WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploiting path diversity

  1. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly...

  2. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  3. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  4. Exploiting Multi-user Diversity and Multi-hop Diversity in Dual-hop Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-05-21

    We propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information. The joint scheduling problem is formulated as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates of the users under a stability constraint, which means that in the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum-rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We also show how to extend the scheme into one that allows multiple user scheduling via superposition coding with successive decoding. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared to scheduling schemes that exploit the diversity gains partially.

  5. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus thuringiensis Reveals a Path to Specialized Exploitation of Multiple Invertebrate Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshui Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades. The transfer of plasmids with linked cry genes may account for much of the adaptation to particular insect orders, and network analysis implies that host specialization has produced strong associations between key toxin genes with similar targets. Analysis of the distribution of plasmid minireplicons shows that plasmids with orf156 and orf157, which carry genes encoding toxins against Lepidoptera or Diptera, were contained only by B. thuringiensis in the specialized insect clade (clade 2, indicating that tight genome/plasmid associations have been important in adaptation to invertebrate hosts. Moreover, the accumulation of multiple virulence factors on transposable elements suggests that cotransfer of diverse virulence factors is advantageous in terms of expanding the insecticidal spectrum, overcoming insect resistance, or through gains in pathogenicity via synergistic interactions between toxins.

  6. The role of mobility for the emergence of diversity in victim-exploiter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaianunporn, T; Hovestadt, T

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies indicate that exploitation is a possible driver of exploiter and victim diversification. However, there are many factors which could promote and limit this diversification process. Using a spatially explicit individual-based model, where an exploiter's success depends on matching between its own and a victim's continuous trait, we simulate local communities of victims and exploiters. We investigate how exploiter mobility (searching ability and movement strategies) can influence diversification of victims. We find that if victim traits are under intermediate intensity of stabilizing selection, disruptive selection exerted by exploiters can indeed lead to diversification in victim population and the victim trait distribution can split into two or more groups. Searching ability and movement strategy of exploiters (local vs. global movement) play a role in determining the number of victim trait groups emerging. Moreover, they affect the proportion of infected victims and the formation of spatial patterns in the victim trait distribution. In addition, with a high searching ability, exploiters with global movement drive victims to be more diverse than exploiters with local movement. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Exploiting Spatial and Frequency Diversity in Spatially Correlated MU-MIMO Downlink Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosdiadee Nordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of self-interference due to the increase of spatial correlation in a MIMO channel has become one of the limiting factors towards the implementation of future network downlink transmissions. This paper aims to reduce the effect of self-interference in a downlink multiuser- (MU- MIMO transmission by exploiting the available spatial and frequency diversity. The subcarrier allocation scheme can exploit the frequency diversity to determine the self-interference from the ESINR metric, while the spatial diversity can be exploited by introducing the partial feedback scheme, which offers knowledge of the channel condition to the base station and further reduces the effect before the allocation process takes place. The results have shown that the proposed downlink transmission scheme offers robust bit error rate (BER performance, even when simulated in a fully correlated channel, without imposing higher feedback requirements on the base controller.

  8. Technology Exploitation Paths: Combining Technological and Complementary Resources in New Product Development and Licensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, Mattia; Frattini, Frederico; Lejarraga, Jose; Di Minin, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Technological resources in the form of patents, trade secrets, and know-how have become key assets for modern enterprises. This paper addresses a critical issue in technology and innovation management, namely, the commercial exploitation of technological resources resulting from research and

  9. Low Complexity Transmission Scheme with Full Diversity for Two-Path Relay Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2014-01-06

    In this work, we present a new low complexity scheme for two-path relay network to harvest maximum achievable diversity. We analyze the performance of the newly proposed two-path relay network by calculating the symbol error rate (SER) for arbitrary location of relays. It is shown that with this newly proposed scheme, two-path relay networks can mimic a 2x2 multiple-input mulitple-output (MIMO) system and achieve full diversity order of four. Simulations results are provided to verify and illustrate the analytical results.

  10. King penguin population on Macquarie Island recovers ancient DNA diversity after heavy exploitation in historic times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupink, Tim H; van den Hoff, John; Lambert, David M

    2012-08-23

    Historically, king penguin populations on Macquarie Island have suffered greatly from human exploitation. Two large colonies on the island were drastically reduced to a single small colony as a result of harvesting for the blubber oil industry. However, recent conservation efforts have resulted in the king penguin population expanding in numbers and range to recolonize previous as well as new sites. Ancient DNA methods were used to estimate past genetic diversity and combined with studies of modern populations, we are now able to compare past levels of variation with extant populations on northern Macquarie Island. The ancient and modern populations are closely related and show a similar level of genetic diversity. These results suggest that the king penguin population has recovered past genetic diversity in just 80 years owing to conservation efforts, despite having seen the brink of extinction.

  11. Modelling the response of size and diversity spectra of fish assemblages to changes in exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Henrik; Rice, J.

    1998-01-01

    to changes in natural mortality, but sensitive to changes in growth and to the relationship between stock and recruitment. The results agree will with results obtained from previous analysis of survey data from the North Sea and suggest that the slope of the size spectrum is a useful measure of fishing......In this paper we investigate whether single and multispecies fisheries models call be used to predict the response of sire and diversity spectra of fish assemblages to changes in exploitation. Both types of models estimate that the slope of the size spectrum will steepen and the intercept...... will increase when fishing intensity increases, while the response of the slope and intercept of the diversity spectrum depend on the model used. The changes in the slope and intercept of the size spectrum are found to be proportional to the change in fishing intensity. The proportionality is insensitive...

  12. Microbial culture collections as pillars for promoting fungal diversity, conservation and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara Durães; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Rodrigues, André

    2013-11-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with an overall global number of 1.5M up to 3.3M species on Earth. Besides their ecological roles as decomposers, fungi are important in several aspects of applied research. Here, we review how culture collections may promote the knowledge on diversity, conservation and biotechnological exploitation of fungi. The impact of fungi diversity on biotechnological studies is discussed. We point out the major roles of microbial repositories, including fungal preservation, prospecting, identification, authentication and supply. A survey on the World Data Center for Microorganisms (WDCM) powered by the World Federation for Culture Collections and on the Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) database revealed that 46 Brazilian culture collections registered in these databases are dedicate to preserving fungi. Most of these culture collections are located in the Southeast of Brazil. This scenario also demonstrates that Brazil has many collections focused on fungal strains, but the lack of up-to-date information in WDCM as well as of a solid national platform for culture collections registration do not allow accurate assessment of fungal preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploiting Phase Diversity for CDMA2000 1X Smart Antenna Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seungheon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A performance analysis of an access channel decoder is presented which exploits a diversity gain due to the independent magnitude of received signals energy at each of the antenna elements of a smart-antenna base-station transceiver subsystem (BTS operating in CDMA2000 1X signal environment. The objective is to enhance the data retrieval at cellsite during the access period, for which the optimal weight vector of the smart antenna BTS is not available. It is shown in this paper that the access channel decoder proposed in this paper outperforms the conventional one, which is based on a single antenna channel in terms of detection probability of access probe, access channel failure probability, and Walsh-code demodulation performance.

  14. Path-length-multiplexed scattering-angle-diverse optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqing; Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Rylander, H Grady; Markey, Mia K; Milner, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    A low-resolution path-length-multiplexed scattering angle diverse optical coherence tomography (PM-SAD-OCT) is constructed to investigate the scattering properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Low-resolution PM-SAD-OCT retinal images acquired from a healthy human subject show the variation of RNFL scattering properties at retinal locations around the optic nerve head. The results are consistent with known retinal ganglion cell neural anatomy and principles of light scattering. Application of PM-SAD-OCT may provide potentially valuable diagnostic information for clinical retinal imaging.

  15. Proteomics for exploiting diversity of lupin seed storage proteins and their use as nutraceuticals for health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Keller, Jean; Ley, José; Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2016-06-30

    Lupins have a variety of both traditional and modern uses. In the last decade, reports assessing the benefits of lupin seed proteins have proliferated and, nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry is interested in lupin proteins for human health. Modern genomics and proteomics have hugely contributed to describing the diversity of lupin storage genes and, above all, proteins. Most of these studies have been centered on few edible lupin species. However, Lupinus genus comprises hundreds of species spread throughout the Old and New Worlds, and these resources have been scarcely explored and exploited. We present here a detailed review of the literature on the potential of lupin seed proteins as nutraceuticals, and the use of -omic tools to analyze seed storage polypeptides in main edible lupins and their diversity at the Lupinus inter- and intra-species level. In this sense, proteomics, more than any other, has been a key approach. Proteomics has shown that lupin seed protein diversity, where post-translational modifications yield a large number of peptide variants with a potential concern in bioactivity, goes far beyond gene diversity. The future extended use of second and third generation proteomics should definitely help to go deeper into coverage and characterization of lupin seed proteome. Some important topics concerning storage proteins from lupin seeds are presented and analyzed in an integrated way in this review. Proteomic approaches have been essential in characterizing lupin seed protein diversity, which goes far beyond gene diversity since the protein level adds to the latter differential proteolytic cleavage of conglutin pro-proteins and a diverse array of glycosylation forms and sites. Proteomics has also proved helpful for screening and studying Lupinus germplasm with the future aim of exploiting and improving food production, quality, and nutritional values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Time Diversity Effect in Hybrid ARQ Considering Space and Path Diversity for Downlink OFDM-Based Broadband Radio Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Nobuhiko; Atarashi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Masao

    This paper presents experimental evaluations of the effect of time diversity obtained by hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with soft combining in space and path diversity schemes on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based packet radio access in a downlink broadband multipath fading channel. The effect of HARQ is analyzed through laboratory experiments employing fading simulators and field experiments conducted in downtown Yokosuka near Tokyo. After confirming the validity of experimental results based on numerical analysis of the time diversity gain in HARQ, we show by the experimental results that, for a fixed modulation and channel coding scheme (MCS), time diversity obtained by HARQ is effective in reducing the required received signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) according to an increase in the number of transmissions, K, up to 10, even when the diversity effects are obtained through two-branch antenna diversity reception and path diversity using a number of multipaths greater than 12 observed in a real fading channel. Meanwhile, in combined use with the adaptive modulation and channel coding (AMC) scheme associated with space and path diversity, we clarify that the gain obtained by time diversity is almost saturated at the maximum number of transmissions in HARQ, K' = 4 in Chase combining and K' = 2 in Incremental redundancy, since the improvement in the residual packet error rate (PER) obtained through time diversity becomes small owing to the low PER in the initial packet transmission arising from appropriately selecting the optimum MCS in AMC. However, the experimental results elucidate that the time diversity in HARQ with soft combining associated with antenna diversity reception is effective in improving the throughput even in a broadband multipath channel with sufficient path diversity.

  17. Low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme with full diversity for two-path relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2015-04-01

    Existing full-rate transmission schemes for two-path relay networks typically cannot achieve full diversity while demanding high decoding complexity. In this paper, we present a novel low-complexity full-rate transmission scheme for two-path relay networks to harvest maximum achievable diversity. The proposed scheme adopts block transmission with small block size of four symbols, which greatly reduces the decoding complexity at the receiver. Through the performance analysis of the resulting two-path relay network in terms of the symbol error rate (SER) and diversity order, we show the proposed scheme can achieve full diversity order of four and mimic a 2 \\\\times 2 multiple-input multiple-output system. Simulations results are provided to validate the mathematical formulation. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  18. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant species form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that transfer soil P to the plant via their external hyphae. The distribution of nutrients in soils is typically patchy (heterogeneous) but little is known about the ability of AMF to exploit P patches in soi...... by decreased P uptake by other parts of the mycelium. This is the first demonstration of variation in growth and nutrient uptake by an AMF as influenced by a localized P enrichment of the soil. The results are discussed in the context of functional diversity of AMF....

  19. Can commercial ferrofluids be exploited in AC magnetic hyperthermia treatment to address diverse biomedical aspects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakeris, M.; Li, Zi-An; Sakellari, D.; Simeonidis, K.; Spasova, M.; Farle, M.

    2014-07-01

    Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for various applications combining diagnosis, imaging and therapy. In the present work, we elaborate on the commercial colloidal solution "FluidMAG" (from Chemicell GmbH) as a possible candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. The current product is a dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles employed for purification or separation of biotinylated biomolecules from different sources (e.g. blood). Transmission Electron Microscopy showed that the NPs have a spherical shape with mean diameter of 12.3 nm (± 20%), and SQUID magnetometry revealed their superparamagnetic character. Our promising results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of "FluidMAG" suggest that with the appropriate manipulation it can also be exploited as magnetic hyperthermia agent.

  20. Can commercial ferrofluids be exploited in AC magnetic hyperthermia treatment to address diverse biomedical aspects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelakeris M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for various applications combining diagnosis, imaging and therapy. In the present work, we elaborate on the commercial colloidal solution “FluidMAG” (from Chemicell GmbH as a possible candidate for magnetic hyperthermia application. The current product is a dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles employed for purification or separation of biotinylated biomolecules from different sources (e.g. blood. Transmission Electron Microscopy showed that the NPs have a spherical shape with mean diameter of 12.3 nm (± 20%, and SQUID magnetometry revealed their superparamagnetic character. Our promising results of the AC hyperthermia efficiency of “FluidMAG” suggest that with the appropriate manipulation it can also be exploited as magnetic hyperthermia agent.

  1. [The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediack, Sandra E

    2008-06-01

    The effect of forest exploitation--timber and palmito (Euterpe edulis, Palmae) extraction--on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of forests known as palmitals of the Atlantic Forest of Argentina was analyzed. These palmitals are located in Misiones (54 degrees 13' W and 25 degrees 41' S). Three 1 ha permanent plots were established: two in the "intangible" zone of the Iguazu National Park (PNI), and another in an exploited forest site bordering the PNI. Three 0.2 ha non-permanent plots were also measured. One was located in the PNI reserve zone where illegal palmito extraction occurs. The other two were in logged forest. All trees and palmitos with DBH >10 cm were identified and DBH and height were measured. For each of the six sites, richness and diversity of tree species, floristic composition, number of endemic species, and density of harvestable tree species were estimated. The harvest of E. edulis increases density of other tree species, diminishing palmito density. Forest explotation (logging and palmito harvest) is accompanied by an increase in diversity and density of heliophilic species, which have greater timber value in the region. However, this explotation also diminishes the density of palmito, of endemic species which normally grow in low densities, and of species found on the IUCN Red List. Results suggest that forest structure may be managed for timber and palmito production. The "intangible" zone of the PNI has the greatest conservation value in the Atlantic Forest, since a greater number of endemisms and endangered species are found here.

  2. Simultaneous ocular and muscle artifact removal from EEG data by exploiting diverse statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Yu; Zou, Liang; McKeown, Martin J

    2017-09-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings are frequently contaminated by both ocular and muscle artifacts. These are normally dealt with separately, by employing blind source separation (BSS) techniques relying on either second-order or higher-order statistics (SOS & HOS respectively). When HOS-based methods are used, it is usually in the setting of assuming artifacts are statistically independent to the EEG. When SOS-based methods are used, it is assumed that artifacts have autocorrelation characteristics distinct from the EEG. In reality, ocular and muscle artifacts do not completely follow the assumptions of strict temporal independence to the EEG nor completely unique autocorrelation characteristics, suggesting that exploiting HOS or SOS alone may be insufficient to remove these artifacts. Here we employ a novel BSS technique, independent vector analysis (IVA), to jointly employ HOS and SOS simultaneously to remove ocular and muscle artifacts. Numerical simulations and application to real EEG recordings were used to explore the utility of the IVA approach. IVA was superior in isolating both ocular and muscle artifacts, especially for raw EEG data with low signal-to-noise ratio, and also integrated usually separate SOS and HOS steps into a single unified step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploitation of Diversity for Morphological Traits in Lilium tsingtauense under Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiByung LIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study naturally growing morphological variation of Lilium tsingtauense (Korean wheel lily, from southern Chung San Island to northern Mount Seorak, was investigated in 16 habitats around the country. Morphological analysis revealed that this species had its own unique characteristics in different habitats. Flowers with luster are in actinomorphic form, with shades of orange, each plant having an average of 2.4 flowers that blossom upward. The shape of flower petals was from oval to oblong. The width of the petals, which determines the shape of the flower, significantly varied among regions. Flower petals showed purple spots and its occurrence greatly varied among plants from almost none to 300 spots per flower. In addition, when the number of spots increased, the flower color was more vivid. Leaves were typically one-tiered verticillate and most of the leaves were long, oval and some were lanceolate. Young leaves showed definitive patterns that faded during growth. Starting from the verticillate leaves, stems below the leaves were smooth, although 81% of all stems, above the verticillate leaves, showed rough micro-protrusions. Bulb shapes were long and vertically elliptical. The ramentum was light yellow in color and the base was darker, with the color fading toward the upper region of the plant. The shape of the ramentum was long, with a pointy end, and its adhesiveness was weak. This study offers basic fundamental information for the effective exploitation and recognition of L. tsingtauense resources as a potential cut flower and potting plant in floral trade worldwide.

  4. Exploitation of Diversity for Morphological Traits in Lilium tsingtauense under Different Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiByung LIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study naturally growing morphological variation of Lilium tsingtauense (Korean wheel lily, from southern Chung San Island to northern Mount Seorak, was investigated in 16 habitats around the country. Morphological analysis revealed that this species had its own unique characteristics in different habitats. Flowers with luster are in actinomorphic form, with shades of orange, each plant having an average of 2.4 flowers that blossom upward. The shape of flower petals was from oval to oblong. The width of the petals, which determines the shape of the flower, significantly varied among regions. Flower petals showed purple spots and its occurrence greatly varied among plants from almost none to 300 spots per flower. In addition, when the number of spots increased, the flower color was more vivid. Leaves were typically one-tiered verticillate and most of the leaves were long, oval and some were lanceolate. Young leaves showed definitive patterns that faded during growth. Starting from the verticillate leaves, stems below the leaves were smooth, although 81% of all stems, above the verticillate leaves, showed rough micro-protrusions. Bulb shapes were long and vertically elliptical. The ramentum was light yellow in color and the base was darker, with the color fading toward the upper region of the plant. The shape of the ramentum was long, with a pointy end, and its adhesiveness was weak. This study offers basic fundamental information for the effective exploitation and recognition of L. tsingtauense resources as a potential cut flower and potting plant in floral trade worldwide.

  5. Volatile compounds in Thymus sect. Teucrioides (Lamiaceae): intraspecific and interspecific diversity, chemotaxonomic significance and exploitation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarokili, Danae; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Saitanis, Costas; Tzakou, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Thymus sect. Teucrioides comprises three species, namely, T. hartvigii, T. leucospermus, and T. teucrioides, distributed in Greece and Albania. The volatile constituents of all species of the section were obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Twenty populations were sampled and a total of 103 compounds were identified, representing 98.0-99.9% of the oil compositions. The oils were mainly characterized by high contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (42.7-92.4%), with the exception of three oils for which oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominating constituents, viz., that of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx, with linalool as main compound (89.2±0.5%), and those of T. hartvigii ssp. hartvigii and of one population of T. teucrioides ssp. candilicus, containing thymol as major component (46.4±3.1 and 38.2±3.9%, resp.). The most common compound in the oils of the 20 populations of the section was p-cymene. Considerable variation was detected within and among populations, and seven chemotypes were distinguished, i.e., p-cymene, linalool, p-cymene/thymol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene, p-cymene/borneol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene/borneol, and p-cymene/linalool chemotypes. Different chemotypes may exist in the same population. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled the segregation of the oils within Thymus sect. Teucrioides into two groups, one consisting of the three subspecies of T. teucrioides and the second comprising the species T. hartvigii and T. leucospermus. A linalool-rich chemotype, unique within the section, distinguished the oil of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx from all other oils. The high oil content of p-cymene and the preference for serpentine substrates render T. teucrioides species promising for future exploitation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity within commercially exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun Nurul Aimi Mat Jaafar

    study confirms that COI is an effective tool for species identification of Carangidae from the IMA. There were moderate levels of cryptic diversity among putative species within the central IMA. However, to explain the hypothesis of species richness in the IMA, it is necessary to sample the whole family across their broad geographic range. Such insights are helpful not only to document mechanisms driving diversification and recruitment in Carangidae, but also to provide a scientific framework for management strategies and conservation of commercially-important fisheries resources.

  7. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity within Commercially Exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Jaafar, Tun Nurul Aimi; Taylor, Martin I.; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; de Bruyn, Mark; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    that COI is an effective tool for species identification of Carangidae from the IMA. There were moderate levels of cryptic diversity among putative species within the central IMA. However, to explain the hypothesis of species richness in the IMA, it is necessary to sample the whole family across their broad geographic range. Such insights are helpful not only to document mechanisms driving diversification and recruitment in Carangidae, but also to provide a scientific framework for management strategies and conservation of commercially-important fisheries resources. PMID:23209586

  8. Discerning the healing path--how nurses assist patient spirituality in diverse health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giske, Tove; Cone, Pamela H

    2015-10-01

    To examine nurses' experiences in spiritual care in diverse clinical settings, preferably not palliative care. Spirituality is part of holistic nursing care. The concept of spiritual literacy is introduced as the nurse's ability to read the spiritual signs of the human experience. Classical grounded theory methodology with open and selective coding was used to identify the participants' main concern and the strategies they used to resolve it, and to develop a substantive grounded theory. Data were collected in 2008 and 2014 during eight focus group interviews with a total of 22 nurses recruited from a master's programme, postgraduate programmes and a local hospital. Data were analysed through constant comparison until the grounded theory emerged. The participants' main concern was how to assist the patient to alleviation. The participants resolved this by Discerning the healing path, which comprises three stages: Tuning in on spirituality, Uncovering deep concerns and Facilitating the healing process. These three stages are accompanied all the way by the participants' Willingness to overcome own comfort zone and Building a trusting relationship. Spirituality is of relevance for all areas of nursing care, not just dying patients or those in palliative care. Spirituality relates to the deep and important things in life and affects how patients face health issues. Nurses attend to spirituality in patients because the pain of the soul touches them and the calmness of spiritual peace amazes them. The professional culture in the health care team socialises nurses into the workplace, and leaders need to pay close attention to how they can foster openness to spiritual matters. The personal and professional maturity of the nurse is fundamental to his or her willingness and ability to overcome own comfort zone. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  10. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection

  11. A Energy-Saving Path-Shared Protection Based on Diversity Network Coding for Multi-rate Multicast in WDM Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danling; Lv, Lei; Liu, Huanlin

    2017-08-01

    For improving the survivability and energy saving of multi-rate multicast, a novel energy-saving path-shared protection based on diversity network coding (EPP-DNC) for multi-rate multicast in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks is proposed in the paper. In the EPP-DNC algorithm, diversity network coding on the source node for multi-rate multicast is adopted to reduce the coding energy consumption by avoiding network coding on the network's intermediate nodes. To decrease the transmission energy, shortest path shared based on heuristic is proposed to transmit the protection information for the request. To provision request's working paths efficiency, the working paths are routed on the preselected P-cycles with minimum required links and minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed EPP-DNC can save energy consumption and improve bandwidth utilization.

  12. Developing core collections to optimize the management and the exploitation of diversity of the coffee Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Thierry; De Bellis, Fabien; Legnate, Hyacinthe; Musoli, Pascal; Kalonji, Adrien; Loor Solórzano, Rey Gastón; Cubry, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The management of diversity for conservation and breeding is of great importance for all plant species and is particularly true in perennial species, such as the coffee Coffea canephora. This species exhibits a large genetic and phenotypic diversity with six different diversity groups. Large field collections are available in the Ivory Coast, Uganda and other Asian, American and African countries but are very expensive and time consuming to establish and maintain in large areas. We propose to improve coffee germplasm management through the construction of genetic core collections derived from a set of 565 accessions that are characterized with 13 microsatellite markers. Core collections of 12, 24 and 48 accessions were defined using two methods aimed to maximize the allelic diversity (Maximization strategy) or genetic distance (Maximum-Length Sub-Tree method). A composite core collection of 77 accessions is proposed for both objectives of an optimal management of diversity and breeding. This core collection presents a gene diversity value of 0.8 and exhibits the totality of the major alleles (i.e., 184) that are present in the initial set. The seven proposed core collections constitute a valuable tool for diversity management and a foundation for breeding programs. The use of these collections for collection management in research centers and breeding perspectives for coffee improvement are discussed.

  13. Ecological footprint analysis of environmental impacts by cascaded exploitation of diversion-type small hydropower: a case study in southwest china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Li, Qingyun; Huang, Zhuo; Tang, Xianqiang; Zhao, Weihua

    2017-05-01

    Cascaded exploitation of diversion-type small hydropower (SHP) offers a source of new energy as well as socioeconomic benefits; however, it inevitably causes environmental disturbance and damage. Previous studies on the cumulative effect of cascaded diversion SHP rarely discussed using quantitative analysis method. In this paper, the ecological footprint analysis approach is proposed to assess the positive and negative impacts of cascaded diversion SHP on environment of a small-scale river in Southwest China. Positive impact is defined as ecological supply footprint (ESF), which refers to vegetation protection by replacing firewood with SHP. Negative impact is defined as ecological loss footprint (ELF), which includes fish and net primary productivity loss, vegetation destruction and soil erosion. With the raising in the number (n>4) of diversion SHP stations, the difference between ELF and ESF increases remarkably, suggesting that the adverse impacts of cascaded diversion SHP accumulate in the study area. Compared with vegetation destruction and soil erosion, the cumulative loss of fish and net productivity is the most important aspect of the adverse impacts which needs more attentions.

  14. An "elite hacker": breast tumors exploit the normal microenvironment program to instruct their progression and biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Aaron; van't Veer, Laura J; Bissell, Mina J

    2012-01-01

    The year 2011 marked the 40 year anniversary of Richard Nixon signing the National Cancer Act, thus declaring the beginning of the "War on Cancer" in the United States. Whereas we have made tremendous progress toward understanding the genetics of tumors in the past four decades, and in developing enabling technology to dissect the molecular underpinnings of cancer at unprecedented resolution, it is only recently that the important role of the stromal microenvironment has been studied in detail. Cancer is a tissue-specific disease, and it is becoming clear that much of what we know about breast cancer progression parallels the biology of the normal breast differentiation, of which there is still much to learn. In particular, the normal breast and breast tumors share molecular, cellular, systemic and microenvironmental influences necessary for their progression. It is therefore enticing to consider a tumor to be a "rogue hacker"--one who exploits the weaknesses of a normal program for personal benefit. Understanding normal mammary gland biology and its "security vulnerabilities" may thus leave us better equipped to target breast cancer. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of the heterotypic cellular and molecular interactions within the microenvironment of the developing mammary gland that are necessary for functional differentiation, provide evidence suggesting that similar biology--albeit imbalanced and exaggerated--is observed in breast cancer progression particularly during the transition from carcinoma in situ to invasive disease. Lastly we will present evidence suggesting that the multigene signatures currently used to model cancer heterogeneity and clinical outcome largely reflect signaling from a heterogeneous microenvironment-a recurring theme that could potentially be exploited therapeutically.

  15. An eco-compatible strategy for the diversity-oriented synthesis of macrocycles exploiting carbohydrate-derived building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil K. Maurya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, eco-compatible diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS approach for the generation of library of sugar embedded macrocyclic compounds with various ring size containing 1,2,3-triazole has been developed. This concise strategy involves the iterative use of readily available sugar-derived alkyne/azide–alkene building blocks coupled through copper catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC reaction followed by pairing of the linear cyclo-adduct using greener reaction conditions. The eco-compatibility, mild reaction conditions, greener solvents, easy purification and avoidance of hazards and toxic solvents are advantages of this protocol to access this important structural class. The diversity of the macrocycles synthesized (in total we have synthesized 13 macrocycles using a set of standard reaction protocols demonstrate the potential of the new eco-compatible approach for the macrocyclic library generation.

  16. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (Fis) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family. PMID:22605966

  17. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismanizan Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR. Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%, followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626. Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho (0.164 and highly positive fixation indices (Fis in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  18. COMPARING PREDATOR ABUNDANCE AND FISH DIVERSITY IN MPA SITES (KORNATI NP, CROATIA AND ADJACENT SITES EXPLOITED BY FISHERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat Petricioli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fishing activities and other anthropogenic influences have direct and indirect effects on fish community structure. One expectation may be that with increasing fishing pressure and decreasing size selectivity of fisheries all predator populations decline and consequently fish assemblages change. Comparisons of MPAs with unprotected areas are considered valid natural experiments to test hypotheses on how predation structures communities. Here we report on the use of a lure-assisted visual census in the Central Croatian Adriatic to assess and compare fish assemblages in MPA sites (Kornati NP with adjacent unprotected sites. We detected a significant protection effect on mesopredator abundance and overall fish diversity/richness and that protection status explained a significant portion of the fish assemblage variability, all independent of additional predictor variables, like habitat and depth. As we continue to expand the spatiotemporal scale and magnitude of the approach, we hope that it will eventually provide us with a long-term data series needed for testing many hypotheses in coastal ecology, including the effects of MPAs, coastal development, fishing and global climate change on the species interactions, abundance, diversity and assembly of animal species across multiple spatial scales.

  19. No loss of genetic diversity in the exploited and recently collapsed population of Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-04-11

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the Bay of Biscay suffered a collapse in census population size (Nc) starting in 2002, from which it did not recover until 2010. The slow recovery raised concern over sustainability, potential reduction in adaptive potential, and vulnerability to local extirpation. Long- and short-term effective population size (Ne), Ne/Nc ratio, and other genetic parameters were estimated to evaluate demographic signals of population decline. A total of 349 neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 330 anchovy individuals from the Bay of Biscay distributed across a 20-year period. We show that Nc fluctuations have not significantly affected short-term Ne, and therefore, genetic diversity has remained stable throughout the recent collapse. This study illustrates that Ne estimates should be incorporated into management plans. Our results on short-term Ne suggested that the anchovy in the Bay of Biscay has not faced any recent severe threat of losing evolutionary potential due to genetic drift. However, differences between short- and long-term Ne estimates suggested that the Bay of Biscay anchovy population may be currently much smaller than in the historical past. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Evaluation of Flow Paths and Confluences for Saltwater Intrusion and Its Influence on Fish Species Diversity in a Deltaic River Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, X.; Cui, B.; Zhang, Z.; Fang, Y.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Freshwater in a delta is often at risk of saltwater intrusion, which has been a serious issue in estuarine deltas all over the world. Salinity gradients and hydrologic connectivity in the deltas can be disturbed by saltwater intrusion, which can fluctuate frequently and locally in time and space to affect biotic processes and then to affect the distribution patterns of the riverine fishes throughout the river network. Therefore, identifying the major flow paths or locations at risk of saltwater intrusion in estuarine ecosystems is necessary for saltwater intrusion mitigation and fish species diversity conservation. In this study, we use the betweenness centrality (BC) as the weighted attribute of the river network to identify the critical confluences and detect the preferential flow paths for saltwater intrusion through the least-cost-path algorithm from graph theory approach. Moreover, we analyse the responses of the salinity and fish species diversity to the BC values of confluences calculated in the river network. Our results show that the most likely location of saltwater intrusion is not a simple gradient change from sea to land, but closely dependent on the river segments' characteristics. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the salinity and the BC values of confluences is determined in the Pearl River Delta. Changes in the BC values of confluences can produce significant variation in the fish species diversity. Therefore, the dynamics of saltwater intrusion are a growing consideration for understanding the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish community structure. Freshwater can be diverted into these major flow paths and critical confluences to improve river network management and conservation of fish species diversity under saltwater intrusion.

  1. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina

    2016-01-01

    -employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  2. Evolutionary Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the concept of governance paths and the forms of dependency marking paths. The forms of dependency constitute rigidities in governance evolution, but leave space for flexibility, for path creation.

  3. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  4. Diversity of Phototrophic Genes Suggests Multiple Bacteria May Be Able to Exploit Sunlight in Exposed Soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Tahon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life in exposed terrestrial surface layers in continental Antarctica is faced with extreme environmental conditions, including scarcity of organic matter. Bacteria in these exposed settings can therefore be expected to use alternative energy sources such as solar energy, abundant during the austral summer. Using Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we assessed the diversity and abundance of four conserved protein encoding genes involved in different key steps of light-harvesting pathways dependent on (bacteriochlorophyll (pufM, bchL/chlL and bchX genes and rhodopsins (actinorhodopsin genes, in exposed soils from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica. Analysis of pufM genes, encoding a subunit of the type 2 photochemical reaction center found in anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, revealed a very broad diversity, dominated by Roseobacter- and Loktanella-like sequences. The bchL and chlL, involved in (bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, on the other hand, showed a high abundance of either cyanobacterial or green algal trebouxiophyceael chlL reads, depending on the sample, while most bchX sequences belonged mostly to previously unidentified phylotypes. Rhodopsin-containing phototrophic bacteria could not be detected in the samples. Our results, while suggesting that Cyanobacteria and green algae are the main phototrophic groups, show that light-harvesting bacteria are nevertheless very diverse in microbial communities in Antarctic soils.

  5. Image exploitation for MISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  6. Exploiting indigenous knowledge of subsistence farmers' for the management and conservation of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) (musaceae family) diversity on-farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemataw, Zerihun; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Zeberga, Awole; Blomme, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) belongs to the order sctaminae, the family musaceae. The Musaceae family is subdivided into the genera Musa and Ensete. Enset is an important staple crop for about 20 million people in the country. Recent publications on enset ethnobotany are insignificant when compared to the diverse ethnolingustic communities in the country. Hence, this paper try to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge associated with the distribution, diversity, and management of enset in the country. The study was conducted in eight ethnic groups in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State. In order to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge, the data was collected mainly through individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 320 farm households, key informant interviews. Relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. Enset-based farming system is one of a major agricultural system in Ethiopia that serves as a backbone for at least ¼ of country's population. Farmers used three morphological characters, two growth attributes, disease resistance and five use values traits in folk classification and characterization of enset. A total of 312 folk landraces have been identified. The number of landraces cultivated on individual farms ranged from one to twenty eight (mean of 8.08 ± 0.93). All ethnic groups in the study area use five use categories in order of importance: kocho yield and quality, bulla quality, amicho use, fiber quality and medicinal/ritual value. Of the 312 landraces 245 landraces having more than two use types. Management and maintenance of on-farm enset diversity is influenced by systematic propagation of the landraces, exchange of planting material and selective pressure. It can be concluded that the existing

  7. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions.

  8. Exploiting diverse crowd-sourced data as part of a mixed-methods approach to validating modelled flood extents and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollason, Edward; Bracken, Louise; Hardy, Richard; Large, Andy

    2017-04-01

    The use of flood models for evaluating flood risk from rivers and the sea is now a standard practice across Europe since the introduction of the 2007 EU Floods Directive requiring the assessment and mapping of flood risk from all major rivers and the sea. The availability of high quality topographic data from LiDAR and other remotely sensed sources has led to the increasing adoption of 2 dimensional models for simulating the dynamics of flooding on the floodplain. However, the ability to effectively validate dynamic floodplain inundation has not kept pace with the increasing complexity and spatial resolution of flood models. Validation remains dependent upon in-channel validation using flood level gauges or post-event data collection of wrack-marks, sometimes supplemented by community-derived anecdotal data. This poster presents the findings of a 'mixed-methods approach' to flood model validation using the winter 2016 floods on the River Tyne, UK. Using flood inundation results from a simple LISFLOOD-FP model of the River Tyne at Corbridge, the research develops a novel mixed-methods approach to validating both the maximum flood depths and extents, and the dynamics of the flood through the event. A crowd-sourced dataset of anecdotal information on flood dynamics, supported by photographic and video evidence, as well as community-derived, high definition UAV footage captured 24 and 48 hours after the peak of the event, allows for the comprehensive reconstruction of the flood dynamics and a more complete validation of the effectiveness of the model in reconstructing not just the maximum flood extent but also the dynamics of the rising and falling stages of an event. The findings of the research indicate the potential for making use of a much greater variety of locally-sourced data, particularly exploiting new technologies which offer opportunities for the collection of high quality data in the immediate aftermath of flooding events when traditional agencies may still

  9. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  10. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  11. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  12. Path-oriented test cases generation based adaptive genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoan; Xiong, Zijian; Zhang, Na; Qian, Junyan; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases oriented paths in an effective manner is a challenging problem for structural testing of software. The use of search-based optimization methods, such as genetic algorithms (GAs), has been proposed to handle this problem. This paper proposes an improved adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA) for test cases generation by maintaining population diversity. It uses adaptive crossover rate and mutation rate in dynamic adjustment according to the differences between individual similarity and fitness values, which enhances the exploitation of searching global optimum. This novel approach is experimented and tested on a benchmark and six industrial programs. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method is efficient in generating test cases for path coverage.

  13. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in operations research as well as in artificial intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides, we present an interesting

  14. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in Operations Research as well as in Arti¯cial Intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides we present an interesting

  15. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  16. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    exploits. We saw this as an advantage of our dataset because we had to confirm that either a bug was exploitable or not exploitable. For the 28 CHAPTER 5...corruption which demonstrates that there is very little activity within c-ares to take advantage of after the heap corruption. This idea is in line with the...remote code execution POCs. 42 Bibliography [1] Analyze crashes to find security vulnerabilities in your apps . https: //blogs.msdn.microsoft.com

  17. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz R. Mendoza; Silvestre Rodríguez; Rafael Pérez-Jiménez; Alejandro Ayala; Oswaldo González

    2016-01-01

    In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-di...

  18. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  19. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    . Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts...

  1. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  2. A New Path Generation Algorithm Based on Accurate NURBS Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sawssen Jalel; Philippe Marthon; Atef Hamouda

    2016-01-01

    The process of finding an optimum, smooth and feasible global path for mobile robot navigation usually involves determining the shortest polyline path, which will be subsequently smoothed to satisfy the requirements. Within this context, this paper deals with a novel roadmap algorithm for generating an optimal path in terms of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) curves. The generated path is well constrained within the curvature limit by exploiting the influence of the weight parameter of ...

  3. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  4. Internet's critical path horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  5. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2013-10-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  6. Viruses exploiting peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarow, Paul B

    2011-08-01

    Viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including HIV, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. Peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (HIV's Nef and influenza's NS1) or use the peroxisomal membrane for RNA replication. The Nef interaction correlates strongly with the crucial Nef function of CD4 downregulation. Viral exploitation of peroxisomal lipid metabolism appears likely. Mostly, functional significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recently, peroxisomes were discovered to play a crucial role in the innate immune response by signaling the presence of intracellular virus, leading to the first rapid antiviral response. This review unearths, interprets and connects old data, in the hopes of stimulating new and promising research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  8. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  9. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  10. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  11. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  12. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  13. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  14. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  15. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  16. Path-neighborhood graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractA path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. In the main results the 3-sun-free path-neighborhood graphs are characterized. The 3-sun is obtained from a 6-cycle by adding three chords between the three pairs of vertices at distance 2. A Pk

  17. Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.

    2017-06-01

    Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.

  18. Crack Path Prediction in Anisotropic Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Vincent; Karma, Alain

    2005-12-01

    A force balance condition to predict quasistatic crack paths in anisotropic brittle materials is derived from an analysis of diffuse interface continuum models that describe both short-scale failure and macroscopic linear elasticity. The path is uniquely determined by the directional anisotropy of the fracture energy, independent of details of the failure process. The derivation exploits the gradient dynamics and translation symmetry properties of this class of models to define a generalized energy-momentum tensor whose integral around an arbitrary closed path enclosing the crack tip yields all forces acting on this tip, including Eshelby’s configurational forces, cohesive forces, and dissipative forces. Numerical simulations are in very good agreement with analytic predictions.

  19. Transition path time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleman, M.; Carlon, E.; Orland, H.

    2017-12-01

    Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies. These terms influence the short time scale dynamics of a stochastic system and can be of experimental relevance in view of the short duration of transition paths. We derive the full transition path time distribution as well as the average transition path times and discuss the similarities and differences with the high friction limit.

  20. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  1. Visualizing Transmedia Networks: Links, Paths and Peripheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Marc Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    'Visualizing Transmedia Networks: Links, Paths and Peripheries' examines the increasingly complex rhetorical intersections between narrative and media ("old" and "new") in the creation of transmedia fictions, loosely defined as multisensory and multimodal stories told extensively across a diverse media set. In order…

  2. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...

  3. Commercial sexual exploitation of children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur; Raquel Mendez Villamizar; Diana Lucía Moreno

    2012-01-01

      We study the sexual exploitation of children contributing to the understanding of risk and situations favouring the entry and permanence of children and adolescents from the reconstruction of the...

  4. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  5. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  6. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  7. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  8. Bridging Faultlines by Valuing Diversity: Diversity Beliefs, Information Elaboration, and Performance in Diverse Work Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Homan (Astrid); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there are numerous potential benefits to diversity in work groups, converging dimensions of diversity often prevent groups from exploiting this potential. In a study of heterogeneous decision-making groups, we examined whether the disruptive effects of diversity faultlines can

  9. Arena geometry and path shape: when rats travel in straight or in circuitous paths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-12-01

    We show here that the global geometry of the environment affects the shape of the paths of travel in rats. To examine this, individual rats were introduced into an unfamiliar arena. One group of rats (n=8) was tested in a square arena (2 m × 2 m), and the other group (n=8) in a round arena (2 m diameter). Testing was in a total darkness, since in the absence of visual information the geometry is not perceived immediately and the extraction of environment shape is slower. We found that while the level of the rats' activity did not seem to differ between both arenas, path shape differed significantly. When traveling along the perimeter, path shape basically followed the arena walls, with perimeter paths curving along the walls of the round arena, while being straight along the walls of the square arena. A similar impact of arena geometry was observed for travel away from the arena walls. Indeed, when the rats abandoned the arena walls to crosscut through the center of the arena, their center paths were circuitous in the round arena and relatively straight in the square arena. We suggest that the shapes of these paths are exploited for the same spatial task: returning back to a familiar location in the unsighted environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Opportunities for synthetic biology in antibiotics: expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Maulik N; Wright, Gerard D

    2015-03-20

    Synthetic biology offers a new path for the exploitation and improvement of natural products to address the growing crisis in antibiotic resistance. All antibiotics in clinical use are facing eventual obsolesce as a result of the evolution and dissemination of resistance mechanisms, yet there are few new drug leads forthcoming from the pharmaceutical sector. Natural products of microbial origin have proven over the past 70 years to be the wellspring of antimicrobial drugs. Harnessing synthetic biology thinking and strategies can provide new molecules and expand chemical diversity of known antibiotic scaffolds to provide much needed new drug leads. The glycopeptide antibiotics offer paradigmatic scaffolds suitable for such an approach. We review these strategies here using the glycopeptides as an example and demonstrate how synthetic biology can expand antibiotic chemical diversity to help address the growing resistance crisis.

  11. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  12. Paths to Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.; Glick, Paul C.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a demographic analysis of the paths to remarriage--the extent and timing of remarriage, social factors associated with remarriage, and the impact of the event which preceded remarriage (divorce or widowhood). (Author)

  13. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  14. Paths to nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondas, Terese

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore why nurses enter nursing leadership and apply for a management position in health care. The study is part of a research programme in nursing leadership and evidence-based care. Nursing has not invested enough in the development of nursing leadership for the development of patient care. There is scarce research on nurses' motives and reasons for committing themselves to a career in nursing leadership. A strategic sample of 68 Finnish nurse leaders completed a semistructured questionnaire. Analytic induction was applied in an attempt to generate a theory. A theory, Paths to Nursing Leadership, is proposed for further research. Four different paths were found according to variations between the nurse leaders' education, primary commitment and situational factors. They are called the Path of Ideals, the Path of Chance, the Career Path and the Temporary Path. Situational factors and role models of good but also bad nursing leadership besides motivational and educational factors have played a significant role when Finnish nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

  15. Characterizing the evolutionary path(s) to early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M; Ackermann, Rebecca R

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change.

  16. Characterizing the evolutionary path(s to early Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Schroeder

    Full Text Available Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change.

  17. Ensuring and exploiting the genetic diversity of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern sugarcane cultivars are complex interspecific hybrids primarily involving Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. In the late 1800s, early breeders in Java, Indonesia recognized the value of interspecific hybridization and began to hybridize the two species, resulting in vigorous and diseas...

  18. Towards Concurrent Data Transmission: Exploiting Plasmid Diversity by Bacterial Conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Bige D; Islam, M Siblee; Balasubramaniam, Sasitharan; Ivanov, Stepan

    2017-06-01

    The progress of molecular communication (MC) is tightly connected to the progress of nanomachine design. State-of-the-art states that nanomachines can be built either from novel nanomaterials by the help of nanotechnology or they can be built from living cells which are modified to function as intended by synthetic biology. With the growing need of the biomedical applications of MC, we focus on developing bio-compatible communication systems by engineering the cells to become MC nanomachines. Since this approach relies on modifying cellular functions, the improvements in the performance can only be achieved by integrating new biological properties. A previously proposed model for molecular communication is using bacteria as information carriers between transmitters and receivers, also known as bacterial nanonetworks. This approach has suggested encoding information into the plasmids inserted into the bacteria which leads to extra overhead for the receivers to decode and analyze the plasmids to obtain the encoded information. Another scheme, which is proposed in this paper, is to determine the digital information transmitted based on the quantity of bacteria emitted. While this scheme has its simplicity, the major drawback is the low-data rate resulting from the long propagation of the bacteria. To improve the performance, this paper proposes a distributed modulation scheme utilizing three bacterial properties, namely, engineering of plasmids, conjugation, and bacterial motility. In particular, genetic engineering allows us to engineer the different combinations of genes representing the different series of bits. When compared with binary density modulation and the M-ary density modulation, it is shown that the distributed modulation scheme outperforms the other two approaches in terms of bit error probability as well as the achievable rate for varying quantity of bacteria transmitted, distances, as well as time slot length.

  19. Leavitt path algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...

  20. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion.

  1. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Network exploitation using WAMI tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimey, Ray; Record, Jim; Keefe, Dan; Kennedy, Levi; Cramer, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Creating and exploiting network models from wide area motion imagery (WAMI) is an important task for intelligence analysis. Tracks of entities observed moving in the WAMI sensor data are extracted, then large numbers of tracks are studied over long time intervals to determine specific locations that are visited (e.g., buildings in an urban environment), what locations are related to other locations, and the function of each location. This paper describes several parts of the network detection/exploitation problem, and summarizes a solution technique for each: (a) Detecting nodes; (b) Detecting links between known nodes; (c) Node attributes to characterize a node; (d) Link attributes to characterize each link; (e) Link structure inferred from node attributes and vice versa; and (f) Decomposing a detected network into smaller networks. Experimental results are presented for each solution technique, and those are used to discuss issues for each problem part and its solution technique.

  3. Paths in hyperspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Constantini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the hyperspace of closed bounded sets with the Hausdor_ topology, over an almost convex metric space, is an absolute retract. Dense subspaces of normed linear spaces are examples of, not necessarily connected, almost convex metric spaces. We give some necessary conditions for the path-wise connectedness of the Hausdorff metric topology on closed bounded sets. Finally, we describe properties of a separable metric space, under which its hyperspace with the Wijsman topology is path-wise connected.

  4. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile......, biotechnology and semi-conductor industries in a new light. It also invites the reader to learn more about medical practices, wind power, lasers and synthesizers. Primarily for academicians, researchers and PhD students in fields related to technology management, this book is a research-oriented textbook...

  5. Real-time video exploitation system for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ang; Zhang, Yueqiang; Dong, Jing; Xu, Yuhua; Zhu, Xianwei; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    The high portability of small Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs) makes them play an important role in surveillance and reconnaissance tasks, so the military and civilian desires for UAVs are constantly growing. Recently, we have developed a real-time video exploitation system for our small UAV which is mainly used in forest patrol tasks. Our system consists of six key models, including image contrast enhancement, video stabilization, mosaicing, salient target indication, moving target indication, and display of the footprint and flight path on map. Extensive testing on the system has been implemented and the result shows our system performed well.

  6. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  7. An Unplanned Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  8. Gas path seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  9. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  10. The impact of forest exploitation on Amazonian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturieri, G C

    2009-01-01

    The protocols available to sustainably exploit natural forest resources are known as "sustainable forest management". This type of management generally does not take into account the effect of timber exploitation on pollinators. Stingless bees, which include many species that play an important role as pollinators and are quite diverse in the Amazon, preferentially make their perennial nests in the base of hollow trees. Normally, during sustainable exploitation of trees, hollow trees are not cut down; however, predatory exploitation of such trees could severely affect natural populations of this pollinator group.

  11. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Johan; Ramirez Sergio; Trelles Oswaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. Results To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI) that provides the necessar...

  12. Entanglement by Path Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces—starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  13. Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.

  14. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); R. van Liere (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPath steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to

  15. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  16. Research on the ant colony algorithm in robot path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ma, Jianming; Wang, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Using the A* algorithm principle proposed adaptive adjustment heuristic function, to reduce the degree of divergence algorithm; The state transition of the next ant improvement strategies, to improve the diversity of path planning solution; Control the change of the pheromone, to avoid algorithm trapped in local optimal solution; The improved ant colony algorithm makes the robot along an optimal or suboptimal path to arrive at the target.

  17. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse .... its own peacekeeping personnel are engaging in acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, including such crimes as rape.

  18. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  19. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  20. A path based approach to assessing molecular complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, John R

    2017-05-01

    An atom environment, path based approach to calculating molecular complexity is described. Based on Shannon's equation, the method transforms the number and diversity of paths emanating from an atom to an atom-complexity from which a number of molecular complexity measures are derived. The method is independent of explicitly predefined features such as ring membership, bond types, chirality or symmetry. These path-based measures of complexity can distinguish subtle differences in molecular structure and an application to the visualization of marketed drugs, including a number of biologics, is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  2. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  3. Comparison of three clustering approaches for detecting novel environmental microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Forster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of novel diversity in high-throughput sequencing studies is an important aspect in environmental microbial ecology. To evaluate the effects that amplicon clustering methods have on the discovery of novel diversity, we clustered an environmental marine high-throughput sequencing dataset of protist amplicons together with reference sequences from the taxonomically curated Protist Ribosomal Reference (PR2 database using three de novo approaches: sequence similarity networks, USEARCH, and Swarm. The potentially novel diversity uncovered by each clustering approach differed drastically in the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs and in the number of environmental amplicons in these novel diversity OTUs. Global pairwise alignment comparisons revealed that numerous amplicons classified as potentially novel by USEARCH and Swarm were more than 97% similar to references of PR2. Using shortest path analyses on sequence similarity network OTUs and Swarm OTUs we found additional novel diversity within OTUs that would have gone unnoticed without further exploiting their underlying network topologies. These results demonstrate that graph theory provides powerful tools for microbial ecology and the analysis of environmental high-throughput sequencing datasets. Furthermore, sequence similarity networks were most accurate in delineating novel diversity from previously discovered diversity.

  4. Integrating path dependency and path creation in a general understanding of path constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Uli; Schubert, Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Path dependency as it is described by Arthur and David portrays technological developments as historically embedded, emergent processes. In contrast, Garud and Karnøe's notion of path creation emphasises the role of strategic change and deliberate action for the development of new technologies. In this article, we integrate both concepts into a general understanding of path processes which accounts for emergent as well as deliberate modes of path constitution. In addition, we distinguish betw...

  5. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events - outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study - a perception of history....

  6. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  7. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  8. JAVA PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  9. A middle path for electricity options and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, J.I.; Herring, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    In a landmark article in Foreign Affairs in October 1976, Amory Lovins presented his vision of two vastly different and seemingly irreconcilable paths that energy provision might take into the future. One path was a ``hard`` path, characterized by extensive development of large, capital-intensive centralized electrical generating facilities and their peripherals, designed with little consideration given to the matching of these facilities to the requirements of the end-use needs. The second, ``soft`` path was characterized by energy technologies that are diverse, operate on renewable energy flows, are relatively simple, less capital-intensive, and matched in scale and energy quality to end-use needs. One of the most controversial arguments in the Lovins` paper was that the ``hard`` and ``soft`` paths are culturally and institutionally antagonistic. In retrospect, it seems this argument was self-fulfilling, for the history of the energy debate throughout the developed world since the appearance of the Lovins` article has been marked by an either-or antagonism that has left little room for serious discussion of a ``middle-path.`` In this paper, we argue that ``middle-path,`` paved with elements of both the soft and hard, is especially suited for developing countries, since they do not now carry the burden of an existing and extensive ``hard path`` energy infrastructure.

  10. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  11. pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing rate within each chirp, pathChirp obtains a rich set of information from which to dynamically estimate the available bandwidth. Since it uses only packet interarrival times for estimation, pathChirp does not require synchronous nor highly stable clocks at the sender and receiver. We test pathChirp with simulations and Internet experiments and find that it provides good estimates of the available bandwidth while using only a fraction of the number of probe bytes that current state-of-the-art techniques use.

  12. Future paths for HIV vaccine research: Exploiting results from recent clinical trials and current scientific advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Geetha P; Malaspina, Angela; Flores, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    More than 60 million individuals have been infected with HIV and approximately half of these individuals have died since the epidemic started. The quest for an effective vaccine to prevent HIV transmission, which is likely to be the most effective approach to halt the epidemic, has been and continues to be an insurmountable challenge. Traditional vaccine strategies that have been effective for other vaccines have proven unsuccessful or impractical for HIV because of safety concerns. Nonetheless, substantial efforts have been directed at the development and clinical testing of HIV vaccines during the past two decades. Four major HIV vaccine efficacy trials conducted by VaxGen Inc (AIDSVAX 003 and AIDSVAX 004) and the NIH-supported HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN 502 and HVTN 503) failed to demonstrate efficacy; however, a recent trial conducted in Thailand (RV144 trial) demonstrated a low level of efficacy, resulting in some renewed optimism. Dissecting the causes for vaccine failure and, more importantly, for the partial level of efficacy observed in the RV144 trial should provide important guidance to the field. This review discusses the ongoing HIV vaccine trials and also highlights recent scientific advances that have provided the field with new leads to invigorate the search for effective vaccines.

  13. Steered transition path sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-06-21

    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  14. EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION: A 20-YEAR REVIEW OF EVOLUTION AND RECONCEPTUALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    RANGGA ALMAHENDRA; BJÖRN AMBOS

    2015-01-01

    The exploration–exploitation tension has been resonated and applied in diverse areas of management research. Its applications have deviated substantially from the scope of organisational learning as originally proposed by March [(1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87]. Scholars have developed set of definitions, new conceptualisations, and varied applications in rejuvenating the concept; and literatures on this topic seem do not sign...

  15. Path integral in Snyder space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2016-04-29

    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  16. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  17. High order path integrals made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-21

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  18. High order path integrals made easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-01

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  19. Path Following in the Exact Penalty Method of Convex Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Classical penalty methods solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. In practice, the kinks in the penalty and the unknown magnitude of the penalty constant prevent wide application of the exact penalty method in nonlinear programming. In this article, we examine a strategy of path following consistent with the exact penalty method. Instead of performing optimization at a single penalty constant, we trace the solution as a continuous function of the penalty constant. Thus, path following starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. For quadratic programming, the solution path is piecewise linear and takes large jumps from constraint to constraint. For a general convex program, the solution path is piecewise smooth, and path following operates by numerically solving an ordinary differential equation segment by segment. Our diverse applications to a) projection onto a convex set, b) nonnegative least squares, c) quadratically constrained quadratic programming, d) geometric programming, and e) semidefinite programming illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. The final detour to image denoising demonstrates the relevance of path following to regularized estimation in inverse problems. In regularized estimation, one follows the solution path as the penalty constant decreases from a large value.

  20. Path Following in the Exact Penalty Method of Convex Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Classical penalty methods solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ∞, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. In practice, the kinks in the penalty and the unknown magnitude of the penalty constant prevent wide application of the exact penalty method in nonlinear programming. In this article, we examine a strategy of path following consistent with the exact penalty method. Instead of performing optimization at a single penalty constant, we trace the solution as a continuous function of the penalty constant. Thus, path following starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. For quadratic programming, the solution path is piecewise linear and takes large jumps from constraint to constraint. For a general convex program, the solution path is piecewise smooth, and path following operates by numerically solving an ordinary differential equation segment by segment. Our diverse applications to a) projection onto a convex set, b) nonnegative least squares, c) quadratically constrained quadratic programming, d) geometric programming, and e) semidefinite programming illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. The final detour to image denoising demonstrates the relevance of path following to regularized estimation in inverse problems. In regularized estimation, one follows the solution path as the penalty constant decreases from a large value. PMID:26366044

  1. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  2. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  3. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  4. Sustainable Energy Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yamamoto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.

  5. Path integrals as discrete sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil; Khuri, N. N.; Ren, H. C.

    1991-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Feynman's path integral, based on Voronin's theorems on the universality of the Riemann zeta function. The result is a discrete sum over ``paths,'' each given by a zeta function. A new measure which leads to the correct quantum mechanics is explicitly given.

  6. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi...

  7. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  8. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  9. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  11. Measuring on Farm Diversity and Determinants of Barley Diversity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diversification increases options for coping with variable environmental conditions and exploiting niches and ... decisions concerning conservation and improvement of farmer livelihoods. As a first step, it is important ... livelihoods, but that affect genetic diversity negatively by favoring certain crops or genotypes, management ...

  12. On optimal population paths

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  13. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-02

    1i TITLE ( lude Security Ca .fcation) Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment rt 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) w]ba1oa Ui.tm A Limor Fix axd...editions are obsolete. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment * Limor Fix Fred B. Schneider TR 94-1409 February 1994 Department of Computer...agencies. Limor Fix is also supported, in part, by a Fullbright post-doctoral award. Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment ---- NITIS GRA&I

  14. Pathways with PathWhiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Recent extinctions disturb path to equilibrium diversity in Caribbean bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente, Luis; Etienne, Rampal S.; Davalos, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    Islands are ideal systems to model temporal changes in biodiversity and reveal the influence of humans on natural communities. Although theory predicts biodiversity on islands tends towards an equilibrium value, the recent extinction of large proportions of island biotas complicates testing this

  16. Path integrals and quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, Marc S

    1992-01-01

    In a clearly written and systematic presentation, Path Integrals and Quantum Processes covers all concepts necessary to understand the path integral approach to calculating transition elements, partition functions, and source functionals. The book, which assumes only a familiarity with quantum mechanics, is ideal for use as a supplemental textbook in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory courses. Graduate and post-graduate students who are unfamiliar with the path integral will also benefit from this contemporary text. Exercise sets are interspersed throughout the text to facilitate self-

  17. Optical Scintillation on Folded Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    8 (+ boundazy conditions) (11-16) where # is the probability amplitude function. We know that for a free particle in a one dimension motion, 20 $1_...path. Since the total probability amplitude is the sum of the contributions from all possible paths, it is given by I. *(a,b) = JD (paths) exp[is(a,b...2 L = - - and the action integral is given by tb S - L dt (11-17) ta Starting from Feynman’s basic assumption, namely that the probability

  18. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Life History Theory and Exploitative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploitative strategies involve depriving others of resources while enhancing one’s own. Life history theory suggests that there are individual differences (life history strategy and environmental characteristics (life history contingencies [LHCs] that influence the use of exploitative strategies. However, past work manipulating LHCs has found mixed evidence for the influence of this information on exploitative behavior. We present three studies that help clarify the effects of this type of information. Results indicated that younger individuals are most sensitive to LHC information. We also found, contrary to predictions, that communicating slow LHC information (i.e., high population density, intraspecific competition, and resource scarcity increased rather than decreased the temptation to engage in exploitative behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  20. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  1. Shortest-Path Network Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Israeli, Eltan; Wood, R. K

    2002-01-01

    We study the problem of interdicting the arcs in a network in order to maximize the shortest s-t path length "Interdiction" is an attack on an arc that destroys the arc or increases its effective length...

  2. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path....... To efficiently support strict path queries, we present a novel NETwork-constrained TRAjectory index (NETTRA). This index enables very efficient retrieval of trajectories that follow a specific path, i.e., strict path queries. NETTRA uses a new path encoding scheme that can determine if a trajectory follows...

  3. Paths into Professional School: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Margaret L.

    1975-01-01

    The literature of occupations and professions implies that there may be different paths into given work activities. Four different paths into dental school are described and illustrated, and different conditions are associated with each path. (Author/BP)

  4. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  5. An Optimized Hybrid Approach for Path Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Ahlam; Sayyed, Mohd Amin; Ratlamwala, Khatija; Shaikh, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Path finding algorithm addresses problem of finding shortest path from source to destination avoiding obstacles. There exist various search algorithms namely A*, Dijkstra's and ant colony optimization. Unlike most path finding algorithms which require destination co-ordinates to compute path, the proposed algorithm comprises of a new method which finds path using backtracking without requiring destination co-ordinates. Moreover, in existing path finding algorithm, the number of iterations req...

  6. Exploiting multi-level parallelism in streaming applications for heterogeneous platforms with GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balevic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous computing platforms support the traditional types of parallelism, such as e.g., instruction-level, data, task, and pipeline parallelism, and provide the opportunity to exploit a combination of different types of parallelism at different platform levels. The architectural diversity of

  7. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  8. Filtered backprojection proton CT reconstruction along most likely paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rit, Simon; Dedes, George; Freud, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Letang, Jean Michel [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) has the potential to accurately measure the electron density map of tissues at low doses but the spatial resolution is prohibitive if the curved paths of protons in matter is not accounted for. The authors propose to account for an estimate of the most likely path of protons in a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The energy loss of protons is first binned in several proton radiographs at different distances to the proton source to exploit the depth-dependency of the estimate of the most likely path. This process is named the distance-driven binning. A voxel-specific backprojection is then used to select the adequate radiograph in the distance-driven binning in order to propagate in the pCT image the best achievable spatial resolution in proton radiographs. The improvement in spatial resolution is demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations of resolution phantoms. Results: The spatial resolution in the distance-driven binning depended on the distance of the objects from the source and was optimal in the binned radiograph corresponding to that distance. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed pCT images decreased with the depth in the scanned object but it was always better than previous FBP algorithms assuming straight line paths. In a water cylinder with 20 cm diameter, the observed range of spatial resolutions was 0.7 - 1.6 mm compared to 1.0 - 2.4 mm at best with a straight line path assumption. The improvement was strongly enhanced in shorter 200 Degree-Sign scans. Conclusions: Improved spatial resolution was obtained in pCT images with filtered backprojection reconstruction using most likely path estimates of protons. The improvement in spatial resolution combined with the practicality of FBP algorithms compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms makes this new algorithm a candidate of choice for clinical pCT.

  9. A New Path Generation Algorithm Based on Accurate NURBS Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawssen Jalel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of finding an optimum, smooth and feasible global path for mobile robot navigation usually involves determining the shortest polyline path, which will be subsequently smoothed to satisfy the requirements. Within this context, this paper deals with a novel roadmap algorithm for generating an optimal path in terms of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS curves. The generated path is well constrained within the curvature limit by exploiting the influence of the weight parameter of NURBS and/or the control points' locations. The novelty of this paper lies in the fact that NURBS curves are not used only as a means of smoothing, but they are also involved in meeting the system's constraints via a suitable parameterization of the weights and locations of control points. The accurate parameterization of weights allows for a greater benefit to be derived from the influence and geometrical effect of this factor, which has not been well investigated in previous works. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through extensive MATLAB computer simulations.

  10. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly-paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty.

  11. TabPath: interactive Tables for Metabolic Pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Lauro Ângelo Gonçalves de; Felestrino, Érica Barbosa; Assis, Renata de Almeida Barbosa; Matos, Diogo; Lima, Joubert de Castro; Lima, Leandro de Araújo; Almeida, Nalvo Franco; Setubal, João Carlos; Garcia, Camila Carrião Machado; Moreira, Leandro Marcio

    2017-11-03

    Information about metabolic pathways in a comparative context is one of the most powerful tool to help the understanding of genome-based differences in phenotypes among organisms. Although several platforms exist that provide a wealth of information on metabolic pathways of diverse organisms, the comparison among organisms using metabolic pathways is still a difficult task. We present TabPath (Tables for Metabolic Pathway), a web-based tool to facilitate comparison of metabolic pathways in genomes based on KEGG. From a selection of pathways and genomes of interest on the menu, TabPath generates user-friendly tables that facilitate analysis of variations in metabolism among the selected organisms. TabPath is available at http://200.239.132.160:8686. lmmorei@gmail.com.

  12. Hybridizing Particle Swarm Optimization and Differential Evolution for the Mobile Robot Global Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biwei Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global path planning is a challenging issue in the filed of mobile robotics due to its complexity and the nature of non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard. Particle swarm optimization (PSO has gained increasing popularity in global path planning due to its simplicity and high convergence speed. However, since the basic PSO has difficulties balancing exploration and exploitation, and suffers from stagnation, its efficiency in solving global path planning may be restricted. Aiming at overcoming these drawbacks and solving the global path planning problem efficiently, this paper proposes a hybrid PSO algorithm that hybridizes PSO and differential evolution (DE algorithms. To dynamically adjust the exploration and exploitation abilities of the hybrid PSO, a novel PSO, the nonlinear time-varying PSO (NTVPSO, is proposed for updating the velocities and positions of particles in the hybrid PSO. In an attempt to avoid stagnation, a modified DE, the ranking-based self-adaptive DE (RBSADE, is developed to evolve the personal best experience of particles in the hybrid PSO. The proposed algorithm is compared with four state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is highly competitive in terms of path optimality and can be considered as a vital alternative for solving global path planning.

  13. Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2002-05-21

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  14. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  15. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evans

    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  16. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  17. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin

    2012-08-01

    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  18. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  19. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  20. Exploiting indigenous knowledge in the environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of agriculture and reared livestock (especially goats). Over several years, they developed sustainable and effective exploitation mechanisms of the existing biodiversity resources to satisfy their individual needs and those of their societies in general. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  1. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Full Length Research Paper. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis. (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. O. P. Aghamelu*, H. N. Ezeh and A. I. Obasi. Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B., 053,. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 September ...

  2. The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2014-01-01

    This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the world: Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and DR Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), and Latin America (Brazilian

  3. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have you experienced the tragedy of a missing child? We're here to help. Learn More >> × KidSmartz New Parent Tips to Help Kids Set Physical Boundaries! Download Resources >> × Subscribe EN SP Blog Media About Us Contact Us Legal T&C Careers Copyright © National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. All ...

  4. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  5. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  6. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Sean L; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M F; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA) that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry) to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS) MD and targeted MD (TMD) and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm) were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM). PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example, showed that

  7. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean L Seyler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS MD and targeted MD (TMD and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM. PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example

  8. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    OpenAIRE

    Behar E.; Mikitenko P.

    2006-01-01

    Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres ), l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et l...

  9. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  10. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  11. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  12. iPathCons and iPathDB: an improved insect pathway construction tool and the database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zan; Yin, Chuanlin; Liu, Ying; Jie, Wencai; Lei, Wenjie; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on earth. Some insects, such as the silkworm and honeybee, are beneficial to humans, whereas others are notorious pests of crops. At present, the genomes of 38 insects have been sequenced and made publically available. In addition, the transcriptomes of dozens of insects have been sequenced. As gene data rapidly accumulate, constructing the pathway of molecular interactions becomes increasingly important for entomological research. Here, we developed an improved tool, iPathCons, for knowledge-based construction of pathways from the transcriptomes or the official gene sets of genomes. Considering the high evolution diversity in insects, iPathCons uses a voting system for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology assignment. Both stand-alone software and a web server of iPathCons are provided. Using iPathCons, we constructed the pathways of molecular interactions of 52 insects, including 37 genome-sequenced and 15 transcriptome-sequenced ones. These pathways are available in the iPathDB, which provides searches, web server, data downloads, etc. This database will be highly useful for the insect research community. Database URL: http://ento.njau.edu.cn/ipath/ PMID:25388589

  13. On the path to differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Uygur, Ayca

    2014-01-01

    by examining the ‘path to differentiation’ within EU working time regulation as it has unfolded over time. It identifies the ‘opt-out’ as a means of differentiation adopted to overcome policy deadlocks within collective decision-making, albeit one with unforeseen consequences. In particular, the contribution...

  14. How to measure path length?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    Path length measuring is a relevant engineering problem. Leonardo Da Vinci designed for the military appropriate equipment, the podometer, to do so. Modern equipment such as step meters and map meters are quite similar to Da Vinci?s design, despite geometrical statistical - stereological - methods

  15. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  16. Diversity & Dartmouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, James O.

    1991-01-01

    The president of Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) discusses campus cultural pluralism, the need for diversity in higher education, overcoming resistance to change, techniques for supporting a diverse student population, monitoring diversity through institutional research, and the issue of "political correctness" in higher education…

  17. Embracing Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Societies are vastly more diverse today than they used to be and, in many industries, developing theories and approaches that recognize and capitalize on this greater consumer diversity is crucial. In business schools, diversity tends to be discussed only in relation

  18. Relational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorius, Hans-Rolf

    2009-03-07

    In biology, the measurement of diversity traditionally focusses on reporting number of unambiguously distinguishable types, thus referring to qualitative (discontinuously varying) traits. Inclusion of frequencies or other weights has produced a large variety of diversity indices. Quantitative (continuously varying) traits do not readily fit into this perspective. In fact, in the context of quantitative traits, the concept of diversity is not always clearly distinguished from the (statistical) notion of dispersion. In many cases the ambiguity even extends to qualitative traits. This is at variance with the broad spectrum of diversity issues ranging, e.g., from ecological and genetic aspects of diversity to functional, structural, systematic, or evolutionary (including phylogenetic) aspects. In view of the urgent need for a more consistent perspective, it is called to attention that all of these aspects, whether of qualitative or quantitative nature, can be gathered under the common roof of binary relations (for qualitative traits two objects are related, for example, if they share the same trait state). A comprehensive concept of (relational) diversity can be developed in two steps: (1) determine the number of unrelated pairs of objects among all admissible pairs as a measure of implicit (relative) diversity, (2) invoke the concept of effective number to transform the implicit measure of diversity into an explicit (absolute) measure. The transformation operates by equating the observed implicit diversity to the implicit diversity obtained for the ideal model of an equivalence relation with classes of equal size. The number of these classes specifies the effective number as an explicit measure of diversity. The wealth of problems that can be treated from this unified perspective is briefly addressed by classifying and interpreting established diversity indices in the light of relational diversity. Desirable applications to the above-mentioned aspects are specified

  19. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  20. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems

  1. Direct Entry Minimal Path UAV Loitering Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR typically fly over Areas of Interest (AOIs to collect sensor data of the ground from the air. If needed, the traditional method of extending sensor collection time is to loiter or turn circularly around the center of an AOI. Current Autopilot systems on small UAVs can be limited in their feature set and typically follow a waypoint chain system that allows for loitering, but requires that the center of the AOI to be traversed which may produce unwanted turns outside of the AOI before entering the loiter. An investigation was performed to compare the current loitering techniques against two novel smart loitering methods. The first method investigated, Tangential Loitering Path Planner (TLPP, utilized paths tangential to the AOIs to enter and exit efficiently, eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI. The second method, Least Distance Loitering Path Planner (LDLPP, utilized four unique flight maneuvers that reduce transit distances while eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI present in the TLPP method. Simulation results concluded that the Smart Loitering Methods provide better AOI coverage during six mission scenarios. It was also determined that the LDLPP method spends less time in transit between AOIs. The reduction in required transit time could be used for surveying additional AOIs.

  2. Application des fluides supercritiques à la production d'hydrocarbures. Exploitation des gisements par récupération assistée et applications diverses : pétrole, sables, schistes, charbons Application of Supercritical Fluids to Hydrocarbon Production. Enhanced Oi Recovery and Miscellaneous Applications: Oil, Tar Sands, Shales, Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le taux moyen de récupération par drainage naturel des gisements pétroliers atteint à peine 30 %. La récupération assistée désigne l'ensemble des procédés d'exploitation qui permettent d'accroître très sensiblement ce taux. Parmi ces procédés, l'injection de fluides supercritiques joue un rôle prometteur. Les principaux fluides actuellement utilisés sont : le méthane (ou plus généralement les gaz hydrocarbures dits pauvres , l'azote et enfin le gaz carbonique. Les domaines d'application et les mécanismes thermodynamiques mis en jeu sont brièvement exposés, les sources de fluides supercritiques disponibles au voisinage des gisements pétroliers sont rapidement répertoriées et certains problèmes d'exploitation évoqués. Outre leur application en récupération assistée, les fluides supercritiques sont également impliqués dans des procédés de raffinage et d'extraction divers. C'est le procédé de désasphaltage de fractions pétrolières lourdes qui, en 1956, a fait l'objet de la première application industrielle exploitant les fortes variations du pouvoir solvant d'un fluide au voisinage de son point critique. Ce procédé connaît, depuis une dizaine d'années, un regain d'intérêt du fait de l'économie d'énergie qu'il permet de réaliser. D'autre part, les schistes bitumineux, les sables asphaltiques et les charbons, sources d'hydrocarbures considérables pour l'avenir, constituent des domaines d'applications potentielles originales des fluides supercritiques. Les procédés spécifiques, pour la plupart en cours de développement au stade pilote, sont passés en revue. The average recovery by natural drainage from oil fields is barely 30%. Enhanced recovery includes all production processes which appreciably increase this rate. Among such processes, supercritical fluid flooding is quite promising. The main fluids now used are methane (or, more generally, so-called leangaseous hydrocarbons, nitrogen and carbon

  3. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literatur...

  4. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  5. Organizational Factors for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadindu Pandey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework which suggests a relationship between organisational factors and exploratory and exploitative innovation types. We searched major databases like ABI/INFORM global, EBSCO, Elsevier’s science direct, Springer link and Emerald full text. Most of studies were included from published sources. We explored the literature of organisational culture, motivational bases of the rewards system and leadership values which are responsible for increasing creative and productive output. Our study has attempted to identify common patterns and themes in the literature regarding the drivers that increase both sides of the organisational creativity. The paper discusses the role of culture, system and styles in the initiation and implementation phases of the innovation called herein exploitative and exploratory innovation.

  6. Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.

  7. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... ecosystem approach whichutilizes synergies in natural and technical sciencedisciplines. DTU Aqua advises the Danish Ministry ofFood, Agriculture and Fisheries and other publicauthorities, the commercial fisheries, theaquaculture industry and international commissions.DTU Aqua deals with all types ofaquatic...... in the ocean and how these factors impact the living conditions formarine organisms. Population genetics aims at gaining knowledge on how to preserve and managebiodiversity sustainably. Individual biology deals with the biology of aquatic organisms and theirinteraction with other organisms...

  8. Automatic exploitation system for photographic dosemeters; Systeme d`exploitation automatique des dosimetres photographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, Y.; Devillard, D.; Godefroit, J.L.; Barillet, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry Exploitation (LED) has realized an equipment allowing to exploit automatically photographic film dosemeters. This system uses an identification of the films by code-bars and gives the doses measurement with a completely automatic reader. The principle consists in putting in ribbon the emulsions to be exploited and to develop them in a circulation machine. The measurement of the blackening film is realized on a reading plate having fourteen points of reading, in which are circulating the emulsions in ribbon. The exploitation is made with the usual dose calculation method, with special computers codes. A comparison on 2000 dosemeters has shown that the results are the same in manual and automatical methods. This system has been operating since July 1995 by the LED. (N.C.).

  9. Flare Systems Exploitation and Impact on Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical models and numerical algorithms of horizontal and vertical flare systems exploitation in northern oil and gas fields located in permafrost zone are developed. Computations of long-term forecasts of permafrost degradation around such constructions have been carried out for various types of operation, including emergency situations, which cause a short-term increase in the heat flow near the ground surface, which leads to an additional soil temperature increasing.

  10. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R. Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR, the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR, and the self-orienting receiver (SOR, which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  11. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Beatriz R; Rodríguez, Silvestre; Pérez-Jiménez, Rafael; Ayala, Alejandro; González, Oswaldo

    2016-07-14

    In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR) wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR), the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR), and the self-orienting receiver (SOR), which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  12. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  13. Automatic path-oriented test data generation by boundary hypercuboids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Moadab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing test cases and generating data are very important phases in software engineering these days. In order to generate test data, some generators such as random test data generators, data specification generators and path-oriented (Path-Wise test data generators are employed. One of the most important problems in the path-oriented test data generator is the lack of attention given to discovering faults by the test data. In this paper an approach is proposed to generate some test data automatically so that we can realize the goal of discovering more faults in less time. The number of faults near the boundaries of the input domain is more than the center, according to the Pareto 80–20 principle the test data of this approach will be generated at 20% of the allowable area boundary. To do this, we extracted the boundary hypercuboids and then the test data will be generated by exploiting these hypercuboids. The experimental results show that the fault detection probability and the fault detection speed are improved significantly, compared with the previous approaches. By generating data in this way, more faults are discovered in a short period of time which makes it more possible to deliver products on time.

  14. Path integral based calculations of symmetrized time correlation functions. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonella, S; Monteferrante, M; Pierleoni, C; Ciccotti, G

    2010-10-28

    Schofield's form of quantum time correlation functions is used as the starting point to derive a computable expression for these quantities. The time composition property of the propagators in complex time is exploited to approximate Schofield's function in terms of a sequence of short time classical propagations interspersed with path integrals that, combined, represent the thermal density of the system. The approximation amounts to linearization of the real time propagators and it becomes exact with increasing number of propagation legs. Within this scheme, the correlation function is interpreted as an expectation value over a probability density defined on the thermal and real path space and calculated by a Monte Carlo algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is tested on a set of benchmark problems. Although the numerical effort required is considerable, we show that the algorithm converges systematically to the exact answer with increasing number of iterations and that it is stable for times longer than those accessible via a brute force, path integral based, calculation of the correlation function. Scaling of the algorithm with dimensionality is also examined and, when the method is combined with commonly used filtering schemes, found to be comparable to that of alternative semiclassical methods.

  15. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    between Denmark and Germany when it comes to innovation pathways, both in technological and organisational innovation. In turbine technology, the similarities are the constant increase in turbine size and quality. The key difference to be found is the relative importance of different turbine designs...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing......Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...

  16. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  17. Career paths in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Philip; Bontemps, Johnny; Saechao, Kaochoy; Wu, Samantha; Liu, Yihang; Elashoff, David

    2012-11-01

    To describe career path patterns for occupational medicine (OM) physicians. A convenience sample of 129 occupational physicians described work activities and locations at several career points up to 20 years ago, first OM position, and 10 years after expectations. Clinical activities were important throughout (eg, 41% and 46% of occupational physicians reported frequently treating patients 20 years ago and currently). Practice locations changed more markedly, with increased multisite clinics and hospital/medical center-based practices. Performing mainly clinical activities in a first job increased from 82% to 97% over the past 20 years. Career transitions between clinical and nonclinical roles were common (40% of participants). Many anticipate transition to nonclinical work over 10 years. Activities have not fundamentally changed, but practice locations have evolved. Both clinical and management activities remain important, and path to managerial positions increasingly begins in clinical practice.

  18. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  19. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  20. Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela DeLuca; Sidinei Rocha-de-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958) and conflicts (Hughes, 1937) emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not s...

  1. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the large inflow of immigrants to the US during the 1870–1920 period to examine the effects that within-county changes in the cultural composition of the US population had on output growth. We construct measures of fractionalization and polarization to distinguish between the different...... effects of cultural diversity. Our main finding is that increases in cultural fractionalization significantly increased output, while increases in cultural polarization significantly decreased output. We address the issue of identifying the causal effects of cultural diversity by using the supply......-push component of immigrant inflows as an instrumental variable....

  2. Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clustering analysis. These results will be useful for the exploitation of grape germplasm in basic and applied research. Key words: Vitis vinifera L., simple sequence repeat (SSR), genetic diversity, ...

  3. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  4. Copper foil provides uniform heat sink path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, I. E., Jr.; Schreihans, F. A.

    1966-01-01

    Thermal path prevents voids and discontinuities which make heat sinks in electronic equipment inefficient. The thermal path combines the high thermal conductivity of copper with the resiliency of silicone rubber.

  5. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  6. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  7. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  8. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...

  9. Mascot: Microarchitecture Synthesis of Control Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berg, A.J.W.M.; ten Berg, A.J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents MASCOT (MicroArchitecture Synthesis of ConTrol paths). This synthesis system constructs the optimal microarchitecture for a control path of an instruction set processor. Input to the system is the behavioural specification of a control path. This specification is in finite state

  10. Multi-level Indoor Path Planning Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a

  11. Identity, Diversity and Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise; Villeseche, Florence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the identity and diversity literatures and discuss how a better understanding of the theoretical connections between the two informs both diversity research and diversity management practices. Design/methodology/approach – Literature...... review followed by a discussion of the theoretical and practical consequences of connecting the identity and diversity literatures. Findings – The authors inform future research in three ways. First, by showing how definitions of identity influence diversity theorizing in specific ways. Second...... and limitations – is crucial for successful diversity management research and practice. Research limitations/implications – The authors argue for a better understanding of differences, overlaps and limits of different identity perspectives, and for a stronger engagement with practice. Practical implications...

  12. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  13. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  14. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M

    2017-04-15

    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  16. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  17. Marine Metagenomics: New Tools for the Study and Exploitation of Marine Microbial Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. W. Dobson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is extremely diverse, with huge variations in pressure and temperature. Nevertheless, life, especially microbial life, thrives throughout the marine biosphere and microbes have adapted to all the divergent environments present. Large scale DNA sequence based approaches have recently been used to investigate the marine environment and these studies have revealed that the oceans harbor unprecedented microbial diversity. Novel gene families with representatives only within such metagenomic datasets represent a large proportion of the ocean metagenome. The presence of so many new gene families from these uncultured and highly diverse microbial populations represents a challenge for the understanding of and exploitation of the biology and biochemistry of the ocean environment. The application of new metagenomic and single cell genomics tools offers new ways to explore the complete metabolic diversity of the marine biome.

  18. Diversity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of diversity management which, in the context of organizations, consists in the strategic process of harnessing the potential of all employees to create an inclusive environment and, at the same time, contribute to meeting organizational goals. The entry first...... describes the complex construct of diversity that has been variously conceptualized in the literature, embracing multiple social and informational diversity dimensions such as gender, age, culture, values, and workstyle. This is followed by illustration of the historical development of diversity-management...... discourse and practice, and possible overarching approaches guiding organizations. It goes on to elucidate elements linked to the implementation of diversity management: positive and negative outcomes, most spread practices including communication, and contingency factors shaping the understanding...

  19. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  20. Optical path control in the MAM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, M. W.; Hines, B.; Holmes, B.

    2003-01-01

    Future space-based optical interferometers will require control of the optical path delay to accomplish some or all of the three objectives: balancing the optical path in the two arms to within a tolerance corresponding to the coherence length of the star light being observed, modulating the optical path in order to observe the phase of the star light interference fringe, and modulating the path length in order to reduce the effect of cyclic errors in the laser metrology system used to measure the optical path length in the two arms of the interferometer.

  1. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events – outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study – a perception of history....

  2. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The article concerns the design of a collaborative research project (2008-09) entitled Making a Filmmaker, which examines how young Scandinavian filmmakers create their own learn- ing paths in formal and/or informal contexts. Our interest is how learning experiences and contexts motivate the young...... filmmakers: what furthers their interest and/or hinders it, and what learning patterns emerge. The aim of this article is to present and discuss issues regarding the methodology and meth- ods of the study, such as developing a relationship with interviewees when conducting inter- views online (using MSN). We...... platform that is familiar to our participants....

  3. Communication path for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  4. Combinatorial Bidirectional Path-Tracing for Efficient Hybrid CPU/GPU Rendering.

    OpenAIRE

    Pajot, Anthony; Barthe, Loïc; Paulin, Mathias; Poulin, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a reformulation of bidirectional path-tracing that adequately divides the algorithm into processes efficiently executed in parallel on both the CPU and the GPU. We thus benefit from high-level optimization techniques such as double buffering, batch processing, and asyncronous execution, as well as from the exploitation of most of the CPU, GPU, and memory bus capabilities. Our approach, while avoiding pure GPU implementation limitations (such as limi...

  5. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2014-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  7. Exploiting time in electronic health record correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate that a large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal fine temporal patterns in clinical associations; to illustrate several types of associations; and to ascertain the value of exploiting time. Lagged linear correlation was calculated between seven clinical laboratory values and 30 clinical concepts extracted from resident signout notes from a 22-year, 3-million-patient database of electronic health records. Time points were interpolated, and patients were normalized to reduce inter-patient effects. The method revealed several types of associations with detailed temporal patterns. Definitional associations included low blood potassium preceding 'hypokalemia.' Low potassium preceding the drug spironolactone with high potassium following spironolactone exemplified intentional and physiologic associations, respectively. Counterintuitive results such as the fact that diseases appeared to follow their effects may be due to the workflow of healthcare, in which clinical findings precede the clinician's diagnosis of a disease even though the disease actually preceded the findings. Fully exploiting time by interpolating time points produced less noisy results. Electronic health records are not direct reflections of the patient state, but rather reflections of the healthcare process and the recording process. With proper techniques and understanding, and with proper incorporation of time, interpretable associations can be derived from a large clinical database. A large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal clinical associations, time is an important feature, and care must be taken to interpret the results.

  8. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  9. Diversity: The Business Case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding perceptions and managing expectations are learnable skills that do not necessarily come with project funding. Finding life balance as one moves through a STEM career path poses unique challenges that require a certain skill set that is not always intuitive. Some of those challenges include: selecting grad or post doc positions; balancing work and family commitments; and dealing with employer/advisor perceptions and expectations. As in nature, the STEM enterprise requires multiple perspectives to flourish (necessity of peer review), and in a changing environment (e.g., budget, generations, technology, etc.), embracing diversity in thought and application may help drive the evolution of STEM in the U.S. Many Agencies and organizations have ';workforce development' programs that focus on preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers at the graduate and undergraduate level that focus on preparing students in the diverse disciplines that are unique to those Agency and organizational missions. While financial support certainly is critical to assist students in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and other fields, professional development is just as important to equip students with a balanced arsenal of tactics to be successful professionals in the STEM workforce of today. Success in these efforts requires an honest look at the issue of inequality in the STEM ecosystem... meaning, what initiatives have been successful in addressing the imbalance in sources of thought and application, therefore promoting the importance of diversity.

  10. Path segmentation for beginners: an overview of current methods for detecting changes in animal movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelhoff, Hendrik; Signer, Johannes; Balkenhol, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Increased availability of high-resolution movement data has led to the development of numerous methods for studying changes in animal movement behavior. Path segmentation methods provide basics for detecting movement changes and the behavioral mechanisms driving them. However, available path segmentation methods differ vastly with respect to underlying statistical assumptions and output produced. Consequently, it is currently difficult for researchers new to path segmentation to gain an overview of the different methods, and choose one that is appropriate for their data and research questions. Here, we provide an overview of different methods for segmenting movement paths according to potential changes in underlying behavior. To structure our overview, we outline three broad types of research questions that are commonly addressed through path segmentation: 1) the quantitative description of movement patterns, 2) the detection of significant change-points, and 3) the identification of underlying processes or 'hidden states'. We discuss advantages and limitations of different approaches for addressing these research questions using path-level movement data, and present general guidelines for choosing methods based on data characteristics and questions. Our overview illustrates the large diversity of available path segmentation approaches, highlights the need for studies that compare the utility of different methods, and identifies opportunities for future developments in path-level data analysis.

  11. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  12. A symbolic shortest path algorithm for computing subgame-perfect Nash equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora Pedro A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider games where players wish to minimize the cost to reach some state. A subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium can be regarded as a collection of optimal paths on such games. Similarly, the well-known state-labeling algorithm used in model checking can be viewed as computing optimal paths on a Kripke structure, where each path has a minimum number of transitions. We exploit these similarities in a common generalization of extensive games and Kripke structures that we name “graph games”. By extending the Bellman-Ford algorithm for computing shortest paths, we obtain a model-checking algorithm for graph games with respect to formulas in an appropriate logic. Hence, when given a certain formula, our model-checking algorithm computes the subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium (as opposed to simply determining whether or not a given collection of paths is a Nash equilibrium. Next, we develop a symbolic version of our model checker allowing us to handle larger graph games. We illustrate our formalism on the critical-path method as well as games with perfect information. Finally, we report on the execution time of benchmarks of an implementation of our algorithms

  13. Design and performance analysis of global path planning techniques for autonomous mobile robots in grid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Chaari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the 2-year iroboapp research project that aims at devising path planning algorithms for large grid maps with much faster execution times while tolerating very small slacks with respect to the optimal path. We investigated both exact and heuristic methods. We contributed with the design, analysis, evaluation, implementation and experimentation of several algorithms for grid map path planning for both exact and heuristic methods. We also designed an innovative algorithm called relaxed A-star that has linear complexity with relaxed constraints, which provides near-optimal solutions with an extremely reduced execution time as compared to A-star. We evaluated the performance of the different algorithms and concluded that relaxed A-star is the best path planner as it provides a good trade-off among all the metrics, but we noticed that heuristic methods have good features that can be exploited to improve the solution of the relaxed exact method. This led us to design new hybrid algorithms that combine our relaxed A-star with heuristic methods which improve the solution quality of relaxed A-star at the cost of slightly higher execution time, while remaining much faster than A* for large-scale problems. Finally, we demonstrate how to integrate the relaxed A-star algorithm in the robot operating system as a global path planner and show that it outperforms its default path planner with an execution time 38% faster on average.

  14. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  15. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  16. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  17. Ecological diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pielou E. C

    1975-01-01

    The richness and variety-in a word, the diversity-of natural ecological communities have never been more highly valued than they are now, as they become increasingly threatened by the environmental crisis...

  18. Understanding Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractDaan van Knippenberg is Professor of Organizational Behavior at RSM Erasmus University, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands. His research interests include work group performance, especially work group diversity and group decision making, leadership, in particular the roles of

  19. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas systems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S

    2014-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease is the central component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic adaptive restriction system against invading nucleic acids, such as those originating from bacteriophages and plasmids. Recently, this RNA-directed DNA endonuclease has been harnessed to target DNA sequences of interest. Here, we review the development of Cas9 as an important tool to not only edit the genomes of a number of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, but also as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the ability to be programmed to target RNA as well. Cas proteins from other CRISPR/Cas subtypes may also be exploited in this regard. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems represent an effective and versatile biotechnological tool, which will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data......'s contribution to the change process itself and through bundling particular HRM practices that are aligned with the lean strategy. The paper contributes to both theory and practice, by suggesting specific ways in which HRM can be strategically aligned with a major change implementation such as lean manufacturing....

  1. Automatic image exploitation system for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.

    2008-04-01

    For surveillance and reconnaissance tasks small UAVs are of growing importance. These UAVs have an endurance of several hours, but a small payload of about some kilograms. As a consequence lightweight sensors and cameras have to be used without having a mechanical stabilized high precision sensor-platform, which would exceed the payload and cost limitations. An example of such a system is the German UAV Luna with optical and IR sensors on board. For such platforms we developed image exploitation algorithms. The algorithms comprise mosaiking, stabilization, image enhancement, video based moving target indication, and stereo-image generation. Other products are large geo-coded image mosaics, stereo mosaics, and 3-D-model generation. For test and assessment of these algorithms the experimental system ABUL has been developed, in which the algorithms are integrated. The ABUL system is used for tests and assessment by military PIs.

  2. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  3. Exploitation of bioremediation in the environment protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils and waters contaminated with toxic metals pose a major environmental problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Many areas remain contaminated with no remediation in sight because it is too expensive to clean them up with available technologies. Bioremediation may provide an economically viable solution for remediation of some of these sites. The bioremediation is an application of the biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous chemicals and is an example of the environmental biotechnology. The aim of this paper is to give a theoretical and practical view concerning the possibility of the bioremediation exploitation in the environment protection. This paper includes some results of the bioremediation of the acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria.

  4. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Management, however, requires models that can link the ecosystem level to the operation level, so this paper examines an ecosystem production model and shows that it is suitable for applying ground rent theory. This model is the simplest possible that incorporates the principles of size as the main...... at the ecosystem level in the present management. Therefore, economic predictions for an ecosystem managed as a common pool resource must be that  the exploitation probably are conducted at lower sized than optimum. In addition, given its population stock approach, the present management probably overlooks...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  6. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  7. Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural s...

  8. Control theoretic splines optimal control, statistical, and path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Splines, both interpolatory and smoothing, have a long and rich history that has largely been application driven. This book unifies these constructions in a comprehensive and accessible way, drawing from the latest methods and applications to show how they arise naturally in the theory of linear control systems. Magnus Egerstedt and Clyde Martin are leading innovators in the use of control theoretic splines to bring together many diverse applications within a common framework. In this book, they begin with a series of problems ranging from path planning to statistics to approximation.

  9. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  10. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...... and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data....

  11. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  12. Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sergio; Karlsson, Johan; Trelles, Oswaldo

    2011-10-27

    Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI) that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others).

  14. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. Results To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. Conclusions The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others.

  15. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  16. Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.

  17. Can Ethnic Diversity Have a Positive Effect on School Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of ethnic diversity on test scores, on top of the effect of the share of non-native pupils. We use a rich survey of Dutch primary school students and exploit variations between subsequent cohorts within the same school as our identification strategy. We find that ethnic diversity has a positive impact on the test…

  18. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  19. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition...

  20. Closed‐Loop transmit diversity (transmit beamforming) for mitigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter has been shown to increase diversity and therefore improve signal quality with increased throughput. This paper proposes a transmit diversity scheme, where multiple transmit antennas are used at the transmitter. A feedback path is provided from the receiver to communicate ...

  1. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  2. Paths towards the Informational Society: Employment Structure in G-7 Countries, 1920-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Manuel; Aoyama, Yuko

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of occupational structures in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows divergent paths toward postindustrial society, with different forms of knowledge-based production (service-economy and info-industrial) that reflect cultural and institutional diversity. (SK)

  3. A Path Model of Expressive Vocabulary Skills in Initially Preverbal Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Watson, Linda R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect paths involving receptive vocabulary and diversity of key consonants used in communication (DKCC) to improve understanding of why previously identified value-added predictors are associated with later expressive vocabulary for initially preverbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 87). Intentional…

  4. Tonic dopamine modulates exploitation of reward learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this closed economy paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior.

  5. Efficient Media Exploitation Towards Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Phivos; Solachidis, Vassilios; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Staab, Steffen; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this work we propose intelligent, automated content analysis techniques for different media to extract knowledge from the multimedia content. Information derived from different sources/modalities will be analyzed and fused, in terms of spatiotemporal, personal and even social contextual information. In order to achieve this goal, semantic analysis will be applied to the content items, taking into account the content itself (e.g., text, images and video), as well as existing personal, social and contextual information (e.g., semantic and machine-processable metadata and tags). The above process exploits the so-called “Media Intelligence” towards the ultimate goal of identifying “Collective Intelligence”, emerging from the collaboration and competition among people, empowering innovative services and user interactions. The utilization of “Media Intelligence” constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since semantic multimedia analysis has to fuse information from both the content itself and the social context, while at the same time the social dynamics have to be taken into account. Such intelligence provides added-value to the available multimedia content and renders existing procedures and research efforts more efficient.

  6. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP's as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year's effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.

  7. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB Team

    2017-03-01

    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  8. Exploiting Genome Structure in Association Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide association study involves examining a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs that are significantly associated with the given phenotype, while trying to reduce the false positive rate. Although haplotype-based association methods have been proposed to accommodate correlation information across nearby SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium, none of these methods directly incorporated the structural information such as recombination events along chromosome. In this paper, we propose a new approach called stochastic block lasso for association mapping that exploits prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure in the genome such as recombination rates and distances between adjacent SNPs in order to increase the power of detecting true associations while reducing false positives. Following a typical linear regression framework with the genotypes as inputs and the phenotype as output, our proposed method employs a sparsity-enforcing Laplacian prior for the regression coefficients, augmented by a first-order Markov process along the sequence of SNPs that incorporates the prior information on the linkage disequilibrium structure. The Markov-chain prior models the structural dependencies between a pair of adjacent SNPs, and allows us to look for association SNPs in a coupled manner, combining strength from multiple nearby SNPs. Our results on HapMap-simulated datasets and mouse datasets show that there is a significant advantage in incorporating the prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure for marker identification under whole-genome association. PMID:21548809

  9. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  10. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...

  12. Diverse Multilateralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuthnow, Joel; Li, Xin; Qi, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    in both the economic and security domains, the article argues that China’s multilateralism is diverse, and that it cannot be un-problematically characterized as either status-quo or revisionist in nature. However, the general trend appears to be towards engagement, but with an assertive tact as China...

  13. Generational diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  14. Discovering Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  15. Representative Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Phil

    1978-01-01

    Presents eight propositions for different kinds of diversity, in order of importance, based on relevance to democracy; specifically, relevance to openness in the marketplace of ideas, and to creation of the system of communications which is least restrictive of freedom of speech and of the press. (JMF)

  16. Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DeLuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958 and conflicts (Hughes, 1937 emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not sufficient to contemplate analyses in their entirety. For this reason we conceptualized a third possibility of controversy during a career: the inquiries. The study followed the Narrative method to analyze objective and subjective changes during a tattoo artist’s career through interviews and informal conversations carried out over 22 months. The discussion presents three main contributions. Theoretically, a new understanding of the concept of careers, linking past, present and future and the idea of non-linearity of experienced and envisioned careers. Methodologically, suggesting orientations for future career studies such as the use of turning points as a methodological tool and the investigation of deviant fields. Finally, our defense of the interactionist perspective as suitable for career studies, since it allows the investigation of deviant elements.

  17. Towards shortest path identification on large networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selim, Haysam; Zhan, Justin

    2016-01-01

    ...) and then finding the shortest path in a quick manner due to the data reduction in the graph. As the number of vertices and edges tend to increase on large networks the aim of this article is to make the reduction of the network that will cause an impact on calculating the shortest path for a faster analysis in a shortest time.

  18. White Noise Path Integrals in Stochastic Neurodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2008-06-01

    The white noise path integral approach is used in stochastic modeling of neural activity, where the primary dynamical variables are the relative membrane potentials, while information on transmembrane ionic currents is contained in the drift coefficient. The white noise path integral allows a natural framework and can be evaluated explicitly to yield a closed form for the conditional probability density.

  19. Path following with a robotic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers path following control for a four-wheel steered robotic platform. The vehicle used for the experiments is a specially designed robotic platform for performing autonomous weed control. The robot uses RTK- DGPS to determine both position and orientation relative to the path. The

  20. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  1. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  2. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  3. IP-oriented control of unidirectional-path-switched-ring-based transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Das, Abhimanyu; Chen, Charles

    2003-03-01

    An important requirement in the IP-based control of time-division multiplexing (TDM) optical transport networks is to utilize the in-built protection capabilities of synchronous optical network (SONET) unidirectional path-switched rings (UPSRs) and to automate the UPSR-protected path setup in mixed mesh-ring networks. This requires modifications to existing IP signaling and routing protocols and new processing rules at the network nodes. Here we leverage IP routing and signaling and multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) fast-reroute techniques for accurately advertising UPSR ring topologies to remote nodes and dynamically establishing UPSR-protected paths across a transport network. Our proposal also makes a NUT1-like (nonpreemptible unprotected traffic) feature possible in UPSRs, which allows for efficient utilization of UPSR protection bandwidth. We achieve this by encoding UPSR-specific information in the open shortest-path-first (OSPF) link state advertisements and in signaling messages of the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) with TE extensions. In addition, we modify the signaling and routing state machines at the nodes to interpret and process this information to perform UPSR topology discovery and path computation. The uniqueness of our proposals is that the algorithms and the rules specified here allow for existing IP-based protocols [such as those within the generalized MPLS (GMPLS) framework, which currently applies to mesh networks] to be efficiently adapted for this context while still achieving our objective of exploiting UPSR-protection capabilities.

  4. Optimization of educational paths for higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.

  5. Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin; Dries, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    VITO and partners developed the Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) as an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the Proba-V (a Copernicus contributing mission) EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data on a powerful and scalable processing environment. Furthermore data from the Copernicus Global Land Service is in scope of the platform. From November 2015 an operational Proba-V MEP environment, as an ESA operation service, is gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Since autumn 2016 the platform is operational and yet several applications are released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of Proba-V bands and derived vegetation parameters from the Copernicus Global Land Service for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains on a powerfull Hadoop/Spark backend e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - Virtual Machines can be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes (GDAL, QGIS, GrassGIS, SNAP toolbox, …) and support for R and Python. This allows users to immediately work with the data without having to install tools or download data, but as well to design, debug and test applications on the platform. - A prototype of jupyter Notebooks is available with some examples worked out to show the potential of the data. Today the platform is used by several third party projects to perform R&D activities on the data, and to develop/host data analysis toolboxes. In parallel the platform is further improved and extended. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will

  6. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  7. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  8. Beyond Fair Benefits: Reconsidering Exploitation Arguments Against Organ Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J

    2018-03-01

    One common objection to establishing regulated live donor organ markets is that such markets would be exploitative. Perhaps surprisingly, exploitation arguments against organ markets have been widely rejected in the philosophical literature on the subject. It is often argued that concerns about exploitation should be addressed by increasing the price paid to organ sellers, not by banning the trade outright. I argue that this analysis rests on a particular conception of exploitation (which I refer to as 'fair benefits' exploitation), and outline two additional ways that the charge of exploitation can be understood (which I discuss in terms of 'fair process' exploitation and complicity in injustice). I argue that while increasing payments to organ sellers may mitigate or eliminate fair benefits exploitation, such measures will not necessarily address fair process exploitation or complicity in injustice. I further argue that each of these three forms of wrongdoing is relevant to the ethics of paid living organ donation, as well as the design of public policy more generally.

  9. A Systematic Review of Financial Exploitation Measures in Prevalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-05-01

    The financial exploitation of older adults has garnered the attention of society as well as state and federal governments in a way that elder abuse has never been able to achieve. It is frequently asserted that financial exploitation deserves this attention in part because it is the most prevalent form of elder abuse. This article systematically reviews the measurement of financial exploitation in comparison with other forms of elder abuse and concludes that its measurement is considerably more variable than other forms of abuse. Consequently, improvements in the measurement of financial exploitation are warranted.

  10. Exploitation des propriétés des signaux dans les systèmes radar MIMO pour la détection et la localisation

    OpenAIRE

    bencheikh, mohamed-laïd

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to exploit the properties of the signals used in MIMO radar systems to improve the localisation performances. Thecohérent bistatic MIMO radar conguration present a good trade-o between the complexity, the diversity gains and the coherence gains. For this conguration, several new approaches based on the hight resolution techniques, which decompose the two dimensional joint estimation in double one dimensional estimation, have been proposed. By exploitation ...

  11. Assessment of optical path length in tissue using neodymium and water absorptions for application to near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nighswander-Rempel, Stephen P; Kupriyanov, Valery V; Shaw, R Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of blood oxygen saturation using near-IR spectroscopy is made difficult by uncertainties in both the absolute value and the wavelength dependence of the optical path length. We introduce a novel means of assessing the wavelength dependence of path length, exploiting the relative intensities of several absorptions exhibited by an exogenous contrast agent (neodymium). Combined with a previously described method that exploits endogenous water absorptions, the described technique estimates the absolute path length at several wavelengths throughout the visible/near-IR range of interest. Isolated rat hearts (n = 11) are perfused separately with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB) and a KHB solution to which neodymium had been added, and visible/near-IR spectra are acquired using an optical probe made up of emission and collection fibers in concentric rings of diameters 1 and 3 mm, respectively. Relative optical path lengths at 520, 580, 679, 740, 800, 870, and 975 nm are 0.41+/-0.13, 0.49+/-0.21, 0.90+/-0.09, 0.94+/-0.01, 1.00, 0.84+/-0.01, and 0.78+/-0.08, respectively. The absolute path length at 975 nm is estimated to be 3.8+/-0.6 mm, based on the intensity of the water absorptions and the known tissue water concentration. These results are strictly valid only for the experimental geometry applied here. Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  12. Troubling Diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2009-01-01

    are related to recent contributions to diversity management theory and intercultural communication theory, calling for a strengthened focus on the historical, political, and social dimensions of intercultural contact. In continuation of these trends, an alternative, theoretical framework......Focussing on the cultural encounter between nurses and ethnic minority patients in Danish hospitals, this paper presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of nursing discourses on cultural difference and intercultural contact. Articles from the Danish professional journal ‘The Nurse......', published in the period from 2000 to 2008, pertaining to cultural contact and intercultural understanding have been analyzed in order to uncover nurses' experience of ethnic and cultural diversity and the ways, in which these experiences challenge their cultural and professional expertise. Results...

  13. Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zengliang; Wang, Dongqing; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV) path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.

  14. Analysis of the contact graph routing algorithm: Bounding interplanetary paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrane, Edward; Burleigh, Scott; Kasch, Niels

    2012-06-01

    Interplanetary communication networks comprise orbiters, deep-space relays, and stations on planetary surfaces. These networks must overcome node mobility, constrained resources, and significant propagation delays. Opportunities for wireless contact rely on calculating transmit and receive opportunities, but the Euclidean-distance diameter of these networks (measured in light-seconds and light-minutes) precludes node discovery and contact negotiation. Propagation delay may be larger than the line-of-sight contact between nodes. For example, Mars and Earth orbiters may be separated by up to 20.8 min of signal propagation time. Such spacecraft may never share line-of-sight, but may uni-directionally communicate if one orbiter knows the other's future position. The Contact Graph Routing (CGR) approach is a family of algorithms presented to solve the messaging problem of interplanetary communications. These algorithms exploit networks where nodes exhibit deterministic mobility. For CGR, mobility and bandwidth information is pre-configured throughout the network allowing nodes to construct transmit opportunities. Once constructed, routing algorithms operate on this contact graph to build an efficient path through the network. The interpretation of the contact graph, and the construction of a bounded approximate path, is critically important for adoption in operational systems. Brute force approaches, while effective in small networks, are computationally expensive and will not scale. Methods of inferring cycles or other librations within the graph are difficult to detect and will guide the practical implementation of any routing algorithm. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of a multi-destination contact graph algorithm (MD-CGR), demonstrates that it is NP-complete, and proposes realistic constraints that make the problem solvable in polynomial time, as is the case with the originally proposed CGR algorithm. An analysis of path construction to complement hop

  15. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  16. Dissociable cognitive mechanisms underlying human path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration.

  17. Restoration of soils affected by oil exploitation activities based in functional diversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacis, Jaime; Casanoves, Fernando; Hang, Susana; Armas, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The functional characteristics of 25 forest species used in the restoration of areas affected by oil extraction activities were determined and species functional groups were constructed. Subsequently, the functional characteristics of the groups were related with performance variables of the species obtained in complementary studies, to make use recommendations. Three functional groups of species with similar responses and / or performance were characterized that showed significant differences between them for quantitative and qualitative traits. The first group formed by all shrubs and the rest of trees, most do not fix nitrogen, have single leaves and all species are evergreen and characterized by having lower values of specific foliar area, foliar nitrogen, dry matter leaf content and wood density, was denominated as intermediate acquisitions. The second group composed only for trees that do not fix nitrogen and with deciduous leaves and characterized by having the highest values of dry matter leaf content and foliar tensile force and intermediate values of specific foliar area and foliar nitrogen, was denominated as low conservative. Finally the third group formed only by trees that fix nitrogen, composed of leaves and mostly evergreen and characterized by having higher values of specific foliar area, foliar nitrogen, foliar phosphorus and lower foliar tensile force, was denominated as acquisitive. The intermediary acquisitions species Apeiba membranacea, Myrcia aff. fallax and Zygia longifolia, and the acquisitive species Cedrelinga cateniformis, Inga densiflora, Myroxylon balsamum, Piptadenia pteroclada and Platymiscium pinnatum, which showed excellent performance in nursery and / or field, represent the most suitable species to be used in reforestation programs of the sites affected by oil extraction activities in the Amazon region of Ecuador, because they have greater potential to protect soil and recycle nutrients in the initial stages of planting.

  18. Exploitation of Diversity for Morphological Traits in Lilium tsingtauense under Different Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    KiByung LIM; YOUNIS, Adnan; Jong TAEK PARK; Yoon JUNG HWANG

    2014-01-01

    In this study naturally growing morphological variation of Lilium tsingtauense (Korean wheel lily), from southern Chung San Island to northern Mount Seorak, was investigated in 16 habitats around the country. Morphological analysis revealed that this species had its own unique characteristics in different habitats. Flowers with luster are in actinomorphic form, with shades of orange, each plant having an average of 2.4 flowers that blossom upward. The shape of flower petals was from oval to o...

  19. Lactobacillus paracasei comparative genomics: towards species pan-genome definition and exploitation of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Smokvina

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei is a member of the normal human and animal gut microbiota and is used extensively in the food industry in starter cultures for dairy products or as probiotics. With the development of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing techniques it has become feasible to sequence many different strains of one species and to determine its "pan-genome". We have sequenced the genomes of 34 different L. paracasei strains, and performed a comparative genomics analysis. We analysed genome synteny and content, focussing on the pan-genome, core genome and variable genome. Each genome was shown to contain around 2800-3100 protein-coding genes, and comparative analysis identified over 4200 ortholog groups that comprise the pan-genome of this species, of which about 1800 ortholog groups make up the conserved core. Several factors previously associated with host-microbe interactions such as pili, cell-envelope proteinase, hydrolases p40 and p75 or the capacity to produce short branched-chain fatty acids (bkd operon are part of the L. paracasei core genome present in all analysed strains. The variome consists mainly of hypothetical proteins, phages, plasmids, transposon/conjugative elements, and known functions such as sugar metabolism, cell-surface proteins, transporters, CRISPR-associated proteins, and EPS biosynthesis proteins. An enormous variety and variability of sugar utilization gene cassettes were identified, with each strain harbouring between 25-53 cassettes, reflecting the high adaptability of L. paracasei to different niches. A phylogenomic tree was constructed based on total genome contents, and together with an analysis of horizontal gene transfer events we conclude that evolution of these L. paracasei strains is complex and not always related to niche adaptation. The results of this genome content comparison was used, together with high-throughput growth experiments on various carbohydrates, to perform gene-trait matching analysis, in order to link the distribution pattern of a specific phenotype to the presence/absence of specific sets of genes.

  20. Exploiting orthologue diversity for systematic detection of gain-of-function phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarella Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic search for genes whose gain-of-function by exogenous expression confers an advantage in cell-based selective screenings is a powerful method for unbiased functional exploration of the genome, and has the potential to disclose new targets for cancer therapy. A major limit of this approach resides in the labor-intensive cloning of resistant cells, identification of the integrated genes and validation of their ability to confer a selective advantage. Moreover, the selection has to be drastic and genes conferring a limited advantage are typically missed. Results We developed a new functional screening strategy based on transduction of mammalian cells of a given species with an expression library from another species, followed by one-shot quantitative tracing with DNA microarrays of all library-derived transcripts before and after selection. In this way, exogenous transcripts enriched after selection, and therefore likely to confer resistance, are readily detected. We transduced a retroviral cDNA expression library from mouse testis into human and canine cells, and optimized the use of commercial murine gene expression arrays for species-specific detection of library-derived transcripts. We then conducted a functional screening by growing library-transduced canine MDCK cells in suspension, to enrich for cDNAs conferring anchorage independence. Notably, these cells show partial resistance to loss of anchorage, and the selection can be of limited stringency, compromising approaches based on clonal selection or anyway requiring high stringency. Microarray analysis revealed reproducible enrichment after three weeks of growth on polyhema for seven genes, among which the Hras proto-oncogene and Sox5. When individually transduced into MDCK cells, Sox5 specifically promoted anchorage-independent growth, thereby confirming the validity and specificity of the approach. Conclusion The procedure described here brings substantial advantages to the field of expression cloning, being faster, more systematic and more sensitive. Indeed, this strategy allowed identification and validation of genes promoting anchorage-independent growth of epithelial cells under selection conditions not amenable to conventional expression cloning.

  1. Exploiting mineral data: applications to the diversity, distribution, and social networks of copper mineral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Golden, J. J.; Pires, A.; Fox, P. A.; Ma, X.; Zednik, S.; Eleish, A.; Prabhu, A.; Hummer, D. R.; Liu, C.; Meyer, M.; Ralph, J.; Hystad, G.; Hazen, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive database of copper (Cu) mineral characteristics. These data include crystallographic, paragenetic, chemical, locality, age, structural complexity, and physical property information for the 689 Cu mineral species approved by the International Mineralogical Association (rruff.info/ima). Synthesis of this large, varied dataset allows for in-depth exploration of statistical trends and visualization techniques. With social network analysis (SNA) and cluster analysis of minerals, we create sociograms and chord diagrams. SNA visualizations illustrate the relationships and connectivity between mineral species, which often form cliques associated with rock type and/or geochemistry. Using mineral ecology statistics, we analyze mineral-locality frequency distribution and predict the number of missing mineral species, visualized with accumulation curves. By assembly of 2-dimensional KLEE diagrams of co-existing elements in minerals, we illustrate geochemical trends within a mineral system. To explore mineral age and chemical oxidation state, we create skyline diagrams and compare trends with varying chemistry. These trends illustrate mineral redox changes through geologic time and correlate with significant geologic occurrences, such as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) or Wilson Cycles.

  2. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path: Re-Examining the Case of Nokia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jens Wang; Jonas Hedman; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen

    2016-01-01

    .... We show how path dependence at these four interdependent layers can blindfold the organization from seeing and understanding the importance of intermediate outcomes, which in the case of Nokia...

  3. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  4. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  5. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R

  6. Path planning using optically computed potential fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for the optical computation of potential field maps suitable for mobile robot navigation is described and experimentally produced maps and paths are presented. The parallel analog optical computation employs a two-dimensional spatial light modulator on which an image of the potential field map is generated. Optically calculated fields contain no local minima, tend to produce paths centered in gaps between obstacles, and produce paths which give preference to wide gaps. Calculation of 128 x 128 pixel fields at a few hertz are possible with current technology, and calculation time vs. map size scales favorably in comparison to digital electronic computation.

  7. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  8. Opportunistic Relay Selection with Cooperative Macro Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply a fully opportunistic relay selection scheme to study cooperative diversity in a semianalytical manner. In our framework, idle Mobile Stations (MSs are capable of being used as Relay Stations (RSs and no relaying is required if the direct path is strong. Our relay selection scheme is fully selection based: either the direct path or one of the relaying paths is selected. Macro diversity, which is often ignored in analytical works, is taken into account together with micro diversity by using a complete channel model that includes both shadow fading and fast fading effects. The stochastic geometry of the network is taken into account by having a random number of randomly located MSs. The outage probability analysis of the selection differs from the case where only fast fading is considered. Under our framework, distribution of the received power is formulated using different Channel State Information (CSI assumptions to simulate both optimistic and practical environments. The results show that the relay selection gain can be significant given a suitable amount of candidate RSs. Also, while relay selection according to incomplete CSI is diversity suboptimal compared to relay selection based on full CSI, the loss in average throughput is not too significant. This is a consequence of the dominance of geometry over fast fading.

  9. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  10. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis,…

  11. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  12. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distributed Resource Exploitation for Autonomous Mobile Sensor Agents in Dynamic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Sarjoun; Minai, Ali

    This paper studies the distributed resource exploitation problem (DREP) where many resources are distributed across an unknown environment, and several agents move around in it with the goal to exploit/visit the resources. A resource may be anything that can be harvested/sensed/acted upon by an agent when the agent visits that resource's physical location. A sensory agent (SA) is a mobile and autonomous sensory entity that has the capability of sensing a resource's attribute and therefore determining the exploitatory gain factor or profitability when this resource is visited. This type of problem can be seen as a combination of two well-known problems: the Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) [8] and the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) [1]. But the DREP differs significantly from these two. In the DTSP we have a single agent that needs to visit many fixed cities that have costs associated to their pairwise links, so it is an optimization of paths on a static graph with time-varying costs. In VRP on the other hand, we have a number of vehicles with uniform capacity, a common depot, and several stationary customers scattered around an environment, so the goal is to find the set of routes with overall minimum route cost to service all the customers. In our problem, we have multiple SAs deployed in an unknown environment with multiple dynamic resources each with a dynamically varying value. The goal of the SAs is to adapt their paths collaboratively to the dynamics of the resources in order to maximize the general profitability of the system.

  14. Doing Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Christiansen, Tanja Juul

    2012-01-01

    Questions of agency in text–audience relations are less studied than other aspects of rhetorical agency. We suggest conceptualizing and analyzing the relationship between texts and audiences from the perspective of performativity, as it has been developed by Judith Butler. Thus, we argue that texts...... invite audiences to take up subject positions, understood as combinations of identity and agency. Danish diversity management rhetoric functions as an illustrative example; in analyzing this type of rhetoric we show how subjects are called into restrained positions of similarity/difference and thereby...

  15. Nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-19

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  16. Path dependence and independent utility regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the Danish independent regulatory authorities for the energy and telecommunications sectors was based upon EU directives as part of their liberalisation process. Following the concepts of transaction costs and path dependency this article analyses differences in independence...

  17. A chemist building paths to cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path.

  18. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.

    1989-02-02

    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors.

  19. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  20. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  1. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusin Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  2. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  3. Evolutionary paths of streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumura Kayo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS harbors several superantigens (SAgs in the prophage region of its genome, although speG and smez are not located in this region. The diversity of SAgs is thought to arise during horizontal transfer, but their evolutionary pathways have not yet been determined. We recently completed sequencing the entire genome of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE, the closest relative of GAS. Although speG is the only SAg gene of SDSE, speG was present in only 50% of clinical SDSE strains and smez in none. In this study, we analyzed the evolutionary paths of streptococcal and staphylococcal SAgs. Results We compared the sequences of the 12–60 kb speG regions of nine SDSE strains, five speG+ and four speG–. We found that the synteny of this region was highly conserved, whether or not the speG gene was present. Synteny analyses based on genome-wide comparisons of GAS and SDSE indicated that speG is the direct descendant of a common ancestor of streptococcal SAgs, whereas smez was deleted from SDSE after SDSE and GAS split from a common ancestor. Cumulative nucleotide skew analysis of SDSE genomes suggested that speG was located outside segments of steeper slopes than the stable region in the genome, whereas the region flanking smez was unstable, as expected from the results of GAS. We also detected a previously undescribed staphylococcal SAg gene, selW, and a staphylococcal SAg -like gene, ssl, in the core genomes of all Staphylococcus aureus strains sequenced. Amino acid substitution analyses, based on dN/dS window analysis of the products encoded by speG, selW and ssl suggested that all three genes have been subjected to strong positive selection. Evolutionary analysis based on the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method showed that each clade included at least one direct descendant. Conclusions Our findings reveal a plausible model for the comprehensive evolutionary pathway of streptococcal and

  4. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms.

  5. Axial design of nuclear fuel using path relinking; Diseno axial de combustible nuclear utilizando path relinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, A.; Torres, M.; Ortiz, J. J.; Perusquia, R.; Hernandez, J. L.; Montes, J. L. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2008-07-01

    In the present work the preliminary results were obtained with the zoctli system whose purpose is the axial design of assembly of nuclear fuel under certain considerations. For the mentioned design well-know cells were already used and that they have been proven in diverse cycles of operation in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. The design contemplates fuels assemblies of 10x10 and with 2 water channels. The assembly was distributed in 6 axial zones according to its structure. In order to take to end the optimization is was used the well-known technique like Path relinking and to find the group of previous solutions required by this technique uses the technical Taboo search. In order to work with Path relinking, 5 trajectories was taken in to account from a set of 5 previous solutions generated with theTaboo search, the update of the group of solutions is carried out in dynamic form. In the case of the Taboo search it was used a list of variable size, it was implement an aspiration approach, it was used the vector of frequencies and due to the cost of the evaluation of the objective function, only it was review 5% of the vicinity. For the objective function was considered the limit thermal, the axial profile of power, the effective multiplication factor and the margin of having turned off in cold. In order to prove the design system, it was used a balance cycle with a value of reference of 0.9928 for the effective multiplication factor that is equivalent to a produced energy of 10896 MWd/TU at the end of operation to full power. The designed assemblies were placed both in one of lots different from fresh assemblies on which it counts the referred cycle. At the end one a comparison with the results obtained with other techniques and under similar conditions is made. The results obtained until the moment show an appropriate performance of the system. It is possible to indicate that a small inconvenient is the amount of consumed resources of calculation during

  6. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  7. Fracture probability along a fatigue crack path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, P. [Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)

    1995-03-01

    Long experience has shown that the strength of materials under fatigue load has a stochastic behavior, which can be expressed through the fracture probability. This paper deals with a new analytically derived law for the distribution of the fracture probability along a fatigue crack path. The knowledge of the distribution of the fatigue fracture probability along the crack path helps the connection between stress conditions and the expected fatigue life of a structure under stochasticly varying loads. (orig.)

  8. A career path in clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, K A

    1998-03-01

    Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.

  9. Decomposing Path : The Nanosyntax of Directional Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Pantcheva, Marina Blagoeva

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis, I investigate directional expressions cross-linguistically. I examine the morpho-syntactic structure of expressions of Goal (to the house), Source (from the house), Route (through the house), non-transitional paths (towards the house) and, finally, delimited paths (up to the house). I conclude that all these types of directional expressions are of different syntactic complexity. Precisely, Source expressions (from) are formed on the basis of Goal expressions (to) and Route expr...

  10. Path planning for assembly of strut-based structures. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenger, Rolf

    1991-01-01

    A path planning method with collision avoidance for a general single chain nonredundant or redundant robot is proposed. Joint range boundary overruns are also avoided. The result is a sequence of joint vectors which are passed to a trajectory planner. A potential field algorithm in joint space computes incremental joint vectors delta-q = delta-q(sub a) + delta-q(sub c) + delta-q(sub r). Adding delta-q to the robot's current joint vector leads to the next step in the path. Delta-q(sub a) is obtained by computing the minimum norm solution of the underdetermined linear system J delta-q(sub a) = x(sub a) where x(sub a) is a translational and rotational force vector that attracts the robot to its goal position and orientation. J is the manipulator Jacobian. Delta-q(sub c) is a collision avoidance term encompassing collisions between the robot (links and payload) and obstacles in the environment as well as collisions among links and payload of the robot themselves. It is obtained in joint space directly. Delta-q(sub r) is a function of the current joint vector and avoids joint range overruns. A higher level discrete search over candidate safe positions is used to provide alternatives in case the potential field algorithm encounters a local minimum and thus fails to reach the goal. The best first search algorithm A* is used for graph search. Symmetry properties of the payload and equivalent rotations are exploited to further enlarge the number of alternatives passed to the potential field algorithm.

  11. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  12. Design Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankl, Kathrina

    2014-01-01

    The publication 'Design Diversity', an exhibition catalogue, focuses on aging and design – a product culture in transformation that aims to help change conventional notions of the later years of life. Age is positioned as a generational issue that has the same relevance for all age groups....... The exhibition is oriented along disciplines such as inclusive design, which calls for products to be designed in such a way that they are equally attractive to people of all ages. Despite the existence of innovative design concepts, the number of well-designed products available on the market is low. While many...... design projects not devote themselves to the actual challenges of aging? Do the channels of communication between designers and their target group perhaps not work? The exhibition is organized into four showcases along the themes "Housing," "Networking," "Supporting," and "Moving." Exhibition visitors...

  13. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    . A prominent research theme in health care studies is, therefore, to explicate the gap between theory and practice. The question this paper addresses is how a learning environment can be designed to bridge this theory-practice gap, expose the differences in situated interactions and qualify health...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  14. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  15. Co-development of manner and path concepts in language, action, and eye-gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Katrin S; Griffiths, Sascha S; Sciutti, Alessandra; Partmann, Tim C; Rohlfing, Katharina J

    2014-07-01

    In order for artificial intelligent systems to interact naturally with human users, they need to be able to learn from human instructions when actions should be imitated. Human tutoring will typically consist of action demonstrations accompanied by speech. In the following, the characteristics of human tutoring during action demonstration will be examined. A special focus will be put on the distinction between two kinds of motion events: path-oriented actions and manner-oriented actions. Such a distinction is inspired by the literature pertaining to cognitive linguistics, which indicates that the human conceptual system can distinguish these two distinct types of motion. These two kinds of actions are described in language by more path-oriented or more manner-oriented utterances. In path-oriented utterances, the source, trajectory, or goal is emphasized, whereas in manner-oriented utterances the medium, velocity, or means of motion are highlighted. We examined a video corpus of adult-child interactions comprised of three age groups of children-pre-lexical, early lexical, and lexical-and two different tasks, one emphasizing manner more strongly and one emphasizing path more strongly. We analyzed the language and motion of the caregiver and the gazing behavior of the child to highlight the differences between the tutoring and the acquisition of the manner and path concepts. The results suggest that age is an important factor in the development of these action categories. The analysis of this corpus has also been exploited to develop an intelligent robotic behavior-the tutoring spotter system-able to emulate children's behaviors in a tutoring situation, with the aim of evoking in human subjects a natural and effective behavior in teaching to a robot. The findings related to the development of manner and path concepts have been used to implement new effective feedback strategies in the tutoring spotter system, which should provide improvements in human

  16. Pluriactivite et mode de financement des exploitations agricoles

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Krebs

    2005-01-01

    Cet article se propose de mettre en relation les décisions de pluriactivité des familles d’agriculteurs et les choix qu’ils opèrent en matière de financement de leurs exploitations. Les résultats obtenus à partir d’un panel d’exploitations individuelles françaises font ressortir d’importantes spécificités des exploitations pluriactives, tant en matière d’autofinancement que d’endettement. The aim of this article is to study the possible interrelationships between the off-farm work decision...

  17. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  18. Coherent-state path-integral simulation of many-particle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, M.; Alles, B.; Farchioni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dellUniversita and Istituto Nazionale de Fisica Nucleare, Piazza Torricelli 2, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1997-04-01

    The coherent-state path-integral formulation of certain many-particle systems allows for their nonperturbative study by the techniques of lattice field theory. In this paper we exploit this strategy by simulating the diffusion-controlled reaction A+A{r_arrow}0 in one dimension where an exact solution exists. Our results are also consistent with general renormalization-group-based predictions, thus clarifying the continuum limit of the action of the problem. We also make an analytical study of the exactly solvable harmonic oscillator problem. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Improving performance of single-path code through a time-predictable memory hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilku, Bekim; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -predictable memory hierarchy with a prefetcher that exploits the predictability of execution traces in single-path code to speed up code execution. The new memory hierarchy reduces both the cache-miss penalty time and the cache-miss rate on the instruction cache. The benefit of the approach is demonstrated through......Deriving the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of a task is a challenging process, especially for processor architectures that use caches, out-of-order pipelines, and speculative execution. Despite existing contributions to WCET analysis for these complex architectures, there are open problems...

  20. Paths to last in mixed crop-livestock farming: lessons from an assessment of farm trajectories of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Gibon, A

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crop-livestock systems, combining livestock and cash crops at farm level, are considered to be suitable for sustainable intensification of agriculture. Ensuring the survival of mixed crop-livestock systems is a challenge for European agriculture: the number of European mixed crop-livestock farms has been decreasing since 1970. Analysis of farming system dynamics may elucidate past changes and the forces driving this decline. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the diversity of paths that allowed the survival of mixed crop-livestock farming and (ii) to elucidate the driving forces behind such survival. We analysed the variety of farm trajectories from 1950 to 2005. We studied the entire farm population of a case study site, located in the 'Coteaux de Gascogne' region. In this less favoured area of south-western France, farmers have limited specialisation. Currently, half of the farms use mixed crop-livestock systems. The data set of 20 variables for 50 farms on the basis of six 10-year time steps was collected through retrospective surveys. We used a two-step analysis including (i) a visual assessment of the whole population of individual farm trajectories and (ii) a computer-based typology of farm trajectories on the basis of a series of multivariate analyses followed by automatic clustering. The European Common Agricultural Policy, market globalisation and decreasing workforce availability were identified as drivers of change that favoured the specialisation process. Nevertheless, farmers' choices and values have opposed against these driving forces, ensuring the survival of some mixed crop-livestock farming systems. The trajectories were clustered into five types, four of which were compatible with mixed crop-livestock systems. The first type was the maximisation of autonomy by combining crops and livestock. The second type was diversification of production to exploit economies of scope and protect the farm against market fluctuations. The

  1. The Exact Euclidean Distance Transform: A New Algorithm for Universal Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Elizondo-Leal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Path-Planning problem is a basic issue in mobile robotics, in order to allow the robots to solve more complex tasks, for example, an exploration assignment in which the distance given by the planner is taken as a utility measure. Among the different proposed approaches, algorithms based on an exact cell decomposition of the environment are very popular. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for universal path planning in cell decomposition, using a raster scan method for computing the Exact Euclidean Distance Transform (EEDT for each cell in the map. Our algorithm computes, for every cell in the map, the point sequence to the goal. For each sequence, the sub-goals are selected near to the vertices of the obstacles, reducing the total distance to the goal without post processing. At the end, we obtain a smooth path up to the goal without the need for post-processing. The paths are computed by visibility verification among the cells, exploiting the processing performed in the neighbouring cells.

  2. A time-delay neural network for solving time-dependent shortest path problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Yan, Chunwang; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This paper concerns the time-dependent shortest path problem, which is difficult to come up with global optimal solution by means of classical shortest path approaches such as Dijkstra, and pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN). In this study, we propose a time-delay neural network (TDNN) framework that comes with the globally optimal solution when solving the time-dependent shortest path problem. The underlying idea of TDNN comes from the following mechanism: the shortest path depends on the earliest auto-wave (from start node) that arrives at the destination node. In the design of TDNN, each node on a network is considered as a neuron, which comes in the form of two units: time-window unit and auto-wave unit. Time-window unit is used to generate auto-wave in each time window, while auto-wave unit is exploited here to update the state of auto-wave. Whether or not an auto-wave leaves a node (neuron) depends on the state of auto-wave. The evaluation of the performance of the proposed approach was carried out based on online public Cordeau instances and New York Road instances. The proposed TDNN was also compared with the quality of classical approaches such as Dijkstra and PCNN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved Path Loss Simulation Incorporating Three-Dimensional Terrain Model Using Parallel Coprocessors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bin Loo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current network simulators abstract out wireless propagation models due to the high computation requirements for realistic modeling. As such, there is still a large gap between the results obtained from simulators and real world scenario. In this paper, we present a framework for improved path loss simulation built on top of an existing network simulation software, NS-3. Different from the conventional disk model, the proposed simulation also considers the diffraction loss computed using Epstein and Peterson’s model through the use of actual terrain elevation data to give an accurate estimate of path loss between a transmitter and a receiver. The drawback of high computation requirements is relaxed by offloading the computationally intensive components onto an inexpensive off-the-shelf parallel coprocessor, which is a NVIDIA GPU. Experiments are performed using actual terrain elevation data provided from United States Geological Survey. As compared to the conventional CPU architecture, the experimental result shows that a speedup of 20x to 42x is achieved by exploiting the parallel processing of GPU to compute the path loss between two nodes using terrain elevation data. The result shows that the path losses between two nodes are greatly affected by the terrain profile between these two nodes. Besides this, the result also suggests that the common strategy to place the transmitter in the highest position may not always work.

  4. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  5. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibration transfer path systems was provided. The transfer reliability of vibration transfer path system with uncertain path parameters including path mass and path stiffness was analyzed theoretically and computed numerically, and the correlated mathematical expressions were derived. Thus, it provides the theoretical foundation for the dynamic design of vibration systems in practical project, so that most random path parameters can be considered to solve the random problems for vibration transfer path systems, which can avoid the system resonance failure.

  6. Biodiversity, chemical diversity and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sheo B; Pelaez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Drugs developed from microbial natural products are in the fundaments of modern pharmaceutical companies. Despite decades of research, all evidences suggest that there must remain many interesting natural molecules with potential therapeutic application yet to be discovered. Any efforts to successfully exploit the chemical diversity of microbial secondary metabolites need to rely heavily on a good understanding of microbial diversity, being the working hypothesis that maximizing biological diversity is the key strategy to maximizing chemical diversity. This chapter presents an overview of diverse topics related with this basic principle, always in relation with the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. The types of microorganisms more frequently used for natural products discovery are briefly reviewed, as well as the differences between terrestrial and marine habitats as sources of bioactive secondary metabolite producers. The concepts about microbial diversity as applied to prokaryotes have evolved in the last years, but recent data suggest the existence of true biogeographic patterns of bacterial diversity, which are also discussed. Special attention is dedicated to the existing strategies to exploit the microbial diversity that is not easy to tackle by conventional approaches. This refers explicitly to the current attempts to isolate and cultivate the previously uncultured bacteria, including the application of high throughput techniques. Likewise, the advances of microbial molecular biology has allowed the development of metagenomic approaches, i.e., the expression of biosynthetic pathways directly obtained from environmental DNA and cloned in a suitable host, as another way of accessing microbial genetic resources. Also, approaches relying on the genomics of metabolite producers are reviewed.

  7. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and ... with oil exploration and exploitation have had adverse effects on the environment ... the confused atmosphere to unleash reign of terror on innocent citizens.

  8. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  9. 77 FR 36491 - Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Americans'') seeks information on consumer financial products and services, financial literacy efforts, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer...

  10. L'exploitation des cephalopodes: situation et perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesnil, B

    1977-01-01

    Sans attendre que soit atteint ce degre de precision, nous avons voulu aborder une etape plus elementaire en reunissant les informations relatives a l'etat actuel de l'exploitation des cephalopodes at...

  11. Matching Terminological Heterogeneous Ontologies by Exploiting Partial Alignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadd, Frederik Christiaan; Roos, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Matching ontologies which utilize significantly heterogeneous terminologies is a challenging task for existing matching techniques. These techniques typically exploit lexical resources in order to enrich the ontologies with additional terminology such that more terminological matches can be found.

  12. Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Constantinescu

    2015-01-01

    ... to a country’s national security and long term development. The aim of this article is to outline the links and interactions between the availability of natural resources, their sustainable exploitation...

  13. A Practical Guide for Exploiting FBCB2 Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leibrecht, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The Leader's Primer for Exploiting FBCB2 describes twenty-two major FBCB2 capabilities, the tactical significance of each capability, the digital operator and user tasks involved in employing each...

  14. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  15. Does staff diversity imply openness to diversity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    from diverse university departments to a self-report electronic survey. Findings – It was found that diversity-related internationalization (cultural and linguistic) was generally positively related to favorable diversity attitudes. Inherent demographic diversity (age and gender), on the other hand...... university departments in Denmark. The authors set out to investigate the relationship between different types of staff diversity and openness to diversity in terms of linguistic, visible, value, and informational heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach – This study uses responses from 489 staff members......, was unrelated or negatively associated with positive diversity attitudes. Originality/value – Few studies deal with the role of staff diversity and no prior studies the authors know of have examined the link between diversity types and openness to diversity....

  16. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  17. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Babaeian

    Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  18. The formal path integral and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Freyd, Theo

    2010-12-01

    Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on {R}^d and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by "Feynman diagrams," although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a "Fubini theorem" expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by "cutting and pasting" and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic "formal path integral" for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.

  19. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP , VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP , Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...Traveling Salesman Problem ( TSP ) and Graph Coloring are elementary. Problems such as MAX-kSAT are a superposition of k elementary landscapes. This

  20. Typologie des exploitations agricoles familiales : cas de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion durable d'une formation forestière nécessite la prise en compte des activités humaines s'exerçant aux alentours en raison de leurs impacts sur la pérennité et la qualité des produits exploités. Cette étude visait ainsi à caractériser les exploitations agricoles familiales adjacentes de la forêt de Baban rafi. Pour y.

  1. A computationally efficient Bayesian sequential simulation approach for the assimilation of vast and diverse hydrogeophysical datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Raphaël; Gloaguen, Erwan; Mariéthoz, Grégoire; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Bayesian sequential simulation (BSS) is a powerful geostatistical technique, which notably has shown significant potential for the assimilation of datasets that are diverse with regard to the spatial resolution and their relationship. However, these types of applications of BSS require a large number of realizations to adequately explore the solution space and to assess the corresponding uncertainties. Moreover, such simulations generally need to be performed on very fine grids in order to adequately exploit the technique's potential for characterizing heterogeneous environments. Correspondingly, the computational cost of BSS algorithms in their classical form is very high, which so far has limited an effective application of this method to large models and/or vast datasets. In this context, it is also important to note that the inherent assumption regarding the independence of the considered datasets is generally regarded as being too strong in the context of sequential simulation. To alleviate these problems, we have revisited the classical implementation of BSS and incorporated two key features to increase the computational efficiency. The first feature is a combined quadrant spiral - superblock search, which targets run-time savings on large grids and adds flexibility with regard to the selection of neighboring points using equal directional sampling and treating hard data and previously simulated points separately. The second feature is a constant path of simulation, which enhances the efficiency for multiple realizations. We have also modified the aggregation operator to be more flexible with regard to the assumption of independence of the considered datasets. This is achieved through log-linear pooling, which essentially allows for attributing weights to the various data components. Finally, a multi-grid simulating path was created to enforce large-scale variance and to allow for adapting parameters, such as, for example, the log-linear weights or the type

  2. Teaching Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Young McChesney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is targeted to faculty teaching race and ethnicity, racism, diversity, and multicultural courses. Many students equate race with skin color. The premise of this article is that to teach students about the social construction of race, teachers must first know enough science to teach students that race is not biological. This article examines the biology of race by showing how advances in DNA sequencing led to genetics research that supports arguments that race is not biological. DNA comparisons show that all human populations living today are one species that came from Africa. The article explains the migration of humans out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and how they populated Australia, then Asia, Europe, and the Americas. The article shows how recent research maps the timing of the migration and admixture of specific population groups into Europe and India. The article shows how a mutation in one nucleotide can result in a trait like blue eyes, or Hemoglobin S (which confers resistance to malaria, which can be subject to evolution through natural selection. DNA comparisons show how natural selection shaped the genetics of human skin color to adapt to less UV light in the northern latitudes of Europe and Asia. The article shows that there is no relation between skin color or other “racial” characteristics and complex traits like intelligence. The science in this article will help teachers explain that as race is not biological, race is socially constructed and culturally enacted.

  3. Line transect sampling from a curving path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, L; Krishna, M B

    2001-09-01

    Cutting straight line transects through dense forest is time consuming and expensive when large areas need to be surveyed for rare or highly clustered species. We argue that existing paths or game trails may be suitable as transects for line transect sampling even though they will not, in general, run straight. Formulas and software currently used to estimate local density using perpendicular distance data can be used with closest approach distances measured from curving transects. Suitable paths or trails are those for which the minimum radius of curvature is rarely less than the width of the shoulder in the detection probability function. The use of existing paths carries the risk of bias resulting from unrepresentative sampling of available habitats, and this must be weighed against the increase in coverage available.

  4. Quickest Paths for Different Network Router Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Grimmell, W.C.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Bang, Y.C.

    2000-06-01

    The quickest path problem deals with the transmission of a message of size {sigma} from a source to a destination with the minimum end-to-end delay over a network with bandwidth and delay constraints on the links. The authors consider four basic modes and two variations for the message delivery at the nodes reflecting the mechanisms such as circuit switching, Internet protocol, and their combinations. For each of the first three modes, they present O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute the quickest path for a given message size {sigma}. For the last mode, the quickest path can be computed in O(m + n log n) time.

  5. Approximate Shortest Homotopic Paths in Weighted Regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Let P be a path between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions. Given a relative error tolerance ε ∈(0,1), we present the first algorithm to compute a path between s and t that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle and the path cost is within a factor 1 + ε of the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε2 kn polylog(k, n, 1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...... that lead to it. Methods of standard regression analysis are extended to this type of modelling. Three types of 'strengths' of relationship are computed for each set of two connected data blocks. First is the strength in the path, second the strength where only the data blocks leading to the last one...... are used and third if only the two are considered. Cross-validation and other standard methods of linear regression are carried out in a similar manner. In industry, processes are organised in different ways. It can be useful to model the processes in the way they are carried out. By proper alignment...

  7. The path exchange method for hybrid LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Crawford, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid techniques for Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provide a way of combining the accuracy of process analysis and the completeness of input-output analysis. A number of methods have been suggested to implement a hybrid LCA in practice, with the main challenge being the integration of specific process data with an overarching input-output system. In this work we present a new hybrid LCA method which works at the finest input-output level of detail: structural paths. This new Path Exchange method avoids double-counting and system disturbance just as previous hybrid LCA methods, but instead of a large LCA database it requires only a minimum of external information on those structural paths that are to be represented by process data.

  8. Approximate shortest homotopic paths in weighted regions

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Siuwing

    2012-02-01

    A path P between two points s and t in a polygonal subdivision T with obstacles and weighted regions defines a class of paths that can be deformed to P without passing over any obstacle. We present the first algorithm that, given P and a relative error tolerance ε (0, 1), computes a path from this class with cost at most 1 + ε times the optimum. The running time is O(h 3/ε 2kn polylog (k,n,1/ε)), where k is the number of segments in P and h and n are the numbers of obstacles and vertices in T, respectively. The constant in the running time of our algorithm depends on some geometric parameters and the ratio of the maximum region weight to the minimum region weight. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  9. Graphs with not all possible path-kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldred, Robert; Thomassen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    The Path Partition Conjecture states that the vertices of a graph G with longest path of length c may be partitioned into two parts X and Y such that the longest path in the subgraph of G induced by X has length at most a and the longest path in the subgraph of G induced by Y has length at most b...

  10. Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S

    2001-02-08

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  11. An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.

    2000-09-12

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  12. Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen

    2010-03-21

    Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  14. Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Geoffrey F.

    2002-10-10

    Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.

  15. Robust paths to realize nonadiabatic holonomic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. F.; Zhao, P. Z.; Tong, D. M.; Sjöqvist, Erik

    2017-05-01

    To realize one desired nonadiabatic holonomic gate, various equivalent evolution paths can be chosen. However, in the presence of errors, these paths become inequivalent. In this paper we investigate the difference of these evolution paths in the presence of systematic Rabi-frequency errors and aim to find paths with optimal robustness to realize one-qubit nonadiabatic holonomic gates. We focus on three types of evolution paths in the Λ system: paths belonging to the original two-loop scheme [E. Sjöqvist et al., New J. Phys. 14, 103035 (2012), 10.1088/1367-2630/14/10/103035], the single-loop multiple-pulse scheme [E. Herterich and E. Sjöqvist, Phys. Rev. A 94, 052310 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.052310], and the off-resonance single-shot scheme [G. F. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 052302 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.052302; E. Sjöqvist, Phys. Lett. A 380, 65 (2016), 10.1016/j.physleta.2015.10.006]. Whereas both the single-loop multiple-pulse and single-shot schemes aim to improve the robustness of the original two-loop scheme by shortening the exposure to decoherence, we find here that the two-loop scheme is more robust to systematic errors in the Rabi frequencies. More importantly, we derive conditions under which the resilience to this kind of error can be optimized, thereby strengthening the robustness of nonadiabatic holonomic gates.

  16. Exploitation of Full-Waveform LiDAR to Characterize / Exploit Under Canopy Targets - Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    specific targets, and (3) full waveform application in forestry . Exploitation of Full-waveform LiDAR to Characterize/Exploit under Canopy Targets...Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)   9    The review on current waveform processing methods, LiDAR-specific targets and forestry applications clearly indicates...proceedings of IGARSS 2012, Munich, Germany, July 23-27, 2012. Molnar, B., Laky, S., and Toth, Ch. (2011): Using Full Waveform Data in Urban Areas

  17. MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0127 MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for...MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2016 Final 26 September 2011 – 15 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATHEMATICS OF SENSING... mathematical foundation for unified representation, inference, and learning for ISR problems. The result of the project is an end-to-end system for scene and

  18. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; van Ginneken, Bram; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract vessel trees by continually extending detected branches with locally optimal paths. Our approach uses a cost function from a multi scale vessel enhancement filter. Optimal paths are selected based on rules that take into account the geometric characteristics...... of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  19. Path Integrals on Manifolds with Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    We give time-slicing path integral formulas for solutions to the heat equation corresponding to a self-adjoint Laplace type operator acting on sections of a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. More specifically, we show that such a solution can be approximated by integrals over finite-dimensional path spaces of piecewise geodesics subordinated to increasingly fine partitions of the time interval. We consider a subclass of mixed boundary conditions which includes standard Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.

  20. Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.

  1. Practical path planning among movable obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.; Hwang, Yong K.

    1990-09-05

    Path planning among movable obstacles is a practical problem that is in need of a solution. In this paper an efficient heuristic algorithm that uses a generate-and-test paradigm: a good'' candidate path is hypothesized by a global planner and subsequently verified by a local planner. In the process of formalizing the problem, we also present a technique for modeling object interactions through contact. Our algorithm has been tested on a variety of examples, and was able to generate solutions within 10 seconds. 5 figs., 27 refs.

  2. Field theory a path integral approach

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    This unique book describes quantum field theory completely within the context of path integrals. With its utility in a variety of fields in physics, the subject matter is primarily developed within the context of quantum mechanics before going into specialized areas.Adding new material keenly requested by readers, this second edition is an important expansion of the popular first edition. Two extra chapters cover path integral quantization of gauge theories and anomalies, and a new section extends the supersymmetry chapter, where singular potentials in supersymmetric systems are described.

  3. Flight Path Recovery System (FPRS) design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The study contained herein presents a design for a Flight Path Recovery System (FPPS) for use in the NURE Program which will be more accurate than systems presently used, provide position location data in digital form suitable for automatic data processing, and provide for flight path recovery in a more economic and operationally suitable manner. The design is based upon the use of presently available hardware and technoloy, and presents little, it any, development risk. In addition, a Flight Test Plan designed to test the FPRS design concept is presented.

  4. The ESA scientific exploitation element results and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Donlon, Craig; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Fernandez, Diego; Gascon, Ferran; Zehner, Claus; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Koetz, Benjamin; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element of ESA's fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP4) prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community built up over the last 25 years exploiting ESA's EO missions. SEOM enables the science community to address new scientific research areas that are opened by the free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, key research studies have been launched over the last years to further exploit data from the Sentinels (http://seom.esa.int/). During 2016 several Science users consultation workshops have been organized, new results from scientific studies have been published and open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been distributed (SNAP 80000 users from 190 countries). In addition the first ESA Massive Open Online Courses on Climate from space have been deployed (20000 participants) and the second EO Open Science conference was organized at ESA in September 2016 bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. The new EOEP5 Exploitation element approved in 2016 and starting in 2017 is taking stock of all precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation and in particular a workplan for ESA scientific exploitation activities has been presented to Member States taking full benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The results and highlights from current scientific exploitation activities will be presented and an outlook on the upcoming activities under the new EOEP5 exploitation element will be given.

  5. Design of a Multiorder OFDM Frequency Diversity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldime Mohamed Salih Abdelgader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency diversity is used to reduce the effect of destructive fading, so as to improve the communication quality, by passing the information symbols through multiple independently faded paths, and ensure that reliable communication is possible as long as one of these paths is strong. In this paper a multiorder orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM frequency diversity approach using properties of order theory and Hamming distance is proposed. The frequency diversity is obtained by specifying proper correlations among the transmitted symbols. As subchannels experience independent fading, at least one of the symbols may have robust signal, which can be used by the receiver to detect other symbols. Considering bit error rate (BER performance, power consumption, bandwidth utilization, and practical implementation expense, simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms other OFDM diversity techniques, such as Maximal Ratio Combination (MRC and Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC.

  6. Event-Flow Graphs for Efficient Path-Sensitive Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrawi, Ahmed; Kothari, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and accurate path-sensitive analyses pose the challenges of: (a) analyzing an exponentially-increasing number of paths in a control-flow graph (CFG), and (b) checking feasibility of paths in a CFG. We address these challenges by introducing an equivalence relation on the CFG paths to partition them into equivalence classes. It is then sufficient to perform analysis on these equivalence classes rather than on the individual paths in a CFG. This technique has two major advantages: (a)...

  7. On the structure of path-like trees

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaner Batle, Francesc Antoni; Rius Font, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure of path-like trees. In order to do this, we introduce a set of trees that we call expandable trees. In this paper we also generalize the concept of path-like trees and we call such generalization generalized path-like trees. As in the case of path-like trees, generalized path-like trees, have very nice labeling properties.

  8. Finding the optimal-path maps for path planning across weighted regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, N.C.; Alexander, R.S.

    2000-02-01

    Optimal-path maps tell robots or people the best way to reach a goal point from anywhere in a known terrain area, eliminating most of the need to plan during travel. The authors address the construction of optimal-path maps for two-dimensional polygonal weighted-region terrain, terrain partitioned into polygonal areas such that the cost per unit of distance traveled is homogeneous and isotropic within each area. This is useful for overland route planning across varied ground surfaces and vegetation. The authors propose a new algorithm that recursively partitions terrain into regions of similar optimal-path behavior, and defines corresponding path subspaces for these regions. This process constructs a piecewise-smooth function of terrain position whose gradient direction is everywhere the optimal-path direction, permitting quick path finding. The algorithm used is more complicated than the current path-caching and wavefront-propagation algorithms, but it gives more accurate maps requiring less space to represent. Experiments with an implementation confirm the practicality of the authors' algorithm.

  9. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of silicates

    OpenAIRE

    Rickwardt, Chr.; Nielaba, P.; Müser, M. H.; Binder, K.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the thermal expansion of crystalline SiO$_2$ in the $\\beta$-- cristobalite and the $\\beta$-quartz structure with path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) techniques. This simulation method allows to treat low-temperature quantum effects properly. At temperatures below the Debye temperature, thermal properties obtained with PIMC agree better with experimental results than those obtained with classical Monte Carlo methods.

  10. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Path length resolved optical Doppler flowmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Wax, Adam; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    The readings in laser Doppler perfusion monitoring are affected by the optical properties of the tissue in which the microvasculature is embedded, through their effect on the optical path lengths. Thus for a constant perfusion, the LDF output signal is affected by the variance in individual photon

  12. A general framework for shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A.W.J. Kolen

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a general framework for shortest path algorithms, including amongst others Dijkstra's algorithm and the A* algorithm. By showing that all algorithms are special cases of one algorithm in which some of the nondeterministic choices are made deterministic,

  13. Path integration in tactile perception of shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Alessandro; Naceri, Abdeldjallil; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-11-01

    Whenever we move the hand across a surface, tactile signals provide information about the relative velocity between the skin and the surface. If the system were able to integrate the tactile velocity information over time, cutaneous touch may provide an estimate of the relative displacement between the hand and the surface. Here, we asked whether humans are able to form a reliable representation of the motion path from tactile cues only, integrating motion information over time. In order to address this issue, we conducted three experiments using tactile motion and asked participants (1) to estimate the length of a simulated triangle, (2) to reproduce the shape of a simulated triangular path, and (3) to estimate the angle between two-line segments. Participants were able to accurately indicate the length of the path, whereas the perceived direction was affected by a direction bias (inward bias). The response pattern was thus qualitatively similar to the ones reported in classical path integration studies involving locomotion. However, we explain the directional biases as the result of a tactile motion aftereffect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Unidirectional Motion of Vehicle on Sinusoidal Path: Can it Cause Illusory ... Author Affiliations. Anuj Bhatnagar1. Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER) IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  15. Explore the Many Paths to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The road to leadership is not necessarily one that educators plan carefully with a series of logical steps. Certainly some educators start as teachers and then systematically work through a traditional hierarchy on their way to the superintendency. No matter their role or their path, education leaders demand more from themselves and others and…

  16. Path-breaking books in regional science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldorf, BS

    This article presents a collection of regional science books that long-standing members of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI) identified as path-breaking books. The most frequently nominated books include the "classics" by Isard, the seminal books in urban economics by Alonso,

  17. Path creation in the software industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the development of the German software company Software AG, which was among the few European companies that succeeded in the US market already in the 1970s. Utilizing the concept of "path creation" it examines how early success impacted the development of the company. It shows...

  18. A path following algorithm for mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers path following control for a robotic platform. The vehicle used for the experiments is a specially designed robotic platform for performing autonomous weed control. The platform is four-wheel steered and four-wheel driven. A diesel engine powers the wheels via a hydraulic

  19. Pairs of paths and critical points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two sufficient conditions are presented, in terms of the values taken by a holomorphic function f(z on a pair of smooth paths intersecting at a point z0 in its domain, implying that f′(z0=0.

  20. The shortest path to cardiac activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of the shortest path algorithm in the simulation of cardiac activation. This method is both used in the forward simulation of an electrocardiogram (ECG) as well as in the non-invasive imaging of cardiac activation and recovery. Due to the immense number of

  1. Four Paths that Led to Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, W. Roger

    1989-01-01

    Traces the alternative career paths that four minority individuals followed to professional journalism. Includes a potential doctoral candidate in 17th century poetry, a future aeronautical engineer, a jazz musician, and possible pharmacist. Contends that minorities must often approach the profession through alternative routes in order to succeed.…

  2. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  3. Linear optical quantum metrology with single photons: exploiting spontaneously generated entanglement to beat the shot-noise limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P

    2015-05-01

    Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  5. Experimental Simulation of the Exploitation of Natural Gas Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates are cage-like crystalline compounds in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming solids at low temperature and high pressure. Natural gas hydrates are widely distributed in permafrost regions and offshore. It is estimated that the worldwide amounts of methane bound in gas hydrates are total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on earth. A proper understanding of the relevant exploitation technologies is then important for natural gas production applications. In this paper, the recent advances on the experimental simulation of natural gas hydrate exploitation using the major hydrate production technologies are summarized. In addition, the current situation of the industrial exploitation of natural gas hydrate is introduced, which are expected to be useful for establishing more safe and efficient gas production technologies.

  6. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  7. Gastropod diversity, distribution and abundance in habitats with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study shows that anthropogenic disturbances cause ecological changes that can be exploited by some snail species, especially Biomphalaria choanomphala and Melanoides tuberculata, while other species may not tolerate these changes. In order to protect gastropod diversity and avoid dominance of intermediate ...

  8. Ethnicity and gender variability in the diversity, recognition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... (K) were used to assess the diversity, the level of knowledge, use of wild mushrooms and variability among all three ethnic groups. A total ... Volaviella volvacea as the commonly exploited mushrooms in the study area (TUV between 2,14 and 2,40). All recorded ...... basidiomycetes mushrooms. International.

  9. Microsatellite based investigation of genetic diversity in 24 synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bread wheat has very low genetic diversity. Plant breeders find it difficult to get appropriate germplasm which can be used for bread wheat improvement. Wild plant species is one of the potential sources for conferring resistant genes which can be exploited for bread wheat improvement. The challenge is to utilize ...

  10. Genetic diversity and conservation of Mexican forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wehenkel; S. Mariscal-Lucero; J.P. Jaramillo-Correa; C.A. López-Sánchez; J.J. Vargas Hernández; C. Sáenz-Romero

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, humans have impacted the genetic diversity of forest trees. Because of widespread deforestation and over-exploitation, about 9,000 tree species are listed worldwide as threatened with extinction, including more than half of the ~600 known conifer taxa. A comprehensive review of the floristic-taxonomic literature compiled a list of 4,331...

  11. Final Report, “Exploiting Global View for Resilience”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Andrew [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-29

    Final technical report for the "Exploiting Global View for Resilience" project. The GVR project aims to create a new approach to portable, resilient applications. The GVR approach builds on a global view data model,, adding versioning (multi-version), user control of timing and rate (multi-stream), and flexible cross layer error signalling and recovery. With a versioned array as a portable abstraction, GVR enables application programmers to exploit deep scientific and application code insights to manage resilience (and its overhead) in a flexible, portable fashion.

  12. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.

  13. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel...Jun 2013]. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel, Project Leader David A. Sparrow I N S T I T U T E F O...making us appear weak and ineffective because we cannot stop these short-of- war actions. The A2AD systems increase the risk to our conventional forces

  15. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  16. Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P.-S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

  17. Diel horizontal migration in streams: juvenile fish exploit spatial heterogeneity in thermal and trophic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jonathan B.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Ruff, Casey P.; Brooks, Gabriel T.; Bentley, Kale E.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    Vertical heterogeneity in the physical characteristics of lakes and oceans is ecologically salient and exploited by a wide range of taxa through diel vertical migration to enhance their growth and survival. Whether analogous behaviors exploit horizontal habitat heterogeneity in streams is largely unknown. We investigated fish movement behavior at daily timescales to explore how individuals integrated across spatial variation in food abundance and water temperature. Juvenile coho salmon made feeding forays into cold habitats with abundant food, and then moved long distances (350–1300 m) to warmer habitats that accelerated their metabolism and increased their assimilative capacity. This behavioral thermoregulation enabled fish to mitigate trade-offs between trophic and thermal resources by exploiting thermal heterogeneity. Fish that exploited thermal heterogeneity grew at substantially faster rates than did individuals that assumed other behaviors. Our results provide empirical support for the importance of thermal diversity in lotic systems, and emphasize the importance of considering interactions between animal behavior and habitat heterogeneity when managing and restoring ecosystems.

  18. A Path Space Extension for Robust Light Transport Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachisuka, Toshiya; Pantaleoni, Jacopo; Jensen, Henrik Wann

    2012-01-01

    We present a new sampling space for light transport paths that makes it possible to describe Monte Carlo path integration and photon density estimation in the same framework. A key contribution of our paper is the introduction of vertex perturbations, which extends the space of paths with loosely...... coupled connections. The new framework enables the computation of path probabilities in the same space under the same measure, which allows us to use multiple importance sampling to combine Monte Carlo path integration and photon density estimation. The resulting algorithm, unified path sampling, can...

  19. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  20. A whole-path importance-sampling scheme for Feynman path integral calculations of absolute partition functions and free energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-01-21

    Using Feynman path integrals, a molecular partition function can be written as a double integral with the inner integral involving all closed paths centered at a given molecular configuration, and the outer integral involving all possible molecular configurations. In previous work employing Monte Carlo methods to evaluate such partition functions, we presented schemes for importance sampling and stratification in the molecular configurations that constitute the path centroids, but we relied on free-particle paths for sampling the path integrals. At low temperatures, the path sampling is expensive because the paths can travel far from the centroid configuration. We now present a scheme for importance sampling of whole Feynman paths based on harmonic information from an instantaneous normal mode calculation at the centroid configuration, which we refer to as harmonically guided whole-path importance sampling (WPIS). We obtain paths conforming to our chosen importance function by rejection sampling from a distribution of free-particle paths. Sample calculations on CH4 demonstrate that at a temperature of 200 K, about 99.9% of the free-particle paths can be rejected without integration, and at 300 K, about 98% can be rejected. We also show that it is typically possible to reduce the overhead associated with the WPIS scheme by sampling the paths using a significantly lower-order path discretization than that which is needed to converge the partition function.

  1. On edge-aware path-based color spatial sampling for Retinex: from Termite Retinex to Light Energy-driven Termite Retinex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Gabriele; Cordone, Roberto; Serapioni, Raul Paolo; Lecca, Michela

    2017-05-01

    Retinex theory estimates the human color sensation at any observed point by correcting its color based on the spatial arrangement of the colors in proximate regions. We revise two recent path-based, edge-aware Retinex implementations: Termite Retinex (TR) and Energy-driven Termite Retinex (ETR). As the original Retinex implementation, TR and ETR scan the neighborhood of any image pixel by paths and rescale their chromatic intensities by intensity levels computed by reworking the colors of the pixels on the paths. Our interest in TR and ETR is due to their unique, content-based scanning scheme, which uses the image edges to define the paths and exploits a swarm intelligence model for guiding the spatial exploration of the image. The exploration scheme of ETR has been showed to be particularly effective: its paths are local minima of an energy functional, designed to favor the sampling of image pixels highly relevant to color sensation. Nevertheless, since its computational complexity makes ETR poorly practicable, here we present a light version of it, named Light Energy-driven TR, and obtained from ETR by implementing a modified, optimized minimization procedure and by exploiting parallel computing.

  2. Path-Dependent Travel Time Prediction Variance and Covariance for a Global Tomographic P- and S-Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J. R.; Ballard, S.; Begnaud, M. L.; Encarnacao, A. V.; Young, C. J.; Phillips, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recently our combined SNL-LANL research team has succeeded in developing a global, seamless 3D tomographic P- and S-velocity model (SALSA3D) that provides superior first P and first S travel time predictions at both regional and teleseismic distances. However, given the variable data quality and uneven data sampling associated with this type of model, it is essential that there be a means to calculate high-quality estimates of the path-dependent variance and covariance associated with the predicted travel times of ray paths through the model. In this paper, we describe a methodology for accomplishing this by exploiting the full model covariance matrix and show examples of path-dependent travel time prediction uncertainty computed from our latest tomographic model. Typical global 3D SALSA3D models have on the order of 1/2 million nodes, so the challenge in calculating the covariance matrix is formidable: 0.9 TB storage for 1/2 of a symmetric matrix, necessitating an Out-Of-Core (OOC) blocked matrix solution technique. With our approach the tomography matrix (G which includes a prior model covariance constraint) is multiplied by its transpose (GTG) and written in a blocked sub-matrix fashion. We employ a distributed parallel solution paradigm that solves for (GTG)-1 by assigning blocks to individual processing nodes for matrix decomposition update and scaling operations. We first find the Cholesky decomposition of GTG which is subsequently inverted. Next, we employ OOC matrix multiplication methods to calculate the model covariance matrix from (GTG)-1 and an assumed data covariance matrix. Given the model covariance matrix, we solve for the travel-time covariance associated with arbitrary ray-paths by summing the model covariance along both ray paths. Setting the paths equal and taking the square root yields the travel prediction uncertainty for the single path.

  3. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  4. Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2017-05-01

    We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.

  5. Airway Tree Extraction with Locally Optimal Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract the airway tree from CT images by continually extending the tree with locally optimal paths. This is in contrast to commonly used region growing based approaches that only search the space of the immediate neighbors. The result is a much more robust method...... for tree extraction that can overcome local occlusions. The cost function for obtaining the optimal paths takes into account of an airway probability map as well as measures of airway shape and orientation derived from multi-scale Hessian eigen analysis on the airway probability. Significant improvements...... were achieved compared to a region growing based method, with up to 36% longer trees at a slight increase of false positive rate....

  6. Dominating Sets and Domination Polynomials of Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alikhani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V,E be a simple graph. A set S⊆V is a dominating set of G, if every vertex in V\\S is adjacent to at least one vertex in S. Let 𝒫ni be the family of all dominating sets of a path Pn with cardinality i, and let d(Pn,j=|𝒫nj|. In this paper, we construct 𝒫ni, and obtain a recursive formula for d(Pn,i. Using this recursive formula, we consider the polynomial D(Pn,x=∑i=⌈n/3⌉nd(Pn,ixi, which we call domination polynomial of paths and obtain some properties of this polynomial.

  7. An alternative path integral for quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Kumar, K.V. Pavan; Raju, Avinash [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-10-10

    We define a (semi-classical) path integral for gravity with Neumann boundary conditions in D dimensions, and show how to relate this new partition function to the usual picture of Euclidean quantum gravity. We also write down the action in ADM Hamiltonian formulation and use it to reproduce the entropy of black holes and cosmological horizons. A comparison between the (background-subtracted) covariant and Hamiltonian ways of semi-classically evaluating this path integral in flat space reproduces the generalized Smarr formula and the first law. This “Neumann ensemble” perspective on gravitational thermodynamics is parallel to the canonical (Dirichlet) ensemble of Gibbons-Hawking and the microcanonical approach of Brown-York.

  8. Degenerate optimal paths in thermally isolated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Thiago V.; Bonança, Marcus V. S.

    2015-04-01

    We present an analysis of the work performed on a system of interest that is kept thermally isolated during the switching of a control parameter. We show that there exists, for a certain class of systems, a finite-time family of switching protocols for which the work is equal to the quasistatic value. These optimal paths are obtained within linear response for systems initially prepared in a canonical distribution. According to our approach, such protocols are composed of a linear part plus a function which is odd with respect to time reversal. For systems with one degree of freedom, we claim that these optimal paths may also lead to the conservation of the corresponding adiabatic invariant. This points to an interesting connection between work and the conservation of the volume enclosed by the energy shell. To illustrate our findings, we solve analytically the harmonic oscillator and present numerical results for certain anharmonic examples.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  10. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  11. Exporting DNA – striking a balance between preventing exploitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three important points that complement the above need to be considered: (i) the details in the MTA must reflect what is stipulated in the informed consent ... they not only contain information that may be of importance from ... And how can we achieve a balance between preventing exploitation and promoting innovation?

  12. Exploitation of Bush Mango ( Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the exploitation of Bush Mango Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu (ogbono) among rural households in Enugu State, Nigeria. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 91 respondents and data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The mean ...

  13. Fishery benefits from exploiting spawning aggregations not solely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of spawning aggregations to exploitation varies among fisheries as a result of differences in the population-density changes associated with this behaviour. However, vulnerability to fishing is also influenced by technology, environmental factors, and fish and fisher behaviours. Focusing on a fishery for the ...

  14. Six scenarios of exploiting an ontology based, mobilized learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kismihók, G.; Szabó, I.; Vas, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, six different exploitation possibilities of an educational ontology based, mobilized learning management system are presented. The focal point of this system is the educational ontology model. The first version of this educational ontology model serves as a foundation for curriculum

  15. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  16. Software defined radio receivers exploiting noise cancelling: A tutorial review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radio receivers were narrowband and dedicated to a single frequency band exploiting LC tanks, whereas software defined radios target a flexibly programmable frequency. The broadband noise cancelling circuit technique has proven useful to achieve this target, as it breaks the traditional

  17. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  18. Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coi, Juri L.; Koesling, Arne; Kärger, Philipp; Olmedilla, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    De Coi, J. L., Kösling, A., Kärger, P., Olmedilla, D., (2007) Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning. In Duval, E., Klamma, R. and Wolpers, M. (Eds.), Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4753, pp.26-40.

  19. Traditional exploitation of edible freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, oyster`s shell, a main substrate for larval settlement and bed restoration, were left on riverbanks after exploitation, reducing stocks reconstitution potential. Appropriate measures were suggested to Reserve staff for sustainable management. Keywords: Freshwater mollusk, harvesting activities, human pressure, ...

  20. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  1. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  3. Efficient Depth Map Compression Exploiting Segmented Color Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Simone; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Zamarin, Marco

    2011-01-01

    performances is still an open research issue. This paper presents a novel compression scheme that exploits a segmentation of the color data to predict the shape of the different surfaces in the depth map. Then each segment is approximated with a parameterized plane. In case the approximation is sufficiently...

  4. Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A Nigerian Coastal Settlement. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Result show that 90% of the total local energy requirement is from fuelwood, the average per capita production rate of fuelwood in the local area is 0.38m3 and the ...

  5. Sexual exploitation and abuse by UN peacekeepers: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, ...

  6. Desiring TESOL and International Education: Market Abuse and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses how Western universities have constructed themselves as global providers of education, and are driven to be globally competitive. It examines how the term "international" has been exploited by the market in the form of government educational policies and agencies, host institutions, academia and the mass media. The…

  7. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  8. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  9. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  10. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and Economic Implications. ... This has tremendously disrupted the primary sources of livelihood of the people namely fishing and farming which has left them in abject poverty. It is this ...

  11. Exploitation Rates and Management Implications for the Fisheries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation rates of eight major component fishery species, Auchenoglanis occidentalis, Brycinus nurse, Clarias gariepinus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Marcusenius senegalensis, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zillii, of gill net fishery of Bontanga reservoir, were studied from March 2004 to ...

  12. Critical crack path assessments in failure investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Caligiuri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study in which identification of the controlling crack path was critical to identifying the root cause of the failure. The case involves the rupture of a 30-inch (0.76 m natural gas pipeline in 2010 that tragically led to the destruction of a number of homes and the loss of life. The segment of the pipeline that ruptured was installed in 1956. The longitudinal seam of the segment that ruptured was supposed to have been fabricated by double submerged arc welding. Unfortunately, portions of the segment only received a single submerged arc weld on the outside, leaving unwelded areas on the inside diameter. Post-failure examination of the segment revealed that the rupture originated at one of these unwelded areas. Examination also revealed three additional crack paths or zones emanating from the unwelded area: a zone of ductile tearing, a zone of fatigue, and a zone of cleavage fracture, in that sequence. Initial investigators ignored the ductile tear, assumed the critical crack path was the fatigue component, and (incorrectly concluded that the root cause of the incident was the failure of the operator to hydrotest the segment after it was installed in 1956. However, as discussed in this paper, the critical path or mechanism was the ductile tear. Furthermore, it was determined that the ductile tear was created during the hydrotest at installation by a mechanism known as pressure reversal. Thus the correct root cause of the rupture was the hydrotest the operator subjected the segment to at installation, helping to increase the awareness of operators and regulators about the potential problems associated with hydrotesting.

  13. Civil Society and Paths to Abolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour DRESCHER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to present an overview of British, French, Russian, American and Brazilian abolitionist action, between the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century. Indicating the struggles of pro-abolition civil associations, the paths taken in Britain, France, the US and Brazil are presented in parallel - either to emphasize approaches, either to highlight the undeniable peculiarities - revealing the marks of violence and negotiation present in the emancipation process.

  14. Fractional Levy motion through path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Ivan [CIEMAT, Madrid; Sanchez, Raul [ORNL; Carreras, Benjamin A [BACV Solutions, Inc., Oak Ridge

    2009-01-01

    Fractional Levy motion (fLm) is the natural generalization of fractional Brownian motion in the context of self-similar stochastic processes and stable probability distributions. In this paper we give an explicit derivation of the propagator of fLm by using path integral methods. The propagators of Brownian motion and fractional Brownian motion are recovered as particular cases. The fractional diffusion equation corresponding to fLm is also obtained.

  15. Path integral measure for gravitational interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Fujikawa

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the path-integral variables as well as the local measure for gravitational interactions are uniquely specified if one imposes the anomaly-free condition on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora supersymmetry associated with general coordinate transformations. This prescription is briefly illustrated for the Einstein gravity and supergravity in four space-time dimensions and the relativistic string theory in two dimensions.

  16. Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?

    OpenAIRE

    Vickerstaff, Robert J.; Cheung, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature. Over the past century or so, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural re...

  17. On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massouros Christos G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.

  18. Exporting DNA – striking a balance between preventing exploitation and promoting innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pepper

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA contains the blueprint of life. Variations in the script determine the great diversity that characterises our planet. As the analysis of large datasets derived from DNA reveals the hidden secrets of normal and abnormal structure and function as well as our ancestry, the movement of DNA between research laboratories is becoming commonplace. DNA is a resource that can be used for the benefit or to the detriment of the individuals and communities from which it is derived. But can DNA be treated as a simple commodity? How do we deal with questions such as sovereignty, discrimination and commercialisation? What underlies the current trends in attempting to regulate the movement of DNA? And how can we achieve a balance between preventing exploitation and promoting innovation? This brief overview attempts to contextualise the current landscape in South Africa with regard to the DNA that is destined to leave our shores.

  19. The organization of mineral exploitation and the relationship to urban structures and local business development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    resources. Because Greenland, as other Arctic regions, are structured in relatively isolated island economies with only modest trade between the settlements and no possibility of commuting, a number of settlements are left without substantial industrial base. Administration of the settlement becomes...... the main occupation and the societies face growing unemployment and widespread social problems. Mineral extraction is seen as a key to overcome the economic challenges. Few mineral resources are located in proximity to existing settlements. Most mining companies set the stage for a quick extraction...... also for the surrounding community. The paper explores if a different and long-term organisation of exploitation of mineral resources with establishment of flexible settlements creates an attractive and sustainable alternative with a reasonable population and economic diversity....

  20. MinePath: Mining for Phenotype Differential Sub-paths in Molecular Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefteris Koumakis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pathway analysis methodologies couple traditional gene expression analysis with knowledge encoded in established molecular pathway networks, offering a promising approach towards the biological interpretation of phenotype differentiating genes. Early pathway analysis methodologies, named as gene set analysis (GSA, view pathways just as plain lists of genes without taking into account either the underlying pathway network topology or the involved gene regulatory relations. These approaches, even if they achieve computational efficiency and simplicity, consider pathways that involve the same genes as equivalent in terms of their gene enrichment characteristics. Most recent pathway analysis approaches take into account the underlying gene regulatory relations by examining their consistency with gene expression profiles and computing a score for each profile. Even with this approach, assessing and scoring single-relations limits the ability to reveal key gene regulation mechanisms hidden in longer pathway sub-paths. We introduce MinePath, a pathway analysis methodology that addresses and overcomes the aforementioned problems. MinePath facilitates the decomposition of pathways into their constituent sub-paths. Decomposition leads to the transformation of single-relations to complex regulation sub-paths. Regulation sub-paths are then matched with gene expression sample profiles in order to evaluate their functional status and to assess phenotype differential power. Assessment of differential power supports the identification of the most discriminant profiles. In addition, MinePath assess the significance of the pathways as a whole, ranking them by their p-values. Comparison results with state-of-the-art pathway analysis systems are indicative for the soundness and reliability of the MinePath approach. In contrast with many pathway analysis tools, MinePath is a web-based system (www.minepath.org offering dynamic and rich pathway visualization

  1. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  2. Auditory perception of motor vehicle travel paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, Daniel H; Grantham, D Wesley; Maloff, Erin S; Hornsby, Benjamin; Nakamura, Takabun; Davis, Timothy J; Pampel, Faith; Rushing, Erin G

    2012-06-01

    These experiments address concerns that motor vehicles in electric engine mode are so quiet that they pose a risk to pedestrians, especially those with visual impairments. The "quiet car" issue has focused on hybrid and electric vehicles, although it also applies to internal combustion engine vehicles. Previous research has focused on detectability of vehicles, mostly in quiet settings. Instead, we focused on the functional ability to perceive vehicle motion paths. Participants judged whether simulated vehicles were traveling straight or turning, with emphasis on the impact of background traffic sound. In quiet, listeners made the straight-or-turn judgment soon enough in the vehicle's path to be useful for deciding whether to start crossing the street. This judgment is based largely on sound level cues rather than the spatial direction of the vehicle. With even moderate background traffic sound, the ability to tell straight from turn paths is severely compromised. The signal-to-noise ratio needed for the straight-or-turn judgment is much higher than that needed to detect a vehicle. Although a requirement for a minimum vehicle sound level might enhance detection of vehicles in quiet settings, it is unlikely that this requirement would contribute to pedestrian awareness of vehicle movements in typical traffic settings with many vehicles present. The findings are relevant to deliberations by government agencies and automobile manufacturers about standards for minimum automobile sounds and, more generally, for solutions to pedestrians' needs for information about traffic, especially for pedestrians with sensory impairments.

  3. Designing the Alluvial Riverbeds in Curved Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura, Viliam; Škrinár, Andrej; Štefunková, Zuzana; Muchová, Zlatica; Majorošová, Martina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the method of determining the shape of the riverbed in curves of the watercourse, which is based on the method of Ikeda (1975) developed for a slightly curved path in sandy riverbed. Regulated rivers have essentially slightly and smoothly curved paths; therefore, this methodology provides the appropriate basis for river restoration. Based on the research in the experimental reach of the Holeška Brook and several alluvial mountain streams the methodology was adjusted. The method also takes into account other important characteristics of bottom material - the shape and orientation of the particles, settling velocity and drag coefficients. Thus, the method is mainly meant for the natural sand-gravel material, which is heterogeneous and the particle shape of the bottom material is very different from spherical. The calculation of the river channel in the curved path provides the basis for the design of optimal habitat, but also for the design of foundations of armouring of the bankside of the channel. The input data is adapted to the conditions of design practice.

  4. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  5. All new custom path photo book creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Muzzolini, Russ

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an all new custom path to allow consumers to have full control to their photos and the format of their books, while providing them with guidance to make their creation fast and easy. The users can choose to fully automate the initial creation, and then customize every page. The system manage many design themes along with numerous design elements, such as layouts, backgrounds, embellishments and pattern bands. The users can also utilize photos from multiple sources including their computers, Shutterfly accounts, Shutterfly Share sites and Facebook. The users can also use a photo as background, add, move and resize photos and text - putting what they want where they want instead of being confined to templates. The new path allows users to add embellishments anywhere in the book, and the high-performance platform can support up to 1,000 photos per book and up to 25 pictures per page. The path offers either Smart Autofill or Storyboard features allowing customers to populate their books with photos so they can add captions and customize the pages.

  6. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspers, O P; Sterenborg, H J C M; Amelink, A

    2008-01-20

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 microm to 1000 microm. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering coefficients in the range 5 mm(-1)path length is proportional to the fiber diameter. The path length decreases with increasing absorption for all fiber diameters, and this effect is more pronounced for larger fiber diameters. An empirical model is formulated that relates the DPS path length to total absorption for all fiber diameters simultaneously.

  7. In vivo optical path lengths and path length resolved doppler shifts of multiply scattered light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Van Leeuwen, Ton G; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2010-11-01

    In laser Doppler measurements, perfusion values averaged over different and basically unknown path lengths are recorded. To facilitate quantitative path length resolved perfusion measurements, we developed a phase modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatially separated fibers for illumination and detection. The goal of this study is to measure in vivo optical path lengths and path length resolved Doppler shifts and to compare these with conventional laser Doppler perfusion measurements. With a phase modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we performed path length resolved perfusion measurements on human skin and its variations to external stimuli and compared these with conventional laser Doppler perfusion measurements. The method was evaluated in three human subjects on the dorsal side of the forearm to establish inter-individual within-site variations. Measurements were performed at three different locations of one individual for observing intra-individual inter-site variations resulting from the heterogeneity of the tissue, both in the static matrix and in the microvascular architecture of the skin. In all measurements, perfusion was simultaneously measured with a conventional laser Doppler perfusion monitor. In this study, we show the first results of path length resolved perfusion measurements in skin and its variations to occlusion and Capsicum cream provocation. From our data, we deduced the Doppler shifted fraction of photons, which is related to the blood volume, and the path length dependent average Doppler shift, which is related to the mean velocities of red blood cells. The Doppler shifted fraction of photons is decreased from 28% to 18% during occlusion and increases to 41% when capsicum cream was applied to the skin. Inter- and intra-individual inter-site measurements demonstrated variations in optical path length distributions and path length resolved Doppler shifts. The Doppler shifted fraction of photons measured on the fingertip is about 38

  8. A Trusted Path Design and Implementation for Security Enhanced Linux

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilchie, Allan

    2004-01-01

    ... compromised. One such mechanism is called a Trusted Path. A Trusted Path provides a protected communications channel that permits the computer to authenticate itself to the user and for the user to authenticate to the system...

  9. Technology Paths in Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Lund Sørensen, Runa Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing......Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing...

  10. Shortest Path Problems in a Stochastic and Dynamic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Jae

    2003-01-01

    .... Particularly, we develop a variety of algorithms to solve the expected shortest path problem in addition to techniques for computing the total travel time distribution along a path in the network...

  11. Digital radio link: Multipath propagation on a microwave line-of-sight path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Stefan

    1987-11-01

    Wave propagation investigations by narrowband sweep measurements were performed on a 7 GHz high-capacity 53 km link to model the radio channel during periods of multipath fading, especially frequency selective fading. The multipath mechanism is analyzed, including calculations of path length differences. The measuring system, based on event controlled spectral registration, is described together with the algorithm for extraction of propagation parameters from experimental data. The parameters are estimated by a minimum square fit on a modeled 3-way transfer function to observed transfer functions. Statistical distributions of fade depth and durations of deep fades are presented for a single and a space diversity channel. The calculated improvement achieved by space diversity and adaptive equalization is presented in terms of reduced outage-time. The optimal design of space diversity is discussed, concerning the ability to combat severe frequency selective fading on digital line of sight links.

  12. Diversity Summit Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt-Clarke, Menah

    2017-01-01

    Key Message: Sustainable transformation is needed at Virginia Tech around diversity and inclusion Employers and Alumni recognize value of diversity and excellence VT needs to be a destination for the recruitment of a diverse workforce VT needs to be a destination for preparing leaders to serve in the spirit of community, diversity, and excellence

  13. Managing Workplace Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Andrew Patrick; Vincent Raj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requ...

  14. Light transport on path-space manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Wenzel Alban

    The pervasive use of computer-generated graphics in our society has led to strict demands on their visual realism. Generally, users of rendering software want their images to look, in various ways, "real", which has been a key driving force towards methods that are based on the physics of light transport. Until recently, industrial practice has relied on a different set of methods that had comparatively little rigorous grounding in physics---but within the last decade, advances in rendering methods and computing power have come together to create a sudden and dramatic shift, in which physics-based methods that were formerly thought impractical have become the standard tool. As a consequence, considerable attention is now devoted towards making these methods as robust as possible. In this context, robustness refers to an algorithm's ability to process arbitrary input without large increases of the rendering time or degradation of the output image. One particularly challenging aspect of robustness entails simulating the precise interaction of light with all the materials that comprise the input scene. This dissertation focuses on one specific group of materials that has fundamentally been the most important source of difficulties in this process. Specular materials, such as glass windows, mirrors or smooth coatings (e.g. on finished wood), account for a significant percentage of the objects that surround us every day. It is perhaps surprising, then, that it is not well-understood how they can be accommodated within the theoretical framework that underlies some of the most sophisticated rendering methods available today. Many of these methods operate using a theoretical framework known as path space integration. But this framework makes no provisions for specular materials: to date, it is not clear how to write down a path space integral involving something as simple as a piece of glass. Although implementations can in practice still render these materials by side

  15. Lewinian Lessons for Action Researches: Traveling the Second Path

    OpenAIRE

    Schmuck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    I explain how the early American Lewinians (1939-1947) took one of two overlapping intellectual paths. Those, on the first path, were theory-centred, hypothesis testing experimental social psychologists. Those, on the second path, used action research in fostering planned change to build healthy communities. I summarize the profound lessons for action research taught by the second group. Adhering to Lewin’s maxim, “No action without research, no research without action”, second path Lewinians...

  16. Best practice for caching of single-path code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Cilku, Bekim; Prokesch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code.......Single-path code has some unique properties that make it interesting to explore different caching and prefetching alternatives for the stream of instructions. In this paper, we explore different cache organizations and how they perform with single-path code....

  17. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhao; Yi-Min Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibratio...

  18. Decomposer diversity and identity influence plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Reich, Peter B; Isbell, Forest

    2012-10-01

    Plant productivity and other ecosystem functions often increase with plant diversity at a local scale. Alongside various plant-centered explanations for this pattern, there is accumulating evidence that multi-trophic interactions shape this relationship. Here, we investigated for the first time if plant diversity effects on ecosystem functioning are mediated or driven by decomposer animal diversity and identity using a double-diversity microcosm experiment. We show that many ecosystem processes and ecosystem multifunctionality (herbaceous shoot biomass production, litter removal, and N uptake) were affected by both plant and decomposer diversity, with ecosystem process rates often being maximal at intermediate to high plant and decomposer diversity and minimal at both low plant and decomposer diversity. Decomposers relaxed interspecific plant competition by enlarging chemical (increased N uptake and surface-litter decomposition) and spatial (increasing deep-root biomass) habitat space and by promoting plant complementarity. Anecic earthworms and isopods functioned as key decomposers; although decomposer diversity effects did not solely rely on these two decomposer species, positive plant net biodiversity and complementarity effects only occurred in the absence of isopods and the presence of anecic earthworms. Using a structural equation model, we explained 76% of the variance in plant complementarity, identified direct and indirect effect paths, and showed that the presence of key decomposers accounted for approximately three-quarters of the explained variance. We conclude that decomposer animals have been underappreciated as contributing agents of plant diversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Elevated decomposer performance at high plant diversity found in previous experiments likely positively feeds back to plant performance, thus contributing to the positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  19. ePathBrick: a synthetic biology platform for engineering metabolic pathways in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Vansiri, Amerin; Bhan, Namita; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2012-07-20

    Harnessing cell factories for producing biofuel and pharmaceutical molecules has stimulated efforts to develop novel synthetic biology tools customized for modular pathway engineering and optimization. Here we report the development of a set of vectors compatible with BioBrick standards and its application in metabolic engineering. The engineered ePathBrick vectors comprise four compatible restriction enzyme sites allocated on strategic positions so that different regulatory control signals can be reused and manipulation of expression cassette can be streamlined. Specifically, these vectors allow for fine-tuning gene expression by integrating multiple transcriptional activation or repression signals into the operator region. At the same time, ePathBrick vectors support the modular assembly of pathway components and combinatorial generation of pathway diversities with three distinct configurations. We also demonstrated the functionality of a seven-gene pathway (~9 Kb) assembled on one single ePathBrick vector. The ePathBrick vectors presented here provide a versatile platform for rapid design and optimization of metabolic pathways in E. coli.

  20. Path finding on high-dimensional free energy landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz Leines, G.; Ensing, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for determining the average transition path and the free energy along this path in the space of selected collective variables. The formalism is based upon a history-dependent bias along a flexible path variable within the metadynamics framework but with a trivial scaling of the