: how one large academic trial adopted a coordinating center model--helping drive early-model RBM gains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Lillian; Geraci, Therese S; Egan, Debra; Kingry, Connie; Piller, Linda B; Johnson, Janice M; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Pressel, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    ... clinical sites in the U.S., Canada, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, a "hub and spoke" regional coordinating center model was developed in an effort to better oversee the conduct of the trial at these widely dispersed clinical sites. Regional coordinator and physician positions led each region and bore responsibility for training, proto...

  12. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Looking inside the black box: results of a theory-based process evaluation exploring the results of a randomized controlled trial of printed educational messages to increase primary care physicians' diabetic retinopathy referrals [Trial registration number ISRCTN72772651].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Presseau, Justin; Tetroe, Jacqueline; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Godin, Gaston; Graham, Ian D; Hux, Janet E; Johnston, Marie; Légaré, France; Lemyre, Louise; Robinson, Nicole; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2014-08-06

    Theory-based process evaluations conducted alongside randomized controlled trials provide the opportunity to investigate hypothesized mechanisms of action of interventions, helping to build a cumulative knowledge base and to inform the interpretation of individual trial outcomes. Our objective was to identify the underlying causal mechanisms in a cluster randomized trial of the effectiveness of printed educational materials (PEMs) to increase referral for diabetic retinopathy screening. We hypothesized that the PEMs would increase physicians' intention to refer patients for retinal screening by strengthening their attitude and subjective norm, but not their perceived behavioral control. Design: A theory based process evaluation alongside the Ontario Printed Educational Material (OPEM) cluster randomized trial. Postal surveys based on the Theory of Planned Behavior were sent to a random sample of trial participants two months before and six months after they received the intervention. Setting: Family physicians in Ontario, Canada. Participants: 1,512 family physicians (252 per intervention group) from the OPEM trial were invited to participate, and 31.3% (473/1512) responded at time one and time two. The final sample comprised 437 family physicians fully completing questionnaires at both time points. Main Outcome Measures: Primary: behavioral intention related to referring patient for retinopathy screening; secondary: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control. At baseline, family physicians reported positive intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control to advise patients about retinopathy screening suggesting limited opportunities for improvement in these constructs. There were no significant differences on intention, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control following the intervention. Respondents also reported additional physician- and patient-related factors perceived to influence whether patients received

  14. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (pwater the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that measure impact against a neutral placebo. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03844341.

  15. Field Acceptability and Consumption of CR1M and Potential New Food Items during the Hot Weather Ration Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    and onion powder and soup. ‘No time’ was clearly identified as a major reason for discarding these items, which should be considered for reformulation...reformulate the noodles, potato and onion powder and the soup.  Investigate and develop for inclusion, the promising products used in the HWR, including...tropics. Military Medicine 168 (1) 63-70 4. Carins, J. E. (2002) The Acceptability of the Combat Ration One Man (CR1M) Ration Pack in the Field: A

  16. Field trial of diatomaceous earth in cotton gin trash against the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N E; Porter, P

    2004-04-01

    The larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an agricultural and home nuisance pest in North America. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, the larger black flour beetle is associated with cotton gin trash, by-products of cotton ginning that are field stored in large piles for economic reasons. Larger black flour beetle overwinter in gin trash piles but may disperse by the millions in summer and autumn, entering houses as far as 2 km away where they cause distress to homeowners. Because > 1.2 billion kg of gin trash is produced annually in Texas alone, the potential consequences of the larger black flour beetle are enormous. We conducted a field experiment that evaluated the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) on the abundance of the larger black flour beetle in gin trash. There were no significant differences in numbers of larger black flour beetle among treatments and controls (mean number of adults summed over time: controls = 115.41, layered treatment = 87.60, top and bottom treatment = 96.50, bottom treatment = 115.16). There were sufficient numbers of beetles in treated piles to still pose a potential home nuisance problem, likely because the moisture content of field-stored gin trash is too high for DE to work effectively. Therefore, treating cotton gin trash with diatomaceous earth will probably be unable to prevent home infestations of larger black flour beetle. Location within a gin trash pile and season influenced pest numbers, which has implications for long-term field storage of cotton gin trash.

  17. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision to Prevent HIV in Tanah Papua, Indonesia: Field Trial to Assess Acceptability and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M Ridwan; Lazuardi, Elan; Wignall, Frank Stephen; Karma, Constant; Sumule, Sylvanus A; Tarmizi, Siti Nadia; Magnani, Robert

    2017-11-23

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the significant HIV prevention role that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) can play in populations with moderate levels of HIV prevalence. One such location is Tanah Papua, Indonesia, which in 2013 had a general population having HIV prevalence of 2.3% concentrated among indigenous Papuans (2.9% prevalence), very few of whom are circumcised. This article reports the findings of an implementation research study assessing the acceptability and feasibility of introducing VMMC for HIV prevention. Following a situational assessment and socialization of targeted groups of men and key stakeholders, a single-arm, open-label, prospective cohort trial using the non-surgical PrePex® device was undertaken in four cities. Study participants were recruited via study-associated socialization events. Data were collected from clients prior to and following device insertion, and at several "check-up" points (2-, 21- and 42-days) using standardized case report forms. A random sample of circumcision clients from one city was surveyed six months' post-removal to assess the prevalence of compensatory sexual risk behaviours. Demand for circumcision was weak in three of the cities, reflecting insufficient prior socialization and lingering concerns over religious appropriateness and safety issues. Despite no prior experience with PrePex ®, the pilot implementation yielded side-effect and adverse event rates that were unremarkable in comparison with sub-Saharan African countries, where PrePex ® is widely used. No evidence of increased post-procedure sexual risk-taking was found. The study findings point to both opportunity and significant challenges in introducing VMMC on a large scale in Tanah Papua, Indonesia. Although there were enough promising signs in the qualitative research and in the limited-scale implementation trial undertaken to remain optimistic as to the potential for VMMC to help contain HIV in Tanah Papua, much remains

  18. Evaluation of the quality of informed consent in a vaccine field trial in a developing country setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informed consent is an ethical and legal requirement for research involving human participants. However, few studies have evaluated the process, particularly in Africa. Participants in a case control study designed to identify correlates of immune protection against tuberculosis (TB in South Africa. This study was in turn nested in a large TB vaccine efficacy trial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of consent in the case control study, and to identify factors that may influence the quality of consent. Cross-sectional study conducted over a 4 month period. Methods Consent was obtained from parents of trial participants. These parents were asked to complete a questionnaire that contained questions about the key elements of informed consent (voluntary participation, confidentiality, the main risks and benefits, etc.. The recall (success in selecting the correct answers and understanding (correctness of interpretation of statements presented were measured. Results The majority of the 192 subjects interviewed obtained scores greater than 75% for both the recall and understanding sections. The median score for recall was 66%; interquartile range (IQR = 55%–77% and for understanding 75% (IQR = 50%–87%. Most (79% were aware of the risks and 64% knew that they participated voluntarily. Participants who had completed Grade 7 at school and higher were more likely (OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.57 – 15.55 to obtain scores greater than 75% for recall than those who did not. Participants who were consented by professional nurses who had worked for more than two years in research were also more likely (OR = 2.62; 95% CI = 1.35–5.07 to obtain such scores for recall than those who were not. Conclusion Notwithstanding the constraints in a developing country, in a population with low levels of literacy and education, the quality of informed consent found in this study could be considered as building blocks for establishing

  19. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  20. Discrimination of conventional and organic white cabbage from a long-term field trial study using untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Åberg, K. Magnus

    2014-01-01

    , measuring 1,600 compounds. Cabbage was sampled in 2 years from one conventional and two organic farming systems in a rigidly controlled long-term field trial in Denmark. Using Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures–Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA), we found that the production system leaves a significant...... (p = 0.013) imprint in the white cabbage metabolome that is retained between production years. We externally validated this finding by predicting the production system of samples from one year using a classification model built on samples from the other year, with a correct classification in 83...... % of cases. Thus, it was concluded that the investigated conventional and organic management practices have a systematic impact on the metabolome of white cabbage. This emphasizes the potential of untargeted metabolomics for authenticity testing of organic plant products....

  1. Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Maciel Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12 that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day, placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day, or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day, separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups’ results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers’ water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.

  2. NUCLEAR HEATING IN LIF DOSEMETERS IN A FUSION NEUTRON FIELD, TRIAL OF DIRECT COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecki, Wladyslaw; Obryk, Barbara

    2017-09-29

    The results of nuclear heating measured by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-LiF) in a Cu block irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons are presented. The integral Cu experiment relevant for verification of copper nuclear data at neutron energies characteristic for fusion facilities was performed in the ENEA FNG Laboratory at Frascati. Five types of TLDs were used: highly photon sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N), 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-7) and standard, lower sensitivity LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-N), 7LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-7) and 6LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-6). Calibration of the detectors was performed with gamma rays in terms of air-kerma (10 mGy of 137Cs air-kerma). Nuclear heating in the Cu block was also calculated with the use of MCNP transport code Nuclear heating in Cu and air in TLD's positions was calculated as well. The nuclear heating contribution from all simulated by MCNP6 code particles including protons, deuterons, alphas tritons and heavier ions produced by the neutron interactions were calculated. A trial of the direct comparison between experimental results and results of simulation was performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  4. How Often Do Comparative Randomised Controlled Trials in the Field of Eczema Fail to Directly Compare the Treatments Being Tested?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ratib

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify all parallel design randomised controlled trials (RCTs comparing treatments for eczema in recent dermatology literature that have failed to report a between-group analysis. The GREAT database (www.greatdatabase.org.uk was searched to identify parallel group RCTs comparing two or more interventions published in the English language in the last decade, 2004 to 2013. The primary outcome was the number of studies that had not reported a between-group analysis for any of the outcomes. Where possible we re-analysed the data to determine whether a between-group analysis would have given a different conclusion to that reported. Out of a total of 304 RCTs in the study period, 173 (56.9% met the inclusion criteria. Of the 173 eligible studies, 12 (6.9% had not conducted a between-group analysis for any of the reported outcomes. There was no clear improvement over time. Five of the eight studies that were re-analysed yielded non-significant between-group differences yet reported significant within-group comparisons. All but one of the 12 studies implied that the experimental intervention was successful despite not undertaking any between-group comparisons. Although the proportion of all RCTs that fail to report an appropriate between-group analysis is small, the fact that any scientist who purports to compare one treatment against another then chooses to omit the key comparison statistic is worrying.

  5. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  6. Comparison of chlorine and ammonia concentration field trial data with calculated results from a Gaussian atmospheric transport and dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Timothy J

    2013-06-15

    The Jack Rabbit Test Program was sponsored in April and May 2010 by the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration to generate source data for large releases of chlorine and ammonia from transport tanks. In addition to a variety of data types measured at the release location, concentration versus time data was measured using sensors at distances up to 500 m from the tank. Release data were used to create accurate representations of the vapor flux versus time for the ten releases. This study was conducted to determine the importance of source terms and meteorological conditions in predicting downwind concentrations and the accuracy that can be obtained in those predictions. Each source representation was entered into an atmospheric transport and dispersion model using simplifying assumptions regarding the source characterization and meteorological conditions, and statistics for cloud duration and concentration at the sensor locations were calculated. A detailed characterization for one of the chlorine releases predicted 37% of concentration values within a factor of two, but cannot be considered representative of all the trials. Predictions of toxic effects at 200 m are relevant to incidents involving 1-ton chlorine tanks commonly used in parts of the United States and internationally. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Field trial on the efficacy of an experimental fasciolicide compared with some commercial compounds in naturally infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Montenegro, Y; Ibarra Velarde, F; Quiroz Romero, H; Hernández Campos, A; Castillo, R

    2003-09-01

    The efficacy of 5-chloro-2-methylthio-6-(1-napthyloxy)-1H-benzimidazole was evaluated with three commercial fasciolicides in terms of the percentage of egg reduction in cattle. Fifty Swiss cows were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of Fasciola hepatica in their feces. On day 0, they were blocked in five groups (G) of ten animals each according to fecal egg counts. G1 received compound alpha at 12 mg/kg p.o.; G2 triclabendazole at 12 mg/kg p.o.; G3.closantel at 3.5 mg/kg s.c.; G4 clorsulon at 2.0 mg/kg s.c. G5 animals served as untreated controls. Fecal analysis was performed on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60 and 90. Efficacy was measured on days 14 and 21. In addition, the extension and intensity effects were determined on day 60. The percentage efficacy for groups 1-4 was 98.1, 98.7, 98.2 and 97.9 on day 14 and 98.5, 97.9, 97.7 and 97.9 on day 21, respectively. No statistical differences were observed between treated groups.

  8. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ 2 = 14.8, P < 0.001). We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas. PMID:25648221

  9. Metabolite Profiles of Maize Leaves in Drought, Heat, and Combined Stress Field Trials Reveal the Relationship between Metabolism and Grain Yield1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Sandra; Lisec, Jan; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Yousfi, Salima; Araus, Jose Luis; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2015-01-01

    The development of abiotic stress-resistant cultivars is of premium importance for the agriculture of developing countries. Further progress in maize (Zea mays) performance under stresses is expected by combining marker-assisted breeding with metabolite markers. In order to dissect metabolic responses and to identify promising metabolite marker candidates, metabolite profiles of maize leaves were analyzed and compared with grain yield in field trials. Plants were grown under well-watered conditions (control) or exposed to drought, heat, and both stresses simultaneously. Trials were conducted in 2010 and 2011 using 10 tropical hybrids selected to exhibit diverse abiotic stress tolerance. Drought stress evoked the accumulation of many amino acids, including isoleucine, valine, threonine, and 4-aminobutanoate, which has been commonly reported in both field and greenhouse experiments in many plant species. Two photorespiratory amino acids, glycine and serine, and myoinositol also accumulated under drought. The combination of drought and heat evoked relatively few specific responses, and most of the metabolic changes were predictable from the sum of the responses to individual stresses. Statistical analysis revealed significant correlation between levels of glycine and myoinositol and grain yield under drought. Levels of myoinositol in control conditions were also related to grain yield under drought. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models very well explained the variation of grain yield via the combination of several metabolites. These results indicate the importance of photorespiration and raffinose family oligosaccharide metabolism in grain yield under drought and suggest single or multiple metabolites as potential metabolic markers for the breeding of abiotic stress-tolerant maize. PMID:26424159

  10. Effect of BEMER magnetic field therapy on the level of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, Joachim; Kern, Simone; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2009-05-01

    Electromagnetic field therapy has been reported to be beneficial in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with significant fatigue. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term effects of Bio-Electro-Magnetic-Energy-Regulation (BEMER) on MS-related fatigue. This was a monocenter, patient- and rater-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. There were 37 relapsing-remitting patients with MS with significant fatigue in the study. The intervention consisted of BEMER magnetic field treatment for 8 minutes twice daily in comparison to placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome criterion was change in the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) between baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary outcome criteria were changes of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), a general depression scale-long version (ADS-L), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Scale (MSFC), and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). There was evidence of a significant difference of MFIS value (primary outcome criterion) after 12 weeks in favor of the verum group (26.84 versus 36.67; p = 0.024). In addition, FSS values were significantly lower in the verum group after 12 weeks (3.5 versus 4.7; p = 0.016). After 6 weeks' follow-up, verum and placebo groups did not differ in experienced fatigue (MFIS, FSS). Regarding the subscales of the MFIS, there was a significant decrease in physical (p = 0.018) and cognitive (p = 0.041), but not in psychologic subscales only in the verum group regarding the timepoints baseline and 12 weeks. BEMER therapy was well tolerated. In this pilot study, we were able to demonstrate a beneficial effect of BEMER intervention on MS fatigue. As this was only a pilot study, trials with more patients and longer duration are mandatory to describe long-term effects.

  11. Biochar mineralization and priming effect on SOM decomposition. Results from a field trial in a short rotation coppice in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maurizio; Alberti, Giorgio; Panzacchi, Pietro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Miglietta, Franco; Tonon, Giustino

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a promising strategy for carbon (C) sequestration and climate change mitigation, helping at the same time to maintain soil fertility. However, most of the knowledge on biochar stability is based on short-term lab incubation experiments, as field studies are scarce. Therefore, little is known about the interactions between biochar and roots and the related effects on biochar stability in field conditions. The present study aimed to assess the stability of biochar, its effect on original soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition, and the effect of plant roots on biochar stability in field conditions in Northern Italy, for a three-year monitoring period within the EuroChar project. The experiment was conducted in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC). Biochar produced from maize (δ13C = -13.8‰) silage pellets in a gasification plant was applied in a poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) plantation in Northern Italy. Root exclusion subplots were established using the trenching method to measure heterotrophic respiration. Total (Rtot) and heterotrophic (Rh) respiration were measured every 2 hours in control and biochar-treated soil, with a closed dynamic soil respiration system. δ13C of the soil-emited CO2 was periodically measured using the Keeling plot method. The percentage of biochar-derived soil respiration (fB), was calculated using an isotopic mass balance. Results showed that fB varied between 7% and 37% according to the sampling date, and was generally higher in the presence of roots than in trenched plots where the root growth was excluded. Without roots, only the 14% of the carbon originally added with biochar was decomposed. In the presence of roots, this percentage increased to 21%, suggesting a positive priming effect of roots on biochar decomposition. On the other hand, biochar decreased the decomposition of original SOM by about 17%, suggesting a protective effect of biochar on SOM.

  12. Exploring reasons for the observed inconsistent trial reports on intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid in the treatment of osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette; Bahrt, Henriette; Altman, Roy D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to identify factors explaining inconsistent observations concerning the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid compared to intra-articular sham/control, or non-intervention control, in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis, based on randomized clinical trials (RCTs......,216 patients), had adequate data available for inclusion in the primary meta-analysis. Overall, compared with placebo, intra-articular hyaluronic acid reduced pain with an effect size of -0.39 [-0.47 to -0.31; P ... with no data available reduced the combined estimate to -0.30 [-0.36 to -0.23; P hyaluronic acid. CONCLUSION: Based on available trial data, intra-articular hyaluronic acid showed a better effect than intra-articular saline on pain reduction in osteoarthritis. Publication bias...

  13. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Boisson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible. After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20. The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (p<0.0001. After 8 months, 68% of intervention households met the study's definition of current users, though most (73% of adults and 95% of children also reported drinking untreated water the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. CONCLUSIONS: While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger

  14. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  15. No “Magic Bullet”: Exploring Community Mobilization Strategies Used in a Multi-site Community Based Randomized Controlled Trial: Project Accept (HPTN 043)

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrow, Virginia A.; Zelaya, Carla E.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Morin, Stephen F.; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael D.; Celentano, David D.

    2012-01-01

    As community-level interventions become more common in HIV prevention, processes such as community mobilization (CM) are increasingly utilized in public health programs and research. Project Accept, a multi-site community randomized controlled trial, is testing the hypothesis that CM coupled with community-based mobile voluntary counseling and testing and post-test support services will alter community norms and reduce the incidence of HIV. By using a multiple-case study approach, this qualit...

  16. Temporal variability of CO2 and N2O emissions in an agricultural long-term field trial regarding effects of different management practices and extreme weather effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, where the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices of an integrated farming system as well as the impacts of extreme weather conditions are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, is enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term integrated farming system trial was started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years have been examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for the experimental field to include weather effects. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions influenced by management

  17. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: Exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberjé, Edwin J M; Dima, Alexandra L; Pijnappel, Frank J; Prins, Jan M; de Bruin, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this study is to pre-test a method of assessing TAU in a multicentre cost-effectiveness trial of an HIV-treatment adherence intervention. HIV-nurses (N = 21) completed a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire enquiring about TAU adherence counselling. Two coders independently coded BCTs. Completeness and clarity of nurse responses, inter-coder reliabilities and the type of BCTs reported were examined. The clarity and completeness of nurse responses were adequate. Twenty-three of the 26 identified BCTs could be reliably coded (mean κ = .79; mean agreement rate = 96%) and three BCTs scored below κ = .60. Total number of BCTs reported per nurse ranged between 7 and 19 (M = 13.86, SD = 3.35). This study suggests that the TAU open-ended questionnaire is a feasible and reliable tool to capture active content of support provided to control participants in a multicentre adherence intervention trial. Considerable