WorldWideScience

Sample records for exploitation

  1. Redefining Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwala, Rina

    2016-01-01

    -employed workers are organizing as workers. They are fighting labor exploitation by redefining the concept to include additional exploitation axes (from the state and middle class) and forms (including sexual). In doing so, they are redefining potential solutions, including identities and material benefits, to fit...... their unique needs. By expanding the category of “workers” beyond those defined by a narrow focus on a standard employer-employee relationship, these movements are also fighting exclusion from earlier labor protections by increasing the number of entitled beneficiaries. These struggles provide an important...

  2. The Ethics of Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McLaughlin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the ‘moral’ or pejorative sense and the ‘non-moral’ or ‘non-prejudicial’ sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.

  3. Exploitability Assessment with TEASER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    exploits. We saw this as an advantage of our dataset because we had to confirm that either a bug was exploitable or not exploitable. For the 28 CHAPTER 5...corruption which demonstrates that there is very little activity within c-ares to take advantage of after the heap corruption. This idea is in line with the...remote code execution POCs. 42 Bibliography [1] Analyze crashes to find security vulnerabilities in your apps . https: //blogs.msdn.microsoft.com

  4. Anthropology of sexual exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Velibor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors observe sexual exploitation from an anthropological perspective. They analyze the rational, ethical, emotional and mythological dimensions of human sexuality. Consequently, after setting the phenomenon in a social and historical context, sexual exploitation is closely observed in the contemporary age. Based on thoughts of relevant thinkers, they make the conclusion that the elimination of sexual exploitation is not an utterly legal issue, but political and economical issues as well. Namely, legal norms are not sufficient to overcome sexual exploitation, but, political and economical relationships in contemporary societies, which will be based on sincere equal opportunities must be established.

  5. EXPLOITATION OF GRANITE BOULDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cotman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of forming, petrography, features, properties and exploitation of granite boulders are described. The directional drilling and black powder blasting is the succesful method in exploitation of granite boulders (boulder technology (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Viruses exploiting peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarow, Paul B

    2011-08-01

    Viruses that are of great importance for global public health, including HIV, influenza and rotavirus, appear to exploit a remarkable organelle, the peroxisome, during intracellular replication in human cells. Peroxisomes are sites of lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, reactive oxygen metabolism, and other metabolic pathways. Viral proteins are targeted to peroxisomes (the spike protein of rotavirus) or interact with peroxisomal proteins (HIV's Nef and influenza's NS1) or use the peroxisomal membrane for RNA replication. The Nef interaction correlates strongly with the crucial Nef function of CD4 downregulation. Viral exploitation of peroxisomal lipid metabolism appears likely. Mostly, functional significance and mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recently, peroxisomes were discovered to play a crucial role in the innate immune response by signaling the presence of intracellular virus, leading to the first rapid antiviral response. This review unearths, interprets and connects old data, in the hopes of stimulating new and promising research. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    The research infrastructure project Virtual Campus Hub (VCH) runs from October 1, 2011 to September 30, 2013. Four technical universities in Europe, who are all active in the field of sustainable energy, form the project consortium: the Technical University of Denmark, The Royal Institute...... of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  8. Hacking the art of exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Jon

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the techniques of exploitation and creative problem-solving methods commonly referred to as "hacking," Hacking: The Art of Exploitation is for both technical and non-technical people who are interested in computer security. It shows how hackers exploit programs and write exploits, instead of just how to run other people's exploits. Unlike many so-called hacking books, this book explains the technical aspects of hacking, including stack based overflows, heap based overflows, string exploits, return-into-libc, shellcode, and cryptographic attacks on 802.11b.

  9. The Geohazards Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laur, Henri; Casu, Francesco; Bally, Philippe; Caumont, Hervé; Pinto, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazards Exploitation Platform, or Geohazards TEP (GEP), is an ESA originated R&D activity of the EO ground segment to demonstrate the benefit of new technologies for large scale processing of EO data. This encompasses on-demand processing for specific user needs, systematic processing to address common information needs of the geohazards community, and integration of newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The platform supports the geohazards community's objectives as defined in the context of the International Forum on Satellite EO and Geohazards organised by ESA and GEO in Santorini in 2012. The GEP is a follow on to the Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) an ESA initiative to support the Geohazards Supersites & Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL). Today the GEP allows to exploit 70+ Terabyte of ERS and ENVISAT archive and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data available on line. The platform has already engaged 22 European early adopters in a validation activity initiated in March 2015. Since September, this validation has reached 29 single user projects. Each project is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing or systematically generating a product collection using an application available in the platform. The users primarily include 15 geoscience centres and universities based in Europe: British Geological Survey (UK), University of Leeds (UK), University College London (UK), ETH University of Zurich (CH), INGV (IT), CNR-IREA and CNR-IRPI (IT), University of L'Aquila (IT), NOA (GR), Univ. Blaise Pascal & CNRS (FR), Ecole Normale Supérieure (FR), ISTERRE / University of Grenoble-Alpes (FR). In addition, there are users from Africa and North America with the University of Rabat (MA) and the University of Miami (US). Furthermore two space agencies and four private companies are involved: the German Space Research Centre DLR (DE), the European Space Agency (ESA), Altamira Information (ES

  10. Exploitative Learning by Exporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Elena; Lopes Bento, Cindy; Sofka, Wolfgang

    Decisions on entering foreign markets are among the most challenging but also potentially rewarding strategy choices managers can make. In this study, we examine the effect of export entry on the firm investment decisions in two activities associated with learning about new technologies...... and learning about new markets ? R&D investments and marketing investments, in search of novel insights into the content and process underlying learning by exporting. We draw from organizational learning theory for predicting changes in both R&D and marketing investment patterns that accompany firm entry......, it is predominantly the marketing-related investment decisions associated with starting to export that lead to increases in firm productivity. We conclude that learning-by-exporting might be more properly characterized as ?learning about and exploiting new markets? rather than ?learning about new technologies...

  11. Image exploitation for MISAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Edrich, M.; Saur, G.; Krüger, W.

    2007-04-01

    The miniature SAR-system MiSAR has been developed by EADS Germany for lightweight UAVs like the LUNASystem. MiSAR adds to these tactical UAV-systems the all-weather reconnaissance capability, which is missing until now. Unlike other SAR sensors, that produce large strip maps at update rates of several seconds, MiSAR generates sequences of SAR images with approximately 1 Hz frame rate. photo interpreters (PI) of tactical drones, now mainly experienced with visual interpretation, are not used to SARimages, especially not with SAR-image sequence characteristics. So they should be supported to improve their ability to carry out their task with a new, demanding sensor system. We have therefore analyzed and discussed with military PIs in which task MiSAR can be used and how the PIs can be supported by special algorithms. We developed image processing- and exploitation-algorithms for such SAR-image sequences. A main component is the generation of image sequence mosaics to get more oversight. This mosaicing has the advantage that also non straight /linear flight-paths and varying squint angles can be processed. Another component is a screening-component for manmade objects to mark regions of interest in the image sequences. We use a classification based approach, which can be easily adapted to new sensors and scenes. These algorithms are integrated into an image exploitation system to improve the image interpreters ability to get a better oversight, better orientation and helping them to detect relevant objects, especially considering long endurance reconnaissance missions.

  12. Learning Metasploit exploitation and development

    CERN Document Server

    Balapure, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on tutorial with step-by-step instructions. The book will follow a smooth and easy-to-follow tutorial approach, covering the essentials and then showing the readers how to write more sophisticated exploits.This book targets exploit developers, vulnerability analysts and researchers, network administrators, and ethical hackers looking to gain advanced knowledge in exploitation development and identifying vulnerabilities. The primary goal is to take readers wishing to get into more advanced exploitation discovery and reaching the next level.Prior experience exploiting basic st

  13. Commercial sexual exploitation of children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio Rojas Betancur; Raquel Mendez Villamizar; Diana Lucía Moreno

    2012-01-01

      We study the sexual exploitation of children contributing to the understanding of risk and situations favouring the entry and permanence of children and adolescents from the reconstruction of the...

  14. Exploitation et obligation de travailler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Étienne Vandamme

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article défend une définition de l’exploitation, restreinte aux relations de travail, en tentant d’une part d’expliciter une certaine compréhension de sens commun du concept (rémunération inéquitable en fonction du travail presté, et d’autre part d’échapper aux difficultés qui ont affecté la définition marxiste traditionnelle de l’exploitation comme extorsion de la plus-value (dans ses diverses variantes. Il explore ainsi le lien entre l’exploitation et l’obligation matérielle de travailler pour subvenir à ses besoins fondamentaux. Après avoir mis en garde contre les politiques d’activation des chômeurs, il conclut que l’exploitation est un phénomène contre lequel on peut lutter à l’aide de mécanismes relativement simples, même dans les sociétés capitalistes. Il rappelle toutefois que cela ne suffit pas à réaliser la justice sociale, resituant l’exploitation parmi d’autres enjeux fondamentaux pour une philosophie politique égalitariste

  15. Teotihuacan, tepeapulco, and obsidian exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, T H

    1978-06-16

    Current cultural ecological models of the development of civilization in central Mexico emphasize the role of subsistence production techniques and organization. The recent use of established and productive archeological surface survey techniques along natural corridors of communication between favorable niches for cultural development within the Central Mexican symbiotic region resulted in the location of sites that indicate an early development of a decentralized resource exploitation, manufacturing, and exchange network. The association of the development of this system with Teotihuacán indicates the importance such nonsubsistence production and exchange had in the evolution of this first central Mexican civilization. The later expansion of Teotihuacán into more distant areas of Mesoamerica was based on this resource exploitation model. Later civilizations centered at Tula and Tenochtitlán also used such a model in their expansion.

  16. Dark matters: exploitation as cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2012-04-21

    The empirical literature on human cooperation contains studies of communitarian institutions that govern the provision of public goods and management of common property resources in poor countries. Scholars studying those institutions have frequently used the Prisoners' Dilemma game as their theoretical tool-kit. But neither the provision of local public goods nor the management of local common property resources involves the Prisoners' Dilemma. That has implications for our reading of communitarian institutions. By applying a fundamental result in the theory of repeated games to a model of local common property resources, it is shown that communitarian institutions can harbour exploitation of fellow members, something that would not be possible in societies where cooperation amounts to overcoming the Prisoners' Dilemma. The conclusion we should draw is that exploitation can masquerade as cooperation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Network exploitation using WAMI tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimey, Ray; Record, Jim; Keefe, Dan; Kennedy, Levi; Cramer, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Creating and exploiting network models from wide area motion imagery (WAMI) is an important task for intelligence analysis. Tracks of entities observed moving in the WAMI sensor data are extracted, then large numbers of tracks are studied over long time intervals to determine specific locations that are visited (e.g., buildings in an urban environment), what locations are related to other locations, and the function of each location. This paper describes several parts of the network detection/exploitation problem, and summarizes a solution technique for each: (a) Detecting nodes; (b) Detecting links between known nodes; (c) Node attributes to characterize a node; (d) Link attributes to characterize each link; (e) Link structure inferred from node attributes and vice versa; and (f) Decomposing a detected network into smaller networks. Experimental results are presented for each solution technique, and those are used to discuss issues for each problem part and its solution technique.

  18. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allaiac

    The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse .... its own peacekeeping personnel are engaging in acts of sexual exploitation and abuse, including such crimes as rape.

  19. The exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    This paper discusses the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy: the claim that commercial surrogacy is morally objectionable because it is exploitative. The following questions are addressed. First, what exactly does the exploitation argument amount to? Second, is commercial surrogacy in fact exploitative? Third, if it were exploitative, would this provide a sufficient reason to prohibit (or otherwise legislatively discourage) it? The focus throughout is on the exploitation of paid surrogates, although it is noted that other parties (e.g. 'commissioning parents') may also be the victims of exploitation. It is argued that there are good reasons for believing that commercial surrogacy is often exploitative. However, even if we accept this, the exploitation argument for prohibiting (or otherwise legislatively discouraging) commercial surrogacy remains quite weak. One reason for this is that prohibition may well 'backfire' and lead to potential surrogates having to do other things that are more exploitative and/or more harmful than paid surrogacy. It is concluded therefore that those who oppose exploitation should (rather than attempting to stop particular practices like commercial surrogacy) concentrate on: (a) improving the conditions under which paid surrogates 'work'; and (b) changing the background conditions (in particular, the unequal distribution of power and wealth) which generate exploitative relationships.

  20. The Exploitation of Evolving Resources

    CERN Document Server

    McGlade, Jacqueline; Law, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The impact of man on the biosphere is profound. Quite apart from our capacity to destroy natural ecosystems and to drive species to extinction, we mould the evolution of the survivors by the selection pressures we apply to them. This has implications for the continued health of our natural biological resources and for the way in which we seek to optimise yield from those resources. Of these biological resources, fish stocks are particularly important to mankind as a source of protein. On a global basis, fish stocks provide the major source of protein for human consumption from natural ecosystems, amounting to some seventy million tonnes in 1970. Although fisheries management has been extensively developed over the last century, it has not hitherto considered the evolutionary consequences of fishing activity. While this omission may not have been serious in the past, the ever increasing intensity of exploitation and the deteriorating health of fish stocks has generated an urgent need for a better understanding...

  1. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  2. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  3. The exploitation of Gestalt principles by magicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Anthony S

    2010-01-01

    Magicians exploit a host of psychological principles in deceiving their audiences. Psychologists have recently attempted to pinpoint the most common psychological tendencies exploited by magicians. This paper highlights two co-occurring principles that appear to be the basis for many popular magic tricks: accidental alignment and good continuation.

  4. Exploration, Exploitation, and Organizational Coordination Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical relationship among exploration, exploitation, and organizational coordination mechanisms, classified as the centralization of decision-making, formalization, and connectedness. In order to analyze the findings of this survey, we used two techniques: Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM. Our analysis was supported by 249 answers from managers of companies located in Brazil (convenience sampling. Contrary to expectations, centralization and exploitation were negatively associated. Our data supports the research hypothesis that formalization is positively associated with exploitation. Although the relationship between formalization and exploration were significant, the result is contrary to the research hypothesis that we made. The relationships among connectedness and exploitation, and connectedness and exploration were both positive and significant. This relationship means that the more connectedness increases, the higher the likelihood of exploitation and exploration.

  5. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  6. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-02

    1i TITLE ( lude Security Ca .fcation) Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment rt 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) w]ba1oa Ui.tm A Limor Fix axd...editions are obsolete. Reasoning About Programs by Exploiting the Environment * Limor Fix Fred B. Schneider TR 94-1409 February 1994 Department of Computer...agencies. Limor Fix is also supported, in part, by a Fullbright post-doctoral award. Reasoning about Programs by Exploiting the Environment ---- NITIS GRA&I

  7. Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Life history strategy (LHS and life history contingencies (LHCs should theoretically influence the use of exploitative and deceptive resource acquisition strategies. However, little research has been done in this area. The purpose of the present work was to create measures of exploitative strategies and test the predictions of life history theory. Pilot studies developed and validated a behavioral measure of cheating called the Dot Game. The role of individual LHS and LHCs (manipulated via validated story primes on cheating was investigated in Study 1. Studies 2a through 2c were conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure called the Exploitative and Deceptive Resource Acquisition Strategy Scale (EDRASS. Finally, Study 3 investigated life history and EDRASS. Results indicated that while LHS influences exploitative strategies, life history contingences had little effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Life History Theory and Exploitative Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Reynolds

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploitative strategies involve depriving others of resources while enhancing one’s own. Life history theory suggests that there are individual differences (life history strategy and environmental characteristics (life history contingencies [LHCs] that influence the use of exploitative strategies. However, past work manipulating LHCs has found mixed evidence for the influence of this information on exploitative behavior. We present three studies that help clarify the effects of this type of information. Results indicated that younger individuals are most sensitive to LHC information. We also found, contrary to predictions, that communicating slow LHC information (i.e., high population density, intraspecific competition, and resource scarcity increased rather than decreased the temptation to engage in exploitative behavior. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  9. Liposomal cancer therapy: exploiting tumor characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2010-01-01

    the reader will gain: The review focuses on strategies that exploit characteristic features of solid tumors, such as abnormal vasculature, overexpression of receptors and enzymes, as well as acidic and thiolytic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Take home message: It is concluded that the design...... of new liposomal drug delivery systems that better exploit tumor characteristic features is likely to result in more efficacious cancer treatments....

  10. Exploitation in International Paid Surrogacy Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Many critics have suggested that international paid surrogacy is exploitative. Taking such concerns as its starting point, this article asks: (1) how defensible is the claim that international paid surrogacy is exploitative and what could be done to make it less exploitative? (2) In the light of the answer to (1), how strong is the case for prohibiting it? Exploitation could in principle be dealt with by improving surrogates' pay and conditions. However, doing so may exacerbate problems with consent. Foremost amongst these is the argument that surrogates from economically disadvantaged countries cannot validly consent because their background circumstances are coercive. Several versions of this argument are examined and I conclude that at least one has some merit. The article's overall conclusion is that while ethically there is something to be concerned about, paid surrogacy is in no worse a position than many other exploitative commercial transactions which take place against a backdrop of global inequality and constrained options, such as poorly-paid and dangerous construction work. Hence, there is little reason to single surrogacy out for special condemnation. On a policy level, the case for prohibiting international commercial surrogacy is weak, despite legitimate concerns about consent and background poverty.

  11. Rethinking exploitation: a process-centered account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Exploitation has become an important topic in recent discussions of biomedical and research ethics. This is due in no small measure to the influence of Alan Wertheimer's path-breaking work on the subject. This paper presents some objections to Wertheimer's account of the concept. The objections attempt to show that his account places too much emphasis on outcome-based considerations and too little on process-based considerations. Building on these objections, the paper develops an alternative process-centered account of the concept. This alternative account of exploitation takes as its point of departure the broadly Kantian notion that it is wrong to use another as an instrument for the advancement of one's own ends. It sharpens this slippery notion and adds a number of refinements to it. The paper concludes by arguing that process-centered accounts of exploitation better illuminate the ethical challenges posed by research on human subjects than outcome-centered accounts.

  12. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evans

    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  13. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Biodegradation of hydrocarbons exploiting spent substrate from Pleurotus ostreatus in agricultural soils. A. Mauricio-Gutiérrez1, T. Jiménez-Salgado2, A. Tapia-Hernández2, J. Cavazos-Arroyo1 and. B. Pérez-Armendáriz1*. 1Interdisciplinary Research and Consulting, Autonomus Popular University of State ...

  14. Exploiting a natural auxotrophy for genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Larry; Manoil, Colin

    2012-08-01

    We exploited the natural histidine auxotrophy of Francisella species to develop hisD (encodes histidinol dehydrogenase) as a positive selection marker. A shuttle plasmid (pBR103) carrying Escherichia coli hisD and designed for cloning of PCR fragments replicated in both attenuated and highly virulent Francisella strains. During this work, we formulated a simplified defined growth medium for Francisella novicida.

  15. Courseware Design: Exploiting the Colour Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marilyn E.; Holmes, Glyn

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the presentation of data on the educational effectiveness of computer assisted learning systems, describes some of the existing systems for controlling the display of instructional data on CRTs, and outlines a project undertaken at the University of Western Ontario to exploit the capabilities of microcomputer color…

  16. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  17. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beverton, R. J. H; Holt, Sidney J

    1993-01-01

    ...-brooding cichlids, and viviparity in many sharks and toothcarps. Moreover, fish are of considerable importance to the survival of the human species in the form of nutritious, delicious and diverse food. Rational exploitation and management of our global stocks of fishes must rely upon a detailed and precise insight of their biology. The...

  18. Exploiting indigenous knowledge in the environmental conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of agriculture and reared livestock (especially goats). Over several years, they developed sustainable and effective exploitation mechanisms of the existing biodiversity resources to satisfy their individual needs and those of their societies in general. Journal of Language, Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol.

  19. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Full Length Research Paper. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis. (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. O. P. Aghamelu*, H. N. Ezeh and A. I. Obasi. Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B., 053,. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 September ...

  20. The Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2014-01-01

    This essay discusses the involvement of organized crime in natural resource exploitation and trade. This is accomplished by examining case studies from different tropical regions in the world: Africa (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and DR Congo), Southeast Asia (Indonesia), and Latin America (Brazilian

  1. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Have you experienced the tragedy of a missing child? We're here to help. Learn More >> × KidSmartz New Parent Tips to Help Kids Set Physical Boundaries! Download Resources >> × Subscribe EN SP Blog Media About Us Contact Us Legal T&C Careers Copyright © National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. All ...

  2. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  3. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  4. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  5. Trolling may intensify exploitation in crappie fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, K. O.; Dunn, A. W.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    In some parts of the USA, anglers targeting crappies Pomoxis spp. are transitioning from mostly stationary angling with a single pole around submerged structures to using multiple poles while drifting with the wind or under power. This shift in fishing methods could result in a change in catch efficiency, possibly increasing exploitation rates to levels that would be of concern to managers. We studied the catch statistics of anglers fishing while trolling with multiple poles (trollers) and those fishing with single poles (polers) in Mississippi reservoirs. Specifically, we tested whether (1) various catch statistics differed between trollers and polers, (2) catch rates of trollers were related to the number of poles fished, and (3) trollers could raise exploitation rates to potentially unsustainable levels. Results showed that participation in the crappie fisheries was about equally split between polers and trollers. In spring, 90% of crappie anglers were polers; in summer, 85% of crappie anglers were trollers. The size of harvested crappies was similar for the two angler groups, but the catch per hour was almost three times higher for trollers than for polers. Catch rates by trollers were directly correlated to the number of poles fished, although the relationship flattened as the number of poles increased. The average harvest rate for one troller fishing with three poles was similar to the harvest rate obtained by one poler. Simulations predicted that at the existing mix of about 50% polers and 50% trollers and with no restrictions on the number of poles used by trollers, exploitation of crappies is about 1.3 times higher than that in a polers-only fishery; under a scenario in which 100% of crappie anglers were trollers, exploitation was forecasted to increase to about 1.7 times the polers-only rate. The efficiency of trolling for crappies should be of concern to fishery managers because crappie fisheries are mostly consumptive and may increase exploitation

  6. Exploiting host immunity: the Salmonella paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnsen, Judith; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens have evolved clever strategies to evade and in some cases exploit the attacks of an activated immune system. Salmonella enterica is one such pathogen, exploiting multiple aspects of host defense to promote its replication in the host. Here we review recent findings on the mechanisms by which Salmonella establishes systemic and chronic infection, including strategies involving manipulation of innate immune signaling and inflammatory forms of cell death, as well as immune evasion by establishing residency in M2 macrophages. We also examine recent evidence showing that the oxidative environment and the high levels of antimicrobial proteins produced in response to localized Salmonella gastrointestinal infection enable the pathogen to successfully outcompete the resident gut microbiota. PMID:25582038

  7. Organizational Factors for Exploration and Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadindu Pandey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework which suggests a relationship between organisational factors and exploratory and exploitative innovation types. We searched major databases like ABI/INFORM global, EBSCO, Elsevier’s science direct, Springer link and Emerald full text. Most of studies were included from published sources. We explored the literature of organisational culture, motivational bases of the rewards system and leadership values which are responsible for increasing creative and productive output. Our study has attempted to identify common patterns and themes in the literature regarding the drivers that increase both sides of the organisational creativity. The paper discusses the role of culture, system and styles in the initiation and implementation phases of the innovation called herein exploitative and exploratory innovation.

  8. Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence.

  9. Sustainable exploitation and management of aquatic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Köster, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    DTU Aqua conducts research, provides advice,educates at university level and contributes toinnovation in sustainable exploitation andmanagement of aquatic resources. The vision of DTUAqua is to enable ecologically and economicallysustainable exploitation of aquatic resourcesapplying an integrated...... ecosystem approach whichutilizes synergies in natural and technical sciencedisciplines. DTU Aqua advises the Danish Ministry ofFood, Agriculture and Fisheries and other publicauthorities, the commercial fisheries, theaquaculture industry and international commissions.DTU Aqua deals with all types ofaquatic...... in the ocean and how these factors impact the living conditions formarine organisms. Population genetics aims at gaining knowledge on how to preserve and managebiodiversity sustainably. Individual biology deals with the biology of aquatic organisms and theirinteraction with other organisms...

  10. Automatic exploitation system for photographic dosemeters; Systeme d`exploitation automatique des dosimetres photographiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magri, Y.; Devillard, D.; Godefroit, J.L.; Barillet, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry Exploitation (LED) has realized an equipment allowing to exploit automatically photographic film dosemeters. This system uses an identification of the films by code-bars and gives the doses measurement with a completely automatic reader. The principle consists in putting in ribbon the emulsions to be exploited and to develop them in a circulation machine. The measurement of the blackening film is realized on a reading plate having fourteen points of reading, in which are circulating the emulsions in ribbon. The exploitation is made with the usual dose calculation method, with special computers codes. A comparison on 2000 dosemeters has shown that the results are the same in manual and automatical methods. This system has been operating since July 1995 by the LED. (N.C.).

  11. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  12. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  13. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  14. Flare Systems Exploitation and Impact on Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, M. Yu; Vaganova, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical models and numerical algorithms of horizontal and vertical flare systems exploitation in northern oil and gas fields located in permafrost zone are developed. Computations of long-term forecasts of permafrost degradation around such constructions have been carried out for various types of operation, including emergency situations, which cause a short-term increase in the heat flow near the ground surface, which leads to an additional soil temperature increasing.

  15. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  16. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  17. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M

    2017-04-15

    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  19. Geothermal resources: exploration and exploitation. A bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This comprehensive bibliography contains 5476 citations of foreign and domestic research reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books concerned with the exploration and exploitation of geothermal resources. The coverage dates back as far as useful references could be obtained and extends through June 1976. References are arranged in broad subject categories and are made up of complete bibliographic citations. These are followed by a listing of subject descriptors used to describe the subject content of each reference. Four indexes are included: Corporate, Personal Author, Subject, and Report Number. Also included is a list of journals from which articles were selected. (LBS)

  20. Competing Discourses about Youth Sexual Exploitation in Canadian News Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Miller, Bonnie B; Rivers, Robert; Matthews, Jennifer; Hilario, Carla; Hirakata, Pam

    2013-10-01

    Media holds the power to create, maintain, or break down stigmatizing attitudes, which affect policies, funding, and services. To understand how Canadian news media depicts the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth, we examined 835 Canadian newspaper articles from 1989-2008 using a mixed methods critical discourse analysis approach, comparing representations to existing research about sexually exploited youth. Despite research evidence that equal rates of boys and girls experience exploitation, Canadian news media depicted exploited youth predominantly as heterosexual girls, and described them alternately as victims or workers in a trade, often both in the same story. News media mentioned exploiters far less often than victims, and portrayed them almost exclusively as male, most often called 'customers' or 'consumers,' and occasionally 'predators'; in contrast, research has documented the majority of sexually exploited boys report female exploiters. Few news stories over the past two decades portrayed the diversity of victims, perpetrators, and venues of exploitation reported in research. The focus on victims but not exploiters helps perpetuate stereotypes of sexual exploitation as business or a 'victimless crime,' maintains the status quo, and blurs responsibility for protecting youth under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Health care providers and researchers can be advocates for accuracy in media coverage about sexual exploitation; news reporters and editors should focus on exploiters more than victims, draw on existing research evidence to avoid perpetuating stereotypes, and use accurate terms, such as commercial sexual exploitation, rather than terms related to business or trade.

  1. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  2. Compressed sensing MRI exploiting complementary dual decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyung; Park, Jaeseok

    2014-04-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) MRI exploits the sparsity of an image in a transform domain to reconstruct the image from incoherently under-sampled k-space data. However, it has been shown that CS suffers particularly from loss of low-contrast image features with increasing reduction factors. To retain image details in such degraded experimental conditions, in this work we introduce a novel CS reconstruction method exploiting feature-based complementary dual decomposition with joint estimation of local scale mixture (LSM) model and images. Images are decomposed into dual block sparse components: total variation for piecewise smooth parts and wavelets for residuals. The LSM model parameters of residuals in the wavelet domain are estimated and then employed as a regional constraint in spatially adaptive reconstruction of high frequency subbands to restore image details missing in piecewise smooth parts. Alternating minimization of the dual image components subject to data consistency is performed to extract image details from residuals and add them back to their complementary counterparts while the LSM model parameters and images are jointly estimated in a sequential fashion. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method in preserving low-contrast image features even at high reduction factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  4. Exploiting time in electronic health record correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hripcsak, George; Albers, David J; Perotte, Adler

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate that a large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal fine temporal patterns in clinical associations; to illustrate several types of associations; and to ascertain the value of exploiting time. Lagged linear correlation was calculated between seven clinical laboratory values and 30 clinical concepts extracted from resident signout notes from a 22-year, 3-million-patient database of electronic health records. Time points were interpolated, and patients were normalized to reduce inter-patient effects. The method revealed several types of associations with detailed temporal patterns. Definitional associations included low blood potassium preceding 'hypokalemia.' Low potassium preceding the drug spironolactone with high potassium following spironolactone exemplified intentional and physiologic associations, respectively. Counterintuitive results such as the fact that diseases appeared to follow their effects may be due to the workflow of healthcare, in which clinical findings precede the clinician's diagnosis of a disease even though the disease actually preceded the findings. Fully exploiting time by interpolating time points produced less noisy results. Electronic health records are not direct reflections of the patient state, but rather reflections of the healthcare process and the recording process. With proper techniques and understanding, and with proper incorporation of time, interpretable associations can be derived from a large clinical database. A large, heterogeneous clinical database can reveal clinical associations, time is an important feature, and care must be taken to interpret the results.

  5. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  6. Virtual Exploitation Environment Demonstration for Atmospheric Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone; Hirtl, Marcus; Santillan, Daniel; Triebnig, Gerhard; Fehr, Thorsten; Lopes, Cristiano

    2017-04-01

    The scientific and industrial communities are being confronted with a strong increase of Earth Observation (EO) satellite missions and related data. This is in particular the case for the Atmospheric Sciences communities, with the upcoming Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor, Sentinel-4, -5 and -3, and ESA's Earth Explorers scientific satellites ADM-Aeolus and EarthCARE. The challenge is not only to manage the large volume of data generated by each mission / sensor, but to process and analyze the data streams. Creating synergies among the different datasets will be key to exploit the full potential of the available information. As a preparation activity supporting scientific data exploitation for Earth Explorer and Sentinel atmospheric missions, ESA funded the "Technology and Atmospheric Mission Platform" (TAMP) [1] [2] project; a scientific and technological forum (STF) has been set-up involving relevant European entities from different scientific and operational fields to define the platforḿs requirements. Data access, visualization, processing and download services have been developed to satisfy useŕs needs; use cases defined with the STF, such as study of the SO2 emissions for the Holuhraun eruption (2014) by means of two numerical models, two satellite platforms and ground measurements, global Aerosol analyses from long time series of satellite data, and local Aerosol analysis using satellite and LIDAR, have been implemented to ensure acceptance of TAMP by the atmospheric sciences community. The platform pursues the "virtual workspace" concept: all resources (data, processing, visualization, collaboration tools) are provided as "remote services", accessible through a standard web browser, to avoid the download of big data volumes and for allowing utilization of provided infrastructure for computation, analysis and sharing of results. Data access and processing are achieved through standardized protocols (WCS, WPS). As evolution toward a pre

  7. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  8. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas systems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S

    2014-01-01

    The Cas9 endonuclease is the central component of the Type II CRISPR/Cas system, a prokaryotic adaptive restriction system against invading nucleic acids, such as those originating from bacteriophages and plasmids. Recently, this RNA-directed DNA endonuclease has been harnessed to target DNA sequences of interest. Here, we review the development of Cas9 as an important tool to not only edit the genomes of a number of different prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, but also as an efficient system for site-specific transcriptional repression or activation. Additionally, a specific Cas9 protein has been observed to target an RNA substrate, suggesting that Cas9 may have the ability to be programmed to target RNA as well. Cas proteins from other CRISPR/Cas subtypes may also be exploited in this regard. Thus, CRISPR/Cas systems represent an effective and versatile biotechnological tool, which will have significant impact on future advancements in genome engineering. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Exploiting HRM in support of lean manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Matthiesen, Rikke

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ways in HRM practices are-and could potentially be-exploited to support lean manufacturing in practice. First, a review of the pertinent literature regarding HRM, SHRM, and lean manufacturing is presented to provide an understanding of the mechanisms...... by which HRM practices could, theoretically, be used to support a lean implementation. Data presented in the paper are derived from 1) a longitudinal case study on lean implementation and 2) from managers currently involved with lean manufacturing in a second company. The relevant literature and the data......'s contribution to the change process itself and through bundling particular HRM practices that are aligned with the lean strategy. The paper contributes to both theory and practice, by suggesting specific ways in which HRM can be strategically aligned with a major change implementation such as lean manufacturing....

  10. Automatic image exploitation system for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.

    2008-04-01

    For surveillance and reconnaissance tasks small UAVs are of growing importance. These UAVs have an endurance of several hours, but a small payload of about some kilograms. As a consequence lightweight sensors and cameras have to be used without having a mechanical stabilized high precision sensor-platform, which would exceed the payload and cost limitations. An example of such a system is the German UAV Luna with optical and IR sensors on board. For such platforms we developed image exploitation algorithms. The algorithms comprise mosaiking, stabilization, image enhancement, video based moving target indication, and stereo-image generation. Other products are large geo-coded image mosaics, stereo mosaics, and 3-D-model generation. For test and assessment of these algorithms the experimental system ABUL has been developed, in which the algorithms are integrated. The ABUL system is used for tests and assessment by military PIs.

  11. Protocol to Exploit Waiting Resources for UASNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Hung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission speed of acoustic waves in water is much slower than that of radio waves in terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Thus, the propagation delay in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASN is much greater. Longer propagation delay leads to complicated communication and collision problems. To solve collision problems, some studies have proposed waiting mechanisms; however, long waiting mechanisms result in low bandwidth utilization. To improve throughput, this study proposes a slotted medium access control protocol to enhance bandwidth utilization in UASNs. The proposed mechanism increases communication by exploiting temporal and spatial resources that are typically idle in order to protect communication against interference. By reducing wait time, network performance and energy consumption can be improved. A performance evaluation demonstrates that when the data packets are large or sensor deployment is dense, the energy consumption of proposed protocol is less than that of existing protocols as well as the throughput is higher than that of existing protocols.

  12. Exploitation of bioremediation in the environment protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Luptáková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Soils and waters contaminated with toxic metals pose a major environmental problem that needs an effective and affordable technological solution. Many areas remain contaminated with no remediation in sight because it is too expensive to clean them up with available technologies. Bioremediation may provide an economically viable solution for remediation of some of these sites. The bioremediation is an application of the biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous chemicals and is an example of the environmental biotechnology. The aim of this paper is to give a theoretical and practical view concerning the possibility of the bioremediation exploitation in the environment protection. This paper includes some results of the bioremediation of the acid mine drainage by sulphate-reducing bacteria.

  13. Intertemporal Choice of Marine Ecosystem Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    Management, however, requires models that can link the ecosystem level to the operation level, so this paper examines an ecosystem production model and shows that it is suitable for applying ground rent theory. This model is the simplest possible that incorporates the principles of size as the main...... at the ecosystem level in the present management. Therefore, economic predictions for an ecosystem managed as a common pool resource must be that  the exploitation probably are conducted at lower sized than optimum. In addition, given its population stock approach, the present management probably overlooks...... the ability of an ecosystem to sustain total volume of harvest. Given the two aspects of intertemporal choice revealed by the model, the conclusion must be that the Fishing Down Marine Food Webs is probably driven by the current management's inability to conduct adequate intertemporal balancing; therefore...

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  15. Mission Exploitation Platform PROBA-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    VITO and partners developed an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data. From November 2015 an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) PROBA-V, as an ESA pathfinder project, will be gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Several applications will be released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of PROBA-V bands and derived vegetation parameters for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - A Virtual Machine will be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes and support for R and Python. After an initial release in January 2016, a research platform will gradually be deployed allowing users to design, debug and test applications on the platform. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will be addressed as well, e.g. to support the Cal/Val activities of the users. Users can make use of powerful Web based tools and can self-manage virtual machines to perform their work on the infrastructure at VITO with access to the complete data archive. To realise this, private cloud technology (openStack) is used and a distributed processing environment is built based on Hadoop. The Hadoop ecosystem offers a lot of technologies (Spark, Yarn, Accumulo, etc.) which we integrate with several open-source components. The impact of this MEP on the user community will be high and will completely change the way of working with the data and hence open the large time series to a larger

  16. Tonic dopamine modulates exploitation of reward learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Beeler

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this closed economy paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior.

  17. Efficient Media Exploitation Towards Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Phivos; Solachidis, Vassilios; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas; Hoser, Bettina; Chapman, Sam; Ciravegna, Fabio; Staab, Steffen; Smrz, Pavel; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; Avrithis, Yannis

    In this work we propose intelligent, automated content analysis techniques for different media to extract knowledge from the multimedia content. Information derived from different sources/modalities will be analyzed and fused, in terms of spatiotemporal, personal and even social contextual information. In order to achieve this goal, semantic analysis will be applied to the content items, taking into account the content itself (e.g., text, images and video), as well as existing personal, social and contextual information (e.g., semantic and machine-processable metadata and tags). The above process exploits the so-called “Media Intelligence” towards the ultimate goal of identifying “Collective Intelligence”, emerging from the collaboration and competition among people, empowering innovative services and user interactions. The utilization of “Media Intelligence” constitutes a departure from traditional methods for information sharing, since semantic multimedia analysis has to fuse information from both the content itself and the social context, while at the same time the social dynamics have to be taken into account. Such intelligence provides added-value to the available multimedia content and renders existing procedures and research efforts more efficient.

  18. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 9103); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPP's as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts. This report summarizes the activities of our group during a part of the first year's effort to meet the objectives stated in our proposal. We will comment on three research foci, time compression studies, subgrid scale model studies, and distributed climate ensemble studies and additional significant technical matters.

  19. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB Team

    2017-03-01

    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  20. Exploiting Genome Structure in Association Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyoung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide association study involves examining a large number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify SNPs that are significantly associated with the given phenotype, while trying to reduce the false positive rate. Although haplotype-based association methods have been proposed to accommodate correlation information across nearby SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium, none of these methods directly incorporated the structural information such as recombination events along chromosome. In this paper, we propose a new approach called stochastic block lasso for association mapping that exploits prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure in the genome such as recombination rates and distances between adjacent SNPs in order to increase the power of detecting true associations while reducing false positives. Following a typical linear regression framework with the genotypes as inputs and the phenotype as output, our proposed method employs a sparsity-enforcing Laplacian prior for the regression coefficients, augmented by a first-order Markov process along the sequence of SNPs that incorporates the prior information on the linkage disequilibrium structure. The Markov-chain prior models the structural dependencies between a pair of adjacent SNPs, and allows us to look for association SNPs in a coupled manner, combining strength from multiple nearby SNPs. Our results on HapMap-simulated datasets and mouse datasets show that there is a significant advantage in incorporating the prior knowledge on linkage disequilibrium structure for marker identification under whole-genome association. PMID:21548809

  1. Understanding Online Child Sexual Exploitation Offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2016-08-01

    In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.

  2. Exploiting epigenetic vulnerabilities for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Barbara; Kubicek, Stefan; Nijman, Sebastian M B

    2014-03-01

    Epigenetic deregulation is a hallmark of cancer, and there has been increasing interest in therapeutics that target chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators. The rationale for applying epigenetic drugs to treat cancer is twofold. First, epigenetic changes are reversible, and drugs could therefore be used to restore the normal (healthy) epigenetic landscape. However, it is unclear whether drugs can faithfully restore the precancerous epigenetic state. Second, chromatin regulators are often mutated in cancer, making them attractive drug targets. However, in most instances it is unknown whether cancer cells are addicted to these mutated chromatin proteins, or whether their mutation merely results in epigenetic instability conducive to the selection of secondary aberrations. An alternative incentive for targeting chromatin regulators is the exploitation of cancer-specific vulnerabilities, including synthetic lethality, caused by epigenetic deregulation. We review evidence for the hypothesis that mechanisms other than oncogene addiction are a basis for the application of epigenetic drugs, and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transnational gestational surrogacy: does it have to be exploitative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the controversial practice of transnational gestational surrogacy and poses a provocative question: Does it have to be exploitative? Various existing models of exploitation are considered and a novel exploitation-evaluation heuristic is introduced to assist in the analysis of the potentially exploitative dimensions/elements of complex health-related practices. On the basis of application of the heuristic, I conclude that transnational gestational surrogacy, as currently practiced in low-income country settings (such as rural, western India), is exploitative of surrogate women. Arising out of consideration of the heuristic's exploitation conditions, a set of public education and enabled choice, enhanced protections, and empowerment reforms to transnational gestational surrogacy practice is proposed that, if incorporated into a national regulatory framework and actualized within a low income country, could possibly render such practice nonexploitative.

  4. Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goor, Erwin; Dries, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    VITO and partners developed the Proba-V Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP) as an end-to-end solution to drastically improve the exploitation of the Proba-V (a Copernicus contributing mission) EO-data archive (http://proba-v.vgt.vito.be/), the past mission SPOT-VEGETATION and derived vegetation parameters by researchers, service providers and end-users. The analysis of time series of data (+1PB) is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of near real-time data on a powerful and scalable processing environment. Furthermore data from the Copernicus Global Land Service is in scope of the platform. From November 2015 an operational Proba-V MEP environment, as an ESA operation service, is gradually deployed at the VITO data center with direct access to the complete data archive. Since autumn 2016 the platform is operational and yet several applications are released to the users, e.g. - A time series viewer, showing the evolution of Proba-V bands and derived vegetation parameters from the Copernicus Global Land Service for any area of interest. - Full-resolution viewing services for the complete data archive. - On-demand processing chains on a powerfull Hadoop/Spark backend e.g. for the calculation of N-daily composites. - Virtual Machines can be provided with access to the data archive and tools to work with this data, e.g. various toolboxes (GDAL, QGIS, GrassGIS, SNAP toolbox, …) and support for R and Python. This allows users to immediately work with the data without having to install tools or download data, but as well to design, debug and test applications on the platform. - A prototype of jupyter Notebooks is available with some examples worked out to show the potential of the data. Today the platform is used by several third party projects to perform R&D activities on the data, and to develop/host data analysis toolboxes. In parallel the platform is further improved and extended. From the MEP PROBA-V, access to Sentinel-2 and landsat data will

  5. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  6. Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, F.; Tribbia, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through its CHAMMP initiative, hopes to develop the capability to make meaningful regional climate forecasts on time scales exceeding a decade, such capability to be based on numerical prediction type models. We propose research to contribute to each of the specific items enumerated in the CHAMMP announcement (Notice 91-3); i.e., to consider theoretical limits to prediction of climate and climate change on appropriate time scales, to develop new mathematical techniques to utilize massively parallel processors (MPP), to actually utilize MPPs as a research tool, and to develop improved representations of some processes essential to climate prediction. In particular, our goals are to: (1) Reconfigure the prediction equations such that the time iteration process can be compressed by use of MMP architecture, and to develop appropriate algorithms. (2) Develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state- of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics. (3) Capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. By careful choice of initial states, many realizations of the climate system can be determined concurrently and more realistic assessments of the climate prediction can be made in a realistic time frame. To explore these initiatives, we will exploit all available computing technology, and in particular MPP machines. We anticipate that significant improvements in modeling of climate on the decadal and longer time scales for regional space scales will result from our efforts.

  7. Beyond Fair Benefits: Reconsidering Exploitation Arguments Against Organ Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J

    2018-03-01

    One common objection to establishing regulated live donor organ markets is that such markets would be exploitative. Perhaps surprisingly, exploitation arguments against organ markets have been widely rejected in the philosophical literature on the subject. It is often argued that concerns about exploitation should be addressed by increasing the price paid to organ sellers, not by banning the trade outright. I argue that this analysis rests on a particular conception of exploitation (which I refer to as 'fair benefits' exploitation), and outline two additional ways that the charge of exploitation can be understood (which I discuss in terms of 'fair process' exploitation and complicity in injustice). I argue that while increasing payments to organ sellers may mitigate or eliminate fair benefits exploitation, such measures will not necessarily address fair process exploitation or complicity in injustice. I further argue that each of these three forms of wrongdoing is relevant to the ethics of paid living organ donation, as well as the design of public policy more generally.

  8. A Systematic Review of Financial Exploitation Measures in Prevalence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Shelly L

    2016-05-01

    The financial exploitation of older adults has garnered the attention of society as well as state and federal governments in a way that elder abuse has never been able to achieve. It is frequently asserted that financial exploitation deserves this attention in part because it is the most prevalent form of elder abuse. This article systematically reviews the measurement of financial exploitation in comparison with other forms of elder abuse and concludes that its measurement is considerably more variable than other forms of abuse. Consequently, improvements in the measurement of financial exploitation are warranted.

  9. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  10. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    Biotherapeutics are an emerging class of drug composed of molecules ranging in sizes from peptides to large proteins. Due to their poor stability and mucosal membrane permeability, biotherapeutics are administered by a parenteral method (i.e., syringe, intravenous or intramuscular). Therapeutics delivered systemically often experience short half-lives. While, local administration may involve invasive surgical procedures and suffer from poor retention at the site of application. To compensate, the patient receives frequent doses of highly concentrated therapeutic. Unfortunately, the off-target side effects and discomfort associated with multiple injections results in poor patient compliance. Therefore, new delivery methods which can improve therapeutic retention, reduce the frequency of administration and may aid in decreasing the off-target side effects is a necessity. Hydrogels are a class of biomaterials that are gaining interests for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogel materials are defined as porous, 3-dimensional networks that are primarily composed of water. Generally, they are mechanically rigid, cytocompatible and easily chemically functionalized. Collectively, these properties make hydrogels fantastic candidates to perform as drug delivery depots. Current hydrogel delivery systems physically entrap the target therapeutic which is then subsequently released over time at the site of administration. The swelling and degradation of the material effect the diffusion of the therapy from the hydrogel, and therefore should be controlled. Although these strategies provide some regulation over therapeutic release, full control of the delivery is not achieved. Newer approaches are focused on designing hydrogels that exploit known interactions, covalently attach the therapy or respond to an external stimulus in an effort to gain improved control over the therapy's release. Unfortunately, the biotherapeutic is typically required to be chemically

  11. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  12. A Descriptive Study on Sexually Exploited Children in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twill, Sarah E.; Green, Denise M.; Traylor, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual exploitation and prostitution of children and adolescents is a multibillion dollar industry in the United States (Estes and Weiner in "Medical, legal & social science aspects of child sexual exploitation: A comprehensive review of pornography, prostitution, and internet crimes, vol I," G.W. Medical Publishing, Inc, St Louis,…

  13. [Ecotourism exploitation model in Bita Lake Natural Reserve of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Wang, Y; Zhong, L

    2000-12-01

    Bita lake provincial natural reserve is located in Shangri-La region of North-western Yunnan, and was set as a demonstrating area for ecotourism exploitation in 1998. After a year's exploitation construction and half a year's operation as a branch of the 99' Kunming International Horticulture Exposition to accept tourists, it was proved that the ecotourism demonstrating area attained four integrated functions of ecotourism, i.e., tourism, protection, poverty clearing and environment education. Five exploitation and management models including function zoned exploitation model, featured tourism communication model signs system designing model, local Tibetan family reception model and environmental monitoring model, were also successful, which were demonstrated and spreaded to the whole province. Bita lake provincial natural reserve could be a good sample for the ecotourism exploitation natural reserves of the whole country.

  14. Exploit and ignore the consequences: A mother of planetary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-07-01

    Many environmental and planetary issues are due to an exploitation strategy based on exploit, consume and ignore the consequences. As many natural and environmental resources are limited in time and space, such exploitation approach causes important damages on earth, in the sea and maybe soon in the space. To sustain conditions under which humans and other living species can coexist in productive and dynamic harmony with their environments, terrestrial and space exploration programs may need to be based on 'scrutinize the consequences, prepare adequate solutions and then, only then, exploit'. Otherwise, the exploitation of planetary resources may put the environmental stability and sustainability at a higher risk than it is currently predicted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  16. Pluriactivite et mode de financement des exploitations agricoles

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Krebs

    2005-01-01

    Cet article se propose de mettre en relation les décisions de pluriactivité des familles d’agriculteurs et les choix qu’ils opèrent en matière de financement de leurs exploitations. Les résultats obtenus à partir d’un panel d’exploitations individuelles françaises font ressortir d’importantes spécificités des exploitations pluriactives, tant en matière d’autofinancement que d’endettement. The aim of this article is to study the possible interrelationships between the off-farm work decision...

  17. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and ... with oil exploration and exploitation have had adverse effects on the environment ... the confused atmosphere to unleash reign of terror on innocent citizens.

  18. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  19. 77 FR 36491 - Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Americans'') seeks information on consumer financial products and services, financial literacy efforts, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Senior Financial Exploitation AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer...

  20. L'exploitation des cephalopodes: situation et perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mesnil, B

    1977-01-01

    Sans attendre que soit atteint ce degre de precision, nous avons voulu aborder une etape plus elementaire en reunissant les informations relatives a l'etat actuel de l'exploitation des cephalopodes at...

  1. Matching Terminological Heterogeneous Ontologies by Exploiting Partial Alignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadd, Frederik Christiaan; Roos, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Matching ontologies which utilize significantly heterogeneous terminologies is a challenging task for existing matching techniques. These techniques typically exploit lexical resources in order to enrich the ontologies with additional terminology such that more terminological matches can be found.

  2. Sustainable Exploitation of Natural Resources and National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Constantinescu

    2015-01-01

    ... to a country’s national security and long term development. The aim of this article is to outline the links and interactions between the availability of natural resources, their sustainable exploitation...

  3. A Practical Guide for Exploiting FBCB2 Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leibrecht, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    ... Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2). The Leader's Primer for Exploiting FBCB2 describes twenty-two major FBCB2 capabilities, the tactical significance of each capability, the digital operator and user tasks involved in employing each...

  4. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  5. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP , VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP , Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...Traveling Salesman Problem ( TSP ) and Graph Coloring are elementary. Problems such as MAX-kSAT are a superposition of k elementary landscapes. This

  6. Typologie des exploitations agricoles familiales : cas de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La gestion durable d'une formation forestière nécessite la prise en compte des activités humaines s'exerçant aux alentours en raison de leurs impacts sur la pérennité et la qualité des produits exploités. Cette étude visait ainsi à caractériser les exploitations agricoles familiales adjacentes de la forêt de Baban rafi. Pour y.

  7. Exploitation of Full-Waveform LiDAR to Characterize / Exploit Under Canopy Targets - Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    specific targets, and (3) full waveform application in forestry . Exploitation of Full-waveform LiDAR to Characterize/Exploit under Canopy Targets...Foliage Penetration (FOPEN)   9    The review on current waveform processing methods, LiDAR-specific targets and forestry applications clearly indicates...proceedings of IGARSS 2012, Munich, Germany, July 23-27, 2012. Molnar, B., Laky, S., and Toth, Ch. (2011): Using Full Waveform Data in Urban Areas

  8. MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for Representation, Inference, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0127 MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (SEE) on a Foundation for...MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2016 Final 26 September 2011 – 15 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATHEMATICS OF SENSING... mathematical foundation for unified representation, inference, and learning for ISR problems. The result of the project is an end-to-end system for scene and

  9. The ESA scientific exploitation element results and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnos, Yves-louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Donlon, Craig; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Fernandez, Diego; Gascon, Ferran; Zehner, Claus; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Koetz, Benjamin; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element of ESA's fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP4) prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community built up over the last 25 years exploiting ESA's EO missions. SEOM enables the science community to address new scientific research areas that are opened by the free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, key research studies have been launched over the last years to further exploit data from the Sentinels (http://seom.esa.int/). During 2016 several Science users consultation workshops have been organized, new results from scientific studies have been published and open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been distributed (SNAP 80000 users from 190 countries). In addition the first ESA Massive Open Online Courses on Climate from space have been deployed (20000 participants) and the second EO Open Science conference was organized at ESA in September 2016 bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. The new EOEP5 Exploitation element approved in 2016 and starting in 2017 is taking stock of all precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation and in particular a workplan for ESA scientific exploitation activities has been presented to Member States taking full benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The results and highlights from current scientific exploitation activities will be presented and an outlook on the upcoming activities under the new EOEP5 exploitation element will be given.

  10. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  11. Experimental Simulation of the Exploitation of Natural Gas Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates are cage-like crystalline compounds in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming solids at low temperature and high pressure. Natural gas hydrates are widely distributed in permafrost regions and offshore. It is estimated that the worldwide amounts of methane bound in gas hydrates are total twice the amount of carbon to be found in all known fossil fuels on earth. A proper understanding of the relevant exploitation technologies is then important for natural gas production applications. In this paper, the recent advances on the experimental simulation of natural gas hydrate exploitation using the major hydrate production technologies are summarized. In addition, the current situation of the industrial exploitation of natural gas hydrate is introduced, which are expected to be useful for establishing more safe and efficient gas production technologies.

  12. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  13. Final Report, “Exploiting Global View for Resilience”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Andrew [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-29

    Final technical report for the "Exploiting Global View for Resilience" project. The GVR project aims to create a new approach to portable, resilient applications. The GVR approach builds on a global view data model,, adding versioning (multi-version), user control of timing and rate (multi-stream), and flexible cross layer error signalling and recovery. With a versioned array as a portable abstraction, GVR enables application programmers to exploit deep scientific and application code insights to manage resilience (and its overhead) in a flexible, portable fashion.

  14. The human traffickers and exploitation of children and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Scala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the traffic of children, who are kidnapped, cheated and purchased by their families to be exploited in many ways. These victims have severe mental and physical traumas. Many of them, slaves of their exploiters, remain invisible and live their lifes without fundamental rights and without any kind of support or help. The traffic in human beings is a new kind of slavery, which acts in the dark, is criminal and involves different subjects of different ages, different nationalities and generations. The traffic in human beings is managed by transnational criminal organizations and is a disturbing and growing phenomena around the world.

  15. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel...Jun 2013]. The Hegemony Handbook: Exploiting the Space between War and Peace Prashant R. Patel, Project Leader David A. Sparrow I N S T I T U T E F O...making us appear weak and ineffective because we cannot stop these short-of- war actions. The A2AD systems increase the risk to our conventional forces

  17. Exploiting Thread Parallelism for Ocean Modeling on Cray XC Supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, Douglas W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Samuel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The incorporation of increasing core counts in modern processors used to build state-of-the-art supercomputers is driving application development towards exploitation of thread parallelism, in addition to distributed memory parallelism, with the goal of delivering efficient high-performance codes. In this work we describe the exploitation of threading and our experiences with it with respect to a real-world ocean modeling application code, MPAS-Ocean. We present detailed performance analysis and comparisons of various approaches and configurations for threading on the Cray XC series supercomputers.

  18. From Exploitation to Industry: Definitions, Risks, and Consequences of Domestic Sexual Exploitation and Sex Work Among Women and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In the last 15 years, terms such as prostitution, sex trafficking, sexual exploitation, modern-day slavery, and sex work have elicited much confusion and debate as to their definitions. Consequently several challenges have emerged for both law enforcement in the prosecution of criminals and practitioners in service provision. This article reviews the state of the literature with regard to domestic, sexual exploitation among women and girls in the United States and seeks to (1) provide definitions and describe the complexity of all terms relating to domestic sexual exploitation of women and girls in the United States, (2) explore available national prevalence data according to the definitions provided, and (3) review the evidence of mental health, social, and structural risk factors at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels. PMID:26726289

  19. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  20. Assisting children born of sexual exploitation and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Rumble

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UN Secretary-General has issued a strategy tosupport victims of sexual exploitation and abuse by UNstaff. It includes a controversial proposal to introduceDNA sampling for all UN staff. Unless this suggestionis adopted, an important opportunity to implementa truly survivor-centred approach may be lost.

  1. Exporting DNA – striking a balance between preventing exploitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three important points that complement the above need to be considered: (i) the details in the MTA must reflect what is stipulated in the informed consent ... they not only contain information that may be of importance from ... And how can we achieve a balance between preventing exploitation and promoting innovation?

  2. Exploitation of Bush Mango ( Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to assess the exploitation of Bush Mango Irvingia gabonensis and Irvingia wombolu (ogbono) among rural households in Enugu State, Nigeria. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 91 respondents and data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The mean ...

  3. Fishery benefits from exploiting spawning aggregations not solely ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vulnerability of spawning aggregations to exploitation varies among fisheries as a result of differences in the population-density changes associated with this behaviour. However, vulnerability to fishing is also influenced by technology, environmental factors, and fish and fisher behaviours. Focusing on a fishery for the ...

  4. Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Víquez Zamora, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting wild relatives of S. lycopersicum for quality traits Ana Marcela Víquez Zamora Tomatoes are consumed worldwide and became a model for crop plant research. A part of the research aims at expanding genetic diversity in tomato; this can be done by incorporating

  5. Six scenarios of exploiting an ontology based, mobilized learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kismihók, G.; Szabó, I.; Vas, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, six different exploitation possibilities of an educational ontology based, mobilized learning management system are presented. The focal point of this system is the educational ontology model. The first version of this educational ontology model serves as a foundation for curriculum

  6. Exploiting network redundancy for low-cost neural network realizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, H; Jansen, WJ; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, H; Udding, JT

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented to optimize a trained neural network for physical realization styles. Target architectures are embedded microcontrollers or standard cell based ASIC designs. The approach exploits the redundancy in the network, required for successful training, to replace the synaptic weighting

  7. Software defined radio receivers exploiting noise cancelling: A tutorial review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radio receivers were narrowband and dedicated to a single frequency band exploiting LC tanks, whereas software defined radios target a flexibly programmable frequency. The broadband noise cancelling circuit technique has proven useful to achieve this target, as it breaks the traditional

  8. Spatial dynamics of fuel wood exploitation in Delta State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the spatial and temporal changes in fuel wood exploitation as a result of environmental degradation, between 2008 and 2013 in Delta State, Nigeria. It utilised data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were obtained from a survey of selected settlements using a questionnaire.

  9. Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coi, Juri L.; Koesling, Arne; Kärger, Philipp; Olmedilla, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    De Coi, J. L., Kösling, A., Kärger, P., Olmedilla, D., (2007) Exploiting Policies in an Open Infrastructure for Lifelong Learning. In Duval, E., Klamma, R. and Wolpers, M. (Eds.), Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4753, pp.26-40.

  10. Traditional exploitation of edible freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, oyster`s shell, a main substrate for larval settlement and bed restoration, were left on riverbanks after exploitation, reducing stocks reconstitution potential. Appropriate measures were suggested to Reserve staff for sustainable management. Keywords: Freshwater mollusk, harvesting activities, human pressure, ...

  11. Key points in biotechnological patents to be exploited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo Mateos; López-Moya, José Rafael; Ramos, Patricia

    2013-08-01

    Patents in some biotechnological fields are controversial. Despite this fact, the number of patent applications increases every year. Total revenues in the global biotechnology market are expected to increase in the middle term. Nowadays, the bioeconomy is an important socio-economic area, which is reflected in the number of firms dedicated to or using biotechnology. The exploitation of biotechnological patents is an essential task in the management of intellectual capital. This paper explains the multiplicity of factors that influence the exploitation of biotechnological patents; specifically, the internal and external key points of patents exploitation. The external determining factors for patents are: (i) the market need for biotechnological products and services, (ii) the importance of the freedom to operate analysis before entering the market, and (iii) efficiency in prosecution by Patent Offices. This paper primarily focuses on the internal determining factors, more particularly, the characteristics that the patent's owner must take into consideration in order to have a strong, broad subject-matter in the granted patent. The experimentation needed to obtain an adequate scope of the subject- matter in the claims is a critical issue in the exploitation of a patent or patent application.

  12. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Exploitation of College Athletes Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Derek; Atwood, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of college athletes has been a topic of controversy within American higher education for over half of a century. Especially in the revenue-generating sports of men's basketball and football, critics have highlighted the surplus gains expropriated by colleges and universities on the backs of these young men, who are…

  14. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  15. Efficient Depth Map Compression Exploiting Segmented Color Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milani, Simone; Zanuttigh, Pietro; Zamarin, Marco

    2011-01-01

    performances is still an open research issue. This paper presents a novel compression scheme that exploits a segmentation of the color data to predict the shape of the different surfaces in the depth map. Then each segment is approximated with a parameterized plane. In case the approximation is sufficiently...

  16. Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A Nigerian Coastal Settlement. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Result show that 90% of the total local energy requirement is from fuelwood, the average per capita production rate of fuelwood in the local area is 0.38m3 and the ...

  17. Sexual exploitation and abuse by UN peacekeepers: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, ...

  18. Desiring TESOL and International Education: Market Abuse and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raqib; Ha, Phan Le

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses how Western universities have constructed themselves as global providers of education, and are driven to be globally competitive. It examines how the term "international" has been exploited by the market in the form of government educational policies and agencies, host institutions, academia and the mass media. The…

  19. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  20. Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers Exploiting Thermal Noise Cancellation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruccoleri, F.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2005-01-01

    Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) are commonly used to amplify signals that are too weak for direct processing for example in radio or cable receivers. Traditionally, low noise amplifiers are implemented via tuned amplifiers, exploiting inductors and capacitors in resonating LC-circuits. This can render

  1. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  2. Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts Related to Natural Resources Exploitation: A Case Study of Oil Crisis in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region and its Socio-Political and Economic Implications. ... This has tremendously disrupted the primary sources of livelihood of the people namely fishing and farming which has left them in abject poverty. It is this ...

  3. Exploitation Rates and Management Implications for the Fisheries of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exploitation rates of eight major component fishery species, Auchenoglanis occidentalis, Brycinus nurse, Clarias gariepinus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Marcusenius senegalensis, Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia zillii, of gill net fishery of Bontanga reservoir, were studied from March 2004 to ...

  4. White Sharks Exploit the Sun during Predatory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Holman, Dirk; Robbins, Rachel; Fox, Andrew; Endler, John A; Taylor, Alex H

    2015-04-01

    There is no conclusive evidence of any nonhuman animal using the sun as part of its predation strategy. Here, we show that the world's largest predatory fish-the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)-exploits the sun when approaching baits by positioning the sun directly behind them. On sunny days, sharks reversed their direction of approach along an east-west axis from morning to afternoon but had uniformly distributed approach directions during overcast conditions. These results show that white sharks have sufficient behavioral flexibility to exploit fluctuating environmental features when predating. This sun-tracking predation strategy has a number of potential functional roles, including improvement of prey detection, avoidance of retinal overstimulation, and predator concealment.

  5. Host exploitation strategies of the social parasite Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias Alois

    . Throughout the first instars M. alcon lives on a specific food plant, however, in the last instar before pupation it develops into an obligate social parasite, posing a considerably cost to its host ant colony. I here focus on the different exploitation strategies of M. alcon throughout its lifecycle......  Coevolution is the process where at least two species put some selective pressure on each other, thereby reciprocally influencing each others evolution. To explain co-adaptations invoked by coevolution of interacting species, evolutionary biologists predominantly use host-parasite interactions...... as model systems. These enable the study of adaptations and counter-adaptations that might evolve in the arms-race between a parasite pursuing maximum gain and a host trying to avoid exploitation. One such system is the socially parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon and its host the ant Myrmica rubra...

  6. Commodification and exploitation: arguments in favour of compensated organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, L D

    2003-06-01

    This paper takes the view that compensated donation and altruism are not incompatible. In particular, it holds that the arguments against giving compensation stand on weak rational grounds: (1) the charge that compensation fosters "commodification" has neither been specific enough to account for different types of monetary transactions nor sufficiently grounded in reality to be rationally convincing; (2) although altruism is commendable, organ donors should not be compelled to act purely on the basis of altruistic motivations, especially if there are good reasons to believe that significantly more lives can be saved and enhanced if incentives are put in place, and (3) offering compensation for organs does not necessarily lead to exploitation-on the contrary, it may be regarded as a necessity in efforts to minimise the level of exploitation that already exists in current organ procurement systems.

  7. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  8. Exploration and Exploitation Fit and Performance in International Strategic Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Gudergan, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation constitute two separate, potentially conflicting strategic choices for firms engaged in international strategic alliances. Our empirical study challenges the ambidexterity argument and demonstrates that exploration and exploitation are separate (though not necessarily...... antithetical) strategies with different antecedents and performance consequences. Our results show that while competency similarity is conducive to upstream innovative performance, prior experience with the partner is potentially damaging for this type of performance and trust and cultural distance do not play...... significant roles. When the motive is efficiency and downstream market performance, prior experience with the partner instead is beneficial, as are high levels of trust and low levels of cultural distance. These findings have key implications for literature on strategic fit and alliance performance....

  9. Exploiting cantilever curvature for noise reduction in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Grütter, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Optical beam deflection is a widely used method for detecting the deflection of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. This paper presents a first order derivation for the angular detection noise density which determines the lower limit for deflection sensing. Surprisingly, the cantilever radius of curvature, commonly not considered, plays a crucial role and can be exploited to decrease angular detection noise. We demonstrate a reduction in angular detection shot noise of more than an order of magnitude on a home-built AFM with a commercial 450 μm long cantilever by exploiting the optical properties of the cantilever curvature caused by the reflective gold coating. Lastly, we demonstrate how cantilever curvature can be responsible for up to 45% of the variability in the measured sensitivity of cantilevers on commercially available AFMs.

  10. Exploiting the Errors: A Simple Approach for Improved Volatility Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier

    We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly with the (est......We propose a new family of easy-to-implement realized volatility based forecasting models. The models exploit the asymptotic theory for high-frequency realized volatility estimation to improve the accuracy of the forecasts. By allowing the parameters of the models to vary explicitly...... with the (estimated) degree of measurement error, the models exhibit stronger persistence, and in turn generate more responsive forecasts, when the measurement error is relatively low. Implementing the new class of models for the S&P500 equity index and the individual constituents of the Dow Jones Industrial Average...

  11. Mathematical modeling of the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical methods have been used in this investigation to model the behavior of geothermal systems under exploitation. The work is divided into three parts: (1) development of a numerical code, (2) theoretical studies of geothermal systems, and (3) field applications. A new single-phase three-dimensional simulator, capable of solving heat and mass flow problems in a saturated, heterogeneous porous or fractured medium has been developed. The simulator uses the integrated finite difference method for formulating the governing equations and an efficient sparse solver for the solution of the linearized equations. In the theoretical studies, various reservoir engineering problems have been examined. These include (a) well-test analysis, (b) exploitation strategies, (c) injection into fractured rocks, and (d) fault-charged geothermal reservoirs.

  12. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  13. Information source exploitation/exploration and NPD decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    of gate decision-making and information sources was developed across five generic stages (idea, concept, design, test, and commercialization). Our data was generated with a participatory agent-based simulation of NPD gate decision-points in the development process. The sample consists of 134 managers from......The purpose of this study is to examine how the exploration/exploitation continuum is applied by decision-makers in new product gate decision-making. Specifically, we analyze at gate decision-points how the evaluation of a new product project is affected by the information source exploitation....../exploration search behavior of decision-makers. In addition, overexploitation and overexploration in new product development decision-making is investigated through mediating effects of perceived information usefulness and applied performance criteria by decision-makers at gates. To this end a conceptual model...

  14. Design and Exploitation Problems of Drill String in Directional Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarz Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Drill string design for directional drilling requires accounting for a number of factors. First, types and expected values of loads should be determined. Then, elements of the drill string should be so selected as to enable realization of the plan at specified loads. Some of additional factors, e. g. purchase, exploitation cost, geological conditions in the bore-hole, washing of the bore-hole, stability, trajectory, rig parameters, accuracy of gauges, pumps parameters remain in conflict. Drill pipes are made of rolled pipes, upset and welded with tool joints to 9,5 m long; the shorter ones can be made of hot forged rods. Exploitation requirements, being a result of practical experience supported by theoretical and laboratory analyses should be a part of syllabuses of technical staff educational programs. Apart from designing the string, it is also vital to lower the risk of a drilling failure. The significance of these aspects seems to be unquestionable.

  15. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  16. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...... in Greenland. Furthermore, serious attention should be given to how to secure an appropriate government take from mineral activities. The paper discusses several types of taxes as well as financing models....

  17. Target Localization with a Single Antenna via Directional Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Muqaibel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Target localization in urban sensing can benefit from angle dependency of the pulse shape at a radar receiver antenna. We propose a localization approach that utilizes the embedded directivity in ultra-wideband (UWB antennas to estimate target positions. A single radar unit sensing operation of indoor targets surrounded by interior walls is considered, where interior wall multipaths are exploited to provide target cross-range. This exploitation assumes resolvability of the multipath components, which is made possible by the virtue of using UWB radar signals. The proposed approach is most attractive when only few multipaths are detectable due to propagation obstructions or owing to low signal-to-noise ratios. Both simulated and experimental data are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly...

  19. Exploitation of the Virtual Worlds in Tourism and Tourism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejda Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Academics perceive a great potential of virtual worlds in various areas, including tourism and education. Efforts adapting the virtual worlds in practice are, however, still marginal. There is no clear definition of the virtual world. Therefore the author of this article attempts to provide one. The paper also focuses on the barriers of a wider exploitation of the virtual worlds and discusses the principles that might help to increase their potential in tourism area. One of the principles – gamification – favours a wider adaptation of the virtual worlds in tourism. Applying gamification principles provides visitors with some unique experiences while serving as a powerful marketing tool for institutions. The benefits of implementing tourism education activities based on cooperative principles set in an immersive environment of the virtual worlds are depicted afterwards. Finally, this paper includes successful case studies, which show advantages and drawbacks of some approaches in exploiting the virtual worlds in tourism and tourism education.

  20. Transformation-aware Exploit Generation using a HI-CFG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    buffer structure (the chain of buffers used between transformations) of a program, and use this structure to construct an exploit input by inverting one...make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or... inverting one transformation at a time. We propose a new program representation, a hybrid information- and control-flow graph (HI-CFG), and give

  1. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diversification pratiquées sont les prestations de service, la foresterie et pisciculture, la migration, l'artisanat et autres (Tableau 7). Les activités de diversification ont rapporté assez de revenus aux exploitations agricoles familiales dans les villages étudiés. Il est estimé à plus de. 400 000 Fcfa dans les villages de Kokélé, ...

  2. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show...... that this extension in some cases improves the location estimates produced by the algorithm. The final version of the paper will present quantitative results from more extensive investigations that will document the extent of this improvement....

  3. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.

    2005-01-01

    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...... and yield-driven design. We illustrate our results using a capacitively-loaded two-section impedance transformer, a single-resonator waveguide filter and a six-section H-plane waveguide filter....

  4. aspects economiques de l'exploitation des ressources halieutiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ECONOM/C ASPECTS OF THE EXPLOITATION OF HALIEUTIC RESSOURCES OF “PETITS BARRAGES”. INLAND ..... journalière du travail et la gestion familiale ou du comité de gestion,. TRF est le taux de rémunération des fonds propres,. BNE est le bénéfice net d'exploita- tien, ..... Ces bas prix de marché s'expliquent.

  5. Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting spatially variant point spread functions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Shin, Seungwoo; Park, YongKeun

    2017-01-01

    An optical imaging system forms an object image by recollecting light scattered by the object. However, intact optical information of the object delivered through the imaging system is deteriorated by imperfect optical elements and unwanted defects. Image deconvolution, also known as inverse filtering, has been widely exploited as a recovery technique because of its practical feasibility, and operates by assuming the linear shift-invariant property of the imaging system. However, shift invari...

  6. Exploiting Temporal Secondary Access Opportunities in Radar Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Tercero, Miurel; Sung, Ki Won; Zander, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the temporal opportunities for secondary access to radar spectrum. Secondary users are assumed to be WLANs which opportunistically share the radar frequency band under the constraint that the aggregate interference does not harm radar operation. Each WLAN device employs dynamic frequency selection (DFS) as a mechanism to protect the radar from the interference. We also consider an advanced interference protection mechanism, which is termed temporal DFS. It exploits ...

  7. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  8. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Johan; Ramirez Sergio; Trelles Oswaldo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. Results To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI) that provides the necessar...

  9. Exploiting Lexical Regularities in Designing Natural Language Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASKN Artificial Inteligence Laboratory A1A4WR NTumet 0) 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 Ln *t- CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND...RO-RI95 922 EXPLOITING LEXICAL REGULARITIES IN DESIGNING NATURAL 1/1 LANGUAGE SYSTENS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE...oes.ary and ftdou.Ip hr Nl wow" L,2This paper presents the lexical component of the START Question Answering system developed at the MIT Artificial

  10. Exploiting design patterns to automate validation of class invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Malloy, Brian A.; Power, James F.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, techniques are presented that exploit two design patterns, the Visitor pattern and the Decorator pattern, to automatically validate invariants about the data attributes in a C++ class. To investigate the pragmatics involved in using the two patterns, a study of an existing, well-tested application, keystone, a parser and frontend for the C++ language, is presented. Results from the study indicate that these two patterns provide flexibility in terms of the frequen...

  11. Combating sexual exploitation at the macro and micro levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpinan, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Third World Movement against the Exploitation of Women (TW-MAE-W) is an international nongovernmental organization based in the Philippines which conducts advocacy upon global issues such as the root causes of exploitation and campaigns against sex tourism and military prostitution. TW-MAE-W began providing direct services at the local level in 1987, and now has 7 drop-in centers and 3 homes around the country, run by 35 female staff members. In addition, the Bethany Transition Home in Quezon City, Manila, houses 10-20 women, all who have outside employment. The girls and women who come to TW-MAE-W's facilities have all been exploited in some way. For example, they may be battered wives, women who have experienced incest, or girls who have been sold or tricked into prostitution. They arrive after either calling a telephone hotline on their own or being referred by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. Following an initial 3-month course of recuperation, center residents are helped to either continue their academic training, receive vocational training, or find a job. Basic health services are provided to the residents and drop-in center clients.

  12. Sentinel-1 data exploitation for geohazard activity map generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Anna; Solari, Lorenzo; Béjar-Pizarro, Marta; Monserrat, Oriol; Herrera, Gerardo; Bianchini, Silvia; Crosetto, Michele; María Mateos, Rosa; Sarro, Roberto; Moretti, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    This work is focused on geohazard mapping and monitoring by exploiting Sentinel-1 (A and B) data and the DInSAR (Differential interferometric SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar)) techniques. Sometimes the interpretation of the DInSAR derived product (like the velocity map) can be complex, mostly for a final user who do not usually works with radar. The aim of this work is to generate, in a rapid way, a clear product to be easily exploited by the authorities in the geohazard management: intervention planning and prevention activities. Specifically, the presented methodology has been developed in the framework of the European project SAFETY, which is aimed at providing Civil Protection Authorities (CPA) with the capability of periodically evaluating and assessing the potential impact of geohazards (volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence) on urban areas. The methodology has three phases, the interferograms generation, the activity map generation, in terms of velocity and accumulated deformation (with time-series), and the Active Deformation Area (ADA) map generation. The last one is the final product, derived from the original activity map by analyzing the data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment, which isolate only the true deformation areas over the noise. This product can be more easily read by the authorities than the original activity map, i.e. can be better exploited to integrate other information and analysis. This product also permit an easy monitoring of the active areas.

  13. Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Whitlock, G

    2015-11-01

    Fear of scarcity of resources highlight the need to exploit secondary materials from urban mines in the anthroposphere. Analogous to primary mines rich in one type of material (e.g. copper, gold, etc.), some urban mines are unique/distinct. We introduce, illustrate and discuss the concept of Distinct Urban Mines (DUM). Using the example of a university DUM in the UK, analogous to a primary mine, we illustrate potential product/material yields in respect of size, concentration and spatial location of the mine. Product ownership and replacement cycles for 17 high-value electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) among students showed that 20 tonnes of valuable e-waste were in stockpile in this DUM and a further 87 tonnes would 'soon' be available for exploitation. We address the opportunities and challenges of exploiting DUMs and conclude that they are readily available reservoirs for resource recovery. Two original contributions arise from this work: (i) a novel approach to urban mining with a potential for maximising resource recovery within the anthroposphere is conceptualised; and (ii) previously unavailable data for high-value products for a typical university DUM are presented and analysed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neanderthal exploitation of ibex and chamois in southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yravedra, José; Cobo-Sánchez, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that Neanderthals had a diverse and flexible diet. They exploited a wide range of resources from large proboscideans to small animals like turtles, rabbits, and marine species. Here, we discuss the importance of ibex and chamois in Neanderthal hunting strategies. The exploitation of both animals has traditionally been regarded as typical of Homo sapiens hunting behavior but was not a feature of Neanderthal behavior, which was thought to have focused on other kinds of game like deer, horses or large bovids. Our analysis of an extensive sample of Middle Paleolithic sites with faunal remains in the Iberian Peninsula reveals that Iberian ibex and chamois were frequently present throughout this period. Statistical analyses allowed us to assess the conditions that might have favored the presence or absence of these animals in the sites, while the taphonomic analyses enabled us to address the issue of whether ibex and chamois were indeed hunted by Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. Our results indicate a better representation of both species in rocky and mountainous areas. The taphonomy of some sites reveals that chamois and ibex were hunted by Neanderthals, who showed great adaptive capacities to a wide variety of environments, including mountainous habitats. In contrast, other sites with favorable ecological conditions for ibex and chamois where these animals were not exploited by Neanderthals, who chose to hunt other species like deer, horses or aurochs, suggest behavioral complexity and large versatility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle–ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10−16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability–depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350–500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic–plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no ‘jump’ in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2–6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  16. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  17. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  18. Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Michael E; Pedersen, Eric J; Schroder, Jaclyn M; Tabak, Benjamin A; Carver, Charles S

    2013-01-07

    Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short--cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a 'code of honour'. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social-ecological conditions.

  19. Exploitative and hierarchical antagonism in a cooperative bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Social organisms that cooperate with some members of their own species, such as close relatives, may fail to cooperate with other genotypes of the same species. Such noncooperation may take the form of outright antagonism or social exploitation. Myxococcus xanthus is a highly social prokaryote that cooperatively develops into spore-bearing, multicellular fruiting bodies in response to starvation. Here we have characterized the nature of social interactions among nine developmentally proficient strains of M. xanthus isolated from spatially distant locations. Strains were competed against one another in all possible pairwise combinations during starvation-induced development. In most pairings, at least one competitor exhibited strong antagonism toward its partner and a majority of mixes showed bidirectional antagonism that decreased total spore production, even to the point of driving whole populations to extinction. Differential response to mixing was the primary determinant of competitive superiority rather than the sporulation efficiencies of unmixed populations. In some competitive pairings, the dominant partner sporulated more efficiently in mixed populations than in clonal isolation. This finding represents a novel form of exploitation in bacteria carried out by socially competent genotypes and is the first documentation of social exploitation among natural bacterial isolates. Patterns of antagonistic superiority among these strains form a highly linear dominance hierarchy. At least some competition pairs construct chimeric, rather than segregated, fruiting bodies. The cooperative prokaryote M. xanthus has diverged into a large number of distinct social types that cooperate with clone-mates but exhibit intense antagonism toward distinct social types of the same species. Most lengthy migration events in nature may thus result in strong antagonism between migratory and resident populations, and this antagonism may have large effects on local

  20. Exploitation of marine gas hydrates: Benefits and risks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vast amounts of natural gas are stored in marine gas hydrates deposited at continental margins. The global inventory of carbon bound as methane in gas hydrates is currently estimated as 1000 × 500 Gt. Large-scale national research projects located mostly in South-East Asia but also in North America and Europe are aiming to exploit these ice-like solids as new unconventional resource of natural gas. Japan, South Korea and other Asian countries are taking the lead because their national waters harbor exploitable gas hydrate deposits which could be developed to reduce the dependency of these nations on costly LGN imports. In 2013, the first successful production test was performed off Japan at water depths of ca. 1000 m demonstrating that natural gas can be released and produced from marine hydrates by lowering the pressure in the sub-seabed hydrate reservoirs. In an alternative approach, CO2 from coal power plans and other industrial sources is used to release natural gas (methane) from hydrates while CO2 is bound and stored in the sub-surface as solid hydrate. These new approaches and technologies are still in an early pre-commercial phase; the costs of field development and gas production exceed the value of natural gas being produced from the slowly dissociating hydrates. However, new technologies are currently under development in the German SUGAR project and elsewhere to reduce costs and enhance gas production rates such that gas hydrates may become commercially exploitable over the coming decade(s). The exploitation of marine gas hydrates may help to reduce CO2 emissions from the fossil fuel sector if the produced natural gas is used to replace coal and/or LNG. Hydrate development could also provide important incentives for carbon capture technologies since CO2 can be used to produce natural gas from hydrates. However, leakage of gas may occur during the production process while slope failure may be induced by the accompanying dissociation/conversion of gas

  1. Common Ground Station For Imagery Processing And Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Morris V.

    1989-02-01

    The Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS) provides the services with an imagery receipt, processing, exploitation, and reporting capability that is responsive to the requirements of the tactical commanders. JSIPS combines existing and modified hardware and software with all-source digital imagery processing and exploitationto provide intelligence support that enhances the commander's ability to act within the enemy's decision cycle. JSIPS provides not only Tactical all-source imagery processing but integrates the Tactical, National, Auxiliary and Secondary imagery sources into one resource available to the image analyst for production of the commander's comprehensive report. JSIPS has been designed as a modular architecture which is readily expandable and reconfigurable to meet individual user needs. Pre-planned capabilities along with allocated space has been provided for growth in processing, throughput, and I/O requirements. JSIPS provides interoperability with several other imagery programs such as IDPS, TRAC, SYERS, IITS/FIST, NITF, UPD-8, and ATARS. It provides the ability to add additional imagery programs with little or no changes in the JSIPS design. JSIPS provides a softcopy and hardcopy exploitation capability for all military branches with output to their respective intelligence centers. The JSIPS system design, as shown in figure 1.0-1, has the following segments: Tactical Input Segment (TIS), National Input Segment (NIS), Exploitation Support Segment (ESS), Softcopy Exploitation Segment (SES), Hardcopy Exploitation Segment (HES), Communications Support Segment (CSS), and System Support Segment (SSS). JSIPS consists of standardized modules and segments with the collective capability to receive, process, exploit and disseminate imagery and reports based on multi-source imagery from the Tactical and National inputs. The overall JSIPS System operates in either a shelterized or non-shelterized configuration. Tailored JSIPS Systems are packaged in

  2. The exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis (Greece). L'exploitation de lignite de Megalopolis (Grece)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In Greece, the exploitation of brown coal at Megalopolis makes it possible to feed fuel to a thermal power station which supplies not less than 16% of the electricity requirements of the country. A great effort has been made here to improve productivity, even when the progressive restoration of the site is given prominence. The operation of this site is expected to last another forty years. 3 photos.

  3. Using choice architecture to exploit a university Distinct Urban Mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Xavier; Williams, Ian D; Shaw, Peter J; Cleaver, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    There are widespread concerns regarding the potential future scarcity of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. However, there are already potentially rich reserves of secondary materials via high ownership of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) in economically-developed nations. Young people are particularly high consumers of EEE, thus university students and campuses may present an opportunity to harness this potential. University Distinct Urban Mines (DUM) may be used to exemplify how potential reserves of secondary metals may be exploited, and could contribute to the transition from a linear to a circular economy. This study aimed to evaluate small household appliances (SHA) DUM from a UK university, with the objectives to identify and quantify student households' SHA ownership, WEEE recycling, stockpiling and discarding habits amongst student households, assess and evaluate the monetary potential of SHA DUM at UK level, and propose methods to exploit DUM for universities in the UK. To this purpose, a quantitative survey was undertaken to measure students' ownership and discarding behaviour with respect to SHA. The amounts of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were then estimated and converted to monetary values from secondary materials market data to appraise the SHA DUM overall value. Thirty-five per cent of SHA are discarded in the general refuse. Broken personal care appliances (PCA) tend to be discarded due to hygiene and small size factors. When in working order, SHA tend to be equally reused, recycled or stockpiled. We conclude that a total of 189 tonnes of ferrous and non-ferrous materials were available via discarding or being stockpiled at the University of Southampton. Extrapolated to UK higher education level, discarded and stockpiled SHA represent a potential worth ∼USD 11 million. To initiate DUM exploitation within Higher Education campuses, we suggest improving users' choice architecture by providing collection methods specific to broken SHA

  4. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toyokawa

    Full Text Available The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  5. Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Wataru; Kim, Hye-rin; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    The exploration-exploitation dilemma is a recurrent adaptive problem for humans as well as non-human animals. Given a fixed time/energy budget, every individual faces a fundamental trade-off between exploring for better resources and exploiting known resources to optimize overall performance under uncertainty. Colonies of eusocial insects are known to solve this dilemma successfully via evolved coordination mechanisms that function at the collective level. For humans and other non-eusocial species, however, this dilemma operates within individuals as well as between individuals, because group members may be motivated to take excessive advantage of others' exploratory findings through social learning. Thus, even though social learning can reduce collective exploration costs, the emergence of disproportionate "information scroungers" may severely undermine its potential benefits. We investigated experimentally whether social learning opportunities might improve the performance of human participants working on a "multi-armed bandit" problem in groups, where they could learn about each other's past choice behaviors. Results showed that, even though information scroungers emerged frequently in groups, social learning opportunities reduced total group exploration time while increasing harvesting from better options, and consequentially improved collective performance. Surprisingly, enriching social information by allowing participants to observe others' evaluations of chosen options (e.g., Amazon's 5-star rating system) in addition to choice-frequency information had a detrimental impact on performance compared to the simpler situation with only the choice-frequency information. These results indicate that humans groups can handle the fundamental "dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas" successfully, and that social learning about simple choice-frequencies can help produce collective intelligence.

  6. Examples of Sentinel-2A Mission Exploitation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetz, Benjamin; Hoersch, Bianca; Gascon, Ferran; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Seifert, Frank Martin; Paganini, Marc; Ramoino, Fabrizio; Arino, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Copernicus mission will bring significant breakthrough in the exploitation of space borne optical data. Sentinel-2 time series will transform land cover, agriculture, forestry, in-land water and costal EO applications from mapping to monitoring, from snapshot to time series data analysis, from image-based to pixel-based processing. The 5-days temporal revisiting of the Sentinel-2 satellites, when both units will be operated together, will usher us in a new era for time series analysis at high spatial resolutions (HR) of 10-20 meters. The monitoring of seasonal variations and processes in phenology and hydrology are examples of the many R&D areas to be studied. The mission's large swath and systematic acquisitions will further support unprecedented coverage at the national scale addressing information requirements of national to regional policies. Within ESA programs, such as the Data User Element (DUE), Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) and Climate Change Initiative (CCI), several R&D activities are preparing the exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission towards reliable measurements and monitoring of e.g. Essential Climate Variables and indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals. Early Sentinel-2 results will be presented related to a range of applications and scientific domains such as agricultural monitoring at national scale (DUE Sen2Agri), wetland extent and condition over African Ramsar sites (DUE GlobWetland-Africa), land cover mapping for climate change (CCI Land Cover), national land monitoring (Cadaster-Env), forest degradation (DUE ForMoSa), urban mapping (DUE EO4Urban), in-land water quality (DUE SPONGE), map of Mediterranean aquaculture (DUE SMART) and coral reef habitat mapping (SEOM S2-4Sci Coral). The above-mentioned activities are only a few examples from the very active international land imaging community building on the long-term Landsat and Spot heritage and knowledge.

  7. Exploitation of eukaryotic subcellular targeting mechanisms by bacterial effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stuart W; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-05-01

    Several bacterial species have evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. These effectors have the capacity to modulate host cell pathways in order to promote bacterial survival and replication. The spatial and temporal context in which the effectors exert their biochemical activities is crucial for their function. To fully understand effector function in the context of infection, we need to understand the mechanisms that lead to the precise subcellular localization of effectors following their delivery into host cells. Recent studies have shown that bacterial effectors exploit host cell machinery to accurately target their biochemical activities within the host cell.

  8. Exploiting sparsity in free energy basin-hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Cash, Kyle H.; Mantell, Rosemary G.; Wales, David J.

    2017-10-01

    We present acceleration of the vibrational frequency calculations required in free energy basin-hopping (FEBH) global optimisation using sparse Cholesky factorisation. We describe an interface with the SuiteSparse software package that facilitates these calculations, and present results detailing the accuracy and speedups obtained for atomic clusters and biomolecules. For the larger systems, exploiting sparsity reduces the computational cost by factors of ten to thirty, with no significant loss in accuracy. This approach will therefore provide access to the vibrational density of states, and hence to local harmonic free energies, for structure prediction and thermodynamic properties of more complex systems.

  9. Exploitation of natural resources and conflict in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Sandoval

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has increasingly been specializing in the extraction of mineral and energy resources such as gold, coal, oil and ferronickel. These activities, in the context of state weakness, have engendered conflicts of different dimensions. This paper proposes an indicator of conflict related to mineral exploitation that classifies five dimensions of conflict: social, economic, cultural, political and environmental. The aggregate indicator shows that murders, displacement of Afrodescendent populations, flooding, pollution, fires, infant mortality, coca crops and sexual offenses are highly and positively correlated with the number of conflicts.

  10. Research to longevity brake lines on the exploitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey TUJRIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brake lines are tested for strength and durability. However, tests of strength are short-term, but tests of durability are durable, since their aim is to assess the effectiveness of the brake linings during operation. Therefore, reduction of time evaluating the durability of brake linings exploitation is urgent. The article describes the results of the research on the longevity of the brake linings of different types of vehicles based on their controllable operation and the method of accelerated estimation of the longevity of brake linings based on the operation of their analogues

  11. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  12. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    is a convex combination of a mapped coarse model and a linearized fine model. It exploits, in a novel way, a linear frequency-sensitive mapping. During the optimization iterates, the coarse and fine models are simulated at different sets of frequencies. This approach is shown to be especially powerful......A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  13. Transformation of national economy and the problem of exploiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodzinský Vladimír

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The present course of transformation of our society has been influenced by the process of continuous clarifying the content and the methods of attaining the "ultimate goal". Some disunited views on the realization of the transformation process caused its ambiguous development, as documented by the absence of the state raw material and energy policy needed for designating today´s position of the Slovak mining. A typical example is the situation of enterprises exploiting Slovak brown coal. This paper deals with a possibility of solving this problem.

  14. Real-time video exploitation system for small UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ang; Zhang, Yueqiang; Dong, Jing; Xu, Yuhua; Zhu, Xianwei; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    The high portability of small Unmanned Aircraft Vehicles (UAVs) makes them play an important role in surveillance and reconnaissance tasks, so the military and civilian desires for UAVs are constantly growing. Recently, we have developed a real-time video exploitation system for our small UAV which is mainly used in forest patrol tasks. Our system consists of six key models, including image contrast enhancement, video stabilization, mosaicing, salient target indication, moving target indication, and display of the footprint and flight path on map. Extensive testing on the system has been implemented and the result shows our system performed well.

  15. VCSELs and silicon light sources exploiting SOI grating mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    grating works as a highly-reflective mirror as well as routes light into a Si in-plane output waveguide connected to the grating. In the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) version, there is no in-plane output waveguide connected to the grating. Thus, light is vertically emitted through...... the Bragg reflector. Numerical simulations show that both the silicon light source and the VCSEL exploiting SOI grating mirrors have superior performances, compared to existing silicon light sources and long wavelength VCSELs. These devices are highly adequate for chip-level optical interconnects as well...

  16. Operational Decision Aids for Exploiting or Mitigating Electromagnetic Propagation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    CORRECTION OF IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS FOR THE PRECISE ORBIT DETERMINATION OF SATELLITES by F.Foucher, R.Fleury and P.Lassudrie-Duchesne 33 THE USE OF...Eventually, three dimensional models will become reality. With TESS(3), we can more fully exploit a wide range of environmental satellites already on orbit ...dane las courbas d’iso-indice caracterise par un effondrement cur use trancha distance se situant entre 50 at 90 km par rapport A l’origina. La but des

  17. The Exploitation of the Electric Contributions in Infrared Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    thermoelectric-type behavior obeying the Seebeck effect : AV(t) = S*AT(t), where S is the Seebeck coefficient. We have yet to explain Atomic layer deposited...linearly vs. average power and with similar slopes, 0.008 mV/mW and 0.009 °C/mW, respectively. This behavior is consistent with the Seebeck effect , and...by exploiting the Seebeck effect [17]-[20], i.e. producing a voltage difference AV directly proportional to the temperature difference AT applied to

  18. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Heber; Cornelia Petroman; Ioan Petroman; Ioana Bălan; Diana Marin; Gabriela Ivaşcu; Călin Popovici

    2010-01-01

    Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight) is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementar...

  19. REG and GREAT, two networks to optimize Gaia scientific exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Spanish Participants in Reg; Great

    2013-05-01

    The launch of Gaia satellite by the European Space Agency is a year ahead (last quarter of 2013), and Spanish and European community have already out in place two networks devoted to the preparation of the scientific exploitation of the data acquired by the satellite: GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training), funded by the European Science Foundation and by Marie Curie Actions in its People 7th Programme, and REG (Spanish Network for the scientific exploitation of Gaia) funded by MINECO. These networks, which are open to the international community, have adopted the challenges of Gaia mission: to revolutionize our understanding of the Milky Way and its components, trace the distribution of dark matter in the local universe, validate and improve models of stellar structure and evolution, characterizing solar system objects, ... and many more. Both networks promote the close interaction among researchers of different institutes, by supporting short and long exchange visits, workshops, schools and large conferences. Currently, 128 Spanish people actively participate in the several working groups in GREAT and REG and 2 students are performing their PhD in the framework of the GREAT-ITN Spanish node. This paper provides detailed information about the structure of these networks, the Spanish participation, and present and future tasks that are foreseen.

  20. A case study of exploiting enterprise resource planning requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Nan; Jin, Mingzhou; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2011-05-01

    The requirements engineering (RE) processes have become a key to conceptualising corporate-wide integrated solutions based on packaged enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. The RE literature has mainly focused on procuring the most suitable ERP package. Little is known about how an organisation exploits the chosen ERP RE model to frame the business application development. This article reports an exploratory case study of a key tenet of ERP RE adoption, namely that aligning business applications to the packaged RE model leads to integral practices and economic development. The case study analysed a series interrelated pilot projects developed for a business division of a large IT manufacturing and service company, using Oracle's appl1ication implementation method (AIM). The study indicated that AIM RE improved team collaboration and project management experience, but needed to make hidden assumptions explicit to support data visibility and integrity. Our study can direct researchers towards rigorous empirical evaluations of ERP RE adoption, collect experiences and lessons learned for practitioners, and help generate more effective and mature processes when exploiting ERP RE methods.

  1. The environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsone, E.; Korjakins, A.; Sahmenko, G.; Sinka, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on the environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation. CO2 emissions are very important factor for describing durability and sustainability of any building material and its life cycle. The building sector is one of the largest energy-consuming sectors in the world. In this study CO2 emissions are evaluated with regard to three types of energy resources (gas, coal and eco-friendly fuel). The related savings on raw materials are up to 120 t of water per 1000 t of traditionally mixed foamed concrete and up to 350 t of sand per 1000 t of foamed concrete produced with intensive mixing technology. In addition, total reduction of CO2 emissions (up to 60 t per 1000 m3 of material) and total energy saving from introduction of foamed concrete production (depending on the type of fuel) were calculated. In order to analyze the conditions of exploitation, both thermal conductivity and thickness of wall was determined. All obtained and calculated results were compared to those of the commercially produced autoclaved aerated concrete.

  2. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J; Banks, Peter B

    2012-11-20

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background "noise" within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts.

  3. The exploration-exploitation dilemma: a multidisciplinary framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Berger-Tal

    Full Text Available The trade-off between the need to obtain new knowledge and the need to use that knowledge to improve performance is one of the most basic trade-offs in nature, and optimal performance usually requires some balance between exploratory and exploitative behaviors. Researchers in many disciplines have been searching for the optimal solution to this dilemma. Here we present a novel model in which the exploration strategy itself is dynamic and varies with time in order to optimize a definite goal, such as the acquisition of energy, money, or prestige. Our model produced four very distinct phases: Knowledge establishment, Knowledge accumulation, Knowledge maintenance, and Knowledge exploitation, giving rise to a multidisciplinary framework that applies equally to humans, animals, and organizations. The framework can be used to explain a multitude of phenomena in various disciplines, such as the movement of animals in novel landscapes, the most efficient resource allocation for a start-up company, or the effects of old age on knowledge acquisition in humans.

  4. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anupama; Shaulsky, Gad

    2010-02-26

    The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC), a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  5. Cheating by exploitation of developmental prestalk patterning in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Khare

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative developmental system of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is susceptible to exploitation by cheaters-strains that make more than their fair share of spores in chimerae. Laboratory screens in Dictyostelium have shown that the genetic potential for facultative cheating is high, and field surveys have shown that cheaters are abundant in nature, but the cheating mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we describe cheater C (chtC, a strong facultative cheater mutant that cheats by affecting prestalk differentiation. The chtC gene is developmentally regulated and its mRNA becomes stalk-enriched at the end of development. chtC mutants are defective in maintaining the prestalk cell fate as some of their prestalk cells transdifferentiate into prespore cells, but that defect does not affect gross developmental morphology or sporulation efficiency. In chimerae between wild-type and chtC mutant cells, the wild-type cells preferentially give rise to prestalk cells, and the chtC mutants increase their representation in the spore mass. Mixing chtC mutants with other cell-type proportioning mutants revealed that the cheating is directly related to the prestalk-differentiation propensity of the victim. These findings illustrate that a cheater can victimize cooperative strains by exploiting an established developmental pathway.

  6. Exploitation of Clustering Techniques in Transactional Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad Mahoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare service centres equipped with electronic health systems have improved their resources as well as treatment processes. The dynamic nature of healthcare data of each individual makes it complex and difficult for physicians to manually mediate them; therefore, automatic techniques are essential to manage the quality and standardization of treatment procedures. Exploratory data analysis, patternanalysis and grouping of data is managed using clustering techniques, which work as an unsupervised classification. A number of healthcare applications are developed that use several data mining techniques for classification, clustering and extracting useful information from healthcare data. The challenging issue in this domain is to select adequate data mining algorithm for optimal results. This paper exploits three different clustering algorithms: DBSCAN (Density-Based Clustering, agglomerative hierarchical and k-means in real transactional healthcare data of diabetic patients (taken as case study to analyse their performance in large and dispersed healthcare data. The best solution of cluster sets among the exploited algorithms is evaluated using clustering quality indexes and is selected to identify the possible subgroups of patients having similar treatment patterns

  7. Human trafficking for labour exploitation:
    Interpreting the crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E.B. Coster van Voorhout

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of human trafficking for labour exploitation, as follows from the European Council Framework Decision, proves to be unclear. Literal interpretation does not suffice, because it does not clarify all elements of what is deemed to be criminal behaviour, and hermeneutical interpretation also falls short discouraging the aim of this legislation, namely harmonisation. Hence, another solution is required. This article does so by firstly challenging assumptions about human trafficking for labour exploitation that are generally pertinent, but nonetheless untrue. This accurate appraisal of the crime’s nature is followed by a synopsis of national legislation and adjudication in three Member States, so as to also focus on these actualities regarding the crime that are commonly not conceived. This article examines two countries that have implemented the Framework Decision, namely Belgium and the Netherlands, and one that has not yet done so, the United Kingdom. Thereafter remaining unexplained elements of the Framework Decision’s definition are interpreted with use of international, pan-European and European legislation and adjudication. Based upon all this, a suggested interpretation of the Framework Decision’s definition is provided so as to overcome all identified difficulties with it.

  8. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeseung Jo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment.

  9. User-driven sampling strategies in image exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Neal; Porter, Reid

    2013-12-01

    Visual analytics and interactive machine learning both try to leverage the complementary strengths of humans and machines to solve complex data exploitation tasks. These fields overlap most significantly when training is involved: the visualization or machine learning tool improves over time by exploiting observations of the human-computer interaction. This paper focuses on one aspect of the human-computer interaction that we call user-driven sampling strategies. Unlike relevance feedback and active learning sampling strategies, where the computer selects which data to label at each iteration, we investigate situations where the user selects which data is to be labeled at each iteration. User-driven sampling strategies can emerge in many visual analytics applications but they have not been fully developed in machine learning. User-driven sampling strategies suggest new theoretical and practical research questions for both visualization science and machine learning. In this paper we identify and quantify the potential benefits of these strategies in a practical image analysis application. We find user-driven sampling strategies can sometimes provide significant performance gains by steering tools towards local minima that have lower error than tools trained with all of the data. In preliminary experiments we find these performance gains are particularly pronounced when the user is experienced with the tool and application domain.

  10. An automated data exploitation system for airborne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    Advanced wide area persistent surveillance (WAPS) sensor systems on manned or unmanned airborne vehicles are essential for wide-area urban security monitoring in order to protect our people and our warfighter from terrorist attacks. Currently, human (imagery) analysts process huge data collections from full motion video (FMV) for data exploitation and analysis (real-time and forensic), providing slow and inaccurate results. An Automated Data Exploitation System (ADES) is urgently needed. In this paper, we present a recently developed ADES for airborne vehicles under heavy urban background clutter conditions. This system includes four processes: (1) fast image registration, stabilization, and mosaicking; (2) advanced non-linear morphological moving target detection; (3) robust multiple target (vehicles, dismounts, and human) tracking (up to 100 target tracks); and (4) moving or static target/object recognition (super-resolution). Test results with real FMV data indicate that our ADES can reliably detect, track, and recognize multiple vehicles under heavy urban background clutters. Furthermore, our example shows that ADES as a baseline platform can provide capability for vehicle abnormal behavior detection to help imagery analysts quickly trace down potential threats and crimes.

  11. Noise-exploitation and adaptation in neuromorphic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindo, Thamira; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2012-04-01

    Even though current micro-nano fabrication technology has reached integration levels where ultra-sensitive sensors can be fabricated, the sensing performance (resolution per joule) of synthetic systems are still orders of magnitude inferior to those observed in neurobiology. For example, the filiform hairs in crickets operate at fundamental limits of noise; auditory sensors in a parasitoid fly can overcome fundamental limitations to precisely localize ultra-faint acoustic signatures. Even though many of these biological marvels have served as inspiration for different types of neuromorphic sensors, the main focus these designs have been to faithfully replicate the biological functionalities, without considering the constructive role of "noise". In man-made sensors device and sensor noise are typically considered as a nuisance, where as in neurobiology "noise" has been shown to be a computational aid that enables biology to sense and operate at fundamental limits of energy efficiency and performance. In this paper, we describe some of the important noise-exploitation and adaptation principles observed in neurobiology and how they can be systematically used for designing neuromorphic sensors. Our focus will be on two types of noise-exploitation principles, namely, (a) stochastic resonance; and (b) noise-shaping, which are unified within our previously reported framework called Σ▵ learning. As a case-study, we describe the application of Σ▵ learning for the design of a miniature acoustic source localizer whose performance matches that of its biological counterpart(Ormia Ochracea).

  12. Exploiting GPUs in Virtual Machine for BioCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heeseung; Jeong, Jinkyu; Lee, Myoungho; Choi, Dong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, biological applications start to be reimplemented into the applications which exploit many cores of GPUs for better computation performance. Therefore, by providing virtualized GPUs to VMs in cloud computing environment, many biological applications will willingly move into cloud environment to enhance their computation performance and utilize infinite cloud computing resource while reducing expenses for computations. In this paper, we propose a BioCloud system architecture that enables VMs to use GPUs in cloud environment. Because much of the previous research has focused on the sharing mechanism of GPUs among VMs, they cannot achieve enough performance for biological applications of which computation throughput is more crucial rather than sharing. The proposed system exploits the pass-through mode of PCI express (PCI-E) channel. By making each VM be able to access underlying GPUs directly, applications can show almost the same performance as when those are in native environment. In addition, our scheme multiplexes GPUs by using hot plug-in/out device features of PCI-E channel. By adding or removing GPUs in each VM in on-demand manner, VMs in the same physical host can time-share their GPUs. We implemented the proposed system using the Xen VMM and NVIDIA GPUs and showed that our prototype is highly effective for biological GPU applications in cloud environment. PMID:23710465

  13. Salmonella Typhimurium exploits inflammation to its own advantage in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eChirullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is responsible for foodborne zoonotic infections that, in humans, induce self-limiting gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the wild-type strain S. Typhimurium (STM14028 is able to exploit inflammation fostering an active infection.Due to the similarity between human and porcine diseases induced by S. Typhimurium, we used piglets as a model for salmonellosis and gastrointestinal research. This study showed that STM14028 is able to efficiently colonize in vitro porcine mono-macrophages and intestinal columnar epithelial (IPEC-J2 cells, and that the colonization significantly increases with LPS pre-treatment. This increase was then reversed by inhibiting the LPS stimulation through LPS antagonist, confirming an active role of LPS stimulation in the STM14028-intracellular colonization. Moreover, LPS in vivo treatment induces increased cytokines blood level and body temperature at 4 hours post infection, which is consistent with an acute inflammatory stimulus, capable to influence the colonization of STM14028 in different organs and tissues. The present study proves for the first time that in acute enteric salmonellosis, S.Typhimurium exploits inflammation for its benefit in piglets.

  14. Exploiting olfactory learning in alien rats to protect birds’ eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Predators must ignore unhelpful background “noise” within information-rich environments and focus on useful cues of prey activity to forage efficiently. Learning to disregard unrewarding cues should happen quickly, weakening future interest in the cue. Prey odor, which is rapidly investigated by predators, may be particularly appropriate for testing whether consistently unrewarded cues are ignored, and whether such behavior can be exploited to benefit prey. Using wild free-ranging populations of black rats, Rattus rattus, an alien predator of global concern, we tested whether the application of bird-nesting odors before the introduction of artificial nests (odor preexposure), enhanced the survival of birds eggs (prey) compared with areas where prey and nesting odors were introduced concurrently. In areas where predators had encountered prey odor before prey being available, the subsequently introduced eggs showed 62% greater survival than in areas where prey and odor were introduced together. We suggest that black rats preexposed to prey odor learned to ignore the unrewarding cue, leading to a significant improvement in prey survival that held for the 7-d monitoring period. Exploiting rapid learning that underpins foraging decisions by manipulating sensory contexts offers a nonlethal, but effective approach to reducing undesirable predatory impacts. Techniques based on olfactory preexposure may provide prey with protection during critical periods of vulnerability, such as immediately following a prey reintroduction. These results also highlight the potential benefits to species conservation to be gained from a greater understanding of the cognitive mechanisms driving alien predator behavior within ecological contexts. PMID:23071301

  15. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  16. Gas exploitation and gas conversion; Gassutnyttelse og gasskonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laading, Gjert

    1998-07-01

    This presentation deals with some of the challenges and possibilities connected with ''stranded'' gas. These are offshore gas reserves, especially associated gas, that is not connected with the market and that cannot be piped onshore, and where reinjection is not profitable, and where flaring off is not an option. There is increasing interest all over the world to find economical and environmentally friendly solutions to this problem. A good solution will render such fields economically developable and will to a high degree increase the total volume of the world's exploitable gas reserves. Since synthesis gas is a dominating cost element in most chemical conversion processes for gas, the synthesis gases are discussed in some detail. There is also a discussion of the conversion of the gas to Methanol, Synthetic oil (Syncrude and Synfuels) and to DME (Di-methyl-ether). Two methods for gas transport from the field are discussed; LNG on floating production storage and off loading (FPSO), and Gas hydrates. Principles, limitations and conditions for placing those processes on a FPSO. Finally, the presentation discusses the most important economic factors related to the exploitation of offshore gas, and suggests some possibilities for future development.11 figs.

  17. Exploiting first-class arrays in Fortran for accelerator programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Craig E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weseloh, Wayne N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robey, Robert W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matthew, Sottile J [GALORIS, INC.; Quinlan, Daniel [LLNL; Overbye, Jeffrey [INDIANA UNIV.

    2010-12-15

    Emerging architectures for high performance computing often are well suited to a data parallel programming model. This paper presents a simple programming methodology based on existing languages and compiler tools that allows programmers to take advantage of these systems. We will work with the array features of Fortran 90 to show how this infrequently exploited, standardized language feature is easily transformed to lower level accelerator code. Our transformations are based on a mapping from Fortran 90 to C++ code with OpenCL extensions. The sheer complexity of programming for clusters of many or multi-core processors with tens of millions threads of execution make the simplicity of the data parallel model attractive. Furthermore, the increasing complexity of todays applications (especially when convolved with the increasing complexity of the hardware) and the need for portability across hardware architectures make a higher-level and simpler programming model like data parallel attractive. The goal of this work has been to exploit source-to-source transformations that allow programmers to develop and maintain programs at a high-level of abstraction, without coding to a specific hardware architecture. Furthermore these transformations allow multiple hardware architectures to be targeted without changing the high-level source. It also removes the necessity for application programmers to understand details of the accelerator architecture or to know OpenCL.

  18. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  19. A Case Study of How Organisational Members do Affect the Balancing of Exploitation and Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads R.

    2008-01-01

    study using semi-structured interviews and observation techniques this paper explores exploitation and exploration in a Danish industrial manufacture. Findings suggest that conditions affecting the balance between exploitation and exploration activities would depend on how an organisational member...

  20. 25 CFR 20.516 - How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and the...

  1. 75 FR 40838 - Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation AGENCY... Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under section 2021, Subtitle H--Elder... establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as directed by section 2022...

  2. The community structure of a tropical intertidal mudflat under human exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of human exploitation on the community structure of intertidal mudflats was investigated in an exploited and unexploited control area at Inhaca Island, Mozambique. An increase in the species richness in the exploited area, as expected by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, was not

  3. Sentinel-2 data exploitation with ESA's Sentinel-2 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Ferran; Ramoino, Fabrizzio; deanos, Yves-louis

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-2 Toolbox is a project kicked off by ESA in early 2014, under the umbrella of the ESA SEOM programme with the aim to provide a tool for visualizing, analysing, and processing the Sentinel-2 datasets. The toolbox is an extension of the SeNtinel Application Platform (SNAP), a project resulting from the effort of the developers of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 toolbox to provide a single common application framework suited for the mixed exploitation of SAR, high resolution optical and medium resolution optical datasets. All three development teams collaborate to drive the evolution of the common SNAP framework in a developer forum. In this triplet, the Sentinel-2 toolbox is dedicated to enhance SNAP support for high resolution optical imagery. It is a multi-mission toolbox, already providing support for Sentinel-2, RapidEye, Deimos, SPOT 1 to SPOT 5 datasets. In terms of processing algorithms, SNAP provides tools specific to the Sentinel-2 mission : • An atmospheric correction module, Sen2Cor, is integrated into the toolbox, and provides scene classification, atmospheric correction, cirrus detection and correction. The output L2A products can be opened seamlessly in the toolbox. • A multitemporal synthesis processor (L3) • A biophysical products processor (L2B) • A water processor • A deforestation detector • OTB tools integration • SNAP Engine for Cloud Exploitation along with a set of more generic tools for high resolution optical data exploitation. Together with the generic functionalities of SNAP this provides an ideal environment for designing multi-missions processing chains and producing value-added products from raw datasets. The use of SNAP is manifold and the desktop tools provides a rich application for interactive visualization, analysis and processing of data. But all tools available from SNAP can be accessed via command-line through the Graph Processing Framework (GPT), the kernel of the SNAP processing engine. This

  4. Exploiting ten years of MERIS data over Land Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobron, Nadine

    2012-07-01

    Envisat's Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) acquires multi-spectral imagery of the Earth in the optical domain over terrestrial surfaces since a decade at global scale. Characteristics of the instrument will be first summarized and then several achievements for terrestrial applications will be presented as scientists have used data or products for characterizing the state of the global system and its variability. The ESA- GlobCover which has developed a service capable of delivering land cover maps on the basis of 300m spectral reflectance measurements will be summarized (Bicheron et al, 2008; Arino et al, 2010). We will highlight recent research results for continental land cover mapping over South America using MERIS data from 2009 and 2010 (Hojas Gascon et al, 2012). The objective and originality of this work was to generate a new land cover using selected MERIS data instead of all available images and supplementary information from associated Level-2 product, i.e. FAPAR, provided at a reduced resolution of 1 km. As the actual two level-2 products provided by ESA correspond to geophysical products such as the FAPAR (Fraction of Synthetically Active Radiation) and the MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index (MTCI). With this latter, phenology studies as this product is sensitive to canopy chlorophyll content, a vegetation property that is a useful proxy for the canopy physical and chemical alterations associated with phenological change. (Dash and Curran, 2004; Boyd et al, 2011). For exploiting the use of the MGVI, ESA-Joint Research Center (JRC) FAPAR project has been created for producing time-series of geophysical products and will be summarized (Gobron et al, 2006, 2010; Fusco et al, 2003). It uses through various examples such as assessing drought at regional scale (Rossi etl a, 2010) or monitoring the state and changes of land surfaces global scale (Gobron et al, 2012). As the FAPAR value constitutes a state variable in advanced Earth system models

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation: Guest Editor’s Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most unnerving aspects of child sexual abuse is that it is constantly manifesting in unexpected ways. The current Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has collected testimony of abuse in churches, schools, out-of-home care, hospitals and religious communities, demonstrating the breadth of institutional arrangements whose structures and cultures have facilitated child sexual abuse. Cases of serious and prolonged sexual abuse in family contexts have been excluded from the terms of reference of the Royal Commission but nonetheless continue to surface in media reports. In 2013, twelve children were permanently removed from an extended family living in rural NSW in what has been described as one of the worst cases of child abuse in Australia, involving intergenerational incest going back at least three generations (Auebach 2014. Another recent high-profile case involved the use of the Internet to facilitate the sexual exploitation of an adopted child by his parents in Queensland (Ralston 2013. These cases challenge the received wisdom that child sexual abuse is characterised by the victimisation of one child by one opportunistic offender. Such incidents suggest instead that child sexual abuse takes varied and systemic forms, and can operate to perpetuate and entrench toxic cultures and power structures.   This special issue on Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation is a timely contribution to ongoing efforts to understand the multiplicity of child sexual abuse. It is an interdisciplinary collection of insights drawn from criminology, sociology, psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis, and includes papers from academic researchers alongside academic practitioners whose writing is grounded in their work with affected individuals and communities. A key aim of the special issue is to contextualise the diversity of child sexual abuse socially, politically and historically, recognising the dynamic and iterative

  6. Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks - SHEER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Cesca, Simone; Gunning, Andrew; jaroslawsky, Janusz; Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Westwood, Rachel; Gasparini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas operations may affect the quality of air, water and landscapes; furthermore, it can induce seismic activity, with the possible impacts on the surrounding infrastructure. The SHEER project aims at setting up a probabilistic methodology to assess and mitigate the short and the long term environmental risks connected to the exploration and exploitation of shale gas. In particular we are investigating risks associated with groundwater contamination, air pollution and induced seismicity. A shale gas test site located in Poland (Wysin) has been monitored before, during and after the fracking operations with the aim of assessing environmental risks connected with groundwater contamination, air pollution and earthquakes induced by fracking and injection of waste water. The severity of each of these hazards depends strongly on the unexpected enhanced permeability pattern, which may develop as an unwanted by-product of the fracking processes and may become pathway for gas and fluid migration towards underground water reservoirs or the surface. The project is devoted to monitor and understand how far this enhanced permeability pattern develops both in space and time. The considered hazards may be at least partially inter-related as they all depend on this enhanced permeability pattern. Therefore they are being approached from a multi-hazard, multi parameter perspective. We expect to develop methodologies and procedures to track and model fracture evolution around shale gas exploitation sites and a robust statistically based, multi-parameter methodology to assess environmental impacts and risks across the operational lifecycle of shale gas. The developed methodologies are going to be applied and tested on a comprehensive database consisting of seismicity, changes of the quality of ground-waters and air, ground deformations, and operational data collected from the ongoing monitoring episode (Wysin) and past episodes: Lubocino (Poland), Preese Hall (UK), Oklahoma (USA

  7. Exploiting the therapeutic potential of leptin signaling in cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Robert H; Cheung, Wai W; Gertler, Arieh

    2014-12-01

    The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a complication of many chronic conditions including cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Leptin levels are significantly elevated in CKD patients and are associated with markers of poor nutritional status as well as mortality and morbidity. This review will focus on the mechanism and exploit the therapeutic potential of leptin signaling in CKD-associated cachexia. Studies in db/db mice show that the lack of leptin receptor is protective against CKD-induced cachexia. Blockade of leptin's downstream mediators, such as melanocortin-4 receptor, attenuated CKD-associated cachexia. Pegylation of leptin antagonists resulted in a potent and effective long-acting reagents suitable for in-vivo studies or therapies. Pegylated leptin antagonist treatment ameliorates CKD-associated cachexia in mice. Leptin antagonism may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for cachexia in CKD.

  8. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Plagens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries.

  9. Television production, Funding Models and Exploitation of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Doyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise of digital platforms has transformative implications for strategies of financing media production and for exploitation of the economic value in creative content. In the television industry, changes in technologies for distribution and the emergence of SVOD services such as Netflix are gradually shifting audiences and financial power away from broadcasters while at the same time creating unprecedented opportunities for programme-makers.  Drawing on findings from recent RCUK-funded research, this article examines how these shifts are affecting production financing and the economics of supplying television content.  In particular, it focuses on how changes in the dynamics of rights markets and in strategic approaches towards the financing of television production might mean for markets, industries and for policies intended to support the economic sustainability of independent television content production businesses.

  10. Exploiting large-scale correlations to detect continuous gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Holger J; Allen, Bruce

    2009-10-30

    Fully coherent searches (over realistic ranges of parameter space and year-long observation times) for unknown sources of continuous gravitational waves are computationally prohibitive. Less expensive hierarchical searches divide the data into shorter segments which are analyzed coherently, then detection statistics from different segments are combined incoherently. The novel method presented here solves the long-standing problem of how best to do the incoherent combination. The optimal solution exploits large-scale parameter-space correlations in the coherent detection statistic. Application to simulated data shows dramatic sensitivity improvements compared with previously available (ad hoc) methods, increasing the spatial volume probed by more than 2 orders of magnitude at lower computational cost.

  11. ANALYSIS OF ANDROID VULNERABILITIES AND MODERN EXPLOITATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Shewale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is the most widely used and popular operating system among Smartphones and portable devices. Its programmable and open nature attracts attackers to take undue advantage. Android platform allows developers to freely access and modify source code. But at the same time it increases the security issue. A user is likely to download and install malicious applications written by software hackers. This paper focuses on understanding and analyzing the vulnerabilities present in android platform. In this paper firstly we study the android architecture; analyze the existing threats and security weaknesses. Then we identify various exploit mitigation techniques to mitigate known vulnerabilities. A detailed analysis will help us to identify the existing loopholes and it will give strategic direction to make android operating system more secure.

  12. Selfrando: Securing the Tor Browser against De-anonymization Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is a well-known anonymous communication system used by millions of users, including journalists and civil rights activists all over the world. The Tor Browser gives non-technical users an easy way to access the Tor Network. However, many government organizations are actively trying to compromise Tor not only in regions with repressive regimes but also in the free world, as the recent FBI incidents clearly demonstrate. Exploiting software vulnerabilities in general, and browser vulnerabilities in particular, constitutes a clear and present threat to the Tor software. The Tor Browser shares a large part of its attack surface with the Firefox browser. Therefore, Firefox vulnerabilities (even patched ones are highly valuable to attackers trying to monitor users of the Tor Browser.

  13. Exploiting mitochondria as targets for the development of new antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Calderone, Richard

    2017-02-17

    Mitochondria are essential for cell growth and survival of most fungal pathogens. Energy (ATP) produced during oxidation/reduction reactions of the electron transport chain (ETC) Complexes I, III and IV (CI, CIII, CIV) fuel cell synthesis. The mitochondria of fungal pathogens are understudied even though more recent published data suggest critical functional assignments to fungal-specific proteins. Proteins of mammalian mitochondria are grouped into 16 functional categories. In this review, we focus upon 11 proteins from 5 of these categories in fungal pathogens, OXPHOS, protein import, stress response, carbon source metabolism, and fission/fusion morphology. As these proteins also are fungal-specific, we hypothesize that they may be exploited as targets in antifungal drug discovery. We also discuss published transcriptional profiling data of mitochondrial CI subunit protein mutants, in which we advance a novel concept those CI subunit proteins have both shared as well as specific responsibilities for providing ATP to cell processes.

  14. Remotely Exploiting AT Command Attacks on ZigBee Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vaccari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things networks represent an emerging phenomenon bringing connectivity to common sensors. Due to the limited capabilities and to the sensitive nature of the devices, security assumes a crucial and primary role. In this paper, we report an innovative and extremely dangerous threat targeting IoT networks. The attack is based on Remote AT Commands exploitation, providing a malicious user with the possibility of reconfiguring or disconnecting IoT sensors from the network. We present the proposed attack and evaluate its efficiency by executing tests on a real IoT network. Results demonstrate how the threat can be successfully executed and how it is able to focus on the targeted nodes, without affecting other nodes of the network.

  15. Exploiting open data: a new era in pharmacoinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Daria; Montanari, Floriane; Richter, Lars; Zdrazil, Barbara; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-04-01

    Within the last decade open data concepts has been gaining increasing interest in the area of drug discovery. With the launch of ChEMBL and PubChem, an enormous amount of bioactivity data was made easily accessible to the public domain. In addition, platforms that semantically integrate those data, such as the Open PHACTS Discovery Platform, permit querying across different domains of open life science data beyond the concept of ligand-target-pharmacology. However, most public databases are compiled from literature sources and are thus heterogeneous in their coverage. In addition, assay descriptions are not uniform and most often lack relevant information in the primary literature and, consequently, in databases. This raises the question how useful large public data sources are for deriving computational models. In this perspective, we highlight selected open-source initiatives and outline the possibilities and also the limitations when exploiting this huge amount of bioactivity data.

  16. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Simultaneously Exploiting Two Formulations: an Exact Benders Decomposition Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Gamst, Mette; Spoorendonk, Simon

    . Furthermore, it proves the correctness of the procedure and considers how to include interesting extensions such as cutting planes and advanced branching strategies. Finally, we test and compare the performance of the proposed approach on publicly available instances of the Bin Packing problem. Compared......When modelling a given problem using linear programming techniques several possibilities often exist, and each results in a different mathematical formulation of the problem. Usually, advantages and disadvantages can be identified in any single formulation. In this paper we consider mixed integer...... linear programs and propose an approach based on Benders decomposition to exploit the advantages of two different formulations when solving a problem. We propose to apply Benders decomposition to a combined formulation,comprised of two separate formulations, augmented with linking constraints to ensure...

  18. Exploiting nonlinearities of micro-machined resonators for filtering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-21

    We demonstrate the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of two electrically coupled microbeam resonators to realize a band-pass filter. More specifically, we combine their nonlinear hardening and softening responses to realize a near flat pass band filter with sharp roll-off characteristics. The device is composed of two near identical doubly clamped and electrostatically actuated microbeams made of silicon. One of the resonators is buckled via thermal loading to produce a softening frequency response. It is then further tuned to create the desired overlap with the second resonator response of hardening behavior. This overlapping improves the pass band flatness. Also, the sudden jumps due to the softening and hardening behaviors create sharp roll-off characteristics. This approach can be promising for the future generation of filters with superior characteristics.

  19. Exploiting Motion Capture to Enhance Avoidance Behaviour in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Basten, Ben J. H.; Jansen, Sander E. M.; Karamouzas, Ioannis

    Realistic simulation of interacting virtual characters is essential in computer games, training and simulation applications. The problem is very challenging since people are accustomed to real-world situations and thus, they can easily detect inconsistencies and artifacts in the simulations. Over the past twenty years several models have been proposed for simulating individuals, groups and crowds of characters. However, little effort has been made to actually understand how humans solve interactions and avoid inter-collisions in real-life. In this paper, we exploit motion capture data to gain more insights into human-human interactions. We propose four measures to describe the collision-avoidance behavior. Based on these measures, we extract simple rules that can be applied on top of existing agent and force based approaches, increasing the realism of the resulting simulations.

  20. Exploiting tumor shrinkage through temporal optimization of radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Unkelbach, Jan; Hong, Theodore; Papp, David; Ramakrishnan, Jagdish; Salari, Ehsan; Wolfgang, John; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In multi-stage radiotherapy, a patient is treated in several stages separated by weeks or months. This regimen has been motivated mostly by radiobiological considerations, but also provides an approach to reduce normal tissue dose by exploiting tumor shrinkage. The paper considers the optimal design of multi-stage treatments, motivated by the clinical management of large liver tumors for which normal liver dose constraints prohibit the administration of an ablative radiation dose in a single treatment. We introduce a dynamic tumor model that incorporates three factors: radiation induced cell kill, tumor shrinkage, and tumor cell repopulation. The design of multi-stage radiotherapy is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem in which the total dose to the liver is minimized, subject to delivering the prescribed dose to the tumor. Based on the model, we gain insight into the optimal administration of radiation over time, i.e. the optimal treatment gaps and dose levels. We analyze treatments consisting ...

  1. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    and implementation of AIMM. The first part concerns the missing links and gaps for bringing AIMM from research to industry. A general AIMM manufacturing concept has been formulated, AIMM prototypes have been developed and laboratory experiments have been conducted. From this, we have joined forces with Grundfos A......This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...... system, and it is unacceptable to have a dedicated AIMM system for each task. By utilizing modules, it is possible to (re)configure the system to a specific set of manufacturing needs. To realize this, the AIMM technology has been treated as a Mass Customization product. From this, industrially suited...

  2. Schistosoma mansoni cercariae exploit an elastohydrodynamic coupling to swim efficiently

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnamurthy, Deepak; Bhargava, Arjun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    The motility of many parasites is critical for the infection process of their host, as exemplified by the transmission cycle of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. In their human infectious stage, immature, submillimetre-scale forms of the parasite known as cercariae swim in freshwater and infect humans by penetrating through the skin. This infection causes Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that is comparable to malaria in its global socio-economic impact. Given that cercariae do not feed and hence have a finite lifetime of around 12 hours, efficient motility is crucial for the parasite's survival and transmission of Schistosomiasis. However, a first-principles understanding of how cercariae swim is lacking. Via a combined experimental, theoretical and robotics based approach, we demonstrate that cercariae propel themselves against gravity by exploiting a unique elastohydrodynamic coupling. We show that cercariae beat their tail in a periodic fashion while maintaining a fixed flexibility near their poster...

  3. Exploiting Channel Correlations - Simple Interference Alignment Schemes with no CSIT

    CERN Document Server

    Jafar, Syed A

    2009-01-01

    We explore 5 network communication problems where the possibility of interference alignment, and consequently the total number of degrees of freedom (DoF) with channel uncertainty at the transmitters are unknown. These problems share the common property that in each case the best known outer bounds are essentially robust to channel uncertainty and represent the outcome with interference alignment, but the best inner bounds -- in some cases conjectured to be optimal -- predict a total collapse of DoF, thus indicating the infeasibility of interference alignment under channel uncertainty at transmitters. Our main contribution is to show that even with no knowledge of channel coefficient values at the transmitters, the knowledge of the channels' correlation structure can be exploited to achieve interference alignment. In each case, we show that under a staggered block fading model, the transmitters are able to align interference without the knowledge of channel coefficient values. The alignment schemes are based ...

  4. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  5. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...... and implementation of AIMM. The first part concerns the missing links and gaps for bringing AIMM from research to industry. A general AIMM manufacturing concept has been formulated, AIMM prototypes have been developed and laboratory experiments have been conducted. From this, we have joined forces with Grundfos A....../S, where full-scale industrial AIMM demonstrations in terms of automatic multiple part feeding have been successfully realized. The second part concerns the development of modular and (re)configurable AIMM systems. At present, it is technically and/or economically unfeasible to create a hyper flexible AIMM...

  6. Exploitation and Benefits of BIM in Construction Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, Peter; Mandičák, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    BIM is increasingly getting into the awareness in construction industry. BIM is the process of creating and data managing of the building during its life cycle. BIM became a part of management tools in modern construction companies. Construction projects have a number of participants. It means difficulty process of construction project management and a serious requirement for processing the huge amount of information including design, construction, time and cost parameters, economic efficiency and sustainability. Progressive information and communication technologies support cost management and management of construction project. One of them is Building Information Modelling. Aim of the paper is to examine the impact of BIM exploitation and benefits on construction project management in Slovak companies.

  7. Exploiting existing software in libraries : successes, failures, and reasons why.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, W.

    1999-01-13

    The PETSc (Portable Extensible Tools for Scientific computing) library arose from research into domain decomposition methods which require combining many different solutions in a single application. The initial efforts tried to use existing numerical software but had limited success. The problems include everything from faulty assumptions about the computing environment (e.g., how many processes there are) to implicit (yet deadly) global state. More recently, PETSC and PVODE have found a way to cooperate, and new techniques that exploit dynamically linked libraries offer a more general approach to interoperable components. The paper highlights some of the issues in building sharable component software and discussing mistakes still often made in designing, maintaining, documenting, and testing components.

  8. Exploiting peer group concept for adaptive and highly available services

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, M A; Fraz, M M; Ali, A; Ali, Arshad; Fraz, Mohammad Moazam; Jan, Muhammad Asif; Zahid, Fahd Ali

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype for redundant, highly available and fault tolerant peer to peer framework for data management. Peer to peer computing is gaining importance due to its flexible organization, lack of central authority, distribution of functionality to participating nodes and ability to utilize unused computational resources. Emergence of GRID computing has provided much needed infrastructure and administrative domain for peer to peer computing. The components of this framework exploit peer group concept to scope service and information search, arrange services and information in a coherent manner, provide selective redundancy and ensure availability in face of failure and high load conditions. A prototype system has been implemented using JXTA peer to peer technology and XML is used for service description and interfaces, allowing peers to communicate with services implemented in various platforms including web services and JINI services. It utilizes code mobility to achieve role interchange amo...

  9. Exploiting Receptor Competition to Enhance Nanoparticle Binding Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles functionalized with multiple ligands can be programed to bind biological targets depending on the receptors they express, providing a general mechanism exploited in various technologies, from selective drug delivery to biosensing. For binding to be highly selective, ligands should exclusively interact with specific targeted receptors, because the formation of bonds with other, untargeted ones would lead to nonspecific binding and potentially harmful behavior. This poses a particular problem for multivalent nanoparticles, because even very weak bonds can collectively lead to strong binding. A statistical mechanical model is used here to describe how competition between different receptors together with multivalent effects can be harnessed to design ligand-functionalized nanoparticles insensitive to the presence of untargeted receptors, preventing nonspecific binding.

  10. Exploiting CRISPR/Cas: Interference Mechanisms and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Hagen; Randau, Lennart; Plagens, André

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of biological concepts can often provide a framework for the development of novel molecular tools, which can help us to further understand and manipulate life. One recent example is the elucidation of the prokaryotic adaptive immune system, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) that protects bacteria and archaea against viruses or conjugative plasmids. The immunity is based on small RNA molecules that are incorporated into versatile multi-domain proteins or protein complexes and specifically target viral nucleic acids via base complementarity. CRISPR/Cas interference machines are utilized to develop novel genome editing tools for different organisms. Here, we will review the latest progress in the elucidation and application of prokaryotic CRISPR/Cas systems and discuss possible future approaches to exploit the potential of these interference machineries. PMID:23857052

  11. Exploiting the Undesired: Beam-Gas Interactions in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Baglin, V; Mereghetti, A

    2012-01-01

    The vacuum inside the LHC pipes has a key role in correct operation of the accelerator. The interaction of the beam with residual gas in the pipes can lead to the loss of the beam itself and damage accelerator components. Nevertheless, beam-gas interactions can be exploited to indirectly measure the gas pressure inside the beam pipe, detecting the secondaries produced. The showers generated are detected by Beam Loss Monitors, whose signals depend on the gas pressure. This technique would also allow to punctually measure the gas pressure in sections of the accelerator where vacuum gauges are not frequent, such as the arcs. The problem has been addressed by means of FLUKA simulations and the results have been benchmarked with direct measurements performed in the LHC in 2011.

  12. GOCE and Future Gravity Missions for Geothermal Energy Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorutti, Alberto; Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Mariani, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal energy is a valuable renewable energy source the exploitation of which contributes to the worldwide reduction of consumption of fossil fuels oil and gas. The exploitation of geothermal energy is facilitated where the thermal gradient is higher than average leading to increased surface heat flow. Apart from the hydrologic circulation properties which depend on rock fractures and are important due to the heat transportation from the hotter layers to the surface, essential properties that increase the thermal gradient are crustal thinning and radiogenic heat producing rocks. Crustal thickness and rock composition form the link to the exploration with the satellite derived gravity field, because both induce subsurface mass changes that generate observable gravity anomalies. The recognition of gravity as a useful investigation tool for geothermal energy lead to a cooperation with ESA and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that included the GOCE derived gravity field in the online geothermal energy investigation tool of the IRENA database. The relation between the gravity field products as the free air gravity anomaly, the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies and the heat flow values is though not straightforward and has not a unique relationship. It is complicated by the fact that it depends on the geodynamical context, on the geologic context and the age of the crustal rocks. Globally the geological context and geodynamical history of an area is known close to everywhere, so that a specific known relationship between gravity and geothermal potential can be applied. In this study we show the results of a systematic analysis of the problem, including some simulations of the key factors. The study relies on the data of GOCE and the resolution and accuracy of this satellite. We also give conclusions on the improved exploration power of a gravity mission with higher spatial resolution and reduced data error, as could be achieved in principle by flying

  13. Automated motion imagery exploitation for surveillance and reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Stephen; Laliberte, France; Kotamraju, Vinay; Dutkiewicz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for many military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning and others, such as post-operation analysis / damage assessment. Motion imagery gathered from both manned and unmanned platforms provides surveillance and reconnaissance information that can be used for pre- and post-operation analysis, but these sensors can gather large amounts of video data. It is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyse hours of collected data without the aid of automated tools. At MDA Systems Ltd. (MDA), we have previously developed a suite of automated video exploitation tools that can process airborne video, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, within a GIS framework. The mosaicking tool produces a geo-referenced 2D map from the sequence of video frames. The change detection tool identifies differences between two repeat-pass videos taken of the same terrain. The 3D reconstruction tool creates calibrated geo-referenced photo-realistic 3D models. The key objectives of the on-going project are to improve the robustness, accuracy and speed of these tools, and make them more user-friendly to operational users. Robustness and accuracy are essential to provide actionable intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance information. Speed is important to reduce operator time on data analysis. We are porting some processor-intensive algorithms to run on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in order to improve throughput. Many aspects of video processing are highly parallel and well-suited for optimization on GPUs, which are now commonly available on computers. Moreover, we are extending the tools to handle video data from various airborne platforms and developing the interface to the Coalition Shared Database (CSD). The CSD server enables the dissemination and storage of data from different sensors among NATO countries. The CSD interface allows

  14. Nontrilocality: Exploiting nonlocality from three-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Sarkar, Debasis

    2017-08-01

    Branciard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170401] first characterized the correlations arising in an entanglement swapping network under the assumption that the sources generating the initially uncorrelated quantum systems are independent. Precisely speaking, Branciard et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 170401 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.170401 and later in Phys. Rev. A 85, 032119 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.032119] analyzed the importance of bilocal (source independence) assumption to lower the restrictions over correlations for revealing quantumness in the network where each of two sources generates a bipartite entangled state. In this context, one may find interest to characterize correlations in a network involving independent sources which can correlate more than two initially uncorrelated multipartite entangled quantum systems. Our present topic of discussion basically analyzes such a network scenario. Specifically, we introduce a trilocal network scenario where each of three sources independently generates a tripartite entangled quantum system, thereby exploring the role of source independence assumption to exploit nonlocality in a network involving multipartite entanglement analogous to bilocal assumption in a network where only bipartite entanglement was considered. Interestingly, genuine entanglement content did not turn out to be an essential requirement for exploiting nonlocality in such a scenario. Moreover, it is interesting to explore whether such a scenario can be generalized so as to characterize correlations arising in a network involving n number of n -partite systems for any finite value of n ≥4 under source independence assumption.

  15. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  16. Making and exploiting fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaccio, Massimo; Paolucci, Francesco (eds.) [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2014-11-01

    This volume contains nine chapters which are presenting critical reviews of the present and future trends in modern chemistry research. The chapter ''Solubilization of Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene'' by Alain Penicaud describes the various ingenious approaches to solve the solubility issue and describes in particular how graphite, and modern nanocarbons, can be made soluble by reductive dissolution. A large part of the present volume concerns the merging of nanocarbons with nanotechnology and their impact on technical development in many areas. Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene find, for instance, various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. The chapter ''Incorporation of Balls, Tubes and Bowls in Nanotechnology'' by James Mack describes the recent development of the area of fullerene fragments, and corannulene in particular, and their direct applications to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, while, in the chapter ''Exploiting Nanocarbons in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells'' by Ladislav Kavan, the exploitation of nanocarbons in the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability and costs is thoroughly reviewed. The functionalization of CNSs has the invaluable advantage of combining their unique properties with those of other classes of materials. Supramolecular chemistry represents an elegant alternative approach for the construction of functional systems by means of noncovalent bonding interactions. In the chapter ''Supramolecular Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes'' by Gildas Gavrel et al., the incredibly varied world of supramolecular, non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes and their applications is examined and reviewed, and the synthetic strategies devised for fabricating mechanically-linked molecular architectures are described in the chapter &apos

  17. Rare earth elements exploitation, geopolitical implications and raw materials trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemin, Marie-Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) correspond to seventeen elements of the periodic table. They are used in high technology, cracking, electric cars' magnet, metal alloy for batteries, and also in phone construction or ceramics for electronic card. REEs are an important resource for high technology. This project targets 16 years old students in the subject "personalized aid" and will last six weeks. The purpose of this project is to develop autonomy and research in groups for a transdisciplinary work. This project gathers knowledge in geology, geography and economics. During the first session students analyze the geology applications of the REE. They begin the analysis with learning the composition in different rocks such as basalt and diorite to make the link with crystallization. Then they compare it with adakite to understand the formation of these rocks. In the second session, they study REE exploitation. We can find them as oxides in many deposits. The principal concentrations of rare earth elements are associated with uncommon varieties of igneous rocks, such as carbonatites. They can use Qgis, to localize this high concentration. In the third session, they study the environmental costs of REE exploitation. Indeed, the exploitation produces thorium and carcinogenic toxins: sulphates, ammonia and hydrochloric acid. Processing one ton of rare earths produces 2,000 tons of toxic waste. This session focuses, first, on Baotou's region, and then on an example they are free to choose. In the fourth session, they study the geopolitical issues of REE with a focus on China. In fact this country is the largest producer of REE, and is providing 95% of the overall production. REE in China are at the center of a geopolitical strategy. In fact, China implements a sort of protectionism. Indeed, the export tax on REE is very high so, as a foreign company, it is financially attractive to establish a manufacturing subsidiary in China in order to use REE. As a matter of fact

  18. Separated Control and Data Stacks to Mitigate Buffer Overflow Exploits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kugler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that protection mechanisms like StackGuard, ASLR and NX are widespread, the development on new defense strategies against stack-based buffer overflows has not yet come to an end. In this article, we present a novel compiler-level protection called SCADS: Separated Control and Data Stacks that protects return addresses and saved frame pointers on a separate stack, called the control stack. In common computer programs, a single user mode stack is used to store control information next to data buffers. By separating control information from the data stack, we can protect sensitive pointers of a program’s control flow from being overwritten by buffer overflows. To substantiate the practicability of our approach, we provide SCADS as an open source patch for the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Focusing on Linux and FreeBSD running on the AMD64 architecture, we show compatibility, security and performance results. As we make control flow information simply unreachable for buffer overflows, many exploits are stopped at an early stage of progression with only negligible performance overhead.

  19. Methods for spectral image analysis by exploiting spatial simplicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2010-11-23

    Several full-spectrum imaging techniques have been introduced in recent years that promise to provide rapid and comprehensive chemical characterization of complex samples. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful chemical information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution, have proven effective for extracting the essential chemical information from high dimensional spectral image data sets into a limited number of components that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the chemical species comprising the sample. There are many cases, however, in which those constraints are not effective and where alternative approaches may provide new analytical insights. For many cases of practical importance, imaged samples are "simple" in the sense that they consist of relatively discrete chemical phases. That is, at any given location, only one or a few of the chemical species comprising the entire sample have non-zero concentrations. The methods of spectral image analysis of the present invention exploit this simplicity in the spatial domain to make the resulting factor models more realistic. Therefore, more physically accurate and interpretable spectral and abundance components can be extracted from spectral images that have spatially simple structure.

  20. Cosimulation of electromagnetics-circuit systems exploiting DGTD and MNA

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-06-01

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator exploiting the discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) method and the modified nodal analysis (MNA) algorithm is developed for analyzing hybrid distributive and nonlinear multiport lumped circuit systems. The computational domain is split into two subsystems. One is the EM subsystem that is analyzed by DGTD, while the other is the circuit subsystem that is solved by the MNA method. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is enforced at the lumped port where related field and circuit unknowns are coupled via the use of numerical flux, port voltages, and current sources. Since the spatial operations of DGTD are localized, thanks to the use of numerical flux, coupling matrices between EM and circuit subsystems are small and are directly inverted. To handle nonlinear devices within the circuit subsystem, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied to the nonlinear coupling matrix system. In addition, a local time-stepping scheme is applied to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples including single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to validate the proposed solver. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Exploitation réseau électrique Bilan 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Cumer, G

    2001-01-01

    Ce document présente le bilan annuel d'exploitation du réseau électrique pour l'année 2000. Après une présentation succincte des nouvelles sous-stations et équipements mis en service cette année, ce bilan est proposé au travers des statistiques des pannes et des demandes d'interventions des salles de contrôles PCR, MCR et PCR. Cette année 2000 aura été marquée par quelques pannes majeures ayant affecté le LEP et le SPS. L'analyse de ces incidents en fait apparaître les causes d'origines techniques, humaines ou extérieures au CERN, détaille les catégories d'équipements concernés. Ces données permettent de souligner l'impact et les conséquences lourdes de la moindre coupure électrique sur le fonctionnement des accélérateurs. Elles permettent d'autre part de mettre en lumière les points faibles actuels que sont les contrôleurs Micène, les câbles et les protections 18 kV SPS. Dans ce contexte et au vu des incidents de ces dernières années, un historique des pannes survenues sur les...

  2. Exploiting macrophages as targeted carrier to guide nanoparticles into glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liang; Qin, Jing; Han, Limei; Zhao, Wenjie; Liang, Jianming; Xie, Zhongyi; Yang, Pei; Wang, Jianxin

    2016-06-14

    The restriction of anti-cancer drugs entry to tumor sites in the brain is a major impediment to the development of new strategies for the treatment of glioma. Based on the finding that macrophages possess an intrinsic homing property enabling them to migrate to tumor sites across the endothelial barriers in response to the excretion of cytokines/chemokines in the diseased tissues, we exploited macrophages as 'Trojan horses' to carry drug-loading nanoparticles (NPs), pass through barriers, and offload them into brain tumor sites. Anticancer drugs were encapsulated in nanoparticles to avoid their damage to the cells. Drug loading NPs was then incubated with RAW264.7 cells in vitro to prepare macrophage-NPs (M-NPs). The release of NPs from M-NPs was very slow in medium of DMEM and 10% FBS and significantly accelerated when LPS and IFN-γ were added to mimic tumor inflammation microenvironment. The viability of macrophages was not affected when the concentration of doxorubicin lower than 25 μg/ml. The improvement of cellular uptake and penetration into the core of glioma spheroids of M-NPs compared with NPs was verified in in vitro studies. The tumor-targeting efficiency of NPs was also significantly enhanced after loading into macrophages in nude mice bearing intracranial U87 glioma. Our results provided great potential of macrophages as an active biocarrier to deliver anticancer drugs to the tumor sites in the brain and improve therapeutic effects of glioma.

  3. Efficient Resource Scheduling by Exploiting Relay Cache for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In relay-enhanced cellular systems, throughput of User Equipment (UE is constrained by the bottleneck of the two-hop link, backhaul link (or the first hop link, and access link (the second hop link. To maximize the throughput, resource allocation should be coordinated between these two hops. A common resource scheduling algorithm, Adaptive Distributed Proportional Fair, only ensures that the throughput of the first hop is greater than or equal to that of the second hop. But it cannot guarantee a good balance of the throughput and fairness between the two hops. In this paper, we propose a Two-Hop Balanced Distributed Scheduling (TBS algorithm by exploiting relay cache for non-real-time data traffic. The evolved Node Basestation (eNB adaptively adjusts the number of Resource Blocks (RBs allocated to the backhaul link and direct links based on the cache information of relays. Each relay allocates RBs for relay UEs based on the size of the relay UE’s Transport Block. We also design a relay UE’s ACK feedback mechanism to update the data at relay cache. Simulation results show that the proposed TBS can effectively improve resource utilization and achieve a good trade-off between system throughput and fairness by balancing the throughput of backhaul and access link.

  4. Exploiting Concurrent Wake-Up Transmissions Using Beat Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kumberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wake-up receivers are the natural choice for wireless sensor networks because of their ultra-low power consumption and their ability to provide communications on demand. A downside of ultra-low power wake-up receivers is their low sensitivity caused by the passive demodulation of the carrier signal. In this article, we present a novel communication scheme by exploiting purposefully-interfering out-of-tune signals of two or more wireless sensor nodes, which produce the wake-up signal as the beat frequency of superposed carriers. Additionally, we introduce a communication algorithm and a flooding protocol based on this approach. Our experiments show that our approach increases the received signal strength up to 3 dB, improving communication robustness and reliability. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of our newly-developed protocols by means of an outdoor experiment and an indoor setup consisting of several nodes. The flooding algorithm achieves almost a 100% wake-up rate in less than 20 ms.

  5. Instrumental variable analyses. Exploiting natural randomness to understand causal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Kennedy, Edward H

    2013-06-01

    Instrumental variable analysis is a technique commonly used in the social sciences to provide evidence that a treatment causes an outcome, as contrasted with evidence that a treatment is merely associated with differences in an outcome. To extract such strong evidence from observational data, instrumental variable analysis exploits situations where some degree of randomness affects how patients are selected for a treatment. An instrumental variable is a characteristic of the world that leads some people to be more likely to get the specific treatment we want to study but does not otherwise change those patients' outcomes. This seminar explains, in nonmathematical language, the logic behind instrumental variable analyses, including several examples. It also provides three key questions that readers of instrumental variable analyses should ask to evaluate the quality of the evidence. (1) Does the instrumental variable lead to meaningful differences in the treatment being tested? (2) Other than through the specific treatment being tested, is there any other way the instrumental variable could influence the outcome? (3) Does anything cause patients to both receive the instrumental variable and receive the outcome?

  6. Exploiting parallel R in the cloud with SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, M; McGilvary, G A; Sloan, T M; Mewissen, M; Lloyd, A D; Forster, T; Mitchell, L; Ghazal, P; Hill, J

    2013-01-01

    Advances in DNA Microarray devices and next-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have led to an exponential growth in data availability but the arising opportunities require adequate computing resources. High Performance Computing (HPC) in the Cloud offers an affordable way of meeting this need. Bioconductor, a popular tool for high-throughput genomic data analysis, is distributed as add-on modules for the R statistical programming language but R has no native capabilities for exploiting multi-processor architectures. SPRINT is an R package that enables easy access to HPC for genomics researchers. This paper investigates: setting up and running SPRINT-enabled genomic analyses on Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), the advantages of submitting applications to EC2 from different parts of the world and, if resource underutilization can improve application performance. The SPRINT parallel implementations of correlation, permutation testing, partitioning around medoids and the multi-purpose papply have been benchmarked on data sets of various size on Amazon EC2. Jobs have been submitted from both the UK and Thailand to investigate monetary differences. It is possible to obtain good, scalable performance but the level of improvement is dependent upon the nature of the algorithm. Resource underutilization can further improve the time to result. End-user's location impacts on costs due to factors such as local taxation. Although not designed to satisfy HPC requirements, Amazon EC2 and cloud computing in general provides an interesting alternative and provides new possibilities for smaller organisations with limited funds.

  7. Exploiting communication concurrency on high performance computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimov, Nicholas [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Ibrahim, Khaled Z. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iancu, Costin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Although logically available, applications may not exploit enough instantaneous communication concurrency to maximize hardware utilization on HPC systems. This is exacerbated in hybrid programming models such as SPMD+OpenMP. We present the design of a "multi-threaded" runtime able to transparently increase the instantaneous network concurrency and to provide near saturation bandwidth, independent of the application configuration and dynamic behavior. The runtime forwards communication requests from application level tasks to multiple communication servers. Our techniques alleviate the need for spatial and temporal application level message concurrency optimizations. Experimental results show improved message throughput and bandwidth by as much as 150% for 4KB bytes messages on InfiniBand and by as much as 120% for 4KB byte messages on Cray Aries. For more complex operations such as all-to-all collectives, we observe as much as 30% speedup. This translates into 23% speedup on 12,288 cores for a NAS FT implemented using FFTW. We also observe as much as 76% speedup on 1,500 cores for an already optimized UPC+OpenMP geometric multigrid application using hybrid parallelism.

  8. Exploiting topic modeling to boost metagenomic reads binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Cheng, Zhanzhan; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of high-throughput technologies, researchers can sequence the whole metagenome of a microbial community sampled directly from the environment. The assignment of these metagenomic reads into different species or taxonomical classes is a vital step for metagenomic analysis, which is referred to as binning of metagenomic data. In this paper, we propose a new method TM-MCluster for binning metagenomic reads. First, we represent each metagenomic read as a set of "k-mers" with their frequencies occurring in the read. Then, we employ a probabilistic topic model -- the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model to the reads, which generates a number of hidden "topics" such that each read can be represented by a distribution vector of the generated topics. Finally, as in the MCluster method, we apply SKWIC -- a variant of the classical K-means algorithm with automatic feature weighting mechanism to cluster these reads represented by topic distributions. Experiments show that the new method TM-MCluster outperforms major existing methods, including AbundanceBin, MetaCluster 3.0/5.0 and MCluster. This result indicates that the exploitation of topic modeling can effectively improve the binning performance of metagenomic reads.

  9. Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The business of exploiting induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Catherine

    2011-08-12

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) can be exploited for both research and clinical applications. The first part of this review seeks to provide an understanding of the financial drivers and key elements of a successful business strategy that underpin a company focused on developing iPS-related products and services targeted at the research market. The latter part of the review highlights some of the reasons as to why the reprogramming of somatic cells is currently being used to develop cell-based models to screen for small molecules with drug-like properties rather than to develop cell-based regenerative medicines per se. The latter may be used to repair or replace a patient's damaged cells and thereby have the potential to 'cure' a disease and, in doing so, prevent or delay the onset of associated medical conditions. However, the cost of an expensive regenerative medicine and time to accrue any benefit linked to a decrease in co-morbidity expenditure may not outweigh the benefit for a healthcare community that has finite resources. The implications of this are discussed together with evidence that the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the National Health Service (NHS) have established a precedent for a cost-sharing strategy with the pharmaceutical industry.

  11. The Exploitation of Low-Energy Electrons in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad; Hill, Richard P; Jaffray, David A

    2017-08-01

    Given the distinct characteristics of low-energy electrons (LEEs), particularly at energies less than 30 eV, they can be applied to a wide range of therapeutic modalities to improve cancer treatment. LEEs have been shown to efficiently produce complex molecular damage resulting in substantial cellular toxicities. Since LEEs are produced in copious amounts from high-energy radiation beam, including photons, protons and ions; the control of LEE distribution can potentially enhance the therapeutic radio of such beams. LEEs can play a substantial role in the synergistic effect between radiation and chemotherapy, particularly halogenated and platinum-based anticancer drugs. Radiosensitizing entities containing atoms of high atomic number such as gold nanoparticles can be a source of LEE production if high-energy radiation interacts with them. This can provide a high local density of LEEs in a cell and produce cellular toxicity. Auger-electron-emitting radionuclides also create a high number of LEEs in each decay, which can induce lethal damage in a cell. Exploitation of LEEs in cancer treatment, however, faces a few challenges, such as dosimetry of LEEs and selective delivery of radiosensitizing and chemotherapeutic molecules close to cellular targets. This review first discusses the rationale for utilizing LEEs in cancer treatment by explaining their mechanism of action, describes theoretical and experimental studies at the molecular and cellular levels, then discusses strategies for achieving modification of the distribution and effectiveness of LEEs in cancerous tissue and their associated clinical benefit.

  12. Evolution of Cretan Aqueducts and Their Potential for Hydroelectric Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafyllia G. Nikolaou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, several archaeological, historical and other aspects of aqueducts in Crete, Greece, since the prehistoric times until today, are reviewed and presented. In Crete, since the Minoan era, various water management techniques that are found in modern water technologies were developed and applied. One of the most significant features of the Minoan civilization was the architecture of water supply systems in the palaces and other settlements. These technologies were continued and improved mainly during the Classical, Hellenistic and Roman periods and at the same time spread to other towns in the mainland and islands. The aqueduct technologies developed during the Classical and Hellenistic periods were further developed by Romans, mainly by enlarging their application scale (e.g., water bridges. Several paradigms of Cretan aqueducts are considered by which the significance of those technologies for water supply in areas with limited water resources is justified. A brief presentation and discussion of climatic conditions, the karst hydrogeology and the water resources management in Crete is also included. The article also describes the present water management profile of the island, in terms of the water plants, water supply–irrigation networks, and water renewable energy exploitation of dams and water pipelines.

  13. Exploiting pallidal plasticity for stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Marcel A. J.; Schwab, Bettina C.; Nirody, Jasmine A.; Meijer, Hil G. E.; van Gils, Stephan A.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Continuous application of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) often effectively reduces motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease patients. While there is a growing need for more effective and less traumatic stimulation, the exact mechanism of DBS is still unknown. Here, we present a methodology to exploit the plasticity of GABAergic synapses inside the external globus pallidus (GPe) for the optimization of DBS. Approach. Assuming the existence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at GABAergic GPe-GPe synapses, we simulate neural activity in a network model of the subthalamic nucleus and GPe. In particular, we test different DBS protocols in our model and quantify their influence on neural synchrony. Main results. In an exemplary set of biologically plausible model parameters, we show that STDP in the GPe has a direct influence on neural activity and especially the stability of firing patterns. STDP stabilizes both uncorrelated firing in the healthy state and correlated firing in the parkinsonian state. Alternative stimulation protocols such as coordinated reset stimulation can clearly profit from the stabilizing effect of STDP. These results are widely independent of the STDP learning rule. Significance. Once the model settings, e.g., connection architectures, have been described experimentally, our model can be adjusted and directly applied in the development of novel stimulation protocols. More efficient stimulation leads to both minimization of side effects and savings in battery power.

  14. Exploiting pallidal plasticity for stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourens, Marcel A J; Schwab, Bettina C; Nirody, Jasmine A; Meijer, Hil G E; van Gils, Stephan A

    2015-04-01

    Continuous application of high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) often effectively reduces motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease patients. While there is a growing need for more effective and less traumatic stimulation, the exact mechanism of DBS is still unknown. Here, we present a methodology to exploit the plasticity of GABAergic synapses inside the external globus pallidus (GPe) for the optimization of DBS. Assuming the existence of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at GABAergic GPe-GPe synapses, we simulate neural activity in a network model of the subthalamic nucleus and GPe. In particular, we test different DBS protocols in our model and quantify their influence on neural synchrony. In an exemplary set of biologically plausible model parameters, we show that STDP in the GPe has a direct influence on neural activity and especially the stability of firing patterns. STDP stabilizes both uncorrelated firing in the healthy state and correlated firing in the parkinsonian state. Alternative stimulation protocols such as coordinated reset stimulation can clearly profit from the stabilizing effect of STDP. These results are widely independent of the STDP learning rule. Once the model settings, e.g., connection architectures, have been described experimentally, our model can be adjusted and directly applied in the development of novel stimulation protocols. More efficient stimulation leads to both minimization of side effects and savings in battery power.

  15. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sergio; Karlsson, Johan; Trelles, Oswaldo

    2011-10-27

    Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI) that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others).

  16. Image exploitation algorithms for reconnaissance and surveillance with UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, N.; Esswein, M.; Krüger, W.; Saur, G.

    2010-04-01

    UAV have a growing importance for reconnaissance and surveillance. Due to improved technical capability also small UAVs have an endurance of about 6 hours, but less sophisticated sensors due to strong weight limitations. This puts a high strain and workload on the small teams usually deployed with such systems. To lessen the strain for photo interpreters and to improve the capability of such systems we have developed and integrated automatic image exploitation algorithms. An import aspect is the detection of moving objects to give the photo interpreter (PI) hints were such objects are. Mosaiking of imagery helps to gain better oversight over the scene. By computing stereo-mosaics from mono-ocular video-data also 3-d-models can be derived from tactical UAV-data in a further processing step. A special instrument of gaining oversight is to use multi-temporal and multifocal images of video-sensors with different resolution of the platform and to fusion them into one image. This results in a good situation awareness of the scene with a light-weight sensor-platform and a standard video link.

  17. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-15

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  18. Exploiting Information and Communication Technologies in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Brândușa-Oana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Education has to constantly adapt and renew itself in order to be compatible with the technology-dominated world we live in. There has been heated debate over the introduction of information and communication technology (ICT in the educational process. The ICT, especially in foreign language teaching, has become the researchers’ focus of attention in the last two decades. Today’s armed forces require highly-skilled military personnel to be digitally literate and to have well-developed cultural awareness, intercultural communication ability and critical thinking competence. In this context, foreign language classes in the military higher education system should become an environment in which language, culture and civilisation encounters may be facilitated and enhanced by ICT, promoting the acquisition of knowledge and skills demanded by the exercise of roles that the armed forces have in the international theatres of operations. This paper aims at examining the necessity of introducing ICT in foreign language teaching, pointing to the numerous advantages of using these new technologies. The paper also discusses the new role and skills of the teacher in the context of exploiting the various resources provided by the ICT. In addition, we mention some of the modalities in which ICT can be put to good use in developing the cadets’ foreign language skills.

  19. Fit for purpose quality management system for military forensic exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren Elizabeth; Gahan, Michelle Elizabeth; Robertson, James; Lennard, Chris

    2018-03-01

    In a previous publication we described a systems approach to forensic science applied in the military domain. The forensic science 'system of systems' describes forensic science as a sub-system in the larger criminal justice, law enforcement, intelligence, and military systems, with quality management being an important supporting system. Quality management systems help to ensure that organisations achieve their objective and continually improve their capability. Components of forensic science quality management systems can include standardisation of processes, accreditation of facilities to national/international standards, and certification of personnel. A fit for purpose quality management system should be balanced to allow organisations to meet objectives, provide continuous improvement; mitigate risk; and impart a positive quality culture. Considerable attention over the last decades has been given to the need for forensic science quality management systems to meet criminal justice and law enforcement objectives. More recently, the need for the forensic quality management systems to meet forensic intelligence objectives has been considered. This paper, for the first time, discusses the need for a fit for purpose quality management system for military forensic exploitation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - Maturation, Exploitation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The overall topic of this PhD thesis is Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation. The thesis addresses two topics. The first topic is “From research to industry” and the challenges this holds. The Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator (AIMM...... for AIMM robots. Firstly an application-based analysis is conducted, to identify skills in the logistic domain, based on real-world experiments at the industrial partner. Secondly an analysis based on standard operating procedures (SOPs) is conducted.......) "Little Helper" is introduced, a manufacturing assistant inspired by the Walt Disney character. The main rationale of the AIMM concept is a compromise between traditional automation (efficiency) and manual labor (flexibility), which contributes to realizing transformable manufacturing systems. From...... a state-of-the-art review, it is observed that implementations of mobile manipulators in industry have been limited although the needs for flexible automation are present. The second topic is “Identifying skills for AIMM robots” and is dedicated to defining a unifying terminology for task...

  1. Compressed Sensing MR Image Reconstruction Exploiting TGV and Wavelet Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressed sensing (CS based methods make it possible to reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR images from undersampled measurements, which is known as CS-MRI. The reference-driven CS-MRI reconstruction schemes can further decrease the sampling ratio by exploiting the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the reference MR images in pixel domain. Unfortunately existing methods do not work well given that contrast changes are incorrectly estimated or motion compensation is inaccurate. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct MR images by utilizing the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the motion-compensated reference images in wavelet transform and gradient domains. The idea is attractive because it requires neither the estimation of the contrast changes nor multiple times motion compensations. In addition, we apply total generalized variation (TGV regularization to eliminate the staircasing artifacts caused by conventional total variation (TV. Fast composite splitting algorithm (FCSA is used to solve the proposed reconstruction problem in order to improve computational efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only reduce the computational cost but also decrease sampling ratio or improve the reconstruction quality alternatively.

  2. Compressed sensing MR image reconstruction exploiting TGV and wavelet sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Du, Huiqian; Han, Yu; Mei, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) based methods make it possible to reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR) images from undersampled measurements, which is known as CS-MRI. The reference-driven CS-MRI reconstruction schemes can further decrease the sampling ratio by exploiting the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the reference MR images in pixel domain. Unfortunately existing methods do not work well given that contrast changes are incorrectly estimated or motion compensation is inaccurate. In this paper, we propose to reconstruct MR images by utilizing the sparsity of the difference image between the target and the motion-compensated reference images in wavelet transform and gradient domains. The idea is attractive because it requires neither the estimation of the contrast changes nor multiple times motion compensations. In addition, we apply total generalized variation (TGV) regularization to eliminate the staircasing artifacts caused by conventional total variation (TV). Fast composite splitting algorithm (FCSA) is used to solve the proposed reconstruction problem in order to improve computational efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only reduce the computational cost but also decrease sampling ratio or improve the reconstruction quality alternatively.

  3. Exploitation of complement regulatory proteins by Borrelia and Francisella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Marian; Bencurova, Elena; Mlynarcik, Patrik; Almeida, André M; Soares, Renata; Bhide, Katarina; Pulzova, Lucia; Kovac, Andrej; Coelho, Ana V; Bhide, Mangesh

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens have developed sophisticated mechanisms of complement evasion such as binding to the host complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) on their surface or expression of CRP mimicking molecules. The ability of pathogens to evade the complement system has been correlated with pathogenesis and host selectivity. Hitherto, little work has been undertaken to determine whether Borrelia and Francisella exploit various CRPs to block complement attack. Seventeen Borrelia (twelve species) and six Francisella (three subspecies) strains were used to assess their ability to bind human, sheep and cattle CRPs or mimic membrane associated complement regulators. A series of experiments including affinity ligand binding experiments, pull-down assays and mass spectrometry based protein identification, revealed an array of CRP binding proteins of Borrelia and Francisella. Unlike Francisella, Borrelia strains were able to bind multiple human CRPs. Three strains of Borrelia (SKT-4, SKT-2 and HO14) showed the presence of a human CD46-homologous motif, indicating their ability to possess putative human CD46 mimicking molecules. Similarly, five strains of Borrelia and two strains of Francisella may have surface proteins with human CD59-homologous motifs. Among ovine and bovine CRPs, the only CRP bound by Francisella (LVS, Tul4 strain) was vitronectin, while ovine C4BP, ovine factor H and bovine factor H were bound to Borrelia strains SKT-2, DN127 and Co53. This study presents an array of proteins of Borrelia and Francisella that bind CRPs or may mimic membrane-CRPs, thus enabling multiphasic complement evasion strategies of these pathogens.

  4. Exploiting Seams and Closing Gaps: Lessons from Mumbai and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Andrea J. Dew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a single event—the 2008 Mumbai attacks—in order to consider the strategic and operational lessons for dealing with other armed groups. How and why was Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT able to carry out such a sophisticated attack in the heart of Mumbai? And what lessons does Mumbai hold for strategists seeking to counter other armed groups around the world? While tactical level lessons from Mumbai have been well documented, it is important to also consider what the Mumbai attacks tell us at the strategic and operational levels. Specifically, the Mumbai attacks provide valuable insight into how armed groups use the maritime environment, and how they use surprise, denial, and deception to mask intention and invite over-reaction by states. In addition, studying the Mumbai attacks provides insight into some of the strategic and operational seams and gaps that armed groups seek to exploit. These include environmental and geographical factors; institutional, bureaucratic, and jurisdictional seams and gaps between agencies; cognitive seams and gaps that made the use of the sea by LeT so difficult to conceptualize; and the diplomatic seams and gaps that led to heightened tensions among states— in this case, India, Pakistan, and the United States. This article discusses how to categorize these seams and gaps in order to better address the problems they create, and how states might best direct and focus their limited resources when faced with similar challenges.

  5. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  6. Exploitation of a large COSMO-SkyMed interferometric dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we explored a dataset made by more than 100 images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation over the Port-au-Prince (Haiti) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the January 12th, 2010 earthquake. The images were acquired along ascending pass by all the four sensors of the constellation with a mean rate of 1 acquisition/week. This consistent CSK dataset was fully exploited by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry algorithm SPINUA with the aim of: i) providing a displacement map of the area; ii) assessing the use of CSK and PSI for ground elevation measurements; iii) exploring the CSK satellite orbital tube in terms of both precision and size. In particular, significant subsidence phenomena were detected affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the Port-au-Prince and Carrefour region, as well as very slow slope movements and local ground instabilities. Ground elevation was also measured on PS targets with resolution of 3m. The density of these measurable targets depends on the ground coverage, and reaches values higher than 4000 PS/km2 over urban areas, while it drops over vegetated areas or along slopes affected by layover and shadow. Heights values were compared with LIDAR data at 1m of resolution collected soon after the 2010 earthquake. Furthermore, by using geocoding procedures and the precise LIDAR data as reference, the orbital errors affecting CSK records were investigated. The results are in line with other recent studies.

  7. Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Che-Hui; Orloff, Nathan D; Birol, Turan; Zhu, Ye; Goian, Veronica; Rocas, Eduard; Haislmaier, Ryan; Vlahos, Eftihia; Mundy, Julia A; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Nie, Yuefeng; Biegalski, Michael D; Zhang, Jingshu; Bernhagen, Margitta; Benedek, Nicole A; Kim, Yongsam; Brock, Joel D; Uecker, Reinhard; Xi, X X; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Muller, David A; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Booth, James C; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G

    2013-10-24

    The miniaturization and integration of frequency-agile microwave circuits--relevant to electronically tunable filters, antennas, resonators and phase shifters--with microelectronics offers tantalizing device possibilities, yet requires thin films whose dielectric constant at gigahertz frequencies can be tuned by applying a quasi-static electric field. Appropriate systems such as BaxSr1-xTiO3 have a paraelectric-ferroelectric transition just below ambient temperature, providing high tunability. Unfortunately, such films suffer significant losses arising from defects. Recognizing that progress is stymied by dielectric loss, we start with a system with exceptionally low loss--Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases--in which (SrO)2 crystallographic shear planes provide an alternative to the formation of point defects for accommodating non-stoichiometry. Here we report the experimental realization of a highly tunable ground state arising from the emergence of a local ferroelectric instability in biaxially strained Srn+1TinO3n+1 phases with n ≥ 3 at frequencies up to 125 GHz. In contrast to traditional methods of modifying ferroelectrics-doping or strain-in this unique system an increase in the separation between the (SrO)2 planes, which can be achieved by changing n, bolsters the local ferroelectric instability. This new control parameter, n, can be exploited to achieve a figure of merit at room temperature that rivals all known tunable microwave dielectrics.

  8. Tuning oxygen sensitivity of ruthenium complex exploiting silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Osman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dicle, Diyarbakır (Turkey); Oter, Ozlem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Yildirim, Serdar [Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Subasi, Elif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Ertekin, Kadriye, E-mail: kadriye.ertekin@deu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Celik, Erdal [Center for Fabrication and Application of Electronic Materials (EMUM), University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Dokuz Eylul, 35397 Buca, Tinaztepe, Izmir (Turkey); Temel, Hamdi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dicle, Diyarbakır (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we utilized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) along with ionic liquids as additives for fabrication of polymeric oxygen sensitive fibers. Plasticized polymethyl methacrylate and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used as matrix materials. Fibers and porous films were produced by electrospinning technique. Oxygen induced spectral response of the fluorescent tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) chloride (Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) was followed as the analytical signal. Utilization of silver nanoparticles in electrospun polymeric fibers for oxygen sensing purposes resulted with many advantages such as tuned sensitivity, linear calibration plot for larger concentration ranges, increased surface area and enhancement in all sensor dynamics. Linearity of the calibration plot for the offered composition was superior with respect to the previously reported ones. When stored at the ambient air of the laboratory there was no significant drift in intensity after 12 months. Our sensitivity and stability tests are still in progress. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles and Ru(II) complex doped together into polymers for the first time for O{sub 2} sensing. • The ionic liquid EMIMBF{sub 4} was used for matrix modification. • Fabricated electrospun nanofibers offered enhanced linearity for a large concentration range. • Exploited polymeric matrix materials and additives provided long-term stability. • Silver nanoparticles tuned oxygen sensitivity and facilitated fabrication process.

  9. Augmented reality enabling intelligence exploitation at the edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Roy, Heather; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Patton, Debra

    2015-05-01

    Today's Warfighters need to make quick decisions while interacting in densely populated environments comprised of friendly, hostile, and neutral host nation locals. However, there is a gap in the real-time processing of big data streams for edge intelligence. We introduce a big data processing pipeline called ARTEA that ingests, monitors, and performs a variety of analytics including noise reduction, pattern identification, and trend and event detection in the context of an area of operations (AOR). Results of the analytics are presented to the Soldier via an augmented reality (AR) device Google Glass (Glass). Non-intrusive AR devices such as Glass can visually communicate contextually relevant alerts to the Soldier based on the current mission objectives, time, location, and observed or sensed activities. This real-time processing and AR presentation approach to knowledge discovery flattens the intelligence hierarchy enabling the edge Soldier to act as a vital and active participant in the analysis process. We report preliminary observations testing ARTEA and Glass in a document exploitation and person of interest scenario simulating edge Soldier participation in the intelligence process in disconnected deployment conditions.

  10. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 μW cm-3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm-3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  11. IN A PARALLEL UNIVERSE: HOW ART EXPLOITS TECHNOLOGY

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Technical innovation in the arts creates new opportunities for perceptual shifts that lead to lasting achievements. One of the most important events took place in the 15th century not far from CERN on the other side of the Alps in Venice. Titian, in one life time, exploited these new material developments to expand the range of expression like no other artist of his generation. Titian was able to harness these new innovations to emerge as the supreme competitor and hustler, a notion that seems very much a part of the modern promotion of art as exemplified by Warhol , Jeff Koons and Damian Hirst. The language of science and technology has created social networks, changed the mediums and the subject of fine art. Fast forward to CERN 2012, the most expensive experiment in the history of science. The knowledge of dark matter will either help confirm, or not, the Standard Model. This information will be part of what Michel Foucault calls "epistemological breaks", shifts in consciousness that change our p...

  12. MAPI: towards the integrated exploitation of bioinformatics Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics is commonly featured as a well assorted list of available web resources. Although diversity of services is positive in general, the proliferation of tools, their dispersion and heterogeneity complicate the integrated exploitation of such data processing capacity. Results To facilitate the construction of software clients and make integrated use of this variety of tools, we present a modular programmatic application interface (MAPI that provides the necessary functionality for uniform representation of Web Services metadata descriptors including their management and invocation protocols of the services which they represent. This document describes the main functionality of the framework and how it can be used to facilitate the deployment of new software under a unified structure of bioinformatics Web Services. A notable feature of MAPI is the modular organization of the functionality into different modules associated with specific tasks. This means that only the modules needed for the client have to be installed, and that the module functionality can be extended without the need for re-writing the software client. Conclusions The potential utility and versatility of the software library has been demonstrated by the implementation of several currently available clients that cover different aspects of integrated data processing, ranging from service discovery to service invocation with advanced features such as workflows composition and asynchronous services calls to multiple types of Web Services including those registered in repositories (e.g. GRID-based, SOAP, BioMOBY, R-bioconductor, and others.

  13. Exploitation of parallelism in climate models. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Ferdinand; Tribbia, Joseph J.; Williamson, David L.

    2001-02-05

    This final report includes details on the research accomplished by the grant entitled 'Exploitation of Parallelism in Climate Models' to the University of Maryland. The purpose of the grant was to shed light on (a) how to reconfigure the atmospheric prediction equations such that the time iteration process could be compressed by use of MPP architecture; (b) how to develop local subgrid scale models which can provide time and space dependent parameterization for a state-of-the-art climate model to minimize the scale resolution necessary for a climate model, and to utilize MPP capability to simultaneously integrate those subgrid models and their statistics; and (c) how to capitalize on the MPP architecture to study the inherent ensemble nature of the climate problem. In the process of addressing these issues, we created parallel algorithms with spectral accuracy; we developed a process for concurrent climate simulations; we established suitable model reconstructions to speed up computation; we identified and tested optimum realization statistics; we undertook a number of parameterization studies to better understand model physics; and we studied the impact of subgrid scale motions and their parameterization in atmospheric models.

  14. Improving industrial yeast strains: exploiting natural and artificial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Snoek, Tim; Meersman, Esther; Nicolino, Martina Picca; Voordeckers, Karin; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts have been used for thousands of years to make fermented foods and beverages, such as beer, wine, sake, and bread. However, the choice for a particular yeast strain or species for a specific industrial application is often based on historical, rather than scientific grounds. Moreover, new biotechnological yeast applications, such as the production of second-generation biofuels, confront yeast with environments and challenges that differ from those encountered in traditional food fermentations. Together, this implies that there are interesting opportunities to isolate or generate yeast variants that perform better than the currently used strains. Here, we discuss the different strategies of strain selection and improvement available for both conventional and nonconventional yeasts. Exploiting the existing natural diversity and using techniques such as mutagenesis, protoplast fusion, breeding, genome shuffling and directed evolution to generate artificial diversity, or the use of genetic modification strategies to alter traits in a more targeted way, have led to the selection of superior industrial yeasts. Furthermore, recent technological advances allowed the development of high-throughput techniques, such as ‘global transcription machinery engineering’ (gTME), to induce genetic variation, providing a new source of yeast genetic diversity. PMID:24724938

  15. CellSs: Scheduling Techniques to Better Exploit Memory Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bellens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell Superscalar's (CellSs main goal is to provide a simple, flexible and easy programming approach for the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/B.E. that automatically exploits the inherent concurrency of the applications at a task level. The CellSs environment is based on a source-to-source compiler that translates annotated C or Fortran code and a runtime library tailored for the Cell/B.E. that takes care of the concurrent execution of the application. The first efforts for task scheduling in CellSs derived from very simple heuristics. This paper presents new scheduling techniques that have been developed for CellSs for the purpose of improving an application's performance. Additionally, the design of a new scheduling algorithm is detailed and the algorithm evaluated. The CellSs scheduler takes an extension of the memory hierarchy for Cell/B.E. into account, with a cache memory shared between the SPEs. All new scheduling practices have been evaluated showing better behavior of our system.

  16. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm’s interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  17. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN IN THE TOURISM – THE DARK SIDE OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Katarina Music

    2015-01-01

    The underlying causes of sexual exploitation and prostitution are poverty, inequality between women and men, high population growth and rural - urban migration. Victims are, predominantly, women and children with lower socio-economic status. One particular form of sexual exploitation is child sex tourism. This ruthless exploitation of children can be found throughout the world, predominantly in the third world and developing countries. Children, mainly between the ages of 6 to 14 years, are t...

  18. Sex, Gore and Provocation: the Influence of Exploitation in John Waters’s Early Films

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Nunes, Elise

    2016-01-01

    A self-taught filmmaker working with very low budgets, fascinated with Hollywood’s glamor as well as exploitation and underground cinema, John Waters has appropriated techniques and modes of production, distribution and promotion specific to exploitation from the beginning of his career in the late 1960s. The illicit, controversial topics addressed in his early movies, traditionally brought up by exploitation in order to attract audiences whose voyeuristic desires would not be fulfilled by Ho...

  19. Exploitation of cloud computing in management of construction projects in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mandičák, Tomáš; Mesároš, Peter; Kozlovská, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The issue of cloud computing is a highly topical issue. Cloud computing represents a new model for information technology (IT) services based on the exploitation of Web (it represents a cloud) and other application platforms, as well as software as a service. In general, the exploitation of cloud computing in construction project management has several advantages, as demonstrated by several research reports. Currently, research quantifying the exploitation of cloud computing in the Slovak con...

  20. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  1. Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S.; Fa, Darren A.; Rodríguez Llanes, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of

  2. Women in mining still exploited and sexually harassed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doret Botha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment.Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions.Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry.Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews.Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion.Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts.Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.

  3. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Finlayson

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1 does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2 did Middle (associated with Neanderthals and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3 is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4 was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to

  4. Birds of a feather: Neanderthal exploitation of raptors and corvids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Clive; Brown, Kimberly; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Negro, Juan José; Bortolotti, Gary R; Finlayson, Geraldine; Sánchez Marco, Antonio; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Rodríguez Vidal, Joaquín; Carrión, José S; Fa, Darren A; Rodríguez Llanes, José M

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins. This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: 1) does a Neanderthal to raptor-corvid connection exist at a large scale, thus avoiding associations that might be regarded as local in space or time?; 2) did Middle (associated with Neanderthals) and Upper Palaeolithic (associated with modern humans) sites contain a greater range of these species than Late Pleistocene paleontological sites?; 3) is there a taphonomic association between Neanderthals and corvids-raptors at Middle Palaeolithic sites on Gibraltar, specifically Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves? and; 4) was the extraction of wing feathers a local phenomenon exclusive to the Neanderthals at these sites or was it a geographically wider phenomenon?. We compiled a database of 1699 Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar. We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers. The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of

  5. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  6. Exploitation of marine bacteria for production of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Nishat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have found wide range of applications in electronics, biomedical engineering, and chemistry owing to their exceptional opto-electrical properties. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles by using plant extracts and microbes have received profound interest in recent times owing to their potential to produce nanoparticles with varied shape, size and morphology. Marine microorganisms are unique to tolerate high salt concentration and can evade toxicity of different metal ions. However, these marine microbes are not sufficiently explored for their capability of metal nanoparticle synthesis. Although, marine water is one of the richest sources of gold in the nature, however, there is no significant publication regarding utilization of marine micro-organisms to produce gold nanoparticles. Therefore, there might be a possibility of exploring marine bacteria as nanofactories for AuNP biosynthesis. Results In the present study, marine bacteria are exploited towards their capability of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs production. Stable, monodisperse AuNP formation with around 10 nm dimension occur upon exposure of HAuCl4 solution to whole cells of a novel strain of Marinobacter pelagius, as characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. Nanoparticles synthesized are characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering and UV-visible spectroscopy. Conclusion The potential of marine organisms in biosynthesis of AuNPs are still relatively unexplored. Although, there are few reports of gold nanoparticles production using marine sponges and sea weeds however, there is no report on the production of gold nanoparticles using marine bacteria. The present work highlighted the possibility of using the marine bacterial strain of Marinobacter pelagius to achieve a fast rate of nanoparticles synthesis which may be of high interest for future process development of AuNPs. This is the first report of Au

  7. Managing and exploiting routinely collected NHS data for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasa Curcin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health research using routinely collected National Health Service (NHS data derived from electronic health records (EHRs and health service information systems has been growing in both importance and quantity. Wide population coverage and detailed patient-level information allow this data to be applied to a variety of research questions. However, the sensitivity, complexity and scale of such data also hamper researchers from fully exploiting this potential.Objective Here, we establish the current challenges preventing researchers from making optimal use of the data sets at their disposal, on both the legislative and practical levels, and give recommendations as to how these challenges can be overcome.Method A number of projects has recently been launched in the UK to address poor research data management practices. Rapid Organisation of Healthcare Research Data (ROHRD at Imperial College, London produced a useful prototype that provides local researchers with a one-stop index of available data sets together with relevant metadata.Findings Increased transparency of data sets’ availability and their provenance leads to better utilisation and facilitates compliance with regulatory requirements.Discussion Research data resulting from NHS data is often not utilised fully, or is handled in a haphazard manner that prevents full auditability of the research. Furthermore, lack of informatics and data management skills in research teams act as a barrier to implementing more advanced practices, such as provenance capture and detailed, regularly updated, data management strategies. Only by a concerted effort at the levels of research organisations, funding bodies and publishers, can we achieve full transparency and reproducibility of the research.

  8. Optimal exploitation strategies for an animal population in a Markovian environment: A theory and an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal exploitation strategies were studied for an animal population in a Markovian (stochastic, serially correlated) environment. This is a general case and encompasses a number of important special cases as simplifications. Extensive empirical data on the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) were used as an example of general theory. The number of small ponds on the central breeding grounds was used as an index to the state of the environment. A general mathematical model was formulated to provide a synthesis of the existing literature, estimates of parameters developed from an analysis of data, and hypotheses regarding the specific effect of exploitation on total survival. The literature and analysis of data were inconclusive concerning the effect of exploitation on survival. Therefore, two hypotheses were explored: (1) exploitation mortality represents a largely additive form of mortality, and (2) exploitation mortality is compensatory with other forms of mortality, at least to some threshold level. Models incorporating these two hypotheses were formulated as stochastic dynamic programming models and optimal exploitation strategies were derived numerically on a digital computer. Optimal exploitation strategies were found to exist under the rather general conditions. Direct feedback control was an integral component in the optimal decision-making process. Optimal exploitation was found to be substantially different depending upon the hypothesis regarding the effect of exploitation on the population. If we assume that exploitation is largely an additive force of mortality in Mallards, then optimal exploitation decisions are a convex function of the size of the breeding population and a linear or slight concave function of the environmental conditions. Under the hypothesis of compensatory mortality forces, optimal exploitation decisions are approximately linearly related to the size of the Mallard breeding population. Dynamic programming is suggested as a very general

  9. The role of mobility for the emergence of diversity in victim-exploiter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaianunporn, T; Hovestadt, T

    2011-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies indicate that exploitation is a possible driver of exploiter and victim diversification. However, there are many factors which could promote and limit this diversification process. Using a spatially explicit individual-based model, where an exploiter's success depends on matching between its own and a victim's continuous trait, we simulate local communities of victims and exploiters. We investigate how exploiter mobility (searching ability and movement strategies) can influence diversification of victims. We find that if victim traits are under intermediate intensity of stabilizing selection, disruptive selection exerted by exploiters can indeed lead to diversification in victim population and the victim trait distribution can split into two or more groups. Searching ability and movement strategy of exploiters (local vs. global movement) play a role in determining the number of victim trait groups emerging. Moreover, they affect the proportion of infected victims and the formation of spatial patterns in the victim trait distribution. In addition, with a high searching ability, exploiters with global movement drive victims to be more diverse than exploiters with local movement. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Experiences of exploitation and human trafficking among a sample of Indonesian migrant domestic workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANDREVSKI, Hannah; Lyneham, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Risk of abuse, exploitation and human trafficking amongst Indonesian migrant domestic workers - examination of data held in the International Organization for Migration's Counter Trafficking Module...

  11. The impact of forest exploitation on Amazonian stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturieri, G C

    2009-01-01

    The protocols available to sustainably exploit natural forest resources are known as "sustainable forest management". This type of management generally does not take into account the effect of timber exploitation on pollinators. Stingless bees, which include many species that play an important role as pollinators and are quite diverse in the Amazon, preferentially make their perennial nests in the base of hollow trees. Normally, during sustainable exploitation of trees, hollow trees are not cut down; however, predatory exploitation of such trees could severely affect natural populations of this pollinator group.

  12. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Commercially Sexually Exploited Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A; Mannarino, Anthony P; Kinnish, Kelly

    2017-06-01

    Commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents ("commercially exploited youth")present numerous clinical challenges that have led some mental health providers to question whether current evidence-based treatments are adequate to address the needs of this population. This paper 1) addresses commonalities between the trauma experiences, responses and treatment challenges of commercially exploited youth and those of youth with complex trauma; 2) highlights the importance of careful assessment to guide case conceptualization and treatment planning for commercially exploited youth; and 3) describes strategies for implementing Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for complex trauma specific to these youth.

  13. Direct Exploitation of the Dominical Monastic Property in the Duero River Basin. The Cluniacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. PÉREZ CELADA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct exploitation made up one of the exploitation forms of the Land lords territorial properties in medieval Europe. Throughout the central centuries of this period, this direct exploitation experimented a reduction that accelerated in the 14th Century. However, direct exploitation did not totally disappear. This process is also evident in the Duero river basin, a space in which we see an example of a Cluniac Benedictine seigniory that is defined by the large amount of information concerning it.

  14. Exploitation dynamics of small fish stocks like Arctic cisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Potential impacts to the Arctic cisco population fall into both demographic and behavioral categories. Possible demographic impacts include stock recruitment effects, limited escapement into marine habitats, and variable age-class reproductive success. Potential behavioral impacts involve migratory patterns, variable life histories, and strategies for seasonal feeding. Arctic cisco stocks are highly susceptible to over-exploitation due to our limited basic knowledge of the highly variable Arctic environment and the role they play in this dynamic ecosystem.Our knowledge of potential demographic changes is very limited, and it is necessary to determine the abundance and recruitment of the hypothesized Mackenzie River source population, the extent of the coastal migratory corridor, growth patterns, and coastal upwelling and mixing effects on population dynamics for this species. Information needed to answer some of the demographic questions includes basic evolutionary history and molecular genetics of Arctic cisco (for instance, are there contributions to the Arctic cisco stock from the Yukon?), what is the effective population size (i.e., breeding population size), and potential links to changes in climate. The basic behavioral questions include migratory and variable life history questions. For instance, the extent of movement back and forth between freshwater and the sea, age-specific differences in food web dynamics, and nearshore brackish and high salinity habitats are topics that should be studied. Life history data should be gathered to understand the variation in age at reproduction, salinity tolerance, scale and duration of the freshwater stage, survival, and adult migration. Both molecular and ecological tools should be integrated to manage the Arctic cisco stock(s), such as understanding global climate changes on patterns of harvest and recruitment, and the genetics of population structure and colonization. Perhaps other populations are contributing to the

  15. Exploiting the systematic review protocol for classification of medical abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunza, Oana; Inkpen, Diana; Matwin, Stan; Klement, William; O'Blenis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the automatic classification of documents can be useful in systematic reviews on medical topics, and specifically if the performance of the automatic classification can be enhanced by using the particular protocol of questions employed by the human reviewers to create multiple classifiers. The test collection is the data used in large-scale systematic review on the topic of the dissemination strategy of health care services for elderly people. From a group of 47,274 abstracts marked by human reviewers to be included in or excluded from further screening, we randomly selected 20,000 as a training set, with the remaining 27,274 becoming a separate test set. As a machine learning algorithm we used complement naïve Bayes. We tested both a global classification method, where a single classifier is trained on instances of abstracts and their classification (i.e., included or excluded), and a novel per-question classification method that trains multiple classifiers for each abstract, exploiting the specific protocol (questions) of the systematic review. For the per-question method we tested four ways of combining the results of the classifiers trained for the individual questions. As evaluation measures, we calculated precision and recall for several settings of the two methods. It is most important not to exclude any relevant documents (i.e., to attain high recall for the class of interest) but also desirable to exclude most of the non-relevant documents (i.e., to attain high precision on the class of interest) in order to reduce human workload. For the global method, the highest recall was 67.8% and the highest precision was 37.9%. For the per-question method, the highest recall was 99.2%, and the highest precision was 63%. The human-machine workflow proposed in this paper achieved a recall value of 99.6%, and a precision value of 17.8%. The per-question method that combines classifiers following the specific protocol of the review leads to better

  16. Evaluation des impacts environnementaux liés à l'exploitation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actuellement, des mesures adéquates sont prises par SCB-Lafarge pour progressivement résoudre les problèmes environnementaux susmentionnés. Mots-clés: Calcaires, Onigbolo, exploitation, production de ciment, nitrite, pollution. English Title: Appraisal of the environmental impacts related to limestones exploitation ...

  17. Ambidextrous Leadership and Employees' Self-reported Innovative Performance: The Role of Exploration and Exploitation Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Hannes; Robinson, Alecia J.; Rosing, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The ambidexterity theory of leadership for innovation proposes that leaders' opening and closing behaviors positively predict employees' exploration and exploitation behaviors, respectively. The interaction of exploration and exploitation behaviors, in turn, is assumed to influence employee innovative performance, such that innovative performance…

  18. 44 Rural Fuelwood Exploitation in Mbo Local Government Area – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    rate at which deforestation is taking place due to man's attempt to have a steady supply of fuel wood and other vegetal resources. The reckless exploitation, and in .... fish drying and fish marketing, trade union involvement, legislations and enforcement, period of involvement in fuel wood exploitation, tools used, means of.

  19. Exploiting the opportunities of Internet and multi-channel pricing : An exploratory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotgiu, Francesca; Ancarani, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    Smart firms are not worried about the impact of the Internet on pricing, but realise that they have the unique opportunity to exploit new options and improve their marketing performance. Multi-channel pricing is one of the most interesting opportunities firms can exploit in the digital economy.

  20. Sequential Ambidexterity in Practice : A Longitudinal study on shifts from exploration to exploitation and vice versa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, Dries; Visscher, Klaasjan; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.

    2017-01-01

    The poster shows highlights of a study aimed at providing in-depth insights into the dynamics of a growing organization’s exploration and exploitation levels, demonstrating how structural and individual factors change an organization’s exploration and exploitation over time. A fast-growing research

  1. Normative Beliefs about Aggression as a Mediator of Narcissistic Exploitativeness and Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Tan, Kit-Aun; Mansor, Abu Talib

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined normative beliefs about aggression as a mediator between narcissistic exploitativeness and cyberbullying using two Asian adolescent samples from Singapore and Malaysia. Narcissistic exploitativeness was significantly and positively associated with cyberbullying and normative beliefs about aggression and normative beliefs…

  2. Strategic Alignment of Innovation to Business: Balancing the Exploration and Exploitation Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses the crucial question for innovative prospector companies of how to bridge the gap between exploration and exploitation. Whereas exploration deals with the search for new ideas and opportunities, exploitation is about incrementally moving the performance bar a little bit higher.

  3. Competitive interactions among beam trawlers exploiting local patches of flatfish in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Mourik Broekman, van P.L.; Visser, E.G.

    2000-01-01

    The fishing pattern of individual beam trawl vessels comprises alternating searching and exploitation phases during a fishing trip. The searching phase is characterized by a below-average catch rate and a long distance between the midpoints of hauls. The exploitation phase is characterized by an

  4. Exploration and exploitation within SMEs: connecting the CEO's cognitive style to product innovation performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Matthias; Faems, D.L.M.; van den Top, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on exploration and exploitation focuses on the firm and business unit level. Therefore, conceptual and empirically validated understanding about exploration and exploitation at the individual level of analysis is scarce. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by

  5. Wyner-Ziv Coding of Depth Maps Exploiting Color Motion Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmistraro, Matteo; Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of depth maps exploiting corresponding color information is proposed. Due to the high correlation of the motion in color and corresponding depth videos, motion information from the decoded color signal can effectively be exploited to generate accurate side information for the depth signal, allowing...

  6. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Meredith L; Lute, Michelle L; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah H; Rajaonson, Andry

    2016-01-01

    Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88) with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall) may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high). Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  7. [Impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on river ecosystem and landscape: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Deng, Xi; Li, Xue-Ling; Wen, Ping

    2011-05-01

    Hydroelectric cascade exploitation, one of the major ways for exploiting water resources and developing hydropower, not only satisfies the needs of various national economic sectors, but also promotes the socio-economic sustainable development of river basin. unavoidable anthropogenic impacts on the entire basin ecosystem. Based on the process of hydroelectric cascade exploitation and the ecological characteristics of river basins, this paper reviewed the major impacts of hydroelectric cascade exploitation on dam-area ecosystems, river reservoirs micro-climate, riparian ecosystems, river aquatic ecosystems, wetlands, and river landscapes. Some prospects for future research were offered, e.g., strengthening the research of chain reactions and cumulative effects of ecological factors affected by hydroelectric cascade exploitation, intensifying the study of positive and negative ecological effects under the dam networks and their joint operations, and improving the research of successional development and stability of basin ecosystems at different temporal and spatial scales.

  8. Local Perspectives on Environmental Insecurity and Its Influence on Illegal Biodiversity Exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith L Gore

    Full Text Available Environmental insecurity is a source and outcome of biodiversity declines and social conflict. One challenge to scaling insecurity reduction policies is that empirical evidence about local attitudes is overwhelmingly missing. We set three objectives: determine how local people rank risk associated with different sources of environmental insecurity; assess perceptions of environmental insecurity, biodiversity exploitation, myths of nature and risk management preferences; and explore relationships between perceptions and biodiversity exploitation. We conducted interviews (N = 88 with residents of Madagascar's Torotorofotsy Protected Area, 2014. Risk perceptions had a moderate effect on perceptions of environmental insecurity. We found no effects of environmental insecurity on biodiversity exploitation. Results offer one if not the first exploration of local perceptions of illegal biodiversity exploitation and environmental security. Local people's perception of risk seriousness associated with illegal biodiversity exploitation such as lemur hunting (low overall may not reflect perceptions of policy-makers (considered to be high. Discord is a key entry point for attention.

  9. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    us to evaluate other Hunton formations based on old well logs, and determine, apriori, if additional potential exists from these reservoirs. (4) To develop more complex well test model so that we can obtain reservoir parameters based on the well test data (5) To conduct additional laboratory experiments to validate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process as well as evaluate surfactant injection as another process of recovering more oil. (6) To collect additional economic data from many vertical and horizontal wells to determine if horizontal wells add value in exploiting Hunton reservoir.

  10. Sexual exploitation in children: Nature, prevalence and distinguishing characteristics reported in young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Carol Ann; Alderson, Kirsty; Ireland, Jane Louise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and extent of sexual exploitation in a university student sample, whilst being clear that sexual exploitation is sexual abuse. Overall, 47% of participants (96 out of 204) reported having been approached by an adult in a sexual manner when they were under the age of 16. The study predicted that a number of individual characteristics would increase a young person’s vulnerability for sexual exploitation. These included low self-esteem, external lo...

  11. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm's interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...... involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting...

  12. Exploiting programmable architectures for WiFi/ZigBee inter-technology cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valck, Peter De; Moerman, Ingrid; Croce, Daniele; Giuliano, Fabrizio; Tinnirello, Ilenia; Garlisi, Domenico; Poorter, Eli De; Jooris, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ... conditions.In this paper, we focus on the possibility to improve coexistence performance of WiFi and ZigBee networks by exploiting novel programmable architectures of wireless devices able to support run-time...

  13. Exploiting programmable architectures for WiFi/ZigBee inter-technology cooperation: Doc 1015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter De Valck; Ingrid Moerman; Daniele Croce; Fabrizio Giuliano; Ilenia Tinnirello; Domenico Garlisi; Eli De Poorter; Bart Jooris

    2014-01-01

    .... In this paper, we focus on the possibility to improve coexistence performance of WiFi and ZigBee networks by exploiting novel programmable architectures of wireless devices able to support run-time...

  14. Managing Organizational Tensions: A Multi-Level Perspective on Exploration, Exploitation and Ambidexterity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P.L. Fourné (Sebastian)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ "This dissertation draws on organizational learning and paradox theory to develop fine-grained insights at the individual, unit, and organizational level that contribute to the theoretical development of the exploration-exploitation framework. The four studies

  15. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-01-01

    .... Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels...

  16. A California Multidisciplinary Juvenile Court: Serving Sexually Exploited and At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D; Blacker, Dawn M; Landini, Jenny L; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that 90% of youth in the juvenile justice system have experienced at least one traumatic event (Arroyo, ). One such traumatic event is the commercialized sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC). Over the past decade, governmental organizations and community agencies have recognized that the sexual exploitation of children is a significant problem in the United States. In California alone, human trafficking task forces have identified 1200 youth as victims of sexual exploitation from 2010 to 2012 (Walker, ). Youth who have experienced sexual exploitation often become involved in the juvenile justice system and present with unique challenges and needs. This article reviews recent public policy and community responses related to the needs of CSEC youth involved in the juvenile justice system. A case example from Sacramento, CA, is used to illustrate the key components, innovations, multidisciplinary collaborations, and challenges of creating a specialized court. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A fourth generation of neuroanatomical tracing techniques: exploiting the offspring of genetic engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Bloem, B.; Mansvelder, H.D.; Luchicchi, A.; Deisseroth, K.

    2014-01-01

    The first three generations of neuroanatomical tract-tracing methods include, respectively, techniques exploiting degeneration, retrograde cellular transport and anterograde cellular transport. This paper reviews the most recent development in third-generation tracing, i.e., neurochemical

  18. On Roof Geometry for Urban Wind Energy Exploitation in High-Rise Buildings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Toja-Silva; Carlos Peralta; Oscar Lopez-Garcia; Jorge Navarro; Ignacio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    .... The present investigation explores the most adequate roof shapes compatible with the placement of different types of small wind energy generators on high-rise buildings for urban wind energy exploitation...

  19. OpenGovIntelligence Project Deliverable D5.1- Dissemination and Exploitation Plan V1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheus, R.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Moynihan, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This deliverable describes the planned dissemination and exploitation activities to promote the project outcomes within the project's target groups and stakeholders. The activities plan is also assigned giving the partners responsibilities.

  20. Influence of distribution characteristics and associated seabed features on exploitation of cobalt-rich manganese deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.; Tsurusaki, K.

    Method of exploitation, selection of mine site and desing of mining system of cobalt-rich manganese deposits on seamounts would be greatly influenced by the distribution characteristics as well as the associated seabed features, wuch as the seabed...

  1. Mechanisms of Mining Seismicity under Large Scale Exploitation with Multikey Strata

    OpenAIRE

    Hu He; Linming Dou; Anye Cao; Jun Fan

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic disasters are aggravating with the increase of exploitation scale and intensity in Chinese coal mines, to further understand this problem, we studied the mechanisms of mining tremors induced by key strata movement and instability under large scale exploitation. First the mechanisms were categorized into two groups that is main key strata fracture and movement as well as subkey strata instability again under adjacent mining activities. Based on the key strata theory in ground contr...

  2. Economic Factors of Vulnerability Trade and Exploitation: Empirical Evidence from a Prominent Russian Cybercrime Market

    OpenAIRE

    Allodi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cybercrime markets support the development and diffusion of new attack technologies, vulnerability exploits, and malware. Whereas the revenue streams of cyber attackers have been studied multiple times in the literature, no quantitative account currently exists on the economics of attack acquisition and deployment. Yet, this understanding is critical to characterize the production of (traded) exploits, the economy that drives it, and its effects on the overall attack scenario. In this paper w...

  3. The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    International trafficking in humans for sexual exploitation is an eco- nomic activity driven by profit motives. Laws regarding commercial sex influence the profitability of trafficking and may thus affect the inflow of trafficking to a country. Using two recent sources of European cross country data we show that trafficking of persons for commercial sexual exploitation (as proxied by the data sets we are using) is least prevalent in coun...

  4. EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION: A 20-YEAR REVIEW OF EVOLUTION AND RECONCEPTUALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    RANGGA ALMAHENDRA; BJÖRN AMBOS

    2015-01-01

    The exploration–exploitation tension has been resonated and applied in diverse areas of management research. Its applications have deviated substantially from the scope of organisational learning as originally proposed by March [(1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87]. Scholars have developed set of definitions, new conceptualisations, and varied applications in rejuvenating the concept; and literatures on this topic seem do not sign...

  5. EM-Based Optimization Exploiting Partial Space Mapping and Exact Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, J. W.; Mohamed, A. S.; Bakr, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a family of robust techniques for exploiting sensitivities in EM-based circuit optimization through Space Mapping (SM). We utilize derivative Information for parameter extractions and mapping updates. We exploit a Partial Space Mapping (PSM) concept where a reduced set of parameters is...... is sufficient for parameter extraction optimization. Upfront gradients of both EM (fine) model and coarse surrogates can initialize possible mapping approximations. Illustrations include a two-section 10:1 impedance transformer and a microstrip bandstop filter....

  6. Entropy Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0337 Entropy Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity Jean-Luc Guermond TEXAS A & M UNIVERSITY 750... Viscosity and L1-based Approximations of PDEs: Exploiting Sparsity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0358 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...conservation equations can be stabilized by using the so-called entropy viscosity method and we proposed to to investigate this new technique. We

  7. Pavel F. Unterberger on rational exploitation and preservation of the Far-Eastern natural wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Lyapustin, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on archive materials brought into use for the first time. It deals with the role that Pavel F. Unterberger, Military Governor of the Maritime Province (later, Governor General of the Amur Province), played in the promotion of rational exploitation and preservation of the Far-Eastern natural resources. It contains facts of his struggle with the foreigners' injurial exploitation of natural resources and illegal export of natural wealth of the Russian Far East in the period ...

  8. Renforcement de la capacité des petits exploitants agricoles de s ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les petits exploitants agricoles du Nigeria, particulièrement les femmes, sont très vulnérables aux répercussions des changements climatiques. Même si certains exploitants ont élaboré des stratégies de leur propre initiative, il est nécessaire de produire et de diffuser des renseignements qui les aideront à adapter leurs ...

  9. Teenage Childbearing and Its Life Cycle Consequences: Exploiting a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    V. Joseph Hotz; Sanders, Seth G.; Susan Williams McElroy

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we exploit a 'natural experiment' associated with human reproduction to identify the effect of teen childbearing on subsequent educational attainment, family structure, labor market outcomes and financial self-sufficiency. In particular, we exploit the fact that a substantial fraction of women who become pregnant experience a miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and thus do not have a birth. If miscarriages were purely random and if miscarriages were the only way, other than by l...

  10. Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) Hierarchical Representations for the Evaluation of Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0123 MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Hierarchical Representations for the Evaluation of Sensed...December 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MATHEMATICS OF SENSING, EXPLOITATION, AND EXECUTION (MSEE) Hierarchical Representations for the Evaluation of...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Hierarchical Representations for the Evaluation of Sensed Data Final Report Mathematics of Sensing

  11. An Effect Analysis of Comprehensive Treatment of Groundwater Over-Exploitation in Cheng'an County, Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiwei; Zhou, Jinjun; Liu, Jiahong; Zhang, Haixing; Wang, Jianhua; Xiang, Chenyao; Yang, Guiyu; Tang, Yun

    2017-01-04

    The comprehensive treatment project of groundwater over-exploitation in Hebei Province has been implemented for more than a year, and the effect of exploitation restriction is in urgent need of evaluation. This paper deals with Cheng'an County of Hebei Province as the research subject. Based on collected hydro-meteorological, socioeconomic, groundwater, and other related data, together with typical regional experimental research, this study generates the effective precipitation-groundwater exploitation (P-W) curve and accompanying research methods, and calculates the quantity of groundwater exploitation restriction. It analyzes the target completion status of groundwater exploitation restriction through water conservancy measures and agricultural practices of the groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive treatment project that was implemented in Cheng'an County in 2014. The paper evaluates the treatment effect of groundwater over-exploitation, as well as provides technical support for the effect evaluation of groundwater exploitation restriction of agricultural irrigation in Cheng'an County and relevant areas.

  12. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN IN THE TOURISM – THE DARK SIDE OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Mekinc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The underlying causes of sexual exploitation and prostitution are poverty, inequality between women and men, high population growth and rural - urban migration. Victims are, predominantly, women and children with lower socio-economic status. One particular form of sexual exploitation is child sex tourism. This ruthless exploitation of children can be found throughout the world, predominantly in the third world and developing countries. Children, mainly between the ages of 6 to 14 years, are trapped in a vicious battle between large impoverished families who are dependent on their support, and a society that ruthlessly exploits them. In line with the trend in increasing child exploitation, there is, also, increasing exploitation of children for the purposes of child sex tourism. Based on the analysis of forms, reasons, impacts, consequences and trends of child sex tourism, it has been possible to develop from these findings some necessary measures to prevent this practice from occurring. Analysis of the phenomenon of child sex tourism has highlighted some fundamental conditions for preventing it becoming a social phenomenon. These include the strict implementation of laws against child labour and the political will to enforce them.

  13. Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Children and Adolescents: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth; Iqbal, Zarah; Bruce, Janine; Anoshiravani, Arash; Kolhatkar, Gauri; Greenbaum, Jordan

    Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children and adolescents represent a severe form of child abuse and an important pediatric health concern. Youth who are commercially sexually exploited have a constellation of clinical risk factors and high rates of unmet physical and mental health needs, including conditions that directly result from their victimization. Common physical health needs among commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents include violence-related injuries, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and other acute infections. Common mental health conditions include substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and suicidality, and anxiety. The existing literature indicates that trauma-informed approaches to the care of commercially sexually exploited youth are recommended in all aspects of their health care delivery. Additionally, medical education that attunes providers to identify and appropriately respond to the unique needs of this highly vulnerable group of children and adolescents is needed. The available research on commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children and adolescents remains fairly limited, yet is expanding rapidly. Especially relevant to the field of pediatrics, future research to guide health professionals in how best to identify and care for commercially sexually exploited children and adolescents in the clinical setting signifies a key gap in the extant literature and an important opportunity for future study. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethics position towards the exploitation of manganese material in Oenbit Village, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fios, Frederikus

    2017-04-01

    Oenbit village is an area that is located in the district of Timor Tengah Utara (TTU), Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. In Oenbit ongoing a conflict between the economic interests of some parties namely the government, corporation and the local indigenous community. Government of Timor Tengah Utara give legal permission to the Elgari Resources Indonesia (ERI) Company to exploit the mining of Manganese in Oenbit Village which informally is the ancestral land of indigenous peoples Oenbit hereditary called pusuf kelef and Kot-tau niap-tau (king land). Oenbit society has an ethical belief that the ancestral land Oenbit should not be produced by outside parties besides the local community on the orders of the king. Manganese exploitation in Oenbit Village cause problems contradictorily interesting to reflect on the ethical-philosophical. This paper aims to reflect the ethical position against cases of exploitation of manganese in the Oenbit Village with focuses on the local government’s decision to issue a permit exploitation and ERI Company exploit Mangan assumed unethical traditional indigenous tribe Oenbit. The study found that the district government and ERI Company has violated the public ethics and society traditional law, especially the rights of local indigenous communities by exploiting manganese material. The method used is the reflection of philosophy with ethical approaches and relevant ethical theories.

  15. A Primer on Foraging and the Explore/Exploit Trade-Off for Psychiatry Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, M A; Pearson, J M; Sweitzer, M M; Barack, D L; Platt, M L

    2017-09-01

    Foraging is a fundamental behavior, and many types of animals appear to have solved foraging problems using a shared set of mechanisms. Perhaps the most common foraging problem is the choice between exploiting a familiar option for a known reward and exploring unfamiliar options for unknown rewards-the so-called explore/exploit trade-off. This trade-off has been studied extensively in behavioral ecology and computational neuroscience, but is relatively new to the field of psychiatry. Explore/exploit paradigms can offer psychiatry research a new approach to studying motivation, outcome valuation, and effort-related processes, which are disrupted in many mental and emotional disorders. In addition, the explore/exploit trade-off encompasses elements of risk-taking and impulsivity-common behaviors in psychiatric disorders-and provides a novel framework for understanding these behaviors within an ecological context. Here we explain relevant concepts and some common paradigms used to measure explore/exploit decisions in the laboratory, review clinically relevant research on the neurobiology and neuroanatomy of explore/exploit decision making, and discuss how computational psychiatry can benefit from foraging theory.

  16. Importance of Numeracy as a Risk Factor for Elder Financial Exploitation in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey A; Liu, Pi-Ju; Hanoch, Yaniv; Estevez-Cores, Sara

    2016-11-01

    To examine the role of numeracy, or comfort with numbers, as a potential risk factor for financial elder exploitation in a community sample. Individually administered surveys were given to 201 independent, community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older. Risk for financial elder exploitation was assessed using the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure (OAFEM). Other variables of interest included numeracy, executive functioning, and other risk factors identified from the literature. Assessments were completed individually at the Wood Lab at Scripps College in Claremont, CA and neighboring community centers. After controlling for other variables, including education, lower numeracy was related to higher scores on the OAFEM consistent with higher risk for financial exploitation. Self-reported physical and mental health, male gender, and younger age were also related to increased risk. Results indicated that numeracy is a significant risk factor for elder financial exploitation after controlling for other commonly reported variables. These findings are consistent with the broader literature relating numeracy to wealth and debt levels and extend them to the area of elder financial exploitation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. State of the art review of the environmental assessment and risks of underground geo-energy resources exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wen; Ramirez, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Geo-resources play an increasing significant role in achieving a sustainable energy future. However, their exploitation is not free of environmental impacts. This paper aims to identify the lessons and knowledge gaps on understanding of the sources, mechanisms and scope of environmental consequences of underground geo-energy resources exploitation. The paper examines four underground exploitation activities: CO2 geological storage, exploitation of shale gas, geothermal power and comp...

  18. Exploitation of the bloc 17: development schemes for Rosa-Lirio; L'exploitation du bloc 17: des schemas de developpement pour Rosa-Lirio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, E.

    2002-12-01

    New developments are expected on the prolific bloc 17 of the Angola offshore. Among the tenth of discoveries that followed the discovery of the Girassol giant field, TotalFinaElf initially selected the Dalia field, for which engineering studies started in December 2000. However, it is still not excluded that the development of the Rosa-Lirio field will start first. This article describes the specific characteristics of this field and the solutions proposed for its exploitation. (J.S.)

  19. Expelling Slavery from the Nation: Representations of labour exploitation in Australia’s supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szörényi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 2015, the Australian national broadcaster’s current affairs programme Four Corners aired an episode titled ‘Slaving Away: The dirty secrets behind Australia’s fresh food’, that provided revelations of labour exploitation of migrant workers on working holiday visas. The government reacted swiftly to these allegations with an ‘operation’ ostensibly designed to stop the exploitation. In reports of Operation Cloudburst, however, there was a shift in the media’s definition of the problem: worker exploitation became visa violations and newspapers shortly reported the resulting action taken: the ‘illegal workers’ in Australia’s food industry had been arrested. This paper tracks the competing discursive and visual representations of this case that ultimately made questions of labour rights become questions of immigration, making it plausible and acceptable that concern over exploitation of workers should be addressed by deportation of ‘illegal immigrants’. Such discursive slippage is enabled by cultural amnesia over Australia’s history of exploitation of racialised and migrant labourers, which allows ‘slavery’ to be represented as a ‘foreign’ problem that can be expelled in defence of the purity of the national domestic space.

  20. An ecology-oriented exploitation mode of groundwater resources in the northern Tianshan Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haimin; Wang, Wenke; Dai, Zhenxue; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, ecological degradation caused by irrational groundwater exploitation has been of growing concern in arid and semiarid regions. To address the groundwater-ecological issues, this paper proposes a groundwater-resource exploitation mode to evaluate the tradeoff between groundwater development and ecological environment in the northern Tianshan Mountains, northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Field surveys and remote sensing studies were conducted to analyze the relation between the distribution of hydrological conditions and the occurrence of ecological types. The results show that there is a good correlation between groundwater depth and the supergene ecological type. Numerical simulations and ecological assessment models were applied to develop an ecology-oriented exploitation mode of groundwater resources. The mode allows the groundwater levels in different zones to be regulated by optimizing groundwater exploitation modes. The prediction results show that the supergene ecological quality will be better in 2020 and even more groundwater can be exploited in this mode. This study provides guidance for regional groundwater management, especially in regions with an obvious water scarcity.

  1. Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Pearson, John M; Froeliger, Brett; Platt, Michael L; McClernon, F Joseph

    2014-12-30

    The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n=22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The age of exploration and exploitation: Younger-looking leaders endorsed for change and older-looking leaders endorsed for stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spisak, B.R.; Grabo, A.E.; Arvey, R.D.; van Vugt, M.

    2014-01-01

    The current contribution extends theorizing on leadership and the exploration-exploitation dilemma using an evolutionary perspective. A theoretical connection is made between the exploration-exploitation dilemma and age-biased leadership preferences for exploratory change versus stable exploitation.

  3. The German gas hydrate initiative sugar : innovative exploitation techniques, numerical modelling, and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeckel, M. [IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The German gas hydrate initiative and innovative exploitation techniques, numerical modelling, and laboratory experiments were discussed in this presentation. The main objectives of the sugar project are to model spatial and temporal distribution of sub-seafloor gas hydrates; to constrain major control parameters of hydrate formation; and to develop a new tool for three-dimensional prediction of gas hydrate deposits. The overall purpose is to predict exploitable gas hydrate deposits. Several illustrations were offered, including basin/geological modelling; properties of gas hydrate layers; and nested model/local grid refinement. The future of basin modeling was also discussed with particular reference to testing and calibration of software packages. Options for carbon dioxide storage and methane hydrate exploitation as well as critical issues that needed to be addressed were also outlined. Several reservoir modelling projects were presented. Scenarios and technical concepts were discussed. The presentation concluded with a summary of international co-operation efforts in this area. tabs., figs.

  4. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Elsayed, Rehab

    2007-01-01

    by producing a nuptial gift that resembles the female's eggsac. In mating experiments we examined whether males exploit the female's foraging motivation or the female's maternal care instinct. We carried out a gift-switching experiment, where males presented an eggsac, a wrapped fly or an unwrapped fly...... as nuptial gifts. Females fed on eggsacs as well as on prey gifts. Mating success was similar for males with both wrapped and unwrapped gifts, indicating that wrapping per se does not increase male mating success. In a food manipulation experiment, we investigated the effect of the female's hunger level......Nuptial feeding can evolve as sensory traps where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context. The nuptial prey gift of the nursery-web spider Pisaura mirabilis is wrapped in white silk, and it has been suggested that males initially exploit the maternal care instinct...

  5. OCNELE MARI-OCNIŢA, VÂLCEA COUNTY RESOURCES, EXPLOITATION, RISKS, UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂŞTESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocnele Mari-Ocniţa. Resources, exploitation, risks, valorization. In Ocnele Mari Town and its constituent locality - Ocniţa, Vâlcea County, following the extraction of a large volume of salt through its underground dissolution, the soil and the breccias covering the salt have become unstable, producing landfalls and landslides that affected the exploitation installations, the transport infrastructure and several homes, during the last decennia, especially in the area of Ocniţa locality. In order to avoid major imbalances in this geographic area, following the mining activities, and also in order to reduce the consequences of the pollution triggered by saltwater, the main affected areas-locations have been identified and analyzed. This paper presents the resources existing in the exploitation area, the modifications occurred following the salt mining activities and their effects on: economic efficiency, local population, environmental balance, tourist potential and utilisation.

  6. The Exploitive Mating Strategy of the Dark Triad Traits: Tests of Rape-Enabling Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Girgis, Mary; Milne-Home, Josephine

    2017-04-01

    The Dark Triad traits have been repeatedly labeled as facilitating an exploitive mating strategy. However, various researchers have repeatedly conflated short-term mating or casual sex with an exploitive mating strategy. In this study using Mechanical Turk participants (N = 252; 142 men, 110 women), we provided a better test of just how sexually exploitive those high on the Dark Triad traits might be by examining how the traits related to rape-enabling attitudes. We examined how each trait may facilitate rape, whether these associations were robust to partialing the variance associated with the Big Five traits and similar in men and women, and showed that one reason why men may be more likely to rape than women is they are characterized by the Dark Triad traits more than women are. In so doing, we test the confluence model of rape that asserts that personality traits similar to the Dark Triad traits act as one pathway to rape.

  7. Reconstruction of walleye exploitation based on angler diary records and a model of predicted catches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Allan R; Green, David M

    2007-11-01

    The walleye population in Canadarago Lake, New York, was 81-95% exploited in the 1988 fishing season, the year in which a previous restriction on the length and number of legally harvestable fish was liberalized. Using diary records from a subset of fishermen, growth estimates, and an estimate of the walleye population in the following year, a method is developed to reconstruct the fish population back to the spring of 1988 and thus determine the exploitation rate. The method is based on a model of diary catches that partitions time and fish length into a set of cells and relates predicted catches and population sizes in these cells. The method's sensitivity to the partitioning scheme, the growth estimates, and the diary data is analyzed. The method could be employed in other fish exploitation analyses and demonstrates the use of inexpensive angler-collected data in fisheries management.

  8. For your first born child: an ethical defense of the exploitation argument against commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, Brendan

    2006-01-01

    In this essay I explore two arguments against commercial surrogacy, based on commodification and exploitation respectively. I adopt a consequentialist framework and argue that commodification arguments must be grounded in a resultant harm to either child or surrogate, and that a priori arguments which condemn the practice for puritanical reasons cannot form a basis for public law. Furthermore there is no overwhelming evidence of harm caused to either party involved in commercial surrogacy, and hence Canadian law (which forbids the practice) must (and can) be justified on exploitative grounds. Objections raised by Wilkinson based on an 'isolated case' approach are addressed when one takes into account the political implications of public policy. I argue that is precisely these implications that justify laws forbidding commercial surrogacy on the grounds of preventing systematic exploitation.

  9. The Neuropsychological Function of Older First-Time Child Exploitation Material Offenders: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marcelo; Ellis, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Despite the growing incidence of child exploitation offences, there is little knowledge of the neuropsychological function of older child exploitation material offenders (CEMOs). Given that studies have reported that sex offenders demonstrate deficits attributed to frontal and temporal lobe function, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate the frontotemporal function of older first-time child exploitation material offenders (FTCEMOs). The neuropsychological performance of 11 older FTCEMOs was compared with 34 older historical sex offenders (HSOs) and 32 older nonsex offender (NSO) controls. Forty-five percent of FTCEMOs admitted to a pedophilic interest, which was significantly lower than those reported by HSOs. FTCEMOs provided significantly higher intellectual function scores than HSOs. Results revealed no evidence of mild or major neurocognitive disorder in FTCEMOs. Although the groups were not significantly different, compared with normative data, FTCEMOs reported a high incidence of impairment on a measure of decision making and on a measure of facial emotional recognition.

  10. Exploiting Spatial and Frequency Diversity in Spatially Correlated MU-MIMO Downlink Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosdiadee Nordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of self-interference due to the increase of spatial correlation in a MIMO channel has become one of the limiting factors towards the implementation of future network downlink transmissions. This paper aims to reduce the effect of self-interference in a downlink multiuser- (MU- MIMO transmission by exploiting the available spatial and frequency diversity. The subcarrier allocation scheme can exploit the frequency diversity to determine the self-interference from the ESINR metric, while the spatial diversity can be exploited by introducing the partial feedback scheme, which offers knowledge of the channel condition to the base station and further reduces the effect before the allocation process takes place. The results have shown that the proposed downlink transmission scheme offers robust bit error rate (BER performance, even when simulated in a fully correlated channel, without imposing higher feedback requirements on the base controller.

  11. Human Impact and Vegetation History on Salt Spring Exploitation (Halabutoaia - Tolici, Petricani, Neamt, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Salt exploitation from the mineral spring of Halabutoaia - Tolici (Neamt, Romania is one of the earliest in Europe. Salt production is documented from the Early Neolithic to the end of Chalcolithic period (6000-3500 BC with an important stratigraphy of 8 m high. In 2008, a core drilling with a Russian auger in the salty swamp of the spring closed to archaeological site, was realized. Pollen analysis, study of non-pollen palynomorphs and sedimentary signal (geophysical measurements of magnetic susceptibility, suggest a very anthropic environment since the Early Neolithic. Salt exploitation, agriculture and pastoralism (presence of spores of coprophilous fungi are directly in connection with these variations. After this intense exploitation, the forest environment closes but the human impact is always perceptible.

  12. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks.

  13. Automated UAV-based video exploitation using service oriented architecture framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Se, Stephen; Nadeau, Christian; Wood, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Airborne surveillance and reconnaissance are essential for successful military missions. Such capabilities are critical for troop protection, situational awareness, mission planning, damage assessment, and others. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) gather huge amounts of video data but it is extremely labour-intensive for operators to analyze hours and hours of received data. At MDA, we have developed a suite of tools that can process the UAV video data automatically, including mosaicking, change detection and 3D reconstruction, which have been integrated within a standard GIS framework. In addition, the mosaicking and 3D reconstruction tools have also been integrated in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework. The Visualization and Exploitation Workstation (VIEW) integrates 2D and 3D visualization, processing, and analysis capabilities developed for UAV video exploitation. Visualization capabilities are supported through a thick-client Graphical User Interface (GUI), which allows visualization of 2D imagery, video, and 3D models. The GUI interacts with the VIEW server, which provides video mosaicking and 3D reconstruction exploitation services through the SOA framework. The SOA framework allows multiple users to perform video exploitation by running a GUI client on the operator's computer and invoking the video exploitation functionalities residing on the server. This allows the exploitation services to be upgraded easily and allows the intensive video processing to run on powerful workstations. MDA provides UAV services to the Canadian and Australian forces in Afghanistan with the Heron, a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV system. On-going flight operations service provides important intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance information to commanders and front-line soldiers.

  14. EM-based optimization exploiting partial space mapping and exact sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a family of robust techniques for exploiting sensitivities in electromagnetic (EM)-based circuit optimization through space mapping (SM) technology. We utilize derivative information for parameter extractions and mapping updates. We exploit a partial SM (PSM) concept, where a reduced set...... of parameters is sufficient for parameter extraction optimization. It reflects the idea of tuning and execution time is reduced. Upfront gradients of both EM (fine) model and coarse surrogates can initialize possible mapping approximations. We introduce several effective approaches for updating the mapping...

  15. Thoughts on exploiting instability in lattices for assessing the discrimination adequacy of a taxonomy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cooper_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28574 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Cooper_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Thoughts on exploiting instability... in the spatial data community [1]. star Corresponding author. Current address: Built Environment Unit, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2 Thoughts on exploiting instability in lattices However, while the traditional sources of official data...

  16. Boldness predicts an individual's position along an exploration-exploitation foraging trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Samantha C; Pinaud, David; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2017-09-01

    Individuals do not have complete information about the environment and therefore they face a trade-off between gathering information (exploration) and gathering resources (exploitation). Studies have shown individual differences in components of this trade-off but how stable these strategies are in a population and the intrinsic drivers of these differences is not well understood. Top marine predators are expected to experience a particularly strong trade-off as many species have large foraging ranges and their prey often have a patchy distribution. This environment leads these species to exhibit pronounced exploration and exploitation phases but differences between individuals are poorly resolved. Personality differences are known to be important in foraging behaviour but also in the trade-off between exploration and exploitation. Here we test whether personality predicts an individual exploration-exploitation strategy using wide ranging wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans) as a model system. Using GPS tracking data from 276 wandering albatrosses, we extract foraging parameters indicative of exploration (searching) and exploitation (foraging) and show that foraging effort, time in patch and size of patch are strongly correlated, demonstrating these are indicative of an exploration-exploitation (EE) strategy. Furthermore, we show these are consistent within individuals and appear stable in the population, with no reproductive advantage. The searching and foraging behaviour of bolder birds placed them towards the exploration end of the trade-off, whereas shy birds showed greater exploitation. This result provides a mechanism through which individual foraging strategies may emerge. Age and sex affected components of the trade-off, but not the trade-off itself, suggesting these factors may drive behavioural compensation to maintain resource acquisition and this was supported by the evidence that there were no fitness consequence of any EE trait nor the trade

  17. Causation and Effectuation Processes: Opportunity Discovery and Exploitation Logics of Habitual Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs (i.e. serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) discover and exploit opportunities, deal with risk and uncertainty, predict or control the future, and plan their businesses based on a causation and effectuation perspective. This study thereby uncovered...... the causation and effectuation logics applied by habitual entrepreneurs with regard to four dimensions of the venture creation: View of the future (VF), Opportunity Discovery (OD), Opportunity Exploitation (OE), and Dealing with Risk (DR). Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined...

  18. Prediction maps of land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Hong Phi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents study results of the land subsidence caused by groundwater exploitation in Hanoi, Vietnam. The study includes collection and analysis of data on geology, hydrology, soil properties and settlements observed at 10 monitoring stations as well as models of the time-dependent settlement. The calculated settlements are relatively close to actual monitoring data. The models were done for prediction of the land subsidence at 92 selected points by the finite element method. Prediction maps are made for prediction of the land subsidence in 2020 and 2030. Recommendations are proposed for potential zones of groundwater exploitation in Hanoi.

  19. Preliminary studies of dry rock geothermal exploitation in south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, A.S.; Pearson, C.M.

    1978-07-01

    A research program to develop a method to exploit the heat usually found in mines in the Cornwall area is described. Temperature gradients range from 27 to 34/sup 0/C/Km with a mean of 29.8/sup 0/C/Km. The exploitable area is defined and methods of creating an artificial geothermal field or artificial reservoir are described. Tests to determine fractures in rocks including gamma-gamma logging, tv camera, caliper, and 3-D sonic are described as are pumping tests. 15 references, 3 figures.

  20. Inequality, Sexual Exploitation and the Risk of Contacting HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are various cultural practices that may be regarded as deliberate sexual violence and exploitation against women, which are not classified as violence like and other criminal acts such as rape. Nigerian society, like most patriarchal societies continues to ignore and refused to address properly, these important issues ...

  1. Unpacking the Exploration–Exploitation Tradeoff: A Synthesis of Human and Animal Literatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlhorn, Sabine; Newell, Ben R; Todd, Peter M; Lee, Michael D; Morgan, Kate; Braithwaite, Victoria A; Hausmann, Daniel; Fiedler, Klaus; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2015-01-01

    Many decisions in the lives of animals and humans require a fine balance between the exploration of different options and the exploitation of their rewards. Do you buy the advertised car, or do you test drive different models? Do you continue feeding from the current patch of flowers, or do you fly

  2. Exploitation of pocket gophers and their food caches by grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    I investigated the exploitation of pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the Yellowstone region of the United States with the use of data collected during a study of radiomarked bears in 1977-1992. My analysis focused on the importance of pocket gophers as a source of energy and nutrients, effects of weather and site features, and importance of pocket gophers to grizzly bears in the western contiguous United States prior to historical extirpations. Pocket gophers and their food caches were infrequent in grizzly bear feces, although foraging for pocket gophers accounted for about 20-25% of all grizzly bear feeding activity during April and May. Compared with roots individually excavated by bears, pocket gopher food caches were less digestible but more easily dug out. Exploitation of gopher food caches by grizzly bears was highly sensitive to site and weather conditions and peaked during and shortly after snowmelt. This peak coincided with maximum success by bears in finding pocket gopher food caches. Exploitation was most frequent and extensive on gently sloping nonforested sites with abundant spring beauty (Claytonia lanceolata) and yampah (Perdieridia gairdneri). Pocket gophers are rare in forests, and spring beauty and yampah roots are known to be important foods of both grizzly bears and burrowing rodents. Although grizzly bears commonly exploit pocket gophers only in the Yellowstone region, this behavior was probably widespread in mountainous areas of the western contiguous United States prior to extirpations of grizzly bears within the last 150 years.

  3. Page 1 32 S K Roy exploited in the deposition of materials by this ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exploited in the deposition of materials by this variant of CVD (Solanki et al 1985;. Mayo 1986). Thus LCVD can be broadly classified into two Categories: pyrolytic. LCVD (heat-thermal effect) and photolytic LCVD (light-wavelength effect). Figure 3 shows, Schematically, the two mechanisms. 3.1 Prolytic LCVD. Figure 3a ...

  4. Dealing with Students' Plagiarism Pre-Emptively through Teaching Proper Information Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    The present contribution looks into the much discussed issue of student plagiarism, which is conjectured to stem from problems with information searching and exploitation, underdeveloped exposition skills and difficulty in using sources, especially concerning quotations and references. The aim of the study is to determine how effective pre-emptive…

  5. Exploiting biased reptation for continuous flow preparative DNA fractionation in a versatile microfluidic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Bomer, Johan G.; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is presented for preparative, continuous flow fractionation of sub-10-kbp DNA fragments, which exploits the variation in the field-dependent mobility of the DNA molecules based on their length. Orthogonally pulsed electric fields of significantly different magnitudes are applied to a

  6. Human exploitation and benthic community structure on a tropical intertidal mudflat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Human exploitation of intertidal marine invertebrates is known to alter benthic community structure. This study describes the impact that harvesting by women and children has on the intertidal community structure of the mudflats of the Saco on Inhaca Island, Mozambique, by comparing the benthic

  7. EXPLOITATION AND CPUE TREND OF THE SMALL PELAGIC FISHERIES IN THE SULAWESI SEA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Sadiyah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the expected benefits of the Sulu-Celebes Sea Project during its implementation is to have increased fish stocks at demonstration sites, as indicated by the Catch per Unit of Effort (CPUE. Analysis of catch and effort data of the small pelagic fisheries by using the surplus yield model was done to obtain information on the likely trend of CPUE for the last ten years. By using the pajeko as the standardized fishing gear the trend of CPUE has been calculated. Between 2000-2005, the trend of production (catch, effort and CPUE followed the general pattern of the exploited fisheries that already fully exploited, where the increasing trend of effort was not followed by the increasing catch. On the other hand, the trend of CPUE is decreased. In the following years, the trend of both catch and CPUE do not follow the general pattern of the exploited fisheries. The trend of catch, effort and CPUE has likely been stable, indicating that the fishery in this period has been leveled-off. The status of exploitation of the small pelagic fish resources in the Indonesian Sulawesi Sea is demermined by the MSY level that has likely been surpassed during the period 2003-2004. Therefore with the increasing effort in the following year the trend of catch was relatively stable. It is likely that the small pelagic fish stock in the Indonesian Sulawesi Sea might be ‘fully exploited’.

  8. Exploiting Dark Information Resources to Create New Value Added Services to Study Earth Science Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Li, Xiang; Bugbee, Kaylin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two research applications exploiting unused metadata resources in novel ways to aid data discovery and exploration capabilities. The results based on the experiments are encouraging and each application has the potential to serve as a useful standalone component or service in a data system. There were also some interesting lessons learned while designing the two applications and these are presented next.

  9. Exploiting the dynamics of a robotic manipulator for control of UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersha, A.Y.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    This paper presents a new free-flight controller for aerial manipulators, unmanned aerial vehicles endowed with a robotic manipulator. The control strategy exploits the dynamics of the manipulator to improve the tracking performance and maneuverability of the UAV by expanding its flight envelop. The

  10. "Used Goods": Former African American College Student-Athletes' Perception of Exploitation by Division I Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamon, Krystal K.

    2008-01-01

    Collegiate sports have opened many doors for African American males. However, serious involvement in athletics has hampered the development of the group in several areas such as academic and occupational achievement. It has been alleged that universities exploit athletes, especially African American male athletes in football and basketball. This…

  11. Exploiting multi-level parallelism in streaming applications for heterogeneous platforms with GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balevic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous computing platforms support the traditional types of parallelism, such as e.g., instruction-level, data, task, and pipeline parallelism, and provide the opportunity to exploit a combination of different types of parallelism at different platform levels. The architectural diversity of

  12. Gaming the gamer? – The ethics of exploiting psychological research in video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ethical implications of video game companies employing psychologists and using psychological research in game design. Design/methodology/approach The author first argues that exploiting psychology in video games may be more ethically

  13. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  14. Zero day exploits and national readiness for cyber-warfare | Ibor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A zero day vulnerability is an unknown exploit that divulges security flaws in software before such a flaw is publicly reported or announced. But how should a nation react to a zero day? This question is a concern for most national governments, and one that requires a systematic approach for its resolution. The securities of ...

  15. Empirical Analysis of Exploiting Review Helpfulness for Extractive Summarization of Online Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenting; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel unsupervised extractive approach for summarizing online reviews by exploiting review helpfulness ratings. In addition to using the helpfulness ratings for review-level filtering, we suggest using them as the supervision of a topic model for sentence-level content scoring. The proposed method is metadata-driven, requiring no…

  16. Fully Exploiting The Potential Of The Periodic Table Through Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Emeric

    2005-01-01

    An approach to learning chemical facts that starts with the periodic table and depends primarily on recognizing and completing patterns and following a few simple rules is described. This approach exploits the exceptions that arise and uses them as opportunities for further concept development.

  17. Exploitation of a pH-sensitive hydrogel disk for CO2 detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper is described how hydrogel is exploited as sensor material for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2). A pH-sensitive hydrogel disk, which swells and deswells in response to pH changes, was clamped between a pressure sensor membrane and a porous metal screen together with a bicarbonate

  18. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-01-01

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues. PMID:18817576

  19. Conceptualizing child labour trafficking and exploitation: The case of Roma children in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhin Antonela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of children for labour exploitation is a profit-oriented criminal activity by which children are recruited, transported, harboured or received for the purpose of labour exploitation irrespective of whether or not force, abduction, fraud or other means were used. This paper examines child labour trafficking in the context of human rights violations and as the worst form of child labour. In an attempt to situate the discourse of alleged labour exploitation and trafficking of Roma children in Montenegro, focusing in particular on instances of child begging, this paper offers an overview of the international legal framework as well as the Government of Montenegro’s policy framework relevant to this issue; an analysis of implicated historical, familial and cultural structures; and focuses on identifying root causes in terms of push-pull factors that are associated with enhancing children’s vulnerability and proneness to exploitation. Along with a set of recommendations, in closing, the paper calls for a more sophisticated analysis of child labour trafficking and, in the case of Roma children, a more nuanced understanding of historical and cultural pretexts against the backdrop of labour trafficking.

  20. The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil field exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, N. G.; E Vasilyeva, E.; Evsyutkin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The intellectual information system for management of geological and technical arrangements during oil fields exploitation is developed. Service-oriented architecture of its software is a distinctive feature of the system. The results of the cluster analysis of real field data received by means of this system are shown.

  1. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs: Exploiting a Regression Kink Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...

  2. Random Search with Memory in Patchy Media: Exploration-Exploitation Tradeoff

    CERN Document Server

    Chupeau, M; Redner, S

    2016-01-01

    How to best exploit patchy resources? This long-standing question belongs to the extensively studied class of explore/exploit problems that arise in a wide range of situations, from animal foraging, to robotic exploration, and to human decision processes. Despite its broad relevance, the issue of optimal exploitation has previously only been tackled through two paradigmatic limiting models---patch-use and random search---that do not account for the interplay between searcher motion within patches and resource depletion. Here, we bridge this gap by introducing a minimal patch exploitation model that incorporates this coupling: the searcher depletes the resources along its random-walk trajectory within a patch and travels to a new patch after it takes $\\mathcal{S}$ consecutive steps without finding resources. We compute the distribution of the amount of resources $F_t$ consumed by time $t$ for this non-Markovian random walker and show that exploring multiple patches is beneficial. In one dimension, we analytica...

  3. Shapes and excitations of heavy nuclei: Exploiting the simplicities of algebraic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1991-01-01

    Despite years of study there are still major unanswered questions concerning the shapes of medium and heavy nuclei and the nature of their intrinsic excitations. Some of these questions may profitably be addressed by exploiting the simplicities inherent in algebraic models. Examples, using the IBA, focusing on axial asymmetry, the nature of {beta} and {gamma} vibrations, and octupole correlations will be briefly discussed.

  4. Shapes and excitations of heavy nuclei: Exploiting the simplicities of algebraic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, R.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1991-12-31

    Despite years of study there are still major unanswered questions concerning the shapes of medium and heavy nuclei and the nature of their intrinsic excitations. Some of these questions may profitably be addressed by exploiting the simplicities inherent in algebraic models. Examples, using the IBA, focusing on axial asymmetry, the nature of {beta} and {gamma} vibrations, and octupole correlations will be briefly discussed.

  5. Exploiting deep neural networks and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy J.; May, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine-hearing system that exploits deep neural networks (DNNs) and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions. DNNs are used to map binaural features, consisting of the complete crosscorrelation function (CCF) and interaural...... acoustic scenarios in which multiple speakers and room reverberation are present....

  6. Towards an international law of brigandage: interpretative engineering for the regulation of natural resources exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources in times of conflict has been the object of a prolific literature due to the extremely laconic character of the standards of conduct prescribed by the Hague and Geneva Conventions. Such laconicism has led scholars to be creative in ensuring that this central

  7. Towards an international law of brigandage: interpretative engineering for the regulation of natural resources exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Mbengue, M.M.; Kamga, M.

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources in times of conflict has been the object of prolific literature due to the extremely laconic character of the standards of conduct prescribed by the Hague and Geneva Conventions. Such laconicism has led scholars to be creative in ensuring that this central

  8. Multipath Exploitation in an Urban Environment using a MIMO Surveillance Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deiana, D.; Kossen, A.S.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance in an urban environment under all atmospheric conditions and situations can be performed by means of radars. The multipath created by buildings and moving targets can be exploited, for example in order to increase SNR. In this paper we present the initial results of the measurements of

  9. Exploitation of a pH-sensitive hydrogel for CO2 detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    In this paper is described how hydrogel is exploited as sensor material for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2). A pH-sensitive hydrogel disc, which swells and deswells in response to pH changes, was clamped between a pressure sensor membrane and a porous metal screen together with a bicarbonate

  10. Impact socio-environnemental de l'exploitation du sable marin sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Environnement, Développement Humain Durable, Erosion côtière, dragage du sable lagunaire. English Abstract The exploitation of marine sand by the resident population of the City of Grand- Popo in southwestern Benin has in recent years proved magnitude. The systematic nature of this socio-economic issue ...

  11. Monitoring the recovery of a previously exploited surf-zone fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring the recovery of a previously exploited surf-zone fish community in the St Lucia Marine Reserve, South Africa, using a no-take sanctuary area as a ... iSimangaliso Wetland Park, long-term monitoring, marine protected areas, mean fish length, surf-zone fish populations, standardisation, stock status indicators ...

  12. The effect of marine protected areas on an exploited population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of two marine protected areas (MPAs) on roman Chrysoblephus laticeps (Sparidae), an exploited reef-fish species inhabiting the South African temperate south coast, was simulated with a spatially explicit, individual-based model based on geographically correct habitat distribution. The model domains were small ...

  13. Un premier service mobile en Égypte qui relie les petits exploitants ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les petits exploitants agricoles dominent l'agriculture égyptienne, mais leur manque de connaissances en matière de commercialisation et de compétences techniques, ainsi qu'une mauvaise diffusion de l'information leur nuisent. Une organisation non gouvernementale fondée par des partenaires du secteur privé dans le ...

  14. Precarious Working Conditions and Exploitation of Workers in the Nigerian Informal Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayofe Akinwale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Situations in the informal economy expose workers to dangers without opportunity for hazard pay, thereby reflecting exploitation. Based on the Marxist theory of conflict, this paper examines the extent of precarious working conditions and exploitation of workers in the Nigerian informal economy. A total of 500 respondents randomly selected from various informal economy organizations participated in the survey conducted in Lagos State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that most of the respondents (76.4% had worked for up to five years consecutively, followed by a few (18%, who had worked for up to ten years consecutively. Their monthly income ranged from 10,000 naira ($60 to 80,000 naira ($485. Their mean monthly income was 30,000 naira ($182. Most of them (73.5% worked for 10 to 12 hours daily, while 26.5% worked for seven to nine hours daily. The experience of low pay with relatively long daily working hours shows the extent of exploitation in the Nigerian informal economy. Several background characteristics, such as gender, age, level of education, and marital status influenced the workers’ experience of precarious working conditions and exploitation. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a progressive workplace policy that can ensure decent work and adequate protection for workers in the Nigerian informal economy.

  15. Exploitation Status of Devis’Anchovy in Kei Island Waters: Based on Total Length Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supeni, E. A.; Dobo, J.

    2017-10-01

    Devis’ anchovy (Encrasicholina devisi) are a group of small pelagic fishes, which is thought to be one of the most abundant fishery resources in Indonesian waters. The high utilized of this resources will certainly affect to population status. This research aimed to know the exploitation status of anchovy in Kei Island waters. Sampling was carried out by using the data collected from lift net catches during April to July 2016 at Sathean, Selayar and Lebetawi, Kei Islands. A total of 3,524 anchovies were analyzed based on total length that ranged from 23 to 87 mm with a mean length of 55.4 ± 11.8 mm. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters estimated were L∞ = 89.25 mm and K = 0.74 year-1, with the growth models equation is Lt = 89.25 (1 ‑ e ‑0.74(t+0.161). The result of mortality analysis showed that Z = 2.97, M = 1.098, F= 1.87 year-1 and E = 0.63. This study reveals that exploitation status of anchovy in Kei Island is on fully exploited and leads to the over exploited condition.

  16. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam Sharon Daniëlle

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137

  17. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walia Harleen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  18. Sexual slavery without borders: trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffres, Christine; Mills, Edward; Joffres, Michel; Khanna, Tinku; Walia, Harleen; Grund, Darrin

    2008-09-25

    Trafficking in women and children is a gross violation of human rights. However, this does not prevent an estimated 800 000 women and children to be trafficked each year across international borders. Eighty per cent of trafficked persons end in forced sex work. India has been identified as one of the Asian countries where trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation has reached alarming levels. While there is a considerable amount of internal trafficking from one state to another or within states, India has also emerged as a international supplier of trafficked women and children to the Gulf States and South East Asia, as well as a destination country for women and girls trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation from Nepal and Bangladesh. Trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation is a highly profitable and low risk business that preys on particularly vulnerable populations. This paper presents an overview of the trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation (CSE) in India; identifies the health impacts of CSE; and suggest strategies to respond to trafficking and related issues.

  19. Pack Light on the Move: Exploitation and Exploration in a Dynamic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LiCalzi, Marco; Marchiori, Davide

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits a recent study by Posen and Levinthal (Manag Sci 58:587–601, 2012) on the exploration/exploitation tradeoff for a multi-armed bandit problem, where the reward probabilities undergo random shocks. We show that their analysis suffers two shortcomings: it assumes that learning is...

  20. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis...

  1. Human exploitation and benthic community structure on a tropical intertidal flat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, WF; Prins, HHT

    2002-01-01

    Human exploitation of intertidal marine invertebrates is known to alter benthic community structure. This study describes the impact that harvesting by women and children has on the intertidal community structure of the mudflats of the Saco on Inhaca Island, Mozambique, by comparing the benthic

  2. Historical perspectives : the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its

  3. Cloud ecosystem for supporting inquiry learning with online labs : Creation, personalization, and exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillet, Denis; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; De Jong, Ton; Bollen, Lars; Dikke, Diana

    2017-01-01

    To effectively and efficiently implement blended science and technology education, teachers should be able to find educational resources that suit their need, fit with their curricula, and that can be easily exploited in their classroom. The European Union has supported the FP7 Go-Lab Integrated

  4. Little Adults: Child and Teenage Commercial Sexual Exploitation in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silvia, Antonio Marcio

    2016-01-01

    This current study explores three contemporary Brazilian films' depiction of commercial sexual exploitation of young girls and teenagers. It points out how the young female characters cope with the abuses they suffer and proposes that these filmic representations of the characters' experiences expose a significant social problem of contemporary…

  5. The enzyme DXS as an anti-infective target : Exploiting multiple hit-identification strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    We exploited multiple hit-identification strategies toward the development of inhibitors for the enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS). DXS belongs to the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and dimethylallyl

  6. LHC Full Energy Exploitation Study: Operation at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Antoniou, Fanouria; Apollonio, Andrea; Arduini, Gianluigi; Baglin, Vincent; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Bednarek, Mateusz Jakub; Bracco, Chiara; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Brodzinski, Krzysztof; Bruce, Roderik; Brugger, Markus; Burnet, Jean-Paul; Carlier, Etienne; Chiggiato, Paolo; Claudet, Serge; Delikaris, Dimitri; Denz, Reiner; Ducimetiere, Laurent Sylvain; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Goddard, Brennan; Iadarola, Giovanni; Jensen, Erk; Jowett, John; Kersevan, Roberto; Lamont, Mike; Lechner, Anton; Le Naour, Sandrine; Metral, Elias; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montabonnet, Valerie; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Pojer, Mirko; Redaelli, Stefano; Rodriguez Mateos, Felix; Rumolo, Giovanni; Senaj, Viliam; Siemko, Andrzej; Todesco, Ezio; Verweij, Arjan; Wiesner, Christoph; Wollmann, Daniel; Zerlauth, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report of a three volume study on the full energy exploitation of the LHC. The report summaries the necessary preparations and consolidation work and the potential performance reach for operating the LHC at its nominal beam energy of 7TeV.

  7. Forced Flexibility and Exploitation: Experiences of Migrant Workers in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ollus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has resulted in structural changes in the labor markets over the last decades. These changes have weakened some of the economic and social dimensions of work. At the same time, migration and especially labor migration have increased on the global level. This article looks at the situation of migrant workers in the cleaning industry in Finland. It is based on interviews with migrant workers who have experienced labor exploitation in the cleaning industry, representatives of cleaning industry employers, and representatives of labor unions. The primary aim is to give voice to the migrant workers themselves and to analyze how they experience their work and their position in working life. The findings suggest that there is a risk that migrant workers in the cleaning sector experience various forms of exploitation. This article argues that the demand and need for (employee flexibility may turn into forced flexibility that exploits the powerless and vulnerable migrant workers who have few other options than to agree to work on poor terms. The article suggests that the structural reasons that make the exploitation of migrant labor possible should be identified and addressed in order to prevent misuse of any workers, especially migrants.

  8. Technology Exploitation Paths: Combining Technological and Complementary Resources in New Product Development and Licensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, Mattia; Frattini, Frederico; Lejarraga, Jose; Di Minin, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Technological resources in the form of patents, trade secrets, and know-how have become key assets for modern enterprises. This paper addresses a critical issue in technology and innovation management, namely, the commercial exploitation of technological resources resulting from research and

  9. Geodetic monitoring (TLS of a steel transport trestle bridge located in an active mining exploitation site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoczylas Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation causes, in general, irregular vertical and horizontal shifts in the superficial layer of the rock mass. In the case of construction objects seated on this layer, a deformation of the object’s foundation can be observed. This leads to additional loads and deformations. Identification of surface geometry changes in construction objects located within the premises of underground mining exploitation areas is an important task as far as safety of mining sites is concerned. Surveys targeting shifts and deformations in engineering objects preformed with the use of classic methods are of a selective nature and do not provide the full image of the phenomenon being the subject of the observation. This paper presents possibilities of terrestrial laser scanning technology application in the monitoring of engineering objects that allows for a complete spatial documentation of an object subjected to the influence of an active mining exploitation. This paper describes an observation of a 100 m section of a steel transport trestle bridge located on the premises of hard coal mine Lubelski Węgiel “Bogdanka” S.A. carried out in 2015. Measurements were carried out using a Z+F Imager 5010C scanner at an interval of 3.5 months. Changes in the structure’s geometry were determined by comparing the point clouds recorded during the two measurement periods. The results of the analyses showed shifts in the trestle bridge towards the exploited coal wall accompanied by object deformation. The obtained results indicate the possibility of of terrestrial laser scanning application in studying the aftereffects of underground mining exploitation on surface engineering objects.

  10. Influence of temperature and exploitation period on fatigue crack growth parameters in different regions of welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Camagic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of exploitation period and temperature on the fatigue crack growth parameters indifferent regions of a welded joint is analysed for new and exploited low-alloyed Cr-Mo steel A-387 Gr. B. The parent metal is a part of a reactor mantle which was exploited for over 40 years, and recently replaced with new material. Fatigue crack growth parameters, threshold value Kth, coefficient C and exponent m, have been determined, both at room and exploitation temperature. Based on testing results, fatigue crack growth resistance in different regions of welded joint is analysed in order to justify the selected welding procedure specification.

  11. An ethnomethodological approach to examine exploitation in the context of capacity, trust and experience of commercial surrogacy in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saravanan, Sheela

    2013-01-01

    The socio-ethical concerns regarding exploitation in commercial surrogacy are premised on asymmetric vulnerability and the commercialization of women's reproductive capacity to suit individualistic motives...

  12. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Alys; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-12-28

    Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters. We focused on sexual exploitation in forms of early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation and sexual slavery. We extracted prevalence measures, health outcomes and sexual exploitation terminology definitions. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines and includes quality appraisal. The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The evidence was limited and not generalizable, due to few prevalence estimates and inconsistent definitions of "sexual exploitation". The prevalence estimates available indicate that females were more likely than males to be victims of sexual exploitation in conflict settings. In some settings, as many as one in four forced marriages took place before the girls reached 18 years old. Findings suggest that the vast majority of former female combatants were sexually exploited during the conflict. These studies provided various indicators of sexual exploitation compatible to the United Nation's definition of sex trafficking, but only 2 studies identified the exploitation as trafficking. None of the studies solely aimed to measure the prevalence of sex trafficking or sexual exploitation. Similar descriptions of types of sexual exploitation and trafficking were found, but the inconsistent terminology or measurements inhibited a meta-analysis. Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in

  13. Liking and hyperlinking: Community detection in online child sexual exploitation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Bryce G; Bouchard, Martin

    2016-09-01

    The online sexual exploitation of children is facilitated by websites that form virtual communities, via hyperlinks, to distribute images, videos, and other material. However, how these communities form, are structured, and evolve over time is unknown. Collected using a custom-designed webcrawler, we begin from known child sexual exploitation (CE) seed websites and follow hyperlinks to connected, related, websites. Using a repeated measure design we analyze 10 networks of 300 + websites each - over 4.8 million unique webpages in total, over a period of 60 weeks. Community detection techniques reveal that CE-related networks were dominated by two large communities hosting varied material -not necessarily matching the seed website. Community stability, over 60 weeks, varied across networks. Reciprocity in hyperlinking between community members was substantially higher than within the full network, however, websites were not more likely to connect to homogeneous-content websites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  15. Beneath Still Waters - Multistage Aquatic Exploitation of Euryale ferox (Salisb. during the Acheulian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Goren-Inbar1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remains of the highly nutritious aquatic plant Fox nut – Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae – were found at the Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Here, we present new evidence for complex cognitive strategies of hominins as seen in their exploitation of E. ferox nuts. We draw on excavated data and on parallels observed in traditional collecting and processing practices from Bihar, India. We suggest that during the early Middle Pleistocene, hominins implemented multistage procedures comprising underwater gathering and subsequent processing (drying, roasting and popping of E. ferox nuts. Hierarchical processing strategies are observed in the Acheulian lithic reduction sequences and butchering of game at this and other sites, but are poorly understood as regards the exploitation of aquatic plant resources. We highlight the ability of Acheulian hominins to resolve issues related to underwater gathering of E. ferox nuts during the plant's life cycle and to adopt strategies to enhance their nutritive value.

  16. DNA evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by Greenlandic Paleo-Inuit 4,000 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Søe, Martin Jensen; Shokry, Hussein; Mak, Sarah Siu Tze; Ruter, Anthony; Raghavan, Maanasa; Fitzhugh, William; Kjær, Kurt H.; Willerslev, Eske; Meldgaard, Morten; Kapel, Christian M. O.; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2016-11-01

    The demographic history of Greenland is characterized by recurrent migrations and extinctions since the first humans arrived 4,500 years ago. Our current understanding of these extinct cultures relies primarily on preserved fossils found in their archaeological deposits, which hold valuable information on past subsistence practices. However, some exploited taxa, though economically important, comprise only a small fraction of these sub-fossil assemblages. Here we reconstruct a comprehensive record of past subsistence economies in Greenland by sequencing ancient DNA from four well-described midden deposits. Our results confirm that the species found in the fossil record, like harp seal and ringed seal, were a vital part of Inuit subsistence, but also add a new dimension with evidence that caribou, walrus and whale species played a more prominent role for the survival of Paleo-Inuit cultures than previously reported. Most notably, we report evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by the Saqqaq culture 4,000 years ago.

  17. Exploiting Opportunistic Resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  18. Exploiting opportunistic resources for ATLAS with ARC CE and the Event Service

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00226583; The ATLAS collaboration; Filipčič, Andrej; Guan, Wen; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Walker, Rodney; Wenaus, Torre

    2017-01-01

    With ever-greater computing needs and fixed budgets, big scientific experiments are turning to opportunistic resources as a means to add much-needed extra computing power. These resources can be very different in design from the resources that comprise the Grid computing of most experiments, therefore exploiting these resources requires a change in strategy for the experiment. The resources may be highly restrictive in what can be run or in connections to the outside world, or tolerate opportunistic usage only on condition that tasks may be terminated without warning. The ARC CE with its non-intrusive architecture is designed to integrate resources such as High Performance Computing (HPC) systems into a computing Grid. The ATLAS experiment developed the Event Service primarily to address the issue of jobs that can be terminated at any point when opportunistic resources are needed by someone else. This paper describes the integration of these two systems in order to exploit opportunistic resources for ATLAS in...

  19. Oscillators and crank turning: exploiting natural dynamics with a humanoid robot arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M

    2003-10-15

    This paper presents an approach to robot-arm control that exploits the natural dynamics of the arm. This is in contrast to traditional approaches, which either ignore or cancel out arm dynamics. While the traditional approaches are more general, they often result in systems and robot designs that are not robust. The alternative approach gives systems that are computationally simple, robust to variation in system parameters, robust to changes in the dynamics themselves, and versatile. The approach is examined using the example of a compliant robot arm, controlled by independent neural oscillators, in a crank-turning task. A model is constructed, and the robot behaviour compared with the model. These data show that the arm-oscillator system is exploiting the natural dynamics by finding and exciting the resonant mode of the underlying mechanical system. Since this is a natural behaviour of the system, the robot behaviour is robust. The paper concludes by discussing the opportunities and limitations of this approach.

  20. The role of environmental biotechnology in exploring, exploiting, monitoring, preserving, protecting and decontaminating the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Arff, Johanne; Banat, Ibrahim M; Broch, Ole Jacob; Daffonchio, Daniele; Edvardsen, Torgeir; Eguiraun, Harkaitz; Giuliano, Laura; Handå, Aleksander; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Marigomez, Ionan; Martinez, Iciar; Øie, Gunvor; Rojo, Fernando; Skjermo, Jorunn; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2015-01-25

    In light of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the EU Thematic Strategy on the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, environmental biotechnology could make significant contributions in the exploitation of marine resources and addressing key marine environmental problems. In this paper 14 propositions are presented focusing on (i) the contamination of the marine environment, and more particularly how to optimize the use of biotechnology-related tools and strategies for predicting and monitoring contamination and developing mitigation measures; (ii) the exploitation of the marine biological and genetic resources to progress with the sustainable, eco-compatible use of the maritime space (issues are very diversified and include, for example, waste treatment and recycling, anti-biofouling agents; bio-plastics); (iii) environmental/marine biotechnology as a driver for a sustainable economic growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Possibilities of collecting evidences about crime act of sexual exploitation in human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijalković Saša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidences about organized crime act of sexual exploitation in human begins often is very difficult because of high level of organization, secrecy ant precaution taken during committing prostitution, pornography, sex tourism and human trafficking. On the other side, high illegal profit enable criminals to engage "expensive" and experienced lawyers, whose often make values and reliability of collected evidences questionable, appealing to irregularities during police collecting procedure. Among traditional criminalities methods and proofing activities, in the study, modern tendencies in special investigative measures and techniques are considered. After that, there is pointing at specificity, meaning and value of material tracks and objects, which are essential for proofing crime act or perpetrator’s guiltiness. On the end, there is pointing at importance of victims’ cooperation in collecting evidences about their sexual exploitation.

  2. Exploiting Cell Death Pathways for Inducible Cell Elimination to Modulate Graft-versus-Host-Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Falcon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potent form of immunotherapy, potentially life-saving for many malignant hematologic diseases. However, donor lymphocytes infused with the graft while exerting a graft versus malignancy effect can also cause potentially fatal graft versus host disease (GVHD. Our group has previously validated the inducible caspase-9 suicide gene in the haploidentical stem cell transplant setting, which proved successful in reversing signs and symptoms of GVHD within hours, using a non-therapeutic dimerizing agent. Cellular death pathways such as apoptosis and necroptosis are important processes in maintaining healthy cellular homeostasis within the human body. Here, we review two of the most widely investigated cell death pathways active in T-cells (apoptosis and necroptosis, as well as the emerging strategies that can be exploited for the safety of T-cell therapies. Furthermore, such strategies could be exploited for the safety of other cellular therapeutics as well.

  3. Exploiting Indoor Mobile Laser Scanner Trajectories for Semantic Interpretation of Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoohemat, S.; Peter, M.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-09-01

    The use of Indoor Mobile Laser Scanners (IMLS) for data collection in indoor environments has been increasing in the recent years. These systems, unlike Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS), collect data along a trajectory instead of at discrete scanner positions. In this research, we propose several methods to exploit the trajectories of IMLS systems for the interpretation of point clouds. By means of occlusion reasoning and use of trajectory as a set of scanner positions, we are capable of detecting openings in cluttered indoor environments. In order to provide information about both the partitioning of the space and the navigable space, we use the voxel concept for point clouds. Furthermore, to reconstruct walls, floor and ceiling we exploit the indoor topology and plane primitives. The results show that the trajectory is a valuable source of data for feature detection and understanding of indoor MLS point clouds.

  4. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  5. Stiffness Control of Variable Serial Elastic Actuators: Energy Efficiency through Exploitation of Natural Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Beckerle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Variable elastic actuators are very promising for applications in physical human–robot interaction. Besides enabling human safety, such actuators can support energy efficiency, especially if the natural behavior of the system is exploited. In this paper, the power and energy consumption of variable stiffness actuators with serial elasticity is investigated analytically and experimentally. Besides the fundamental mechanics, the influence of friction and electrical losses is discussed. A simple but effective stiffness control method is used to exploit the corresponding knowledge of natural dynamics by tuning the system to antiresonance operation. Despite nonlinear friction effects and additional electrical dynamics, the consideration of the ideal mechanical dynamics is completely sufficient for stiffness control. Simulations and experiments show that this yields a distinct reduction in power and energy consumption, which underlines the suitability of the control strategy.

  6. Managing the exploitation life of the mining machinery for an unlimited duration of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimum exploitation life of machinery, namely, the optimum time for machinery and equipment replacement, represents a complex and highly responsible engineering task. Taking into consideration the situation prevailing at coal pit mines in Serbia, the tasks of this rank are very complex and difficult. To make a decision on the replacement of capital equipment and machinery, such as bucket wheel excavators within the mentioned systems, implies a management task of utmost responsibility. It requires high professional and analytical knowledge as well as reliable arguments, based on a multidisciplinary professional approach. In this paper, the authors present their views on the problem of establishing the optimum exploitation life of bucket wheel excavators, offering an algorithm, based on dynamic programming, as a solution.

  7. Exploitation of labour: A study of Migrant labourers in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Migrant workers, who constitute a major work force, in the unorganized sector, face various psychological stresses and arrive in an aggravated mental position due to their habit of using different varieties of intoxicants. The researcher’s attempt in this paper is to find out the connection of addiction- related stress and social disintegration of the migrant workers with the wide web of exploitation of labour through an empirical analysis. The intoxicants are the only medium for the migrants to leave the sufferings behind them for a time being. This paper highlights the push factors as the fabricated trap to exploit the migrants physically, socially and mentally for surplus production with cheap labour.

  8. Exploiting Cell Death Pathways for Inducible Cell Elimination to Modulate Graft-versus-Host-Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Corey; Al-Obaidi, Mustafa; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2017-06-14

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potent form of immunotherapy, potentially life-saving for many malignant hematologic diseases. However, donor lymphocytes infused with the graft while exerting a graft versus malignancy effect can also cause potentially fatal graft versus host disease (GVHD). Our group has previously validated the inducible caspase-9 suicide gene in the haploidentical stem cell transplant setting, which proved successful in reversing signs and symptoms of GVHD within hours, using a non-therapeutic dimerizing agent. Cellular death pathways such as apoptosis and necroptosis are important processes in maintaining healthy cellular homeostasis within the human body. Here, we review two of the most widely investigated cell death pathways active in T-cells (apoptosis and necroptosis), as well as the emerging strategies that can be exploited for the safety of T-cell therapies. Furthermore, such strategies could be exploited for the safety of other cellular therapeutics as well.

  9. "Old friends in new guise": exploiting privileged structures for scaffold re-evolution/refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu'ning; Chen, Wenmin; Kang, Dongwei; Zhang, Qingzhu; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-01-01

    The attempts to increase novel drug productivity through creative discovery technologies have fallen short of producing the satisfactory results. For these reasons, evolved from the concept of drug repositioning, "privileged structure"-guided scaffold re-evolution/refining is a primary strategy to identify structurally novel chemotypes by modifying the central core structure and the side-chain of the existing active compounds, or to exploit undescribed bioactivites by making full use of readily derivatized motifs with well-established synthetic protocols. Herein, we review the basic tricks of exploiting privileged structures for scaffold re-evolution/refining. The power of this strategy is exemplified in the discovery of other new therapeutic applications by refining privileged structures in anti-viral agents.

  10. CIME Summer Course on Exploiting Hidden Structure in Matrix Computations : Algorithms and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Simoncini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on special matrices and matrices which are in some sense "near" to structured matrices, this volume covers a broad range of topics of current interest in numerical linear algebra. Exploitation of these less obvious structural properties can be of great importance in the design of efficient numerical methods, for example algorithms for matrices with low-rank block structure, matrices with decay, and structured tensor computations. Applications range from quantum chemistry to queuing theory. Structured matrices arise frequently in applications. Examples include banded and sparse matrices, Toeplitz-type matrices, and matrices with semi-separable or quasi-separable structure, as well as Hamiltonian and symplectic matrices. The associated literature is enormous, and many efficient algorithms have been developed for solving problems involving such matrices. The text arose from a C.I.M.E. course held in Cetraro (Italy) in June 2015 which aimed to present this fast growing field to young researchers, exploit...

  11. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria.

  12. Exploiting water versus tolerating drought: water-use strategies of trees in a secondary successional tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando Pineda-García; Horacio Paz; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guillermo Angeles; Guillermo Goldstein

    2015-01-01

    In seasonal plant communities where water availability changes dramatically both between and within seasons, understanding the mechanisms that enable plants to exploit water pulses and to survive drought periods is crucial. By measuring rates of physiological processes, we examined the trade-off between water exploitation and drought tolerance among seedlings of trees...

  13. An Effect Analysis of Comprehensive Treatment of Groundwater Over-Exploitation in Cheng’an County, Hebei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weiwei; Zhou, Jinjun; Liu, Jiahong; Zhang, Haixing; Wang, Jianhua; Xiang, Chenyao; Yang, Guiyu; Tang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    The comprehensive treatment project of groundwater over-exploitation in Hebei Province has been implemented for more than a year, and the effect of exploitation restriction is in urgent need of evaluation. This paper deals with Cheng’an County of Hebei Province as the research subject. Based on collected hydro-meteorological, socioeconomic, groundwater, and other related data, together with typical regional experimental research, this study generates the effective precipitation–groundwater exploitation (P-W) curve and accompanying research methods, and calculates the quantity of groundwater exploitation restriction. It analyzes the target completion status of groundwater exploitation restriction through water conservancy measures and agricultural practices of the groundwater over-exploitation comprehensive treatment project that was implemented in Cheng’an County in 2014. The paper evaluates the treatment effect of groundwater over-exploitation, as well as provides technical support for the effect evaluation of groundwater exploitation restriction of agricultural irrigation in Cheng’an County and relevant areas. PMID:28054979

  14. Collapse and recovery of forage fish populations prior to commercial exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, S.; Hendy, I. L.; Thompson, A. R.; Watson, W.

    2017-02-01

    We use a new, well-calibrated 500 year paleorecord off southern California to determine collapse frequency, cross correlation, persistence, and return times of exploited forage fish populations. The paleorecord shows that "collapse" (defined as forage. Forage populations are resilient on the 500 year time scale, but their collapse and recovery cycle (based on the paleorecord) are suited to alternating periods of high fishing mortality and periods of little or no fishing.

  15. Exploiting the potential of marine natural products: structure elucidation and metagenomic approaches to biotechnological production

    OpenAIRE

    Della Sala, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Sponges represent the most prolific producers of novel marine bioactive secondary metabolites. In the last years, several drugs derived from marine natural products have appeared in the market, and others are in clinical trials. The aim of my research project was to exploit the unusual and often surprising chemistry of marine sponges, in the frame of the more general purpose of discovering and developing new drugs from natural products. The research work presented in this PhD Thesis was di...

  16. Potential groundwater impact from exploitation of shale gas in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a desk study to evaluate the potential risks to groundwater in the UK from exploitation of shale gas. As yet there is little information for UK so we need to look to the USA experience for transferable information. The UK may possess considerable reserves of shale gas. Significant areas include the Widmerpool Gulf, near Nottingham, and the Elsewick field near Blackpool. Work has begun near Blackpool. Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in combination with horizontal drillin...

  17. AGRICULTURAL EXPLOITATION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ROMANIA’S INTEGRATION INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Vasile; Iwona Grabara

    2014-01-01

    Rural development and, implicitly, raising the standard of living of the village inhabitants are not possible without modernizing the agricultural production which can be achieved by putting into practice the results of scientific research as well as providing a feedback to common agricultural policies. Enhanced crops of high quality and low costs are the markers of the activity in agricultural exploitations showing the profitability and competitiveness of those in the market economy. Under s...

  18. Exploitation minière : une chercheure amérindienne exprime le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2011 ... La Rose, d'origine autochtone, travaille à l'Association des peuples amérindiens (APA). Elle y mène des recherches sur le point de vue des populations autochtones à l'égard de l'exploitation minière au Guyana — point de vue qui, jusqu'à tout récemment, n'avait pas fait l'objet d'études sérieuses.

  19. Exploiting Stabilizers and Parallelism in State Space Generation with the Symmetry Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentsen, Louise; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2001-01-01

    The symmetry method is a main reduction paradigm for alleviating the state explosion problem. For large symmetry groups deciding whether two states are symmetric becomes time expensive due to the apparent high time complexity of the orbit problem. The contribution of this paper is to alleviate th...... the negative impact of the orbit problem by the specification of canonical representatives for equivalence classes of states in Coloured Petri Nets, and by giving algorithms exploiting stabilizers and parallelism for computing the condensed state space....

  20. Application of geophysical methods in exploration and exploitation of mineral raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Delipetrov, Todor; Blažev, Krsto; Doneva, Blagica; Delipetrev, Marjan; Dimov, Gorgi

    2013-01-01

    Opening of a mine is complex procedure dependent on more parameters, but as the most important are: deposit with sufficient concentration of useful material which can be extract with appropriate technological process and economic working. Anyway, for possible opening of a mine, first and necessary factor is determination of deposit area and defining the space distribution and concentration of mineral raw material. Intense exploitation of mineral raw materials which were base for future dev...

  1. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  2. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  3. Étude de la sociologie des exploitants de bois de rose malgaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mais c'est à Antalaha que leur croissance a été la plus remarquable : les opérateurs historiques ont été rejoints par les membres de leurs familles et leurs anciens collecteurs, puis par des nouveaux venus, pour atteindre le chiffre record de 63 opérateurs dans cette seule ville, malgré l'interdiction d'exploiter le bois de rose ...

  4. Exploiting pupils' multiple intelligences in the process of teaching English vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    KUTTENBERGOVÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to exploiting pupils' multiple intelligences in the process of learning English vocabulary. The theoretical part deals with the theory of vocabulary acquisition and the description of Howard Gardner´s multiple intelligences. The practical part deals with the application of these theories into lessons where activities connected with multiple intelligences will be used for new vocabulary teaching. The aim of this diploma thesis is to find out which types of intelli...

  5. DNA evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by Greenlandic Paleo-Inuit 4,000 years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seersholm, Frederik Valeur; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Søe, Martin Jensen

    2016-01-01

    -described midden deposits. Our results confirm that the species found in the fossil record, like harp seal and ringed seal, were a vital part of Inuit subsistence, but also add a new dimension with evidence that caribou, walrus and whale species played a more prominent role for the survival of Paleo-Inuit cultures...... than previously reported. Most notably, we report evidence of bowhead whale exploitation by the Saqqaq culture 4,000 years ago....

  6. Coastal Karst Aquifers in Mediterranean Regions. 2. A Methodology for Exploring, Exploiting and monitoring Submarine Springs

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalowicz, Michel; Fleury, P.; Jouvencel, Bruno; Promé, Jean-Jacques; Becker, P.; Carlin, Thierry; Dörfliger, Nathalie; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Sergent, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    International audience; In coastal regions, the study of karst aquifers and the ground water resource exploitation require a specific methodology and exploration and monitoring techniques. Two directions are investigated, leading to new technological and methodological developments. The first investigation axis deals with the exploration of fresh water plumes from submarine karst springs. An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is being developed and tested in order to collect all data (salini...

  7. Harmony and Disharmony: Exploiting al-Qa’ida’s Organizational Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-14

    Sheikh Mohammad al-Shami was killed in a related attack. In an attempt to distance themselves from the attack, the Muslim Brotherhood issued a statement...refers to the Muslim declaration of monotheism) where Zarqawi offered a bayat or pledge of loyalty to Osama bin Laden and al-Qa’ida. The subsequent... bayat there are still latent tensions that can be exploited. Critical examples are Zarqawi’s persistent attacks against Shiites. Although these

  8. Methodology of decision making in the exploitation of real estate units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dement’eva Marina Evgen’evna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of buildings is a complex cyclic process with the aim of prevention of wear and elimination of sudden refusals. Often it is needed to choose a technology of repair, construction materials or strategy of repair for expeditious elimination of suddenly arisen malfunctions. The quality of the solution depends on personal preferences, qualification of an expert and his or her skills. Therefore now operative decision making process in the exploitation of buildings is intuitive. Hence in the process of making decisions it is necessary to use modern software interactive systems of optimal decision making support. In the article the results of expert assessment of the importance of criteria of plans exploitation comparison were presented when the solving different tasks. The experts were asked to choose a technology of thermal insulation of facades, a technology of basement insulation, to choose a material for sealing of panel seams and a material for waterproofing of the roof. In order to compare alternative exploitation of plans three quantitative criteria were chosen: durability, cost of the works and the labor input. The influence of experts’ opinions on the final result was analyzed. The experts’ opinions were not coordinated and were subjective. There was established that the hierarchy analysis method takes into account the significant divergence of opinions of experts. The final result is close to average value. It allows choosing acceptable solution for the majority, which will be optimal by all the criteria. Such a methodology can be implemented in a production activity and to reduce the influence of subjective opinion the experts on the obtained result.

  9. Understanding and Managing the Occupational Health Impacts on Investigators of Internet Child Exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Wortley, R.; Smallbone, S.; Powell, M.; Cassematis, P.

    2014-01-01

    An empirical research project was carried out involving Internet child exploitation (ICE) investigators from all nine Australian police jurisdictions. The aim of the research was to examine the physical, social and psychological impacts of ICE investigation in order to inform the development of prevention and best practice guidelines. The research comprised two studies. The first study involved an online survey of 188 current, former and incoming ICE investigators and a comparison sample of 1...

  10. Exploiting short-range cooperation for energy efficient vertical handover operations

    OpenAIRE

    Foukas, Xenofon; Kontovasilis, K.; Marina, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of multiple collocated wireless networks using heterogeneous technologies and the multi-access support of contemporary mobile devices have allowed wireless connectivity optimization, enabled through vertical handover (VHO) operations. However, this comes at a high energy consumption on the mobile device, due to the inherently expensive nature of some of the involved operations. This work proposes exploiting short-range cooperation among collocated mobile devices to improve th...

  11. MANAGEMENT OF TUNNELS ON THE ZAGREB – MACELJ MOTORWAY IN THE COURSE OF TUNNELS EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Deković, Zvonimir; Pili, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the features of management of tunnels on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway. Management of tunnels is represented trough public-private partnership model that is applied on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway. In the course of tunnel operation and maintenance in the first five years of tunnels exploitation, the emphasis is put on the maintenance of the tunnel equipment systems. Tunnels as part of the motorway alignment are the most demanding facilities for maintaining appropriate safety a...

  12. MANAGEMENT OF TUNNELS ON THE ZAGREB – MACELJ MOTORWAY IN THE COURSE OF TUNNELS EXPLOITATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonimir Deković; Igor Pili

    2012-01-01

    he paper focuses on the features of management of tunnels on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway. Management of tunnels is represented trough public-private partnership model that is applied on the Zagreb-Macelj motorway. In the course of tunnel operation and maintenance in the first five years of tunnels exploitation, the emphasis is put on the maintenance of the tunnel equipment systems. Tunnels as part of the motorway alignment are the most demanding facilities for maintaining appropriate safety an...

  13. The exploitation of paid Facebook advertising in a small startup company: case study Prosauna Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the new modes of marketing through digital platforms offered by Facebook and Google. Marketing activities have undergone considerable changes through the growth of social media and digitalization. Companies are able to reach a huge audience through Facebook marketing and simultaneously it is considered to be a low cost form of promotion. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the benefits of the exploitation of paid Facebook ad-vertising and Google AdWords in a smal...

  14. Four kilograms to tip the scale China's exploitation of the North Korean nuclear crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, John M.

    2007-01-01

    China has incentives to exploit the North Korean nuclear crisis to exact diplomatic, economic and security advantages. The inherent dangers involved in the crisis (that it sparks a nuclear cascade or regional proliferation of nuclear weapons, that Japan will build a more offensive military as a deterrent, that North Korea could explosively collapse, or that the United States will preemptively strike Pyongyang and start a regional conflict) do not completely constrain China's foreign polic...

  15. Mobile clouds exploiting distributed resources in wireless, mobile and social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank H P

    2013-01-01

    Includes a preface written by Professor Leonard Kleinrock, Distinguished Professor of Computer Science, UCLA, USA This book discusses and explores the concept of mobile cloud, creating an inspiring research space for exploiting opportunistic resource sharing, and covering from theoretical research approaches to the development of commercially profitable ideas. A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The b

  16. On Roof Geometry for Urban Wind Energy Exploitation in High-Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Toja-Silva; Carlos Peralta; Oscar Lopez-Garcia; Jorge Navarro; Ignacio Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The European program HORIZON2020 aims to have 20% of electricity produced by renewable sources. The building sector represents 40% of the European Union energy consumption. Reducing energy consumption in buildings is therefore a priority for energy efficiency. The present investigation explores the most adequate roof shapes compatible with the placement of different types of small wind energy generators on high-rise buildings for urban wind energy exploitation. The wind flow around traditiona...

  17. THE SUPPORTING OF EXPLOITATION AND MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT WITHIN NETWORKED TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Network technical systems are complex systems, which include distribution networks with devices and engineering objects supporting their work. These kind of systems are used for media distribution, such as: drinking water, fuel, gas, heat, etc. One of specific features of this system is large territorial dispersion of technical objects within the system. The exploitation specificity of networked technical systems requires a special approach for implementing maintenance and repair work, taking...

  18. Estimating fish exploitation and aquatic habitat loss across diffuse inland recreational fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kerckhove, Derrick Tupper; Minns, Charles Kenneth; Chu, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The current state of many freshwater fish stocks worldwide is largely unknown but suspected to be vulnerable to exploitation from recreational fisheries and habitat degradation. Both these factors, combined with complex ecological dynamics and the diffuse nature of inland fisheries could lead to an invisible collapse: the drastic decline in fish stocks without great public or management awareness. In this study we provide a method to address the pervasive knowledge gaps in regional rates of exploitation and habitat degradation, and demonstrate its use in one of North America's largest and most diffuse recreational freshwater fisheries (Ontario, Canada). We estimated that (1) fish stocks were highly exploited and in apparent danger of collapse in management zones close to large population centres, and (2) fish habitat was under a low but constant threat of degradation at rates comparable to deforestation in Ontario and throughout Canada. These findings confirm some commonly held, but difficult to quantify, beliefs in inland fisheries management but also provide some further insights including (1) large anthropogenic projects greater than one hectare could contribute much more to fish habitat loss on an area basis than the cumulative effect of smaller projects within one year, (2) hooking mortality from catch-and-release fisheries is likely a greater source of mortality than the harvest itself, and (3) in most northern management zones over 50% of the fisheries resources are not yet accessible to anglers. While this model primarily provides a framework to prioritize management decisions and further targeted stock assessments, we note that our regional estimates of fisheries productivity and exploitation were similar to broadscale monitoring efforts by the Province of Ontario. We discuss the policy implications from our results and extending the model to other jurisdictions and countries.

  19. Oil exploitation and its socioeconomic effects on the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Mopipi, K; Henri-Ukoha, A

    2016-07-01

    The oil exploration and exploitation industry which is majorly centred in the Niger Delta region is without doubt currently the most important earner of foreign exchange to the Nigerian economy. The Niger Delta is home to an extraordinary variety of people; mostly fishers and farmers with a history of rich cultural heritage. However, the region is suffering from devastating oil pollution. Although the effects of oil spill depend on factors such as size or area of spill and geographical location, the socioeconomic and environmental costs of oil production can be extensive; these range from destruction of wildlife, biodiversity loss, air and water pollution, degradation of farmland and damage to aquatic ecosystems. The paper reviews the adverse effects of oil exploitation on the Niger Delta region. It researches the common belief that government and oil multinationals are negatively disposed to the socioeconomic and environmental wellbeing of host communities especially in events of oil spillage. The paper reveals that oil exploitation has increased the rate of environmental degradation and has perpetuated food insecurity as a result of death of fish and crops as well as loss of farm lands and viable rivers for fishing activities leading to loss of livelihood. The paper supports the call for multinationals operating in the region to modernise operating infrastructure and equipment in order to prevent avoidable oil spillages that often lead to community restiveness, and more so, intensification of joint efforts between oil multinationals and government in the capital development of the region is very important.

  20. Views of Swedish commissioning parents relating to the exploitation discourse in using transnational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Anna; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Transnational surrogacy, when people travel abroad for reproduction with the help of a surrogate mother, is a heavily debated phenomenon. One of the most salient discourses on surrogacy is the one affirming that Westerners, in their quest for having a child, exploit poor women in countries such as India. As surrogacy within the Swedish health care system is not permitted, Swedish commissioning parents have used transnational surrogacy, and the majority has turned to India. This interview study aimed to explore how commissioning parents negotiate the present discourses on surrogacy. Findings from the study suggest that the commissioning parents' views on using surrogacy are influenced by competing discourses on surrogacy represented by media and surrogacy agencies. The use of this reproductive method resulted, then, in some ambiguity. Although commissioning parents defy the exploitation discourse by referring to what they have learnt about the surrogate mother's life situation and by pointing at the significant benefits for her, they still had a request for regulation of surrogacy in Sweden, to better protect all parties involved. This study, then, gives a complex view on surrogacy, where the commissioning parents simultaneously argue against the exploitation discourse but at the same time are uncertain if the surrogate mothers are well protected in the surrogacy arrangements. Their responses to the situation endorse the need for regulation both in Sweden and India.

  1. Labour exploitation and health: a case series of men and women seeking post-trafficking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Moss, Eleanor; Zimmerman, Cathy; Howard, Louise M; Oram, Siân

    2014-06-01

    Research on the health of trafficked men and on the health problems associated with trafficking for labor exploitation are extremely limited. This study analysed data from a case series of anonymised case records of a consecutive sample of 35 men and women who had been trafficked for labor exploitation in the UK and who were receiving support from a non-governmental service between June 2009 and July 2010. Over three-quarters of our sample was male (77 %) and two-thirds aged between 18 and 35 years (mean 32.9 years, SD 10.2). Forty percent reported experiencing physical violence while they were trafficked. Eighty-one percent (25/31) reported one or more physical health symptoms. Fifty-seven percent (17/30) reported one or more post-traumatic stress symptoms. A substantial proportion of men and women who are trafficked for labor exploitation may experience violence and abuse, and have physical and mental health symptoms. People who have been trafficked for forced labor need access to medical assessment and treatment.

  2. Dissemination and exploitation - how to stand out in the information jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    EU projects are aiming on research and innovation, fostering competitiveness and growth. For the EU it is therefore essential to convert the public investment into socio-economic benefits for the society, i.e. economy and citizens. This is reflected in the obligation of participants to exploit and disseminate the outcome of their projects, which means to use and communicate results and multiply the benefit of investments. But how to do this efficiently and effectively in a world, which is more and more overloaded with information? Which audiences should be addressed and how to reach them? How to disseminate to an audience, which is "not in the field" of the research subject? And even more important: How to exploit the outcome of your project? H2020 work programmes explicitly specify that a draft "Plan for Exploitation and Dissemination of Results" should be included in a proposal, which force participants to think about presentation and use of results before they have them and to ensure that a project will benefit right from the beginning. This presentation will deal with the challenge of being visible as a consortium and the problem of having clear-sighted visions of how to spread and use results before the results have been achieved.

  3. Balanced Exploration and Exploitation Model search for efficient epipolar geometry estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshen, Liran; Shimshoni, Ilan

    2008-07-01

    The estimation of the epipolar geometry is especially difficult when the putative correspondences include a low percentage of inlier correspondences and/or a large subset of the inliers is consistent with a degenerate configuration of the epipolar geometry that is totally incorrect. This work presents the Balanced Exploration and Exploitation Model Search (BEEM) algorithm that works very well especially for these difficult scenes. The algorithm handles these two problems in a unified manner. It includes the following main features: (1) Balanced use of three search techniques: global random exploration, local exploration near the current best solution and local exploitation to improve the quality of the model. (2) Exploits available prior information to accelerate the search process. (3) Uses the best found model to guide the search process, escape from degenerate models and to define an efficient stopping criterion. (4) Presents a simple and efficient method to estimate the epipolar geometry from two SIFT correspondences. (5) Uses the locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) approximate nearest neighbor algorithm for fast putative correspondences generation. The resulting algorithm when tested on real images with or without degenerate configurations gives quality estimations and achieves significant speedups compared to the state of the art algorithms.

  4. Exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance: computational framework and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutkias, Vassilis G; Lillo-Le Louët, Agnès; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Driven by the need of pharmacovigilance centres and companies to routinely collect and review all available data about adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and adverse events of interest, we introduce and validate a computational framework exploiting dominant as well as emerging publicly available data sources for drug safety surveillance. Our approach relies on appropriate query formulation for data acquisition and subsequent filtering, transformation and joint visualization of the obtained data. We acquired data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), PubMed and Twitter. In order to assess the validity and the robustness of the approach, we elaborated on two important case studies, namely, clozapine-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis versus haloperidol-induced cardiomyopathy/myocarditis, and apixaban-induced cerebral hemorrhage. The analysis of the obtained data provided interesting insights (identification of potential patient and health-care professional experiences regarding ADRs in Twitter, information/arguments against an ADR existence across all sources), while illustrating the benefits (complementing data from multiple sources to strengthen/confirm evidence) and the underlying challenges (selecting search terms, data presentation) of exploiting heterogeneous information sources, thereby advocating the need for the proposed framework. This work contributes in establishing a continuous learning system for drug safety surveillance by exploiting heterogeneous publicly available data sources via appropriate support tools.

  5. Proctors exploit three-dimensional ghost tools during clinical-like training scenarios: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarc, Anthony M; Stanley, Andrew A; Clifford, Thomas; Gill, Inderbir S; Hung, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we examine three-dimensional (3D) proctoring tools (i.e., semitransparent ghost tools overlaid on the surgeon's field of view) on realistic surgical tasks. Additionally, we develop novel, quantitative measures of whether proctors exploit the additional capabilities offered by ghost tools. Seven proctor-trainee pairs completed realistic surgical tasks such as tissue dissection and suturing in a live porcine model using 3D ghost tools on the da Vinci Xi Surgical System. The usability and effectiveness of 3D ghost tools were evaluated using objective measures of proctor performance based on proctor hand movements and button presses, as well as post-study questionnaires. Proctors exploited the capabilities of ghost tools, such as 3D hand movement (p proctors in the x-, y-, and z-directions were 57.6, 31.9, and 50.7, respectively. Proctors and trainees consistently evaluated the ghost tools as effective across multiple categories of mentoring. Trainees found ghost tools more helpful than proctors across all categories (p Proctors exploit the augmented capabilities of 3D ghost tools during clinical-like training scenarios. Additionally, both proctors and trainees evaluated ghost tools as effective mentoring tools, thereby confirming previous studies on simple, inanimate tasks. Based on this preliminary work, advanced mentoring technologies, such as 3D ghost tools, stand to improve current telementoring and training technologies in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery.

  6. Runoff and Sediment Response to Cascade Hydropower Exploitation in the Middle and Lower Han River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of hydropower exploitation in China, changes in runoff and sediment transport have become a significant issue that cannot be neglected. In this study, the Han River was selected as a study case, where the runoff variation and changes in sediment load at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations were analyzed in different time periods. The results indicate that impact of cascade hydropower exploitation on runoff and sediment transport is significantly different even during the same time periods. After reservoir regulation, the decreasing of sediment load is faster than that of runoff. Strong positive correlation between runoff and sediment load exists during different time periods, while reservoir operation leads to different turning points at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations in the middle and lower Han River. As a key driving factor, runoff variation contributed to sediment transport with different impact index CR. The impact index CR before and after the first change point at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations is 43.35%, −3.68%, 11.17%, and 30.12%, respectively. This study helps us understand and evaluate the hydrological changes under cascade hydropower exploitation in the middle and lower Han River.

  7. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Frogs Exploit Statistical Regularities in Noisy Acoustic Scenes to Solve Cocktail-Party-like Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Norman; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Micheyl, Christophe; Bee, Mark A

    2017-03-06

    Noise is a ubiquitous source of errors in all forms of communication [1]. Noise-induced errors in speech communication, for example, make it difficult for humans to converse in noisy social settings, a challenge aptly named the "cocktail party problem" [2]. Many nonhuman animals also communicate acoustically in noisy social groups and thus face biologically analogous problems [3]. However, we know little about how the perceptual systems of receivers are evolutionarily adapted to avoid the costs of noise-induced errors in communication. In this study of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis; Hylidae), we investigated whether receivers exploit a potential statistical regularity present in noisy acoustic scenes to reduce errors in signal recognition and discrimination. We developed an anatomical/physiological model of the peripheral auditory system to show that temporal correlation in amplitude fluctuations across the frequency spectrum ("comodulation") [4-6] is a feature of the noise generated by large breeding choruses of sexually advertising males. In four psychophysical experiments, we investigated whether females exploit comodulation in background noise to mitigate noise-induced errors in evolutionarily critical mate-choice decisions. Subjects experienced fewer errors in recognizing conspecific calls and in selecting the calls of high-quality mates in the presence of simulated chorus noise that was comodulated. These data show unequivocally, and for the first time, that exploiting statistical regularities present in noisy acoustic scenes is an important biological strategy for solving cocktail-party-like problems in nonhuman animal communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Making Money from Exploiting Schumpeterian Opportunities: John Sanguinetti and the Electronic Design Automation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounts of the effect that John Sanguinetti’s two companies had on the market for integrated circuit design languages were used to gain insights on how to profit from the exploitation of Schumpeterian opportunities. This article will be of interest to entrepreneurs who expect to profit from exploiting opportunities that disrupt the status quo. To write this article, the author reviewed the literature on Schumpeterian and Kirznerian opportunities and examined the writings of and about Sanguinetti and his companies, blogs written by industry insiders, and articles in industry trade journals. Sanguinetti’s first company introduced a new technology and his second company introduced a new business strategy and a new technology. Both of Sanguinetti's companies undermined the capital investments of the established incumbents and created new value for customers. The article provides three main insights. First, deep knowledge and experience in the customer domain enable an entrepreneur to recognize and act to profit from a Schumpeterian opportunity. Second, to profit from a Schumpeterian opportunity the entrepreneur needs to combine technology and business model components in a way that adds significant value to customers. Third, large amounts of venture capital may or may not be required to exploit Schumpeterian opportunities.

  10. Instruments to Identify Commercially Sexually Exploited Children: Feasibility of Use in an Emergency Department Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    This review examines the screening instruments that are in existence today to identify commercially sexually exploited children. The instruments are compared and evaluated for their feasibility of use in an emergency department setting. Four electronic databases were searched to identify screening instruments that assessed solely for commercial sexual exploitation. Search terms included "commercially sexually exploited children," "CSEC," "domestic minor sex trafficking," "DMST," "juvenile sex trafficking," and "JST." Those terms were then searched in combination with each of the following: "tools," "instruments," "screening," "policies," "procedures," "data collection," "evidence," and "validity." Six screening instruments were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Variation among instruments included number of questions, ease of administration, information sources, scoring methods, and training information provided. Two instruments were determined to be highly feasible for use in the emergency department setting, those being the Asian Health Services and Banteay Srei's CSEC Screening Protocol and Greenbaum et al's CSEC/child sex trafficking 6-item screening tool. A current dearth of screening instruments was confirmed. It is recommended that additional screening instruments be created to include developmentally appropriate instruments for preadolescent children. Numerous positive features were identified within the instruments in this review and are suggested for use in future screening instruments, including succinctness, a simple format, easy administration, training materials, sample questions, multiple information sources, designation of questions requiring mandatory reporting, a straightforward scoring system, and an algorithm format.

  11. Serotonin promotes exploitation in complex environments by accelerating decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanir, Shachar; Brown, Adam S; Nagy, Stanislav; Najjar, Dana; Kazakov, Alexander; Lee, Kyung Suk; Zaslaver, Alon; Levine, Erel; Biron, David

    2016-02-04

    Fast responses can provide a competitive advantage when resources are inhomogeneously distributed. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was shown to modulate locomotion on a lawn of bacterial food in serotonin (5-HT)-dependent manners. However, potential roles for serotonergic signaling in responding to food discovery are poorly understood. We found that 5-HT signaling in C. elegans facilitates efficient exploitation in complex environments by mediating a rapid response upon encountering food. Genetic or cellular manipulations leading to deficient serotonergic signaling resulted in gradual responses and defective exploitation of a patchy foraging landscape. Physiological imaging revealed that the NSM serotonergic neurons responded acutely upon encounter with newly discovered food and were key to rapid responses. In contrast, the onset of responses of ADF serotonergic neurons preceded the physical encounter with the food. The serotonin-gated chloride channel MOD-1 and the ortholog of mammalian 5-HT1 metabotropic serotonin receptors SER-4 acted in synergy to accelerate decision-making. The relevance of responding rapidly was demonstrated in patchy environments, where the absence of 5-HT signaling was detrimental to exploitation. Our results implicate 5-HT in a novel form of decision-making, demonstrate its fitness consequences, suggest that NSM and ADF act in concert to modulate locomotion in complex environments, and identify the synergistic action of a channel and a metabotropic receptor in accelerating C. elegans decision-making.

  12. On Roof Geometry for Urban Wind Energy Exploitation in High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Toja-Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European program HORIZON2020 aims to have 20% of electricity produced by renewable sources. The building sector represents 40% of the European Union energy consumption. Reducing energy consumption in buildings is therefore a priority for energy efficiency. The present investigation explores the most adequate roof shapes compatible with the placement of different types of small wind energy generators on high-rise buildings for urban wind energy exploitation. The wind flow around traditional state-of-the-art roof shapes is considered. In addition, the influence of the roof edge on the wind flow on high-rise buildings is analyzed. These geometries are investigated, both qualitatively and quantitatively, and the turbulence intensity threshold for horizontal axis wind turbines is considered. The most adequate shapes for wind energy exploitation are identified, studying vertical profiles of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence intensity. Curved shapes are the most interesting building roof shapes from the wind energy exploitation point of view, leading to the highest speed-up and the lowest turbulence intensity.

  13. ON THE QUALITY OF CARCASS AND PORK IN SWINE EXPLOITED ON FAMILY FARMS

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    CORNELIA PETROMAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat / fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals’ back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  14. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Kaelynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  15. The 'dirty downside' of global sporting events: focus on human trafficking for sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, R; Finkel, M L

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is as complex human rights and public health issue. The issue of human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This piece examines the issue from a public health perspective. This is a literature review of the 'most comprehensive' studies published on the topic. A PubMed search was done using MeSH terms 'human traffickings' and 'sex trafficking' and 'human rights abuses'. Subheadings included 'statistics and numerical data', 'legislation and jurispudence', 'prevention and control', and 'therapy'. Only papers published in English were reviewed. The search showed that very few well-designed empirical studies have been conducted on the topic and only one pertinent systematic review was identified. Findings show a high prevalence of physical violence among those trafficked compared to non-trafficked women. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV AIDS are prevalent and preventive care is virtually non-existent. Quantifying human trafficking for sexual exploitation at large global sporting events has proven to be elusive given the clandestine nature of the industry. This is not to say that human trafficking for sex as well as forced sexual exploitation does not occur. It almost certainly exists, but to what extent is the big question. It is a hidden problem on a global scale in plain view with tremendous public health implications. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE EXPLOITATION OF THE TULGHEŞ-GRINŢIEŞ URANIUM DEPOSIT. BETWEEN BENEFITS AND CONTROVERSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Exploitation of the Tulgheș-Grințieș Uranium Deposit. Between Benefits and Controversy. Romania is one of the few European states (alongside the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Ukraine and one of the few in the world with uranium deposits (Canada, Australia, Niger, Namibia are others, mainly used in the energy sector. According to recent studies, the only currently exploited deposit (Crucea-Botușana, Suceava County is nearly depleted (by 2019 and will be eventually shut down. For this reason, there are plans to open a new uranium mining facility in the Tulgheș-Grințieș area, where geological surveys have proven that the area holds the largest uranium deposit in the country. It will provide the necessary fuel for Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, for the two functional reactors, which have a total capacity of 706 MW each (producing roughly 18% of the country's electricity needs, as well as for units 3 and 4, not operational yet. The study at hand intends to emphasize several aspects regarding the exploitation possibilities for the uranium deposit from the two mineralized structures located in the fracture areas of the central Carpathian line, through which the crystalline overflows the Cretaceous Flysch. Furthermore, the environmental impact analysis as well as the long term safety and security of the population inhabiting the area will be of utmost importance.

  17. Fast and behavior-selective exploitation of a marine fish targeted by anglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Rosselló, Rosario; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Harvesting of wild-living animals is often intensive and may selectively target heritable behavioral traits. We studied the exploitation dynamics and the vulnerability consequences of individual heterogeneity in movement-related behaviors in free-ranging pearly razorfish (Xyrichthys novacula). Using underwater-video recording, we firstly document a fast and high exploitation rate of about 60% of the adult population removed in just few days after the opening of the season. Subsequently, we tagged a sample of individuals with acoustic transmitters and studied whether behavioral traits were significant predictors of the vulnerability to angling. Tagged individuals revealed repeatable behaviors in several home range-related traits, suggesting the presence of spatial behavioral types. The individuals surviving the experimental fishery showed only localized and low-intensity movement patterns. Our study provides new insights for understanding the harvesting pressures and selective properties acting on behavioral traits of recreational fishing. Many fish stocks around the globe are today predominantly exploited by recreational fisheries. The fisheries-induced change in fish behavior described here may be therefore widespread, and has the potential to alter food-webs, profitability of the fisheries and to affect stock assessment by eroding catchability in the long-term.

  18. Return to the Grindhouse: Tarantino and the modernization of 1970s Exploitation Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Platz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation films from the 1970s and early 80s such as Foxy Brown (Jack Hill, 1974 and Switchblade Sisters (Jack Hill, 1975 were the first films to allow women to actively control the narrative and course of events in a film. Men become secondary characters who had no or little control over the course of events in these films. Because the films were made during the rapidly changing social climate of the 1970s, the films also became a barometer in their treatment of female characters of social mores. Director Quentin Tarantino’s films Death Proof (2007, Kill Bill I and II (2003 and 2004, Jackie Brown (1997, and Inglourious Basterds (2009 attempt to modernize the active women from exploitation films of the 1970s, reworking the female characters’ mobilization against typical gender roles, and attributing her with the abilities to compete, and even challenge men in a patriarchic society.However, Tarantino’s films mostly fail to progress beyond the trappings of the classic exploitation films of the 1970s, still relying heavily on the excessive display of female bodies, and subjugating women to the male camera and spectator gaze. In Tarantino’s attempt to remove female characters from the gender restraints of most Hollywood films, he creates the female action star, and inadvertently reverses the work of classic exploitation films by limiting the traits strong women are able to possess. By contrast, the female leads of 1970s exploitation films, although still heavily sexualized, are able to be physically powerful while retaining their feminine identifications as a wives, mothers, lovers, and beauty queens. Tarantino’s portrayal of strong women is more limited, however when strong sexuality and typical feminine traits are not connected to the powerful female characters. Instead female sexuality and feminine appearances are shown as weaknesses that contribute to the female characters’ deaths or lack of individuality. Tarantino allows one

  19. The contribution of the Geohazards Exploitation Platform for the GEO Supersites community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Michele; Caumont, Hervé; Mora, Oscar; Casu, Francesco; Zinno, Ivana; De Luca, Claudio; Pepe, Susi; Pepe, Antonio; Brito, Fabrice; Romero, Laia; Stumpf, Andre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Brcic, Ramon; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Fernando; Musacchio, Massimo; Buongiorno, Fabrizia; Briole, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiative for the creation of an ecosystem of Thematic Exploitation Platforms (TEP) focuses on the capitalization of Ground Segment capabilities and ICT technologies to maximize the exploitation of EO data from past and future missions. A TEP refers to a computing platform that complies to a set of exploitation scenarios involving scientific users, data providers and ICT providers, aggregated around an Earth Science thematic area. The Exploitation Platforms are targeted to cover different capacities and they define, implement and validate a platform for effective data exploitation of EO data sources in a given thematic area. In this framework, the Geohazards Thematic Exploitation Platform or Geohazards TEP (GEP) aims at providing on-demand processing services for specific user needs as well as systematic processing services to address the need of the geohazards community for common information layers and, finally, to integrate newly developed processors for scientists and other expert users. The GEP has now on-boarded over 40 European early adopters and will transition during 2016 to pre-operations by developing six new Pilot applications that will significantly augment the Platform's capabilities for systematic production and community building. Each project on the Platform is concerned with either integrating an application, running on demand processing using an application available in the platform or systematically generating a new product collection. The platform will also expand its user base in 2016, to gradually reach a total of about 65 individual users. Under a Consortium lead by Terradue Srl, six new pilot projects have been taken on board: photogrammetric processing using optical EO data with University of Strasbourg (FR), optical based processing method for volcanic hazard monitoring with INGV (IT), systematic generation of deformation time-series with Sentinel-1 data with CNR IREA (IT), systematic processing of

  20. Extractive waste exploitation towards the natural resource preservation: two Italian case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio; Biglia, Giulio; Mehta, Neha; Rodeghiero, Franco

    2017-04-01

    In 2012 the extractive industry represented the second most important sector in terms of waste quantities produced in the EU-27 (29% or 734 million tons). Italy was and still is one of the most important countries as for quarry and mine exploitation, with a consequent huge production of extractive waste (EW; represented by rock waste, operating residues and tailings), which are present in mining dumps (EW facilities). The EU guidelines about waste management aim to the exploitation, based on environmental protection, of any kind of material which can be recovered and recycled, with a consequent natural resources preservation. The decision n. 1600/2002/CE, establishing the VI Environment Action Program, pushes to the revision of the legislation on waste and to the development of specific actions for waste prevention and management. The decisive factors to achieve these results are the minimization of waste production and the recovery of as much waste as possible from the different productive cycles and from landfills, including EW facilities. According to this approach, "WASTE" must be considered as a "RESOURCE", and "LANDFILLS" as "NEW ORE BODIES". In the recent years several projects investigate the recovery of Critical Raw Materials (CRM) and SRM from landfills (Smart Ground, Prosum, etc.). The main objective of the present research, which is one of the activities linked to Smart Ground project (Grant Agreement No 641988), is the estimation of the SRM and CRM present in two selected Italian EW facilities: - Campello Monti mining site (NE Piedmont Region), important for Ni exploitation. The area is characterized by the presence of EW facilities, mainly represented by rock waste and operating residues. - Gorno mining site (N Lombardy Region), famous for Zn exploitation. The area is characterized by the presence of several EW facility areas, mainly represented by rock waste dumps and tailing basins. To appreciate if an EW facility can be considered as an "ore body