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Sample records for explaining physical activity

  1. The contribution of psychosocial variables in explaining preschoolers' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Camille; Harnois, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    Based on the theory of planned behavior and the structural model of health behavior, the objectives of this study were to verify whether the psychosocial variables of daycare workers (intention, perceived behavioral control, descriptive norm, past behavior) influence preschoolers' physical activity in daycare centers and determine how these psychosocial variables combine with other factors (environmental, sociodemographic, democratic intervention) to explain children's physical activity. Forty-six daycare workers from 20 daycare centers in Quebec, Canada completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing psychosocial and sociodemographic variables. Thirty days later, 242 children wore an accelerometer. A research assistant went to each daycare center to observe the environment and the democratic intervention of daycare workers. The specific direct determinants of children's overall mean count/15 seconds were intention, descriptive norm, democratic intervention, daycare workers' age, availability of material, and children's age and gender. In order to increase the overall mean count/15 seconds among preschoolers, it would be important to motivate daycare workers to make children move. Strategies likely to help motivate daycare workers to take action are also necessary. It might be interesting to encourage them to use democratic intervention with children. Use of material adapted to the needs of the children that stimulates their intellectual and socioaffective development should also be encouraged. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Examination of value of the future and health beliefs to explain dietary and physical activity behaviors.

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    Garza, Kimberly Bosworth; Harris, Carole V; Bolding, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown a negative association between value of the future (preference for long-term vs. short-term rewards) and harmful addictive behaviors; however, research in the area of preventive behaviors is limited and has shown conflicting results. The primary objectives were: (1) to examine the association among value of the future and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors, and (2) to assess whether value of the future explained additional variance in behaviors after controlling for theory-based health beliefs related to coronary heart disease (CHD). An online survey was conducted in adults (N = 172) with no prior history of CHD. A delay discounting task was administered to measure value of the future. Questionnaire items were based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and included CHD knowledge, perceived risk, perceived severity, perceived benefits of and barriers to behavior change, self-efficacy, cues to action, diet and PA behaviors and demographic variables. High value of the future was associated with younger age, lower BMI, more healthful diet, and increased PA. After controlling for HBM components and demographics, value of the future did not explain any additional variance in diet or PA behaviors. Significant predictors of healthful diet included female gender (P = .013), increased age (P = .029), greater than high school education (P = .023), greater diet-related self-efficacy (P = .021), and not having received a healthcare provider recommendation to improve diet (P = .018). Significant predictors of PA level included income between $20,000 and $69,999 (P = .014), greater exercise-related self-efficacy (P health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An active lifestyle explains sex differences in physical performance in children before puberty.

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    De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Pino-Ortega, José

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze differences according to sex in physical performance in children before puberty, as well as other health-related variables. Study population was 137 boys and 156 girls (9.99 +/- 0.79 years). We measured weight and height, physical performance using five field tests previously validated in children, habitual physical activity and diet quality. A multinomial logistic regression coefficient was established to calculate odd ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's), to determine sex differences in performance, weight status, habitual physical activity and diet quality, and a t-test was calculated between active boys and active girls in order to establish differences in performance fitness test taking account habitual physical activity. Boys were more actives (OR 1.90, CI 1.03-3.49) and had better weight status than girls, while there was no difference in diet quality between sexes (OR 1.13, CI 0.67-1.89). In total sample, it was more probable to find greater physical fitness values in boys in all test performed. However, when both groups had a similar physical activity pattern, assessed physical fitness variables reached similar values and girls had better results only in flexibility. Sedentary patterns were more frequent in girls although there were no differences in diet quality between sexes. Girls tended to overweight more than boys did. Both sexes had a similar fitness performance before puberty for the same reported physical activity, except for flexibility, inferior in male subjects independently of their physical activity pattern.

  4. The Contribution of Home, Neighbourhood and School Environmental Factors in Explaining Physical Activity among Adolescents

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    Leen Haerens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the influence of home, neighbourhood and school environmental factors on adolescents' engagement in self-reported extracurricular physical activity and leisure time sports and on MVPA objectively measured by accelerometers. Environmental factors were assessed using questionnaires. Gender specific hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, with demographic variables entered in the first block, and environmental, psychosocial factors and interactions terms entered in the second block. Participation in extracurricular activities at school was positively related to the number of organized activities and the provision of supervision. Perceived accessibility of neighborhood facilities was not related to engagement in leisure time sports, whereas the availability of sedentary and physical activity equipment was. Findings were generally supportive of ecological theories stating that behaviors are influenced by personal and environmental factors that are constantly interacting.

  5. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV

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    Antonia L. Wadley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH, but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain, who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity.

  6. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

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    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m2). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Physical activity and diabetes: an application of the theory of planned behaviour to explain physical activity for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in an adult population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lippke, Sonia; Courneya, Kerry; Birkett, Nicholas; Sigal, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) plays a key role in the management of Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) but there are few theory-based, effective programs to promote PA for individuals with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in understanding PA in an adult population with T1D or T2D. A total of 2311 individuals (691 T1D; 1614 T2D) completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), intention and PA at baseline and 1717 (524 T1D; 1123 T2D) completed the PA measure again at 6-month follow-up. Multi-group Structural Equation Modelling was conducted to: (1) test the fit of the TPB structure (2) determine the TPB structural invariance between the two types of diabetes and (3) to examine the explained variances in PA and compare the strength of associations of the TPB constructs in the two types of diabetes. The TPB constructs explained > or =40% of the variance in intentions for both diabetes groups. In cross-sectional models, the TPB accounted for 23 and 19% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. In prospective models, the TPB explained 13 and 8% of the variance in PA for T1D and T2D, respectively. When adjusting for past PA behaviour, the impact of PBC and intention on behaviour was reduced in both groups. The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB for the design of PA promotion interventions for adults with either T1D or T2D.

  8. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian; Powell, Alison; Hoskins, Gaylor; Neville, Ron

    2008-06-30

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention.

  9. Exploring and explaining low participation in physical activity among children and young people with asthma: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Gaylor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children and accounts for 1 in 5 of all child GP consultations. This paper reviews and discusses recent literature outlining the growing problem of physical inactivity among young people with asthma and explores the psychosocial dimensions that may explain inactivity levels and potentially relevant interventions and strategies, and the principles that should underpin them. Methods A narrative review based on an extensive and documented search of search of CinAHL, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library. Results & Discussion Children and young people with asthma are generally less active than their non-asthmatic peers. Reduced participation may be influenced by organisational policies, family illness beliefs and behaviours, health care advice, and inaccurate symptom perception and attribution. Schools can be reluctant to encourage children to take part in physical education or normal play activity due to misunderstanding and a lack of clear corporate guidance. Families may accept a child's low level of activity if it is perceived that breathlessness or the need to take extra inhalers is harmful. Many young people themselves appear to accept sub-optimal control of symptoms and frequently misinterpret healthy shortness of breath on exercising with the symptoms of an impending asthma attack. Conclusion A multi-faceted approach is needed to translate the rhetoric of increasing activity levels in young people to the reality of improved fitness. Physical activity leading to improved fitness should become part of a goal orientated management strategy by schools, families, health care professionals and individuals. Exercise induced asthma should be regarded as a marker of poor control and a need to increase fitness rather as an excuse for inactivity. Individuals' perceptual accuracy deserves further research attention.

  10. Different mechanisms must be considered to explain the increase in hippocampal neural precursor cell proliferation by physical activity

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    Rupert W Overall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus is strongly increased by physical activity. The mechanisms through which this behavioral stimulus induces cell proliferation, however, are not yet understood. In fact, even the mode of proliferation of the stem and progenitor cells is not exactly known. Evidence exists for several mechanisms including cell cycle shortening, reduced cell death and stem cell recruitment, but as yet no model can account for all observations. An appreciation of how the cells proliferate, however, is crucial to our ability to model the neurogenic process and predict its behavior in response to pro-neurogenic stimuli. In a recent study, we addressed modulation of the cell cycle length as one possible mode of regulation of precursor cell proliferation in running mice. Our results indicated that the observed increase in number of proliferating cells could not be explained through a shortening of the cell cycle. We must therefore consider other mechanisms by which physical activity leads to enhanced precursor cell proliferation. Here we review the evidence for and against several different hypotheses and discuss the implications for future research in the field.

  11. Explaining educational differences in leisure-time physical activity in Europe: the contribution of work-related factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. E.; Sippola, R.; Borodulin, K.; Rahkonen, O.; Kunst, A.; Klumbiene, J.; Regidor, E.; Ekholm, O.; Mackenbach, J.; Prättälä, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status, and

  12. Stepping towards causation: do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity?

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    Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Saelens, Brian E; Powell, Ken E; Chapman, James E

    2007-11-01

    Evidence documents associations between neighborhood design and active and sedentary forms of travel. Most studies compare travel patterns for people located in different types of neighborhoods at one point in time adjusting for demographics. Most fail to account for either underlying neighborhood selection factors (reasons for choosing a neighborhood) or preferences (neighborhoods that are preferred) that impact neighborhood selection and behavior. Known as self-selection, this issue makes it difficult to evaluate causation among built form, behavior, and associated outcomes and to know how much more walking and less driving could occur through creating environments conducive to active transport. The current study controls for neighborhood selection and preference and isolates the effect of the built environment on walking, car use, and obesity. Separate analyses were conducted among 2056 persons in the Atlanta, USA based Strategies for Metropolitan Atlanta's Regional Transportation and Air Quality (SMARTRAQ) travel survey on selection factors and 1466 persons in the SMARTRAQ community preference sub-survey. A significant proportion of the population are "mismatched" and do not live in their preferred neighborhood type. Factors influencing neighborhood selection and individual preferences, and current neighborhood walkability explained vehicle travel distance after controlling for demographic variables. Individuals who preferred and lived in a walkable neighborhood walked most (33.9% walked) and drove 25.8 miles per day on average. Individuals that preferred and lived in car dependent neighborhoods drove the most (43 miles per day) and walked the least (3.3%). Individuals that do not prefer a walkable environment walked little and show no change in obesity prevalence regardless of where they live. About half as many participants were obese (11.7%) who prefer and live in walkable environments than participants who prefer car dependent environments (21.6%). Findings

  13. What explains the socioeconomic status gap in activity? Educational differences in determinants of physical activity and screentime

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    Nelli Hankonen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Designing evidence-based interventions to address socioeconomic disparities in health and health behaviours requires a better understanding of the specific explanatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate a comprehensive range of potential theoretical mediators of physical activity (PA and screen time in different socioeconomic status (SES groups: a high SES group of high school students, and a low SES group of vocational school students. The COM-B system, including the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, was used as a heuristic framework to synthesise different theoretical determinants in this exploratory study. Methods Finnish vocational and high school students (N = 659 aged 16–19, responded to a survey assessing psychological, social and environmental determinants of activity (PA and screen time. These determinants are mappable into the COM-B domains: capability, opportunity and motivation. The outcome measures were validated self-report measures for PA and screen time. The statistical analyses included a bootstrapping-based mediation procedure. Results Regarding PA, there were SES differences in all of the COM-B domains. For example, vocational school students reported using less self-monitoring of PA, weaker injunctive norms to engage in regular PA, and fewer intentions than high school students. Mediation analyses identified potential mediators of the SES-PA relationship in all of three domains: The most important candidates included self-monitoring (CI95 for b: 0.19–0.47, identity (0.04–0.25 and material resources available (0.01–0.16. However, SES was not related to most determinants of screentime, where there were mainly gender differences. Most determinants were similarly related with both behaviours in both SES groups, indicating no major moderation effect of SES on these relationships. Conclusions This study revealed that already in the first years of educational differentiation, levels of key PA

  14. What explains the socioeconomic status gap in activity? Educational differences in determinants of physical activity and screentime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankonen, Nelli; Heino, Matti T J; Kujala, Emilia; Hynynen, Sini-Tuuli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Borodulin, Katja; Haukkala, Ari

    2017-02-01

    Designing evidence-based interventions to address socioeconomic disparities in health and health behaviours requires a better understanding of the specific explanatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate a comprehensive range of potential theoretical mediators of physical activity (PA) and screen time in different socioeconomic status (SES) groups: a high SES group of high school students, and a low SES group of vocational school students. The COM-B system, including the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), was used as a heuristic framework to synthesise different theoretical determinants in this exploratory study. Finnish vocational and high school students (N = 659) aged 16-19, responded to a survey assessing psychological, social and environmental determinants of activity (PA and screen time). These determinants are mappable into the COM-B domains: capability, opportunity and motivation. The outcome measures were validated self-report measures for PA and screen time. The statistical analyses included a bootstrapping-based mediation procedure. Regarding PA, there were SES differences in all of the COM-B domains. For example, vocational school students reported using less self-monitoring of PA, weaker injunctive norms to engage in regular PA, and fewer intentions than high school students. Mediation analyses identified potential mediators of the SES-PA relationship in all of three domains: The most important candidates included self-monitoring (CI95 for b: 0.19-0.47), identity (0.04-0.25) and material resources available (0.01-0.16). However, SES was not related to most determinants of screentime, where there were mainly gender differences. Most determinants were similarly related with both behaviours in both SES groups, indicating no major moderation effect of SES on these relationships. This study revealed that already in the first years of educational differentiation, levels of key PA determinants differ, contributing to socioeconomic differences in PA. The

  15. A question of balance: Explaining differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on preschoolers' feeding and physical activity.

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    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3-5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Explaining educational differences in leisure-time physical activity in Europe: the contribution of work-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, T E; Sippola, R; Borodulin, K

    2011-01-01

    Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status......, and educational level to LTPA across 12 European countries. The data were obtained from 12 European health surveys conducted at the turn of the century and identified in the EUROTHINE project. All information was self-reported. Logistic regression was applied and relative inequality index (RII) was calculated...

  17. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

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    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  18. Development of a dynamic framework to explain population patterns of leisure-time physical activity through agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leandro M T; Diez Roux, Ana V; Martins, André C R; Yang, Yong; Florindo, Alex A

    2017-08-22

    Despite the increasing body of evidences on the factors influencing leisure-time physical activity, our understanding of the mechanisms and interactions that lead to the formation and evolution of population patterns is still limited. Moreover, most frameworks in this field fail to capture dynamic processes. Our aim was to create a dynamic conceptual model depicting the interaction between key psychological attributes of individuals and main aspects of the built and social environments in which they live. This conceptual model will inform and support the development of an agent-based model aimed to explore how population patterns of LTPA in adults may emerge from the dynamic interplay between psychological traits and built and social environments. We integrated existing theories and models as well as available empirical data (both from literature reviews), and expert opinions (based on a systematic expert assessment of an intermediary version of the model). The model explicitly presents intention as the proximal determinant of leisure-time physical activity, a relationship dynamically moderated by the built environment (access, quality, and available activities) - with the strength of the moderation varying as a function of the person's intention- and influenced both by the social environment (proximal network's and community's behavior) and the person's behavior. Our conceptual model is well supported by evidence and experts' opinions and will inform the design of our agent-based model, as well as data collection and analysis of future investigations on population patterns of leisure-time physical activity among adults.

  19. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

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    Van Holle, Veerle; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years) were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB. PMID:27338426

  20. Interactions between Neighborhood Social Environment and Walkability to Explain Belgian Older Adults’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Holle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between neighborhood social factors and physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB in older adults. Furthermore, possible moderating effects of neighborhood walkability were explored. Data from 431 community-dwelling Belgian older adults (≥65 years were analyzed. Neighborhood social factors included measures of neighboring, social trust and cohesion and social diversity. Neighborhood walkability was measured objectively. Outcome measures were self-reported weekly minutes of domain-specific walking and TV viewing, and accelerometer-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and overall SB. A higher frequency of talking to neighbors was associated with higher levels of self-reported walking for transport and for recreation. Moderation analyses showed that only in highly-walkable neighborhoods, higher social diversity of the neighborhood environment was associated with more transport walking; and talking to neighbors and social interactions among neighbors were negatively associated with overall SB and television viewing, respectively. Findings suggest that a combination of a favorable neighborhood social and physical environment are important to promote older adults’ PA and limit SB.

  1. Illness Perceptions Explain the Variance in Functional Disability, but Not Habitual Physical Activity, in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysen, Marijke; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, C Paul; Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira; Fransen, Erik; Demoulin, Christophe; Smeets, Rob J E M; Roussel, Nathalie A

    2017-09-15

    Although the importance of psychosocial factors has been highlighted in many studies in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is a lack of research examining the role of illness perceptions in explaining functional disability and physical activity in patients with CLBP. The aim of the study was to explore the value of illness perceptions in explaining functional disability and physical activity in patients with CLBP. Eighty-four participants with CLBP (of > 3 months' duration) completed a battery of questionnaires investigating psychosocial factors (Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], Illness Perceptions Questionnaire Revised [IPQ-R], and 36-Item Short Form mental health scale [SF-36_MH]) and perceived pain intensity (visual analog scale [VAS]), as well as the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Baecke questionnaire. The latter 2 were entered separately as dependent variables in a regression analysis. The combined variables (VAS, PCS, SF-36_MH, IPQ-R) accounted for 62% of the variance in functional disability (ODI). Adding the results of the IPQ-R to the scores of the other 3 variables (VAS, PCS, SF-36_MH) significantly increased the explained variance of ODI scores in CLBP patients, yielding 18% additional information (P disability, but not for explaining habitual physical activity in CLBP patients. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Explaining educational differences in leisure-time physical activity in Europe: the contribution of work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, T E; Sippola, R; Borodulin, K; Rahkonen, O; Kunst, A; Klumbiene, J; Regidor, E; Ekholm, O; Mackenbach, J; Prättälä, R

    2012-06-01

    Although educational differences in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) exist across Europe, the independent effect of educational level on leisure-time physical activity has rarely been explored. This study examines the relative contribution of occupational class, employment status, and educational level to LTPA across 12 European countries. The data were obtained from 12 European health surveys conducted at the turn of the century and identified in the EUROTHINE project. All information was self-reported. Logistic regression was applied and relative inequality index (RII) was calculated. Analyses were limited to those in the prime working-age (age 30-59; total N=137,646) men and women. In all 12 European countries, LTPA was more common in the high-educated than in the low-educated. The association between education and LTPA remained mostly unchanged after adjusting for marital status, urbanization, and self-rated health. After further adjusting for occupational class and employment status, the educational differences in LTPA were only slightly attenuated. An inverse association was found between educational level and LTPA across almost all 12 European countries. Occupational class and employment status had only a modest effect on educational differences in LTPA in most of the examined countries, suggesting that education remains an important predictor of LTPA. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Occupational physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among Canadian adults: does physical activity at work help to explain the socio-economic patterning of body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Amanda; McLaren, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    The behavioural and socio-cultural processes underlying the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and body mass index (BMI) remain unclear. Occupational physical activity (OPA) is one plausible explanatory variable that has not been previously considered. 1) To examine the association between OPA and BMI, and 2) to examine whether OPA mediates the SEP-BMI association, in a Canadian population-based sample. This cross-sectional study was based on secondary analysis of the 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey data, focusing on adults (age 25-64) working at a job or business (men, n = 1,036; women, n = 936). BMI was based on measured height and weight and we derived a novel indicator of OPA from the National Occupational Classification Career Handbook. Our analytic technique was ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for a range of socio-demographic, health and behavioural covariates. OPA was marginally associated with BMI in women, such that women with medium levels of OPA tended to be lighter than women with low levels of OPA, in adjusted models. No associations between OPA and BMI were detected for males. Baron and Kenny's (1986) three conditions for testing mediation were not satisfied, and thus we were unable to proceed with testing OPA as a mediator. Notwithstanding the small effects observed in women, overall the associations between OPA and BMI were neither clear nor strong, which could reflect conceptual and/or methodological reasons. Future research on this topic might incorporate other plausible explanatory variables (e.g., job-related psychosocial stress) and adopt a prospective design.

  4. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Pickering, Michael A; Rhodes, Ryan E; Courneya, Kerry S; Spence, John C

    2010-05-03

    Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA) have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1) the first 6-months (i.e., initial change), (2) the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change), and (3) the entire 12-months (overall change) of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group). Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change) two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes), with very small effect sizes. However, these mediating

  5. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  6. The relative importance of socioeconomic indicators in explaining differences in BMI and waist:hip ratio, and the mediating effect of work control, dietary patterns and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøllesdal, Marte Råberg; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Mosdøl, Annhild; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-10-01

    Socioeconomic differences in overweight are well documented, but most studies have only used one or two indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP). The aim of the present study was to explore the relative importance of indicators of SEP (occupation, education and income) in explaining variation in BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR), and the mediating effect of work control and lifestyle factors (dietary patterns, smoking and physical activity). The Oslo Health Study, a cross-sectional study, was carried out in 2000-1, Oslo, Norway. Our sample included 9235 adult working Oslo citizens, who attended a health examination and filled in two complementary FFQ with < 20% missing responses to food items. Four dietary patterns were identified through factor analysis, and were named 'modern', 'Western', 'traditional' and 'sweet'. In multivariate models, BMI and WHR were inversely associated with education (P < 0.001/P < 0.001) and occupation (P = 0.002/P < 0.001), whereas there were no significant associations with income or the work control. The 'modern' (P < 0.001) and the 'sweet' (P < 0.001) dietary patterns and physical activity level (P < 0.001) were inversely associated, while the 'Western' dietary pattern (P < 0.001) was positively associated with both BMI and WHR. These lifestyle factors could not fully explain the socioeconomic differences in BMI or WHR. However, together with socioeconomic factors, they explained more of the variation in WHR among men (21%) than among women (7%).

  7. Regional differences of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Swiss children are not explained by socio-demographics or the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated whether regional differences in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) existed along language boundaries within Switzerland and whether potential differences would be explained by socio-demographics or environmental characteristics. We combined data of 611 children aged 4 to 7 years from four regional studies. PA and SB were assessed by accelerometers. Information about the socio-demographic background was obtained by questionnaires. Objective neighbourhood attributes could be linked to home addresses. Multivariate regression models were used to test associations between PA and SB and socio-demographic characteristics and neighbourhood attributes. Children from the German compared to the French-speaking region were more physically active and less sedentary (by 10-15 %, p children lived in a more favourable environment and a higher socioeconomic neighbourhood (differences p children, independent of individual, social and environmental factors.

  8. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  9. Can changes in psychosocial factors and residency explain the decrease in physical activity during the transition from high school to college or university?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-04-01

    When students make the transition from high school to college or university, their physical activity (PA) levels decrease strongly. Consequently, it is of crucial importance to identify the determinants of this decline in PA. The study aims were to (1) examine changes in psychosocial factors in students during the transition from high school to college/university, (2) examine if changes in psychosocial factors and residency can predict changes in PA, and (3) investigate the moderating effects of residency on the relationship between changes in psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Between March 2008 and October 2010, 291 Flemish students participated in a longitudinal study, with baseline measurements during the final year of high school and follow-up measurements at the start of second year of college/university. At both time points, participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, active transportation, leisure-time sports, psychosocial variables, and residency. Repeated measures MANOVA analyses and multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted. Modeling, self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and health-related, external and social barriers decreased, while health-related benefits and time-related barriers increased from baseline to follow-up. Decreases in modeling and time-related barriers were associated with a decrease in active transportation (adjusted R(2) = 3.2%); residency, decreases in self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and increases in health- and time-related barriers predicted a decrease in leisure-time sports (adjusted R(2) = 29.3%). Residency only moderated two associations between psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Residency and changes in psychosocial factors were mainly important to explain the decrease in leisure-time sports. Other factors such as distance to college/university are likely more important to explain the decrease in active transportation; these are worth exploring in

  10. Possible Mechanisms Explaining the Association Between Physical Activity and Mental Health. Findings From the 2001 Dutch Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; ten Have, M.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    More physical activity is associated with fewer mental health problems among adolescents, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The aim of this article is to investigate whether the association between physical activity and mental health is mediated by body-weight perception (self-image) or

  11. The Role of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Explaining the Association Between Acculturation and Obesity Among Mexican-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Rosenda; Albrecht, Sandra S; Daviglus, Martha L; Kershaw, Kiarri N

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations of acculturation with various types of activity (moderate-vigorous leisure-time physical activity [LTPA], moderate-vigorous work- and transportation-related physical activity, and sedentary activity), and whether these activities mediated the acculturation-obesity association among Mexican-Americans. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Mexican-American NHANES participants aged ≥20 years (n = 1902). Demographic characteristics, physical activity, sedentary behavior, acculturation, and body mass index. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate associations of acculturation with categories of self-reported activity. Path analysis was used to test whether the activity measures mediated acculturation-obesity associations. In adjusted models, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans, foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest LTPA and sedentary activity categories, and more likely to be in the highest total and transportation activity categories. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for 10 years or more were significantly less likely to engage in high sedentary activity but more likely to engage in high transportation activity. Sedentary behavior was the strongest mediator of the acculturation-obesity association, accounting for 40.7% and 57.1% of the total effect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Mexican-Americans living in the United States for less than 10 years and for 10 years or more, respectively, compared to U.S.-born Mexican-Americans. Reducing sedentary behavior may lower the negative impact of acculturation on obesity.

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social ... Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample ...

  13. Explaining Physical Activity Maintenance After a Theory-Based Intervention Among Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittle, Keegan; De Gucht, Véronique; Hurkmans, Emalie; Vlieland, Thea Vliet; Maes, Stan

    2016-02-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) benefits patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly when maintained over time. Research in this area has largely focused on factors associated with initiating PA, while factors contributing to PA maintenance, particularly after lifestyle interventions, have received less attention. This study examined whether higher levels of autonomous motivation, self-efficacy for PA, and greater use of self-regulation skills mediated PA initiation and maintenance 6 months after a theory-based motivational interviewing and self-regulation coaching intervention. Seventy-eight individuals with RA were randomized to receive either a patient-education session (control group), or the patient-education session plus 1 motivational interview and 2 self-regulation coaching sessions (treatment group). Mediation analyses examined the effects of this intervention on PA initiation and maintenance through the intermediate variables autonomous motivation, self-efficacy for PA, and use of self-regulation skills. Analyses were controlled for age, sex, and previous levels of PA. The treatment group reported significantly higher autonomous motivation and greater use of self-regulation skills than controls at posttreatment. Increases in PA from baseline to posttreatment were not mediated by any intermediate variables. However, maintenance of PA from posttreatment to followup (6 months later) was mediated by greater autonomous motivation and use of self-regulation skills. Greater autonomous motivation and use of self-regulation skills predict maintenance of PA following a motivational interviewing and self-regulation coaching intervention. In promoting PA among patients with RA, supporting patient autonomy and teaching self-regulation skills, which focus attention on achieving PA goals, may improve long-term maintenance of PA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  15. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  16. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not exercised or been active in a long time, start slowly to prevent injuries. Taking a brisk 10-minute walk twice a week is a good start. Try joining a dance, yoga, or karate class if it appeals to you. You could also ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  18. Types of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basics Types of physical activity Types of physical activity Not sure what kinds of physical activity you should do? Well, you need three main types of activity . They are aerobic (sometimes called "cardio"), muscle-strengthening , ...

  19. Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  1. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  3. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  4. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact ...

  7. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  10. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  11. Resting and ADL-induced dynamic hyperinflation explain physical inactivity in COPD better than FEV1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahaije, A.J.M.C.; Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vercoulen, J.H.M.M.; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity and health status deteriorate early in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This can only partially be explained by the degree of airflow limitation. Changes in (resting and dynamic) lung volumes are known to be associated with functional

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Listen Watch ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring ... About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ... Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity ...

  4. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  5. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  6. Physical activity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillard, Fabien; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Carnac, Gilles; Mercier, Jacques; Rami, Jacques; Rivière, Daniel; Rolland, Yves

    2011-08-01

    Physical activity can be a valuable countermeasure to sarcopenia in its treatment and prevention. In considering physical training strategies for sarcopenic subjects, it is critical to consider personal and environmental obstacles to access opportunities for physical activity for any patient with chronic disease. This article presents an overview of current knowledge of the effects of physical training on muscle function and the physical activity recommended for sarcopenic patients. So that this countermeasure strategy can be applied in practice, the authors propose a standardized protocol for prescribing physical activity in chronic diseases such as sarcopenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  8. Einstein's physics atoms, quanta, and relativity : derived, explained, and appraised

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ta-Pei

    2013-01-01

    Many regard Albert Einstein as the greatest physicist since Newton. What exactly did he do that is so important in physics? We provide an introduction to his physics at a level accessible to an undergraduate physics student. All equations are worked out in detail from the beginning. Einstein's doctoral thesis and his Brownian motion paper were decisive contributions to our understanding of matter as composed of molecules and atoms. Einstein was one of the founding fathers of quantum theory: his photon proposal through the investigation of blackbody radiation, his quantum theory of photoelectri

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) ...

  12. Explaining Outsourcing in Health, Sport and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin J.; Macdonald, Doune

    2015-01-01

    Outsourcing is a complex, controversial and pervasive practice that is increasingly becoming a matter of concern for educational researchers. This article contributes to this literature by examining outsourcing practices related to health, sport and physical education (HSPE). Specifically, it reports data on specialist health and physical…

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of ... 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

  17. Dynamic activity-related incentives for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schüler, Julia; Brunner, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    The present studies adopted the theoretical framework of activity- and purpose-related incentives (Rheinberg, 2008) to explain the maintenance of physical activity. We hypothesized that activity-related incentives (e.g., “fun”) increase more than purpose-related incentives (e.g., “health”) between the initiation and maintenance phase of physical activity. Additionally, change in activity-related incentives was hypothesized to be a better predictor of maintenance of physical activity than chan...

  18. Physical Activity And Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, William L.; Troiano, Richard P.; Hammond, Jane A.; Phillips, Michael J.; Strader, Lisa C.; Marquez, David X.; Grant, Struan F.; Ramos, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the PhenX (Phenotypes and eXposures) Toolkit is to provide researchers whose expertise lies outside a particular area with key measures identified by experts for uniform use in large-scale genetic studies and other extensive epidemiologic efforts going forward. The current paper specifically addresses the PhenX Toolkit research domain of physical activity and physical fitness (PA/PF), which are often associated with health outcomes. A Working Group (WG) of content experts completed a 6-month consensus process in which they identified a set of 14 high-priority, low-burden, and scientifically supported measures. During this process the WG considered self-reported and objective measures which included the latest technology (e.g., accelerometers, pedometers, heart-rate monitors). They also sought the input of measurement experts and other members of the research community during their deliberations. A majority of the measures include protocols for children (or adolescents), adults, and older adults or are applicable to all ages. Measures from the PA/PF domain and 20 other domains are publicly available and found at the PhenX Toolkit website, www.phenxtoolkit.org. The use of common measures and protocols across large studies enhances the capacity to combine or compare data across studies, benefitting both PA/PF experts and non-experts. Use of these common measures by the research community should increase statistical power and enhance the ability to answer scientific questions that might have previously gone unanswered. PMID:22516489

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Tracking Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to ...

  20. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years...

  1. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  2. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  3. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  4. Physical activity and lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Marrugat, Jaume; Arquer, Andreu; Elosua, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Part of these benefits is related to the effects over the classic cardiovascular risk factors. These effects, however, only explain part of the protection of PA from these types of diseases. The oxidation of LDL cholesterol particles, which is the aetiopathogenic mechanism of a great part of cardiovascular diseases, plays an important role in the arteriosclerotic process. This narrative review pres...

  5. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  6. Relativity explained by physical interpretation of coordinates of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Viraj

    2009-08-01

    This paper is based on Einstein's key concept, 'Physical Interpretation of Co-ordinates' on which basis he developed his theory of relativity. However, in the present theory, space and time co-ordinates are abandoned and instead, internal components of energy are recognized as co-ordinates of Nature's geometry. This enables the development of the theory in full conformity to the principle of conservation of energy. Whereas, the co-ordinates that vary in the motions of matter particles are inertia and velocity of the applied momentum, in motion of photons, it is the inertia and frequency co-ordinates that vary, while velocity co-ordinate remains invariant at value c, making the result of Michelson's experiment self-explanatory. Thus, although this theory vindicates special theory of relativity in regard to the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light, it contradicts it by recognizing the possession of mass by a photon. By identifying that Newton has willfully omitted two important laws by the use of the Ockham's razor, since these have no significant effects on the motion of bodies at low velocities, and by re-instating these laws, classical mechanics is revised to apply to bodies moving at all velocities whatsoever, so that the revised theory becomes capable of accounting for gamma-factor, Lorentz transformation and other relativistic phenomena. The parallel between 'Lorentz transformation' of the displacement of a fast moving particle in a laboratory on earth, in terms of co-ordinate variation of inertia and velocity, and the relativistic Doppler effect of starlight incident on earth in terms of co-ordinate variation of inertia and frequency, is established.

  7. Learning as They Write: An Assignment to Explain Physics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Julie; Hademenos, George

    2009-05-01

    Cross-curricular secondary instructional strategies exist in many different forms and can be applied to any two or more curricular disciplines. Most importantly, these strategies have been proven to be effective in improving learning and comprehension of important concepts across all curricular fields involved in the activity.1-7 There is no instructional strategy as applicable and as important to secondary students in all classes, particularly English Language Learners (ELLs),8,9 as the implementation of writing into a curricular discipline.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to ... Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. ... Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  13. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ... Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube ...

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational ... relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ...

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    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  20. Particle physics brick by brick atomic and subatomic physics explained... in LEGO

    CERN Document Server

    Still, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Using LEGO (R) blocks to create a uniquely visual and clear depiction of the way our universe is put together. This is the perfect introduction to the enigmatic and fascinating world of Quantum Physics.Our story starts with the Big Bang, and along the way, the constructs and interactions within and among atoms and sub-atomic particles, and the forces that play upon them, are clearly explained, with each LEGO (R) block representing a different atomic or sub-atomic particle. The different colours and size denote what that particle is and its relationship with the other 'building blocks'.Each chapter is presented in digestible chunks, using toy building blocks to illustrate the ideas and experiments that have led to some of the biggest discoveries of the past 150 years.Soon you'll be able to construct every element in the Universe using a box of LEGO (R) and this book!

  1. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  5. Physical activity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Blinc

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to technological development, the average level of physical activity is decreasing among residents of developed countries, which is an important factor in the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome.Results (findings. Although excessive physical exertion disrupts hormonal balance, harms the immune system and somewhat increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, the overwhelming majority of adaptations to regular exercise comprise health benefits. Sensitivity to insulin is increased, metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol is improved, and the basal tone of the sympathetic nervous system is decreased, which all reduces coronary atherothrombotic events and cardio-vascular mortality. Physical exercise is linked to reduced risk of colon carcinoma, breast cancer and endometrial carcinoma. Regular physical activity prolongs life on average by about two years in comparison with sedentary population, but even more importantly, it preserves endurance and power necessary for independent living well into in advanced age. Physical exercise reduces symptoms of depression and improves the perceived level of satisfaction.Conclusions. In order to achieve the metabolic and psychological benefits of exercise, it is necessary to engage in at least a half hour of moderately intense activity on most days of the week, but daily physical activity is even better.

  6. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  7. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...

  8. Preschool physical activity and functional constipation: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, L.M.; Jong, J.C.K.D.; Wijtzes, A.; Vries, S.I. de; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Raat, H.; Moll, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Decreased physical activity levels in children may partly explain the rising prevalence of functional constipation in childhood. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the association between physical activity and functional constipation during the preschool period.

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... of Perceived Exertion Scale) Videos Glossary of Terms Personal Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, Age 32 Demetrise, Age 42 Susan, Age 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index MENU CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: ...

  13. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  14. Physical Activity in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  15. Physical appearance perfectionism explains variance in eating disorder symptoms above general perfectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Stoeber, Joachim; Yang, Hongfei

    2015-01-01

    Physical appearance perfectionism is a domain-specific form of perfectionism comprising two components: hope for perfection and worry about imperfection (Yang & Stoeber, 2012). Previous studies found that physical appearance perfectionism is related to eating disorder symptoms, particularly the worry about imperfection component, but did not address the question of whether physical appearance perfectionism explains variance in eating disorder symptoms above general perfectionism. The present ...

  16. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...... compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the compliance of Axivity AX3 accelerometers taped directly to the skin of 9-13-year-old children. METHODS: Children in 46 school classes (53.4% girls, age 11.0±1.0 years, BMI 17.7±2.8 kg*m) across Denmark wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers, one taped...

  17. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....... came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week...

  18. Physical Fitness can Partly Explain the Metabolically Healthy Obese Phenotype in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelkens, F.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brussee, P.; Verheggen, R.J.H.M.; Tack, C.J.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether physical fitness and/or fat distribution and inflammation profile may explain why approximately 30% of the women with obesity are protected against obesity-related disorders.10 metabolically healthy obese women and 10 age- and weight-matched women with the metabolic syndrome

  19. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  20. Is It Physical Education or Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With heightened attention on childhood obesity prevention efforts, there seems to be some confusion between the terms "physical education" and "physical activity." Often the words are used interchangeably but they differ in important ways. Understanding the difference between the two is critical to understanding why both contribute to the…

  1. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity ... What foods can I eat if I have diabetes? You may worry that having diabetes means going ...

  2. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  3. USING LUDIC ACTIVITIES TO EXPLAIN THE BIOME CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Riccioni de Melos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to research on the role of ludic activities in teaching and learning physical geography content during the last four years of primary school. We question the discourse that identifies students’ lack of interest as the obstacle to teaching physical geography. This study contributes by questioning this obstacle. We note that few studies exist on this topic, according to the CAPES (Coordination for higher Education Staff Development dissertation database, in 2011 only five were completed. The theoretical basis for the study considers work by Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 and Freitas and Salvi (2011, authors who defend the use of ludic activities in teaching methodology. In 2010, the “Biome Game” for 6th year students was developed based on this theoretical framework as part of the required course “Supervised Practice”. The goal of the activity was to think about how the concept of biome was created, and the methodology used valued recreational approaches. The empirical results of this experiment, which involved developing and implementing the game during the Supervised Practice course, demonstrate the importance of ludic pedagogical strategies for teaching physical geography in Brazilian primary education. O presente artigo traz contribuições de pesquisa sobre a função da ludicidade no ensino-aprendizagem de conteúdos da geografia física, no segundo segmento do ensino fundamental. Tal questão problematiza o discurso sobre o desinteresse dos alunos, como significativo obstáculo para a didática da geografia física. A pertinência do presente estudo está em reconhecer esta questão, tendo em vista que existem poucos estudos na área, totalizando em 2011, segundo o banco de dissertações da CAPES, somente cinco trabalhos concluídos. Nossa investigação dialoga com Graciolli (2009, Silva et al. (2010, Rupel (2011 e Freitas e Salvi (2011, autores dedicados à defesa da utilização de

  4. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  5. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physically active adults are at lower risk for depression and declines in cognitive function as they get older. (Cognitive function includes thinking, learning, and judgment skills.) Physically active children and teens ... of depression than their peers. Physical activity also lowers your ...

  6. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  7. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  8. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  9. Physical activity in obesity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the

  10. Physical activity in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinie Geenen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise education in overweight and obese patients not only requires knowledge of physical exercise programs, but also knowledge of psychological processes such as cognitions that may hamper adherence to the exercise program and knowledge of social processes, e.g., consciousness of the

  11. Physical activity of office workers

    OpenAIRE

    E Biernat; Tomaszewski, P.; K Milde

    2010-01-01

    Inactivity or insufficient physical activity is risk factor for metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. In most of cases the nature of work of office employees does not require high physical efforts and consists mostly of sitting but the reports on leisure activity of office workers are still lacking. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess physical activity of civil and local administration workers and bank officials. 293 randomly selected office workers took part in the study. They were recr...

  12. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  13. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical activity and sedentary behaviour in older adults? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:62. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-62]. 17. World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for. Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010. 18. Tudor-Locke C, Sisson SB, Collova T, Lee SM, ...

  14. Physical Activity and Aging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    STEWART, KERRY J

    2005-01-01

    ..., but also for enhancing substantially the quality of daily life. Aerobic and resistance training have complementary benefits, and can be undertaken at almost any age and physical condition, given appropriate medical clearance and supervision as warranted.

  15. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  16. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  17. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  18. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  19. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  20. Physical activity among nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilar Leona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses need to encourage patients to lead a healthy lifestyle, hence it is important that as nursing students they are already aware of the importance of physical activity. The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical activities of nursing students.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity. If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a few words without pausing for a breath. Absolute ... ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL ...

  4. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said...

  5. Explaining Spatial Variation in Real Estate Development Activity in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Alkay; Berna Keskin; Craig Watkins

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong policy discourse at local and national level in Turkey that ascribes considerable economic benefits to new construction activity. Critics, however, argue that this policy discourse has led to a mismatch between public policy and market fundamentals in many cities. It has been suggested that policy intentions might be driving construction levels above demand levels and could be contributing to uneven spatial development between regions. This paper seeks to shed light on this ...

  6. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bellizzi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  7. NREL Explains the Higher Cellulolytic Activity of a Vital Microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of a new mode of action by C. thermocellum to convert biomass to biofuels is significant because the bacterium is already recognized as one of the most effective in the biosphere. Researchers found that, in addition to using common cellulase degradation mechanisms attached to cells, C. thermocellum also uses a new category of cell-free scaffolded enzymes. The new discovery will influence the strategies used to improve the cellulolytic activity of biomass degrading microbes going forward. Better understanding of this bacterium could lead to cheaper production of ethanol and drop-in fuels. Also, this discovery demonstrates that nature's biomass conversion behaviors are not fully understood and remain as opportunities for future microbial/enzyme engineering efforts.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. ... Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources ... Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos Glossary of Terms Personal Stories Harold, Age 7 Maria, Age 16 Alex, Age 32 Demetrise, Age ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ...

  13. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bone-strengthening activity. Stretching helps improve your flexibility and your ability to fully move your joints. ... own, consider joining a support group. Many hospitals, workplaces, and community groups offer classes to help people ...

  14. Physical activity and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2015-01-01

    Brain development is a complex process, and stimuli during this developmental period may modulate the brain's functional maturation and determine its lifelong integrity. Human and animal studies have shown that environmental stimuli such as physical activity habits seem to have a favorable influence on brain development. Research on humans has demonstrated improvement in cognitive performance in the children of women who exercised regularly throughout pregnancy and in individuals who were physically active during childhood and adolescence. Investigations using animal models have also reported that physical activity improves the cognitive function of developing rats. In this review, we will present the neurobiological mechanisms of such effects.

  15. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  16. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  17. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  18. Laws of physics help explain capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, E; Chan, Y K; Bek, T; Hardarson, S H; Wong, D; Wilson, D I

    2018-01-19

    The purpose is to use laws of physics to elucidate the mechanisms behind capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, loss of pericytes weakens capillary walls and the vessel dilates. A dilated capillary has reduced resistance to flow, therefore increased flow in that vessel and decreased in adjoining capillaries. A preferential shunt vessel is thus formed from the dilated capillary and the adjacent capillaries become non-perfused. We apply the laws of Laplace and Hagen-Poiseuille to better understand the phenomena that lead to capillary non-perfusion. These laws of physics can give a foundation for physical or mathematical models to further elucidate this field of study. The law of Laplace predicts that a weaker vessel wall will dilate, assuming constant transmural pressure. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation for flow and the Ostwald-de Waele relationship for viscosity predict that a dilated vessel will receive a higher portion of the fluid flow than the adjoining capillaries. Viscosity will decrease in the dilated vessel, furthering the imbalance and resulting in a patch of non-perfused capillaries next to the dilated 'preferential' shunt vessel. Physical principles support or inspire novel hypotheses to explain poorly understood phenomena in ophthalmology. This thesis of pericyte death and capillary remodelling, which was first proposed by Cogan and Kuwabara, already agrees with histological and angiographical observations in diabetic retinopathy. We have shown that it is also supported by classical laws of physics.Eye advance online publication, 19 January 2018; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.313.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action ... doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant ... page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division ...

  2. Physical activity of office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biernat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity or insufficient physical activity is risk factor for metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. In most of cases the nature of work of office employees does not require high physical efforts and consists mostly of sitting but the reports on leisure activity of office workers are still lacking. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess physical activity of civil and local administration workers and bank officials. 293 randomly selected office workers took part in the study. They were recruited from employees of local (n=97 or civil (n=119 administration authorities or banks (n=77 and subjected to interviews with the use of IPAQ questionnaire (short version. Low physical activity was noted in about 70% of local administration employees, in almost 50% of bank officials and about 35% of workers employed in civil administration. Total daily time spent on sitting was on average 9.7±1.7 hour/day irrespectively of gender or group studied. Very low level of physical activity of Polish office workers may be a result of improper habits of spending spare time, low awareness of beneficial effects of physical activity and still insufficient promotion of healthy/active lifestyle in East-European countries.

  3. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Grunseit, Anne C; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortalit...

  4. Towards physical activity support community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Nowadays it is recognized that physical activity, besides other lifestyles, has indisputable beneficial affects on cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment. Additionally the social support is important and has a valuable impact on the outcomes in cardiovascular disease patients. To provide

  5. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortalit...

  6. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  7. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  8. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  9. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  10. A Little Knowledge of Ground Motion: Explaining 3-D Physics-Based Modeling to Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.

    2014-12-01

    Users of earthquake planning scenarios require the ground-motion map to be credible enough to justify costly planning efforts, but not all ground-motion maps are right for all uses. There are two common ways to create a map of ground motion for a hypothetical earthquake. One approach is to map the median shaking estimated by empirical attenuation relationships. The other uses 3-D physics-based modeling, in which one analyzes a mathematical model of the earth's crust near the fault rupture and calculates the generation and propagation of seismic waves from source to ground surface by first principles. The two approaches produce different-looking maps. The more-familiar median maps smooth out variability and correlation. Using them in a planning scenario can lead to a systematic underestimation of damage and loss, and could leave a community underprepared for realistic shaking. The 3-D maps show variability, including some very high values that can disconcert non-scientists. So when the USGS Science Application for Risk Reduction's (SAFRR) Haywired scenario project selected 3-D maps, it was necessary to explain to scenario users—especially engineers who often use median maps—the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the two approaches. We used authority, empirical evidence, and theory to support our choice. We prefaced our explanation with SAFRR's policy of using the best available earth science, and cited the credentials of the maps' developers and the reputation of the journal in which they published the maps. We cited recorded examples from past earthquakes of extreme ground motions that are like those in the scenario map. We explained the maps on theoretical grounds as well, explaining well established causes of variability: directivity, basin effects, and source parameters. The largest mapped motions relate to potentially unfamiliar extreme-value theory, so we used analogies to human longevity and the average age of the oldest person in samples of

  11. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choose physical activities that do not require special gear or advanced skills. Turn on some music and host a dance party with friends and family. Prepare to break through your roadblocks. What are the top three things keeping YOU from being more active? ...

  12. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    2016-01-01

    It is a wide held belief among scientist and teachers that physical activities in school creates joyfulness and supports the development of a ‘positive’ learning environment. This belief is solid, but built on scant scientific documentation. In Denmark new governmental policy prescribes 45 minutes...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  13. Crohn's disease and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kšírová, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor thesis "Crohn's disease and physical activity" deal with Crohn's disease, its clinics, diagnosis and treatment. The next part give notice about some complication of disease which may be treatment by physiotherapy and this part is also about influence of exercise to digestion. This bachelor thesis is going to name positives and negatives of physical exercise on process Crohn's disease. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  14. Enhancing Physical Education with a Supplemental Physical Activity Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matthew R.; Heelan, Kate; Ball, James

    2017-01-01

    For decades, schools have played a pivotal role in providing physical activity opportunities to children. For many students, school-time physical activity serves as the primary source of activity, via activity clubs, classroom physical activity breaks, and family health awareness nights. The purpose of this article is to describe how three schools…

  15. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  16. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  17. Young adult perceptions of Australia's physical activity recommendations for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim A; Cleland, Verity J; Venn, Alison J; Hansen, Emily

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity recommendations for adults worldwide advise participation in moderate-intensity physical activity, such as walking, on most days of the week. Younger adults report the lowest prevalence of walking. This mixed-methods study explores the salience of Australia's activity recommendations around moderate-intensity physical activity, particularly walking, for young Australian adults. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 young Australians aged 17-25 years. During interviews, Australia's physical activity recommendations for adults were explained to participants, highlighting the inclusion of moderate-intensity physical activity such as walking. Participants were asked to comment on the recommendations and walking for physical activity and exercise. Data from interviews underwent an iterative thematic form of analysis. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and were asked to complete a pedometer diary. No participant was classified as sedentary; twenty three participants reported walking for transport and nine for leisure (IPAQ). During interviews, the majority of participants (n=20) did not identify walking as physical activity or exercise. Participants focussed on the cardiorespiratory (fitness) benefits associated with physical activity and believed walking was of insufficient intensity to achieve these benefits at their age. Walking was considered an everyday activity and of insufficient intensity to achieve any health or fitness benefits. SO WHAT?: The belief that only vigorous physical activity conveys any fitness benefits may act as a barrier to participation in moderate-intensity physical activity such as walking, particularly among sedentary young people.

  18. Can visco-elastic phase separation, macromolecular crowding and colloidal physics explain nuclear organisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, Francisco J

    2007-04-12

    The cell nucleus is highly compartmentalized with well-defined domains, it is not well understood how this nuclear order is maintained. Many scientists are fascinated by the different set of structures observed in the nucleus to attribute functions to them. In order to distinguish functional compartments from non-functional aggregates, I believe is important to investigate the biophysical nature of nuclear organisation. The various nuclear compartments can be divided broadly as chromatin or protein and/or RNA based, and they have very different dynamic properties. The chromatin compartment displays a slow, constrained diffusional motion. On the other hand, the protein/RNA compartment is very dynamic. Physical systems with dynamical asymmetry go to viscoelastic phase separation. This phase separation phenomenon leads to the formation of a long-lived interaction network of slow components (chromatin) scattered within domains rich in fast components (protein/RNA). Moreover, the nucleus is packed with macromolecules in the order of 300 mg/ml. This high concentration of macromolecules produces volume exclusion effects that enhance attractive interactions between macromolecules, known as macromolecular crowding, which favours the formation of compartments. In this paper I hypothesise that nuclear compartmentalization can be explained by viscoelastic phase separation of the dynamically different nuclear components, in combination with macromolecular crowding and the properties of colloidal particles. I demonstrate that nuclear structure can satisfy the predictions of this hypothesis. I discuss the functional implications of this phenomenon.

  19. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  20. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  1. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  2. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  3. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  4. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  5. The physical therapist's role in physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, E.; Engbers, L.

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians are increasingly confronted with the diseases of physical inactivity. Paradoxically, a promising strategy to motivate sedentary individuals to become more active is the opportunity to encourage physical activity related behavioural change when individuals encounter health professionals.

  6. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  7. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Pu; Stone, Joseph Antony; Churchill, Sarah May; Wheat, Jonathan Stephen; Brymer, Eric; Davids, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activity, with each level reported to have a positive effect on human behaviours. However, the extent to which each level of green physical activity benefits health and wellbeing is assumed to differ, requiring confirmation in future research. This elucidation of understanding is needed because previous literature has tended to focus on recording empirical evidence rather than developing a sound theoretical framework to understand green physical activity effects. Here we propose an ecological dynamics rationale to explain how and why green physical activity might influence health and wellbeing of different population groups. This framework suggests a number of unexplored, interacting constraints related to types of environment and population groups, which shape reported levels of benefit of green physical activity. Further analysis is needed to clarify the explicit relationship between green physical activity and health and wellbeing, including levels of engagement, types of environmental constraints, levels of physical activity, adventure effects, skill effects and sampling of different populations.

  8. Public health aspects of physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel-Vos, G.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis different public health aspects of physical activity in the Netherlands were addressed, taking into account its broad scope. Research was carried out on physical activity methodology, determinants of physical activity and the relationship between physical activity and different health

  9. Physical and Sport Education as a Tool for Development of a Positive Attitude toward Health and Physical Activity in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena; Dobay, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    The study explains the importance and the role of physical and sport education in development of a positive attitude toward physical activity and health in adulthood. The empirical study was aimed at finding the factor that contributed to the transfer of respondents' physical activity into their adulthood with regard to their health status. The…

  10. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  11. Physical Activity and Pediatric Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database ...... at the population-level could shift the upper tails of the BMI and WC frequency distributions to lower values, thereby lowering the number of children and adolescents classified as obese....

  12. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity among Slovenian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kirbiš

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Frequent physical activity has previously been found associated with numerous health benefits, yet it is unequally distributed across social strata, including in Slovenia. The aim of the present study was to examine the frequency of and inequalities in physical activity among Slovenian youth. Methods: A representative cross-sectional study of 907 men and women aged 16–27 years (x̄age = 21.90, s = 3.25, 48.3 % women living in Slovenia was carried out examining the determinants of physical activity (measured with a single item on the frequency of physical activity in previous 7 days. Results: More than four out of ten young people (41.3 % reported being vigorously physically active for at least 20 minutes daily only on only two days or less in the previous week. Regression analysis indicated that eight predictor variables explained 4.2 % of the variance (Adjusted R2 = 3.4 % in physical activity. Male gender was the only significant predictor of more frequent physical activity (β = 0.20, p < 0.001. In addition, interaction effect was detected with gender moderating the association between age and physical activity (β = -0.10, p < 0.05. Discussion and conclusion: Socioeconomic gradient in physical activity was not detected. Future studies should examine additional indicators of socioeconomic status and deprivation. The study results could provide a basis for programmes and interventions on physical activity that should target especially young women.

  13. "Quod Erat Demonstrandum": Understanding and Explaining Equations in Physics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Krey, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    In physics education, equations are commonly seen as calculation tools to solve problems or as concise descriptions of experimental regularities. In physical science, however, equations often play a much more important role associated with the formulation of theories to provide explanations for physical phenomena. In order to overcome this…

  14. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  15. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms : findings from a general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, J.F.; Ten Have, M.; Rijnders, C.A.; Van Marwijk, H.W.; de Graaf, R.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C.M.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence

  16. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  17. Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Brage, Søren; Zhao, Jing Hua; Westgate, Kate; Nessa, Ayrun; Ekelund, Ulf; Spector, Tim D; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J F

    2013-11-01

    Twin and family studies that estimated the heritability of daily physical activity have been limited by poor measurement quality and a small sample size. We examined the heritability of daily physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed objectively by using combined heart rate and movement sensing in a large twin study. Physical activity traits were assessed in daily life for a mean (± SD) 6.7 ± 1.1 d in 1654 twins from 420 monozygotic and 352 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs aged 56.3 ± 10.4 y with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.1 ± 4.8. We estimated the average daily movement, physical activity energy expenditure, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior from heart rate and acceleration data. We used structural equation modeling to examine the contribution of additive genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors to between-individual variation in traits. Additive genetic factors (ie, heritability) explained 47% of the variance in physical activity energy expenditure (95% CI: 23%, 53%) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (95% CI: 29%, 54%), 35% of the variance in acceleration of the trunk (95% CI: 0%, 44%), and 31% of the variance in the time spent in sedentary behavior (95% CI: 9%, 51%). The remaining variance was predominantly explained by unique environmental factors and random error, whereas shared environmental factors played only a marginal role for all traits with a range of 0-15%. The between-individual variation in daily physical activity and sedentary behavior is mainly a result of environmental influences. Nevertheless, genetic factors explain up to one-half of the variance, suggesting that innate biological processes may be driving some of our daily physical activity.

  18. Quod erat demonstrandum: Understanding and Explaining Equations in Physics Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Krey, Olaf

    2015-07-01

    In physics education, equations are commonly seen as calculation tools to solve problems or as concise descriptions of experimental regularities. In physical science, however, equations often play a much more important role associated with the formulation of theories to provide explanations for physical phenomena. In order to overcome this inconsistency, one crucial step is to improve physics teacher education. In this work, we describe the structure of a course that was given to physics teacher students at the end of their master's degree in two European universities. The course had two main goals: (1) To investigate the complex interplay between physics and mathematics from a historical and philosophical perspective and (2) To expand students' repertoire of explanations regarding possible ways to derive certain school-relevant equations. A qualitative analysis on a case study basis was conducted to investigate the learning outcomes of the course. Here, we focus on the comparative analysis of two students who had considerably different views of the math-physics interplay in the beginning of the course. Our general results point to important changes on some of the students' views on the role of mathematics in physics, an increase in the participants' awareness of the difficulties faced by learners to understand physics equations and a broadening in the students' repertoire to answer "Why?" questions formulated to equations. Based on this analysis, further implications for physics teacher education are derived.

  19. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  20. Physical activity and situational motivation in physical education: influence of the motivational climate and perceived ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Loraine E; Treasure, Darren C

    2003-06-01

    The influence of perceptions of the motivational climate and perceived ability on situational motivation and the physical activity behavior of 213 male and 229 female adolescent physical education students (M age = 12.56 years; SD = 0.96) was examined over a 3-day period. A significant age by gender interaction emerged, with physical activity declining from the sixth to eighth grade. The decline was more pronounced among female than male students. Perceptions of a mastery climate were strongly related to more self-determined forms of situational motivation. In contrast, perceptions of a performance climate were strongly related to less self-determined forms of situational motivation. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis revealed gender, perceived ability, and perceptions of a mastery climate to explain a significant amount of variance in physical activity. These findings suggest that promoting a mastery oriented motivational climate in physical education will foster self-determined situational motivation and physical activity.

  1. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Provided are activities focusing on phenomena associated with rotation of a double wheel (two bicycle wheels mounted on a common axis and free to rotate independently of each other) and on the operation of an electromagnetic toy car. (JN)

  3. Explaining the Unexplainable: Translated Scientific Explanations (TSE) in Public Physics Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the features and design of explanations in public physics lectures. It presents the findings from a comparative study of three exemplary public physics lectures, given by practicing physicists who are acknowledged as excellent public lecturers. The study uses three different perspectives: the lecture, the lecturer, and the…

  4. Activities report in applied physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  5. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  6. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  7. Physical activity and associated factors among students attending evening classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luis Ceschini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the physical activity level and associated factors among students attending evening classes in public and private schools in a region of the city of São Paulo. The sample was composed of 1,844 adolescents of both sexes aged 15-20 years. Three public and private schools in the city of São Paulo were visited. Daily physical activity level was assessed through International Physical Activity Questionnaire that classifies physical activity level. Physical activity level was divided into insufficiently active (when subject reported less than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week and physically active (when subject reported more than 300 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activities per week. Information related to risk behavior such as smoking and alcohol consumption was collected. Data were analyzed using logistic regression with three levels of data input and p<.05 as significance level. The prevalence of physically active adolescents was 36.1%. Most active subjects were: A younger boys with low socioeconomic levels; B adolescents from private schools; C adolescents that do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages; D those who do not attend formal exercise program; E those who go to school to perform physical activities on weekends. Adolescents attending evening classes tended to be insufficiently active. We believe that school structure, working hours, and distance from home and workplace to school and risk factor should explain these data. Intervention programs could significantly contribute to increase the physical activity level among adolescents.

  8. Daily Interpersonal Experience Partially Explains the Association Between Social Rank and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Kamarck, Thomas W; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-12-01

    Socioeconomic position is a well-established risk factor for poor physical health. This study examines whether the effects of lower social rank on physical health may be accounted for by differences in daily social experience. In a large community sample (N = 475), we examined whether subjective social rank is associated with self-rated health, in part, through positive and negative perceptions of daily interpersonal interactions, assessed using ecological momentary assessment. Higher social rank was associated with higher average perceived positivity of social interactions in daily life (e.g., B = .18, p social interactions. Further, the association between social rank and self-rated physical health was partially accounted for by differences in perceived positivity of social interactions. This effect was independent of well-characterized objective markers of SES and personality traits. Differences in the quality of day-to-day social interactions is a viable pathway linking lower social rank to poorer physical health.

  9. Six easy pieces essentials of physics explained by its most brilliant teacher

    CERN Document Server

    Feynman, Richard P; Matthew L Sands

    2005-01-01

    The six easiest chapters from Feynman's celebrated lectures on physics, which the Nobel Prize-winning scientist delivered from 1961 to 1963 at the California Institute of Technology, have been reprinted in this volume.

  10. Quantifying physical activity heat in farm animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Labussière, E.; Klinken, van J.B.

    2015-01-01

    The time dependent character of data generated by modern calorimetry equipment provides the unique opportunity to monitor short term changes in energy expenditure related to physical activity, feeding pattern and other experimental interventions. When timed recordings of physical activity are

  11. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  12. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity Updated:Sep 12,2017 Exercise Is for Everyone ... almost all patients do some form of regular physical activity. There are a few exceptions, so it's good ...

  13. AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food and Beverage Toolkit The AHA's Recommendations for Physical Activity in Children Updated:Oct 18,2016 Click image ... Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps with: controlling weight reducing blood pressure raising ...

  14. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  15. the subject of physical education and extracurricular physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Campos Izquierdo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article there is analyzed the possible connection of physical education classes with the extracurricular physical activities in the Primary School of the Region of Madrid. This research places inside the methodology of quantitative type of descriptive cut, across survey, which has been in use as instrument of withdrawal of information the interview standardized by means of questionnaire created ad hoc, that was completed by 300 teachers. In the study there is obtained that the vast majority of the teachers who give classes in the extracurricular physical activities say they do not establish any coordination with the Physical Education teacher of the school. However, most of these teachers feel they would be good if there were a coordination with the teachers of Physical Education. However, more than half of teachers who give classes in the extracurricular physical activities believe that the objectives of the activities they provide are not related to the objectives of the Physical Education.

  16. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and waking up are recommended over one fixed time-slot defining day time. It seem reasonable to highlight the importance of healthy active living from the early childhood by given recommendations for physical activity. However, the recommendation of at least 3 hours daily activity of at least light intensity...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...

  17. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  18. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  19. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  20. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on ...

  1. Physical activity profile of urbanized Rwandan women | Kagwiza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that by 2020 chronic diseases of lifestyle will be almost 50% of the burden of disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. Rapid urbanization with changes in lifestyle, such as physical activity patterns could explain at least partially the ongoing epidemiological transition. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of ...

  2. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  3. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  4. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the physical activity (PA), body composition and physical fitness status of 1361 (boys: n=678; girls: n= 683) primary school children aged 9-12 years in Mpumalanga (MP) and Limpopo (LP) provinces of South Africa. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were taken using the ...

  5. Influence of Physical Activities to Science Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Wilson DR. Constantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.

  6. Explaining electromagnetic induction: a critical re-examination. The clinical value of history in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J.

    1987-03-01

    The study of the historical evolution of a theory or explanation in physics can help to improve the present understanding of it. Superseded theories sometimes linger on in modern physics literature. Technical terms devised more than a century ago, perhaps, may now be misleading or inappropriate. Well established conventional explanations or auxiliary constructions may become so familiar that they may occasionally be mistaken for correct physical explanations. Students who fail to recognise the historical origins and present status of such concepts may find themselves unable to fit them into a coherent picture, and may become perplexed or even discouraged as a result. History can often help to clarify such problems and it may even suggest a solution. As a case history illustrating this approach, the author briefly examines the more qualitative aspects of some of the explanations which leading physicists have offered for electromagnetic induction during the past one hundred and fifty years or so. He uses the term 'correct' physical explanation to mean an explanation which is in close agreement with experimental evidence and with modern fundamental theory and also one which is logically sound and accurately worded.

  7. What factors explain the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients referred with low back pain; a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Joost

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well-known that the number of physical therapy treatment sessions varies over treatment episodes. Information is lacking, however, on the source and explanation of the variation. The purposes of the current study are: 1 to determine how the variance in the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP in the Netherlands is distributed over patient level, therapist level and practice level; and 2 to determine the factors that explain the variance. Methods Data were used from a national registration network on physical therapy. Our database contained information on 1,733 patients referred with LBP, treated by 97 therapists working in 41 practices. The variation in the number of treatment sessions was investigated by means of multilevel regression analyses. Results Eighty-eight per cent of the variation in the number of treatment sessions for patients with LBP is located at patient level and seven per cent is located at practice level. It was possible to explain thirteen per cent of all variance. The duration of the complaint, prior therapy, and the patients' age and gender in particular are related to the number of physical therapy treatment sessions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the number of physical therapy treatment sessions in patients with LBP mainly depends on patient characteristics. More variation needs to be explained, however, to improve the transparency of care. Future research should examine the contribution of psychosocial factors, baseline disability, and the ability to learn motor behavior as possible factors in the variation in treatment sessions.

  8. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  9. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  10. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...

  11. Common Physical Framework Explains Phase Behavior and Dynamics of Atomic, Molecular, and Polymeric Network Formers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Whitelam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that the self-assembly of a diverse collection of building blocks can be understood within a common physical framework. These building blocks, which form periodic honeycomb networks and nonperiodic variants thereof, range in size from atoms to micron-scale polymers and interact through mechanisms as different as hydrogen bonds and covalent forces. A combination of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics shows that one can capture the physics that governs the assembly of these networks by resolving only the geometry and strength of building-block interactions. The resulting framework reproduces a broad range of phenomena seen experimentally, including periodic and nonperiodic networks in thermal equilibrium, and nonperiodic supercooled and glassy networks away from equilibrium. Our results show how simple “design criteria” control the assembly of a wide variety of networks and suggest that kinetic trapping can be a useful way of making functional assemblies.

  12. Promotion of physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floriani, Victoria; Kennedy, Christine

    2008-02-01

    Promotion of physical activity continues to be recommended as an essential component of obesity treatment and prevention interventions. This review explores recent updates in the area of physical activity promotion and its impact on the physical and mental health consequences of childhood obesity. Despite the availability of opportunities for physical activity in the school environment, namely recess and physical education classes, students do not appear to be meeting activity recommendations at school alone. Access to neighborhood parks may increase levels of physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors at home. Less time spent watching television and in other sedentary behaviors such as playing videogames may contribute to higher rates of physical activity. Frequency of physical activity also appears to be related to improved mental health status, although the direction of this relationship warrants further exploration. Physical activity is an evidence-based intervention that offers benefits to both physical and mental health. Pediatric health care providers are encouraged to engage in discussions with patients and families on the topic of physical activity and to assist them in finding ways to incorporate activity into daily life.

  13. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  14. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms: findings from a general population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna F; ten Have, Margreet; Rijnders, Cees A; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; de Graaf, Ron; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a nationally representative face-to-face cohort study among the general population aged 18–64 years. We selected subjects with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) only (MUSonly; n=177), explained physical symptoms only (PHYonly, n=1,952), combined MUS and explained physical symptoms (MUS + PHY, n=209), and controls without physical symptoms (NONE, n=4,168). We studied entry into mental health care and the number of treatment contacts for mental problems, in both primary care and specialized mental health care. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and presence of any 12-month mental disorder assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Results At the primary care level, all three groups of subjects with physical symptoms showed entry into care for mental health problems significantly more often than controls. The adjusted odds ratios were 2.29 (1.33, 3.95) for MUSonly, 1.55 (1.13, 2.12) for PHYonly, and 2.25 (1.41, 3.57) for MUS + PHY. At the specialized mental health care level, this was the case only for MUSonly subjects (adjusted odds ratio 1.65 [1.04, 2.61]). In both the primary and specialized mental health care, there were no significant differences between the four groups in the number of treatment contacts once they entered into treatment. Conclusion All sorts of physical symptoms, unexplained as well as explained, were associated with significant higher entry into primary care for mental problems. In specialized mental health care, this was true only for MUSonly. No differences were found in the number of treatment contacts. This warrants further research aimed at the content of the treatment contacts. PMID

  15. Preschoolers' physical activity behaviours: parents' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D; He, Meizi; Bouck, L Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L

    2005-01-01

    To understand parents' perspectives of their preschoolers' physical activity behaviours. A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers' physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Parents perceived Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30-90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child's age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents' impact, and child's activity preferences. The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity.

  16. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  17. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physical inactivity has become a global health concern and is among the 10 leading causes of death and disability. Physiotherapists are in a position to combat inactivity and effectively promote physical activity to their clients. Objectives: To establish the relationship between physical activity levels of ...

  18. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Physical inactivity has become a global health concern and is among the 10 leading causes of death and disability. Physiotherapists are in a position to combat inactivity and effectively promote physical activity to their clients. Objectives: To establish the relationship between physical activity levels of ...

  19. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  20. Choosing a Physically Active Lifestyle Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Murray

    2007-01-01

    A major goal for most quality physical education programs is to provide sufficient education and motivation for students to choose to live physically active lifestyles. This article clarifies what a "physically active lifestyle" really means both now to school-aged students, and in the future, as these students become adults.…

  1. Children with cancer and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhan Soyuer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most people participate in physical activity on a regular basis. However, among the many patients with cancer, few incorporate physical activity into their daily routine. It is because of parental or physician restriction, the fact remains that patients with epilepsy are less fit and do not get the exercise they need. Participating in physical activity, physical fitness as they have less of a fear. However, this overprotective attitude has been changing in light of the recent literature on this subject. This review discusses benefits of physical activity in cancer and the effects of exercise on seizure.

  2. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle in cycle paths; and iii) active transportation. Knowing the effects that air pollution has in the respiratory function, the increased V? (Minute Ventilation) that practitioners experience during ex...

  3. Correlates of preschool children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Okely, Anthony D; Hesketh, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity is important for children's health, and identifying factors associated with their physical activity is important for future interventions and public health programs. This study sought to identify multidimensional correlates of preschool children's physical activity. The social-ecological model (SEM) was used to identify constructs potentially associated with preschool children's physical activity. Data were collected from 1004 preschool children, aged 3-5 years, and parents in 2008-2009, and analyzed in 2010-2011. Physical activity was measured over 8 days using ActiGraph accelerometers. Parents completed a comprehensive survey. Generalized linear modeling was used to assess associations between potential correlates and percentage of time spent in physical activity. Correlates of physical activity were found across all the domains of the SEM and varied between boys and girls and week and weekend days. Age was the only consistent correlate, with children spending approximately 10% less time in physical activity for each advancing year of age. Some modifiable correlates that were related to more than one physical activity outcome were rules restricting rough games inside and usual daily sleep time for boys. For girls, a preference to play inside/draw/do crafts rather than be active, and child constraints, was associated with more than one of the physical activity outcomes. A novel finding in this study is the counterintuitive association between parental rules restricting rough games inside and boys' higher physical activity participation levels. Potential strategies for promoting children's physical activity should seek to influence children's preference for physical activity and parent rules. Gender-specific strategies also may be warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can dual processing theory explain physics students' performance on the Force Concept Inventory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Hardy, Judy

    2016-12-01

    According to dual processing theory there are two types, or modes, of thinking: system 1, which involves intuitive and nonreflective thinking, and system 2, which is more deliberate and requires conscious effort and thought. The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a widely used and robust three item instrument that measures the tendency to override system 1 thinking and to engage in reflective, system 2 thinking. Each item on the CRT has an intuitive (but wrong) answer that must be rejected in order to answer the item correctly. We therefore hypothesized that performance on the CRT may give useful insights into the cognitive processes involved in learning physics, where success involves rejecting the common, intuitive ideas about the world (often called misconceptions) and instead carefully applying physical concepts. This paper presents initial results from an ongoing study examining the relationship between students' CRT scores and their performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), which tests students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics. We find that a higher CRT score predicts a higher FCI score for both precourse and postcourse tests. However, we also find that the FCI normalized gain is independent of CRT score. The implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Measuring and Explaining Cognitive Load During Design Activities: A fine-grained approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Barbara; Neurauter, Manuel; Burattin, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuro–physiological measurements resulted in reliable and objective measures of Cognitive Load (CL), e.g., using pupillary responses. However, continuous measurement of CL in software design activities, e.g., conceptual modeling, has received little attention. In this paper, we...... present the progress of our work intended to close this gap by continuously measuring cognitive load during design activities. This work aims at advancing our understanding of WHEN and WHY designers face challenges. For this, we attempt to explore and explain the occurrence of CL using fine–granular units...

  6. Pedagogical Distance: Explaining Misalignment in Student-Driven Online Learning Activities Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; Franken, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an Activity Theory analysis of two online student-driven interactive learning activities to interrogate assumptions that such groups can effectively learn in the absence of the teacher. Such an analysis conceptualises learning tasks as constructed objects that drive pedagogical activity. The analysis shows a disconnect between…

  7. Multiple early victimization experiences as a pathway to explain physical health disparities among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John

    2015-05-01

    Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n = 422) and sexual minority (n = 681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  9. Leisure time physical activity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Føns Johnsen, Nina; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors.......BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...

  10. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  11. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  12. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  13. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  14. Biopsychosocial Benefits of Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Meydanlioglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135

  15. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  17. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  18. Successfully Improving Physical Activity Behavior After Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Streppel, Kitty R.M.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Woude, Luc H.V.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van Harten, Willem H.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the physical activity promotion programs Rehabilitation & Sports (R&S) and Active after Rehabilitation (AaR) on sport and daily physical activity 1 year after in- or outpatient rehabilitation. Design Subjects in intervention rehabilitation centers were randomized

  19. Growth dynamics explain the development of spatiotemporal burst activity of young cultured neuronal networks in detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Taras A; le Feber, Joost; Rutten, Wim L C

    2012-01-01

    A typical property of isolated cultured neuronal networks of dissociated rat cortical cells is synchronized spiking, called bursting, starting about one week after plating, when the dissociated cells have sufficiently sent out their neurites and formed enough synaptic connections. This paper is the third in a series of three on simulation models of cultured networks. Our two previous studies [26], [27] have shown that random recurrent network activity models generate intra- and inter-bursting patterns similar to experimental data. The networks were noise or pacemaker-driven and had Izhikevich-neuronal elements with only short-term plastic (STP) synapses (so, no long-term potentiation, LTP, or depression, LTD, was included). However, elevated pre-phases (burst leaders) and after-phases of burst main shapes, that usually arise during the development of the network, were not yet simulated in sufficient detail. This lack of detail may be due to the fact that the random models completely missed network topology .and a growth model. Therefore, the present paper adds, for the first time, a growth model to the activity model, to give the network a time dependent topology and to explain burst shapes in more detail. Again, without LTP or LTD mechanisms. The integrated growth-activity model yielded realistic bursting patterns. The automatic adjustment of various mutually interdependent network parameters is one of the major advantages of our current approach. Spatio-temporal bursting activity was validated against experiment. Depending on network size, wave reverberation mechanisms were seen along the network boundaries, which may explain the generation of phases of elevated firing before and after the main phase of the burst shape.In summary, the results show that adding topology and growth explain burst shapes in great detail and suggest that young networks still lack/do not need LTP or LTD mechanisms.

  20. Growth Dynamics Explain the Development of Spatiotemporal Burst Activity of Young Cultured Neuronal Networks in Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Taras A.; le Feber, Joost; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2012-01-01

    A typical property of isolated cultured neuronal networks of dissociated rat cortical cells is synchronized spiking, called bursting, starting about one week after plating, when the dissociated cells have sufficiently sent out their neurites and formed enough synaptic connections. This paper is the third in a series of three on simulation models of cultured networks. Our two previous studies [26], [27] have shown that random recurrent network activity models generate intra- and inter-bursting patterns similar to experimental data. The networks were noise or pacemaker-driven and had Izhikevich-neuronal elements with only short-term plastic (STP) synapses (so, no long-term potentiation, LTP, or depression, LTD, was included). However, elevated pre-phases (burst leaders) and after-phases of burst main shapes, that usually arise during the development of the network, were not yet simulated in sufficient detail. This lack of detail may be due to the fact that the random models completely missed network topology .and a growth model. Therefore, the present paper adds, for the first time, a growth model to the activity model, to give the network a time dependent topology and to explain burst shapes in more detail. Again, without LTP or LTD mechanisms. The integrated growth-activity model yielded realistic bursting patterns. The automatic adjustment of various mutually interdependent network parameters is one of the major advantages of our current approach. Spatio-temporal bursting activity was validated against experiment. Depending on network size, wave reverberation mechanisms were seen along the network boundaries, which may explain the generation of phases of elevated firing before and after the main phase of the burst shape.In summary, the results show that adding topology and growth explain burst shapes in great detail and suggest that young networks still lack/do not need LTP or LTD mechanisms. PMID:23028450

  1. Growth dynamics explain the development of spatiotemporal burst activity of young cultured neuronal networks in detail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras A Gritsun

    Full Text Available A typical property of isolated cultured neuronal networks of dissociated rat cortical cells is synchronized spiking, called bursting, starting about one week after plating, when the dissociated cells have sufficiently sent out their neurites and formed enough synaptic connections. This paper is the third in a series of three on simulation models of cultured networks. Our two previous studies [26], [27] have shown that random recurrent network activity models generate intra- and inter-bursting patterns similar to experimental data. The networks were noise or pacemaker-driven and had Izhikevich-neuronal elements with only short-term plastic (STP synapses (so, no long-term potentiation, LTP, or depression, LTD, was included. However, elevated pre-phases (burst leaders and after-phases of burst main shapes, that usually arise during the development of the network, were not yet simulated in sufficient detail. This lack of detail may be due to the fact that the random models completely missed network topology .and a growth model. Therefore, the present paper adds, for the first time, a growth model to the activity model, to give the network a time dependent topology and to explain burst shapes in more detail. Again, without LTP or LTD mechanisms. The integrated growth-activity model yielded realistic bursting patterns. The automatic adjustment of various mutually interdependent network parameters is one of the major advantages of our current approach. Spatio-temporal bursting activity was validated against experiment. Depending on network size, wave reverberation mechanisms were seen along the network boundaries, which may explain the generation of phases of elevated firing before and after the main phase of the burst shape.In summary, the results show that adding topology and growth explain burst shapes in great detail and suggest that young networks still lack/do not need LTP or LTD mechanisms.

  2. ROCK PHYSICS. Rock physics of fibrous rocks akin to Roman concrete explains uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, Tiziana; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2015-08-07

    Uplifts in the Campi Flegrei caldera reach values unsurpassed anywhere in the world (~2 meters). Despite the marked deformation, the release of strain appears delayed. The rock physics analysis of well cores highlights the presence of two horizons, above and below the seismogenic area, underlying a coupled process. The basement is a calc-silicate rock housing hydrothermal decarbonation reactions, which provide lime-rich fluids. The caprock above the seismogenic area has a pozzolanic composition and a fibril-rich matrix that results from lime-pozzolanic reactions. These findings provide evidence for a natural process reflecting that characterizing the cementitious pastes in modern and Roman concrete. The formation of fibrous minerals by intertwining filaments confers shear and tensile strength to the caprock, contributing to its ductility and increased resistance to fracture. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Physical activity, energy balance and obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Salas-Salvado; Jose Luis Griera; Jose Maria Manzanares; Montserrat Barbany; Jose Contreras; Pilar Amigo

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity, energy balance and obesity. Obesity appears when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The most important variable compound of energy expenditure is physical activity. The global epidemics of obesity seem closely related to reduced physical activity and sedentariness widely increasing nowadays. Once obesity has developed, caloric intake becomes similar to energy expenditure. To lose weight, besides decreasing energy intake, energy expenditure must be increased. The p...

  4. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Maharashtrian adolescents to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population, as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was ...

  5. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  6. Physical activity after cancer: physiologic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Physical activity has many and varied effects on the human body. The physiologic effects of physical activity and exercise in persons with cancer have been largely unstudied. Cancer patients as a group are at risk for diseases and conditions related to lack of physical activity. In persons with cancer, exercise has been shown to improve fitness and physical functioning, reduce fatigue, and modestly decrease weight and body fat. The effects of physical activity on prognosis, however, are unknown. In persons without cancer, exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, reducing risk of cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes. Increased physical activity reduces risk for several common cancers, which is relevant to cancer survivors who are at increased risk for new primary cancers. Additional benefits of physical activity include improvements in fitness, muscular-skeletal problems including arthritis symptoms, immune system function, cognition and sleep. Risks of increased physical activity in cancer patients and survivors have not been defined, but could be expected to include musculo-skeletal injuries, and a small increased risk in sudden death with vigorous exercise and serious accidents with some sports. The effect of physical activity on survival from cancer is unknown, but physical activity might improve prognosis through beneficial effect on cancer biomarkers and energy balance, as well as decreasing risk for cardiovascular disease, an important cause of death for many cancer survivors. The long-term benefits and risks of physical activity in cancer patients and survivors are unknown. Nevertheless, increasing physical activity is probably beneficial and safe in the majority of cancer survivors.

  7. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-06-21

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.

  8. The role of internal coupling activities in explaining the effectiveness of open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of internal contingencies in explaining performance implications of open innovation by addressing the questions: does openness drive innovation performance? And if so, what organizational activities impact the effectiveness of both the inbound and the outbound...... approaches to openness? The empirical basis of the study is a survey carried out in 321 Danish SMEs in manufacturing industries. The paper finds limited evidence of the direct effects of inbound and outbound open innovation on performance, as measured in terms of innovative output and profitability. It also...... with autonomy and empowerment to conduct their work. The paper concludes with implications to theory and practice....

  9. Thermally Activated Contact Strengthening Explains Nonmonotonic Temperature and Velocity Dependence of Atomic Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Evstigneev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While the well-established Prandtl-Tomlinson (PT model of atomic friction predicts that the friction force decreases with temperature and grows with velocity, several recent experiments reported that a nonmonotonic temperature dependence and a decreasing velocity dependence may also occur. We propose a minimal extension of the PT model, incorporating the possibility of thermally activated contact strengthening and providing one common framework to quantitatively explain all those “anomalous” experimental findings, as well as the previously known “normal” (PT-like behavior.

  10. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  11. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  12. Sociodemographic moderators of relations of neighborhood safety to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jordan A; Bracy, Nicole L; Sallis, James F; Millstein, Rachel A; Saelens, Brian E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Conway, Terry L; Frank, Lawrence D; Cain, Kelli L; King, Abby C

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income as moderators of relations of perceived neighborhood crime, pedestrian, and traffic safety to physical activity. Participants were from two samples: adults (N = 2199, age = 25-65 yr) and older adults (N = 718, age = 66+ yr) from high- and low-walkable neighborhoods in the Washington, DC, and Seattle, Washington, areas. Neighborhood safety and transportation and leisure walking were assessed via survey, and moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Sociodemographic moderators were investigated using interaction terms and follow-up within-group tests from mixed-effects regression models. Overall direct effects of safety on physical activity were not found, with one exception. Seven interactions were found in each sample. Interactions were found for all physical activity outcomes, although total moderate to vigorous physical activity was involved in more interactions in adults than older adults. Half of the interactions revealed significant positive relations of pedestrian and traffic safety to physical activity in the more affluent/advantaged group (i.e., high education, high income, and non-Hispanic white) and null associations in the less affluent/advantaged group. Race/ethnicity was a moderator only in older adults. One-third of the interactions involved gender; half of these involved crime safety. Interactions involving crime safety showed nonsignificant positive trends in the more affluent/advantaged group and women and nonsignificant negative trends in the less affluent/advantaged group and men. Sociodemographic moderators of neighborhood safety explained some of the variation in adults' and older adults' physical activity. Patterns suggested positive associations between safety and physical activity in participants with more affluent/advantaged sociodemographic characteristics, although some patterns were inconsistent, particularly for gender. More

  13. When the uncertainty principle goes up to 11 or how to explain quantum physics with heavy metal

    CERN Document Server

    Moriarty, Philip

    2018-01-01

    There are deep and fascinating links between heavy metal and quantum physics. No, there are. Really. While teaching at the University of Nottingham, physicist Philip Moriarty noticed something odd--a surprising number of his students were heavily into metal music. Colleagues, too: a Venn diagram of physicists and metal fans would show a shocking amount of overlap. What's more, it turns out that heavy metal music is uniquely well-suited to explaining quantum principles. In When the Uncertainty Principle Goes Up to Eleven, Moriarty explains the mysteries of the universe's inner workings via drum beats and feedback: You'll discover how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle comes into play with every chugging guitar riff, what wave interference has to do with Iron Maiden, and why metalheads in mosh pits behave just like molecules in a gas. If you're a metal fan trying to grasp the complexities of quantum physics, a quantum physicist baffled by heavy metal, or just someone who'd like to know how the fundamental sci...

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  15. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  16. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Physical Activity and Exercise: Implications for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Wayne A.; Mauzey, Edward D.; Hall, Charla R.

    2003-01-01

    Authors address current recommendations for physical activity and health, physical activity and mental well being, and implications for counselors and the counseling profession. Specifically, they review a recent article published in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" and examine in detail the resulting implications for counselors…

  18. Representation of physical activity domains and sedentary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schools play an important role in promoting active lifestyles among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the representation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SBs) in the images of physical education (PE) textbooks. The initial sample was composed of 1 094 images from Spanish PE textbooks.

  19. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  20. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  1. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  2. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  3. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  4. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  5. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and m...

  6. Physical activity after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenmakers, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Regular physical activity plays an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic conditions, and is linked to a reduction in all-cause mortality. It also enhances musculoskeletal fitness. Through these effects, regular physical activity can make an important contribution

  7. Physical Activity before and after School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…

  8. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  9. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  10. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  11. Medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms in the general population: association with prevalent and incident mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna van Eck van der Sluijs

    Full Text Available Clinical studies have shown that Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS are related to common mental disorders. It is unknown how often common mental disorders occur in subjects who have explained physical symptoms (PHY, MUS or both, in the general population, what the incidence rates are, and whether there is a difference between PHY and MUS in this respect.To study the prevalence and incidence rates of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders in groups with PHY, MUS and combined MUS and PHY compared to a no-symptoms reference group in the general population.Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2, a nationally representative face-to-face survey of the general population aged 18-64 years. We selected subjects with explained physical symptoms only (n=1952, with MUS only (n=177, with both MUS and PHY (n=209, and a reference group with no physical symptoms (n=4168. The assessment of common mental disorders was through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between group membership and the prevalence and first-incidence rates of comorbid mental disorders, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics.MUS were associated with the highest prevalence rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and combined MUS and PHY with the highest prevalence rates of substance disorder. Combined MUS and PHY were associated with a higher incidence rate of mood disorder only (OR 2.9 (95%CI:1.27,6.74.In the general population, PHY, MUS and the combination of both are related to mood and anxiety disorder, but odds are highest for combined MUS and PHY in relation to substance use disorder. Combined MUS and PHY are related to a greater incidence of mood disorder. These findings warrant further research into possibilities to improve recognition and early intervention in subjects with combined MUS and PHY.

  12. Multimorbidity, cognitive function, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both physical activity and multimorbidity are associated with cognitive function. However, the extent to which physical activity may moderate the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function has not been thoroughly evaluated. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (60+ years; N = 2157). A multimorbidity index variable was created based on physician diagnosis of a multitude of chronic diseases. Physical activity was self-reported and cognitive function was evaluated from the digit symbol substitution test. Multimorbidity was inversely associated with cognitive function for the unadjusted and adjusted models. However, generally, multimorbidity was no longer associated with cognitive function for the majority of older adults who achieved the minimum recommended physical activity level (≥2000 MET-min-month), as issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this national sample of older adults, there was some evidence to suggest that physical activity moderates the relationship between multimorbidity and cognitive function.

  13. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  14. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    ; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... activity and health in their environment. Furthermore, most of the students would like to become healthier or more active, and they see the school and their parents as important factors in helping them get there. Conclusively, aspects like school, leisure, spare time jobs and cultural norms shape the lives......The paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in a Danish Gymnasium. The purpose of the survey was to gain knowledge on the perspectives of the students regarding physical education, exercise and health. Other studies have examined the views of young people regarding PE...

  15. Physical Activity in Hospitalised Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the amount and type of physical activity engaged in by people hospitalised after stroke. Method. We systematically reviewed the literature for observational studies describing the physical activity of stroke patients. Results. Behavioural mapping, video recording and therapist report are used to monitor activity levels in hospitalised stroke patients in the 24 included studies. Most of the patient day is spent inactive (median 48.1%, IQR 39.6%–69.3%, alone (median 53.7%, IQR 44.2%–60.6% and in their bedroom (median 56.5%, IQR 45.2%–72.5%. Approximately one hour per day is spent in physiotherapy (median 63.2 minutes, IQR 36.0–79.5 and occupational therapy (median 57.0 minutes, IQR 25.1–58.5. Even in formal therapy sessions limited time is spent in moderate to high level physical activity. Low levels of physical activity appear more common in patients within 14 days post-stroke and those admitted to conventional care. Conclusions. Physical activity levels are low in hospitalised stroke patients. Improving the description and classification of post stroke physical activity would enhance our ability to pool data across observational studies. The importance of increasing activity levels and the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity after stroke need to be tested further.

  16. Increasing specificity of correlate research: exploring correlates of children's lunchtime and after-school physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Rebecca M; Ridley, Kate; Olds, Timothy S; Dollman, James

    2014-01-01

    The lunchtime and after-school contexts are critical windows in a school day for children to be physically active. While numerous studies have investigated correlates of children's habitual physical activity, few have explored correlates of physical activity occurring at lunchtime and after-school from a social-ecological perspective. Exploring correlates that influence physical activity occurring in specific contexts can potentially improve the prediction and understanding of physical activity. Using a context-specific approach, this study investigated correlates of children's lunchtime and after-school physical activity. Cross-sectional data were collected from 423 South Australian children aged 10.0-13.9 years (200 boys; 223 girls) attending 10 different schools. Lunchtime and after-school physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were assessed using purposely developed context-specific questionnaires. Correlated Component Regression analysis was conducted to derive correlates of context-specific physical activity and determine the variance explained by prediction equations. The model of boys' lunchtime physical activity contained 6 correlates and explained 25% of the variance. For girls, the model explained 17% variance from 9 correlates. Enjoyment of walking during lunchtime was the strongest correlate for both boys and girls. Boys' and girls' after-school physical activity models explained 20% variance from 14 correlates and 7% variance from the single item correlate, "I do an organised sport or activity after-school because it gets you fit", respectively. Increasing specificity of correlate research has enabled the identification of unique features of, and a more in-depth interpretation of, lunchtime and after-school physical activity behaviour and is a potential strategy for advancing the physical activity correlate research field. The findings of this study could be used to inform and tailor gender-specific public health messages and

  17. Physical activity and physical function in individuals post-bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josbeno, Deborah A; Kalarchian, Melissa; Sparto, Patrick J; Otto, Amy D; Jakicic, John M

    2011-08-01

    A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2-5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36(PF)). Height and weight were measured. Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in <150 min/week (52.5 ± 17.4). Results suggest that subjects are capable of performing most mobility activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects' physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions.

  18. Measuring physical activity environments: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F

    2009-04-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people's ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people's use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments.

  19. Physical Activity in Child and Adolescent Cancer Survivors: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gilliam, Margaux B.; Schwebel, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for future health problems. As such, physical activity (PA) has been targeted as a health promotion priority in child and adolescent cancer survivors. Research indicates that a large portion of pediatric survivors do not meet PA recommendations. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory as a framework, this review presents a conceptual model to explain child and adolescent survivors’ PA. The model considers predictors of PA across six domains: (...

  20. Physics Education activities sponsored by LAPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora Ley, Cesar E.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present the first activities of the Latin-American Physics Education Network (LAPEN) organized by representatives of Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru and Spain. These activities include Seminars, Congress, Postgraduate Programs on Physics Education and several publications. The creation of LAPEN has been inspired and warranted by members of the International Commission on Physics Education of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. LAPEN was constituted in the International Meeting on Teaching Physics and Training Teachers (RIEFEP 2005) which was held in Matanzas, Cuba in November 2005. The creation of LAPEN was also warranted by the General Assembly of the IX Inter-American Conference on Physics Education held in San José, Costa Rica from 3 to 7 July 2006, and by the ICPE Committee in the International Conference on Physics Education 2006 at Tokyo, Japan. LAPEN has a Coordinator Committee integrated by a President, a Vice-president and an Executive Secretary.

  1. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  2. Associations between personality traits, physical activity level, and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolea, Magdalena I; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Metter, E Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway.

  3. [Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena

    2017-03-24

    A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301

  5. Physical activity: Cinderella or Rodney Dangerfield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, Antronette K; Sallis, James F

    2009-10-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading causes of death, disability, and health care costs, but resources and other investments in promoting physical activity are neither proportional to nor ideally suited to address the problem, especially in the United States. Capacity for physical activity promotion is lacking, when compared to the response to other major health risk and protective behaviors. The authors of the commentaries in this special issue were asked to identify key issues from a variety of perspectives and to recommend actions that can be taken now to increase physical activity across the population so that all segments of society benefit, especially those at high risk of chronic diseases. The goal is to stimulate research institutions, public health agencies at all levels, and policy makers to raise physical activity as a priority commensurate with other pressing public health concerns.

  6. [Relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chong-hua; Zuo, Hui-juan; Kong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Xiao-guang; Zhai, Feng-ying

    2006-08-15

    To investigate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome (MS). A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted in 132 sampling 218,920 residents, aged 44.3 +/- 15.3 (15 - 96), in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland China according to the program of the National Nutrition and Health Survey. Questionnaire survey, interview, physical examination, measurement of biochemical indices, and dietary investigation were done. Information of physical activity and measurement of fasting glucose and/or glucose 2 hours after meal, blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were obtained in 50,494 participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Chinese Medical Association's definition. The intensity of physical activity was divided into 3 categories according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of US/American College of Sports Medicine criteria. 50,495 subjects, 23,932 males (47.4%) and 26,562 females (52.6%), were diagnosed as with MS. The MS incidence of those with high intensity of physical activity was lower by 60% in comparison with those with low intensity of physical activity (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI: 0.362 - 0.443) adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol intake. The risk of MS in those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 151 - 300 minutes/week was slightly decreased compared to those with moderate intensity of physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week, (odds ratio 0.935, 95% CI: 0.685 - 1.277), however, the risk of MS in those with the moderate intensity of physical activity over 300 minutes/week increased slightly (OR = 1.269, 95% CI: 0.923 - 1.745). The risk of MS in those with low-level physical activity of 301 - 420 minutes/week was lower by 35% in comparison with those with the low-level physical activity of 90 - 150 minutes/week (95% CI: 0.451 - 0.933), however, the risk of MS in those with the low-level physical activity over 420

  7. Physical activity and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-09-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood that children will live less healthy lives than their parents. Owing to the high risk of overweight adolescents becoming obese adults, the engagement of children and adolescents in physical activity and sport is a fundamental goal of obesity prevention.

  8. Improving physical activity in daycare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonis, Marc; Loftin, Mark; Ward, Dianne; Tseng, Tung Sung; Clesi, Ann; Sothern, Melinda

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to objectively determine whether the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program improved physical activity levels during the school day. The study compared the physical activity levels of subjects from 26 daycare centers, randomized into treatment (N=13) and control (N=13) groups. The subjects were 3 to 5 year olds (N=209, 104 males and 105 females; age [years]=3.85±0.8 [mean±standard deviation]), and accelerometry was used to determine the subjects' physical activity levels. Accelerometers were attached to each subject for 2 days before and immediately after a 6-month intervention. Height, mass, and waist were also measured. Regression analyses indicated that the treatment group demonstrated significant increases in moderate and vigorous physical activity, as compared to the control group (F(1, 207)=6.3, pdaycare facilities resulted in significant increases in objectively measured physical activity levels, compared to the control group, demonstrating physical activity improvement in the treatment daycare centers.

  9. Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12-18 years old from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3% and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1% did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week(-1 or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.86 increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity.

  10. Associations between screen time and physical activity among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Martí-Trujillo, Sara; Lera-Navarro, Angela; Dorado-García, Cecilia; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Sanchís-Moysi, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    Excessive time in front of a single or several screens could explain a displacement of physical activity. The present study aimed at determining whether screen-time is associated with a reduced level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Spanish adolescents living in favorable environmental conditions. A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to select 3503 adolescents (12-18 years old) from the school population of Gran Canaria, Spain. MVPA, screen-time in front of television, computer, video game console and portable console was assessed in the classroom by fulfilling a standardized questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted by a set of social-environmental variables were carried out. Forty-six percent of girls (95% CI±2.3%) and 26% of boys (95% CI±2.1%) did not meet the MVPA recommendations for adolescents. Major gender differences were observed in the time devoted to vigorous PA, video games and the total time spent on screen-based activities. Boys who reported 4 hours•week(-1) or more to total screen-time showed a 64% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI, 0.44-0.86) increased risk of failing to achieve the recommended adolescent MVPA level. Participation in organized physical activities and sports competitions were more strongly associated with MVPA than screen-related behaviors. No single screen-related behavior explained the reduction of MVPA in adolescents. However, the total time accumulated through several screen-related behaviors was negatively associated with MVPA level in boys. This association could be due to lower availability of time for exercise as the time devoted to sedentary screen-time activities increases. Participation in organized physical activities seems to counteract the negative impact of excessive time in front of screens on physical activity.

  11. : Diabetes mellitus 1. type and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Prouza, Michal

    2014-01-01

    1 Abstrakt Name of thesis Diabetes mellitus I. type and physical activity Aim of thesis The bachelor's thesis deals with diabetes mellitus I. type, the opportunity of compensation by adequate physical aktivity and diet and consecutive complications of diabetes. Methodology Collecting of the data from available literature and internet's resources. There is no personal interviews in this work. Results General description of the diabetes mellitus I. type, question of the physical aktivity with t...

  12. Worksite physical activity policies and environments in relation to employee physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Noe C; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D

    2011-01-01

    Examine associations between worksite physical activity promotion strategies and employees' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Cross-sectional. Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, D.C. regions. Adults working outside the home (n = 1313). Mean age was 45 ± 10 years, 75.8% of participants were non-Hispanic white, 56% were male, and 51% had income ≥$70,000/year. Participants reported demographic characteristics and presence/absence of nine physical activity promotion environment and policy strategies in their work environment (e.g., showers, lockers, physical activity programs). A worksite physical activity promotion index was a tally of strategies. Total sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) min/d were objectively assessed via 7-day accelerometry. Total job-related physical activity minutes and recreational physical activity minutes were self-reported with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations evaluated the association of the worksite promotion index with physical activity and sedentary behavior, adjusting for demographics. A higher worksite promotion index was significantly associated with higher total sedentary behavior (β = 3.97), MVPA (β = 1.04), recreational physical activity (β = 1.1 and odds ratio = 1.39; away from work and at work, respectively) and negatively with job-related physical activity (β = .90). Multiple worksite physical activity promotion strategies based on environmental supports and policies may increase recreational physical activity and should be evaluated in controlled trials. These findings are particularly important given the increasingly sedentary nature of employment.

  13. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  14. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  15. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  16. Conceptualizing and Defining the Intention Construct for Future Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Rebar, Amanda L

    2017-10-01

    Intention has been an extremely important concept in physical activity theory and research but is complicated by a double-barreled definition of a decision to perform physical activity and the commitment to enact that decision. We put forth the hypothesis that these separate meanings have different measurement requirements, are situated in distinctly different intention-based models, and show discrete findings when explaining physical activity motives.

  17. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The men show higher cardiovascular risk than women. With regard to physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk, all three women groups show statistically significant differences compared to all three men's groups. There are also moderate practically significant differences between the women's and men's groups.

  18. Spatial analysis of crime incidence and adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alyssa I; Carnes, Fei; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Crime is believed to be a barrier to physical activity among youth, but findings are inconsistent. This study compares the spatial distribution of crime incidences and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents in Massachusetts between 2011 and 2012, and examines the correlation between crime and MVPA. Eighty adolescents provided objective physical activity (accelerometer) and location (Global Positioning Systems) data. Crime report data were obtained from the city police department. Data were mapped using geographic information systems, and crime and MVPA densities were calculated using kernel density estimations. Spearman's correlation tested for associations between crime and MVPA. Overall, 1694 reported crimes and 16,702min of MVPA were included in analyses. A strong positive correlation was present between crime and adolescent MVPA (ρ=0.72, pCrime remained positively associated with MVPA in locations falling within the lowest quartile (ρ=0.43, pcrime density. This study found a strong positive association between crime and adolescent MVPA, despite research suggesting the opposite relationship. This counterintuitive finding may be explained by the logic of a common destination: neighborhood spaces which are desirable destinations and promote physical activity may likewise attract crime. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future...

  20. Physical activity, energy balance and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís Griera, José; María Manzanares, José; Barbany, Montserrat; Contreras, José; Amigó, Pilar; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity appears when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. The most important variable compound of energy expenditure is physical activity. The global epidemics of obesity seem closely related to reduced physical activity and sedentariness widely increasing nowadays. Once obesity has developed, caloric intake becomes similar to energy expenditure. To lose weight, besides decreasing energy intake, energy expenditure must be increased. The promotion of physical activity is difficult and so the results of treatment of obesity are discouraging for doctors, other health professionals and patients. Proactive efforts from patients and health providers with an intensive feedback between them may be extremely helpful. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to provide better approaches on the role of physical activity for the prevention and treatment of obesity and for long-term weight-loss maintenance.

  1. Childhood Obesity, Physical Activity, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

  2. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes to write your questions for the next time you see your healthcare provider. For example: What’s the best type of physical activity for me? How much should I exercise? My Questions: We have many other fact sheets ...

  3. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... that children will live less healthy lives than their parents. Owing to the high risk of overweight adolescents becoming obese adults, the engagement of children and adolescents in physical activity and sport is a fundamental goal of obesity prevention....

  4. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  5. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  6. Weekly variability in outcome expectations: Examining associations with related physical activity experiences during physical activity initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, V.G.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how outcome expectations change after physical activity initiation and whether changes are associated with physical activity experiences. In a diary study, physically inactive adults (N = 102) initiated an exercise regimen and reported their experiences daily (e.g. progress

  7. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    OpenAIRE

    Zaycev V.P.; Manucharyan S.V.; Kramskoy S.I.

    2010-01-01

    Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of acti...

  8. Perceived Barriers to Walking for Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dunton, Genevieve F.; Schneider, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Although the health benefits of walking for physical activity have received increasing research attention, barriers specific to walking are not well understood. In this study, questions to measure barriers to walking for physical activity were developed and tested among college students. The factor structure, test–retest and internal consistency reliability, and discriminant and criterion validity of the perceived barriers were evaluated. Methods A total of 305 undergraduate stud...

  9. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of Youth Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Lindsay E

    2017-02-01

    Two articles that contribute to the literature on psychosocial predictors of youths' physical activity motivation and behavior were chosen for commentary. The first article by Fenner and colleagues showed that a family-based intervention was effective at increasing overweight adolescents' self-determined motivation for physical activity and healthy eating and their quality of life. Significant study contributions include a multidisciplinary team of researchers, multiple pre and post intervention assessments, and a longitudinal test of mechanisms of change. Findings contribute to understanding how to provide overweight adolescents with support and choices at a critical developmental period to ultimately foster lifelong healthy behaviors. The second article by Garn and colleagues examined longitudinal relationships between physical self-perceptions and physical activity among children. Important study contributions include use of accelerometers to assess physical activity and tests of bidirectional relationships. The sample of young children aged 8-11 years also contributes to the literature. Results highlight body acceptance as an important mechanism of focus to foster children's physical activity behavior. Overall, the highlighted studies show that parental support and positive self-perceptions are important to consider in supporting youths' active lifestyles.

  11. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  12. Weight, physical activity and breast cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Anne

    2018-02-26

    Weight, weight change and physical activity may affect prognosis among women who are diagnosed with breast cancer. Observational studies show associations between overweight/obesity and weight gain with several measures of reduced prognosis in women with breast cancer, and some suggestions of lower survival in women who are underweight or who experience unexplained weight loss after diagnosis. Observational studies have also shown an association between higher levels of physical activity and reduced breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, although a dose-response relationship has not been established. The effects of purposive dietary weight loss and increase in physical activity on survival or recurrence in breast cancer are not yet established, and randomised controlled trials are needed for definitive data. This paper presents the epidemiologic evidence on weight status, weight change, and physical activity and breast cancer survival; suggests potential mediating mechanisms; summarises evidence on weight loss interventions in breast cancer survivors; describes ongoing randomised clinical trials designed to test the effects of weight loss or physical activity on breast cancer survival; and provides information on available guidelines on weight and physical activity for cancer survivors.

  13. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  14. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Brittin

    Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  15. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  16. DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul A. VAIZOÐLU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical activities have changed and decreased as the technological improvements increase. Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health problems in the last several decades. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study is conducted in the 1. grade students of Kaya Bayazitoglu High School by using “Physical Activity Questionnnaire Form” under observation in April 2003. Participation rate is 95.8 %. SPSS 11.0 version (Statistical Package for Social Sciences statistical programme was used for entrance and analysis of the data. Results: 50,4% of the participants were female and 49,6% were male. Mean age was 15,21 ± 0,59. The mean of the energy spent by the participants was 1779,67 ± 2539.86 kilocalories/day and the the mean MET/week spent by the physical activities was 47,32 ± 68,08. In conclusion 26,0 % of the participants were found to be sedentary. 35,7 % of the females and 16,2 % of the males were sedentary. The energy spent by the males by physical activity weekly was statisticaly higher than that of the females (2 = 11,615, p = 0,001. Also the energy spent by the licenced sportsmen weekly by physical activity was statisticaly higher than that of the students who are not sportsmen (Fisher Exact, p = 0,037 Conclusions and recommendation: The physical activity of the participants was found to be low. Health and educational associations, schools and municipalities have to colloborate in increasing the physical activity of this age group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 63-71

  17. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  18. Contribution of athletic identity to child and adolescent physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl B; Mâsse, Louise C; Zhang, Hong; Coleman, Karen J; Chang, Shine

    2009-09-01

    Identity theorists maintain that domain-specific self-concepts help explain the differential investment of people's time and effort in various activities. This study examined the contribution of athletic identity and three key demographic variables to physical activity and sports team participation. Students in Grades 4-5 (n=391, mean age 9.9 years, range 8-13 years, collected in 2003) and Grades 7-8 (n=948, mean age 13.6 years, range 11-15 years, collected in 2002 and 2006) completed the 40-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire, which measures self-perceptions of athletic appearance; competence; importance of physical activity and sports; and encouragement for activity from parents, teachers, and friends. Hierarchic multiple regression analyses in 2008 assessed the effects of athletic identity, race/ethnicity group, gender, and overweight status on 7-day moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and organized sport team participation in each age group. In children and adolescents, the global score of athletic identity was independently, positively related to MVPA (psports (5% in children, 15% in adolescents). In the subscale analyses, positive relationships for appearance, competence, importance, and parental encouragement persisted independent of demographic factors. Results support the role of athletic self-concept in promoting physical activity and organized sport participation in children and adolescents.

  19. Health-enhancing physical activity among Saudi adults using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M

    2007-01-01

    To describe the physical activity profile of Saudi adults living in Riyadh, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short-version telephone format. Physical activity was assessed using the official Arabic short form of IPAQ, intended for use in telephone interview. The instrument asks for times spent in walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity of at least 10 min duration. The sample consisted of 1616 Saudis, between 15 and 78 years of age, living in Riyadh. Participants were drawn from a list of names in the telephone book using a simple random method. Telephone interviews were administered during the spring of 2003 by trained male interviewers. The final sample size was 1064 Saudi males and females (response rate of 66%), with males comprising about 66% of the respondents. Over 43% of Saudis did not participate in any type of moderate-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. More than 72% of the sample did not engage in any type of vigorous-intensity physical activity lasting for at least 10 min. The proportion of Saudis who walked for 150 min or more per week was 33.3%. Females were engaged more in moderate physical activity than males, whereas males participated more in vigorous activity compared with females. Activity levels did not show significant relationships with education level or job hours per week. Based on the three activity categories established by IPAQ, 40.6% of Saudis were inactive, 34.3% were minimally active and 25.1% were physically active. Physical inactivity increased with advancing age. The data suggest that the prevalence of physical inactivity among Saudis adults is relatively high. Efforts are needed to encourage Saudis to be more physically active, with the goal of increasing the proportion of Saudis engaging in health-enhancing physical activity.

  20. A physical model of sill expansion to explain the dynamics of unrest at calderas with application to Campi Flegrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicepietro, Flora; Macedonio, Giovanni; Martini, Marcello

    2017-07-01

    Many calderas show remarkable unrests, which often do not culminate in eruptions (non-eruptive unrest). In this context the interpretation of the geophysical data collected by the monitoring networks is difficult. When the unrest is eruptive, a vent opening process occurs, which leads to an eruption. In volcanic calderas, vent locations typically are scattered over a large area and monogenic cones form. The resulting pattern is characterized by a wide dispersion of eruptive vents, therefore, the location of the future vent in calderas is not easily predictable. We propose an interpretation of the deformation associated to unrest and vent pattern commonly observed at volcanic calderas, based on a physical model that simulates the intrusion and the expansion of a sill. The model can explain both the uplift and the subsequent subsidence, through a single geological process. In particular, we simulate the vertical displacement that occurred at the central area of Campi Flegrei caldera during the last decades, and we obtain good agreement with the data of a leveling benchmark near the center of the caldera. Considering that the stress mainly controls the vent opening process, we try to gain insight on the vent opening in calderas through the study of the stress field produced by the intrusion of an expanding sill. We find that the tensile stress in the rock above the sill is concentrated in a ring-shaped area with radius depending on the physical properties of magma and rock, the feeding rate and the magma cooling rate. This stress field is consistent with widely dispersed eruptive vents and monogenic cone formation, which are often observed in the calderas. However, considering the mechanical properties of the elastic plate and the rheology of magma, we show that remarkable deformations may be associated with low values of stress in the rock at the top of the intrusion, thereby resulting in non-eruptive unrests. Moreover, we have found that, under the assumption of

  1. Evaluating Active U: an internet-mediated physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodrich David E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging, particularly during the winter months. To promote physical activity at the University of Michigan during the winter months, an eight-week Internet-mediated program (Active U was developed providing participants with an online physical activity log, goal setting, motivational emails, and optional team participation and competition. Methods This study is a program evaluation of Active U. Approximately 47,000 faculty, staff, and graduate students were invited to participate in the online Active U intervention in the winter of 2007. Participants were assigned a physical activity goal and were asked to record each physical activity episode into the activity log for eight weeks. Statistics for program reach, effectiveness, adoption, and implementation were calculated using the Re-Aim framework. Multilevel regression analyses were used to assess the decline in rates of data entry and goal attainment during the program, to assess the likelihood of joining a team by demographic characteristics, to test the association between various predictors and the number of weeks an individual met his or her goal, and to analyze server load. Results Overall, 7,483 individuals registered with the Active U website (≈16% of eligible, and 79% participated in the program by logging valid data at least once. Staff members, older participants, and those with a BMI P Conclusion Internet-mediated physical activity interventions that focus on physical activity logging and goal setting while incorporating team competition may help a significant percentage of the target population maintain their physical activity during the winter months.

  2. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Physical activity level and physical, mental and social factors in community-dwelling elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Yoshida, Hiroto; Amano, Hidenori; Kumagai, Shu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Shinkai, Shoji

    2006-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physical activity level (PAL) and physical, mental and social factors in community-dwelling elderly people. The subjects comprised 428 residents aged 70 or over living in Kusatsu-machi, Gunma, who took part in an interview and tests of physical fitness as part of the "NIKKORI-KENKOSODANJIGYO". Data for 330 out of the 428 residents were adopted for this study. The PAL was evaluated with a questionnaire developed by Naito et al. (2003). Subjects were interviewed on physical, mental and social functioning including the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence and cognitive function (Mini Mental State Examination: MMSE). Physical fitness tests included assessment of handgrip strength, usual and maximal walking speed, and one-leg standing balance with eyes open. Correlations between PAL and the TMIG Index of Competence, physical (e.g. physical fitness), mental (e.g. depression) and social (e.g. roles at home) factors, and smoking status were significant by ANCOVA adjusted for age and sex. Analysis using a general linear model indicated that smoking status, usual walking speed, depression, roles at home, frequency of going outdoors and visual impairment all together explained 13.5% of the PAL variance. The findings indicate that PAL in the community-dwelling elderly aged 70 years or over is associated with physical, mental and social factors.

  4. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  5. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  6. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely

  7. Slippage of Jets Explained by the Magnetic Topology of NOAA Active Region 12035

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R.; Schmieder, B.; Chandra, R.; Aulanier, G.; Zuccarello, F. P.; Uddin, W.

    2017-10-01

    We present the investigation of 11 recurring solar jets that originated from two different sites (site 1 and site 2) close to each other (≈ 11 Mm) in NOAA active region (AR) 12035 during 15 - 16 April 2014. The jets were observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Two jets were observed by the telescope of the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, India, in Hα. On 15 April, flux emergence is strong in site 1, while on 16 April, flux emergence and cancellation mechanisms are involved in both sites. The jets of both sites have parallel trajectories and move to the south with a speed between 100 and 360 km s-1. The jets of site 2 occurred during the second day have a tendency to move toward the jets of site 1 and merge with them. We conjecture that the slippage of the jets could be explained by the complex topology of the region, which included a few low-altitude null points and many quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), which could intersect with one another.

  8. Physical activity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Bradford W; Driscoll, Sherilyn Whateley

    2012-11-01

    After obesity rates in youth reached alarming rates, public health officials recognized the need for specific physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents. Numerous health care groups and sports and fitness organizations collaborated on the development of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans in 2008, which have been widely endorsed and include recommendations for the pediatric population. Children and adolescents should participate in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity 1 or more hours per day and muscle and bone-strengthening activities 3 or more times per week. Physical activities should be age appropriate, enjoyable, and varied and occur beyond what is required for typical activities of daily living. Adequate exercise in youth improves strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body composition and therefore decreases cardiovascular risk factors. An improved cardiovascular profile provides a continued benefit in adulthood. Exercise also improves bone health, psychological well-being, cognition, and school performance and may decrease the risk of sports injury. Exercise habits established in childhood often continue into adulthood. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Somatotype analysis of physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A H S; Santos, S A G; Castro, P J P; Rizzo, J A; Batista, G R

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed at comparing demographic variables, physical activity level, and health-related anthropometric indicators according to somatotype among physically active individuals. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, in which the sample consisted of 304 individuals, who are users of the jogging track at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE) in Recife, state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Somatotypes were analyzed using the anthropometric technique proposed by Heath & Carter (1990). To assess physical activity level, we used the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We used as health-related anthropometric indicators: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and conicity index (CI). We used descriptive statistics to characterize the sample, and then used a multivariate analysis of variance (a = 0.05) to test for differences. In the somatotype analysis, we observed among women significant predominance of the endomorphy and lower predominance of the ectomorphy in comparison to men. In the age group ≤ 29 years significantly lower values were found for endomorphy than in other age groups. Irregularly active individuals had significantly lower values of endomorphy. We observed that individuals with obesity and risk in WHR, WC and CI had higher scores of endomorphy and mesomorphy and lower scores of ectomorphy. The somatotype of physically active individuals in the present study raises health concern, mainly related to high relative adiposity represented by endomorphy.

  10. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  11. [Patients on the move: validated methods to quantify physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.A.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Vegt, F. de; Busser, G.S.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    - Physical activity is an important component in the maintenance and improvement of general health; physical inactivity is, however, an increasing problem in the Netherlands.- Requests for advice on physical activity are increasing within the healthcare. - Assessment of an individual's physical

  12. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  13. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...... the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk...

  14. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair production in the Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xilin; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the experimentalists in Krasznahorkay (2016) [1] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the e+-e- pair production signal in one of the 8Be nuclear transitions. The subsequent studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. The connection between the previously measured on-shell photon production and the pair production in the same nuclear transitions is established. These improvements, absent in the original experimental analysis, should be included in extracting new particle's properties from the experiment of this type. However, the improvements can not explain the anomaly. We then explore the nuclear transition form factor as a possible origin of the anomaly, and find the required form factor to be unrealistic for the 8Be nucleus. The reduction of the anomaly's significance by simply rescaling our predicted event count is also investigated.

  15. General Relativity Theory Explains the Shnoll Effect and Makes Possible Forecasting Earthquakes and Weather Cataclysms (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Shnoll effect manifests itself in the fine structure of the noise registered in very sta- ble processes, where the magnitude of signal and the average noise remain unchanged. It is found in the periodic fluctuation of the fine structure of the noise according to the cosmic cycles connected with stars, the Sun, and the Moon. Th e Shnoll effect is ex- plained herein, employing the framework of General Relativity, as the twin / entangled synchronization states of the observer’s reference frame. The states are repeated while the observer travels, in common with the Earth, through the c osmic grid of the geodesic synchronization paths that connect his local reference fra me with the reference frames of other cosmic bodies. These synchronization periods matc h the periods that are man- ifested due to the Shnoll e ff ect, regardless of which process produces the noise. These synchronization periods are expected to exist in the noise o f natural processes of any type (physics, biology, social, etc. as well as in such arti ficial processes as computer- software random-number generation. This conclusion accor ds with what was registered according the Shnoll effect. The theory not only explains the Shnoll effect but also al- lows for forecasting fluctuations in the stock exchange mark et, fluctuations of weather, earthquakes, and other cataclysms.

  16. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair production in the Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the experimentalists in Krasznahorkay (2016 [1] announced observing an unexpected enhancement of the e+–e− pair production signal in one of the 8Be nuclear transitions. The subsequent studies have been focused on possible explanations based on introducing new types of particle. In this work, we improve the nuclear physics modeling of the reaction by studying the pair emission anisotropy and the interferences between different multipoles in an effective field theory inspired framework, and examine their possible relevance to the anomaly. The connection between the previously measured on-shell photon production and the pair production in the same nuclear transitions is established. These improvements, absent in the original experimental analysis, should be included in extracting new particle's properties from the experiment of this type. However, the improvements can not explain the anomaly. We then explore the nuclear transition form factor as a possible origin of the anomaly, and find the required form factor to be unrealistic for the 8Be nucleus. The reduction of the anomaly's significance by simply rescaling our predicted event count is also investigated.

  17. Determinant factors of peak treadmill speed in physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Pasqua, Leonardo; Damasceno, Mayara V; Bueno, Salomão; Zagatto, Alessandro M; DE Araújo, Gustavo G; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-11-30

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether physiological factors and maximal dynamic strength are able to determine the peak treadmill speed (PTS) in physically active individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active healthy males voluntarily visit the laboratory on three separate occasions and underwent the following activities: first visit: IPAQ (short version), anthropometric measurements, and a maximal incremental test performed for physiological variables (maximal oxygen uptake ( ) and respiratory compensation point (RCP); second visit: constant speed test for running economy (RE) measurement, and familiarization with the maximum dynamic strength (1RM) test in the leg press exercise; third visit: 1RM test. The stepwise multiple regression model selected four independent variables to predict PTS (RCP, , RE, and 1RM). RCP explained 59% (p < 0.001) of variance in PTS, whereas , RE and 1RM accounted for additional 8% (p < 0.001), 4% (p < 0.001), and 1.4% (p = 0.038), respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that PTS, an important predictor of endurance performance, is determined by both physiological (i.e., RCP, and RE) and muscular (1RM) parameters in healthy active individuals. These results demonstrate that, during a physical evaluation, PTS is able to represent physiological and muscular parameters of physically active individuals. This has the advantage during aerobic fitness evaluations of not requiring expensive equipment and specialized software.

  18. Green space and physical activity: an observational study using Health Survey for England data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Oliver T; Townsend, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Foster, Charlie

    2012-09-01

    Past studies have suggested that a link between health outcomes and green space is due to increased levels of physical activity of individuals living in areas with more green space. We found a positive association between green space and physical activity levels. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of physical activity was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.44) for people living in the greenest quintile in England compared to those living in the least green quintile, after controlling for individual and environmental factors. However, no association was found between green space and types of physical activity normally associated with green space. An association was found with other types of physical activity (gardening and do-it-yourself, and occupational physical activity). These findings suggest that although there is a positive association between physical activity and green space it may not be explained by individuals using green space for recreation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between fundamental motor skills and physical activity in 4-year-old preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, K S; Sääkslahti, A K; Mehtälä, A; Villberg, J J; Tammelin, T H; Kulmala, J S; Poskiparta, M

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and fundamental motor skills in 4-year-old children. Physical activity was monitored in 20 girls and 17 boys over 5 consecutive days (3 days at preschool and 2 days at home) and their fundamental motor skills measured. Multiple linear regressions controlled for sex, age, and body mass index indicated that the total skill score was significantly associated with physical activity, explaining 13%, 16%, and 16% of the variance in total, moderate-to-vigorous, and light-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Sliding and galloping were significantly associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and throwing and catching combination was significantly associated with total, moderate-to-vigorous, and light-to-vigorous physical activity. The findings warrant future investigations with larger samples to examine the relationship between locomotor, manipulative skills, and physical activity behaviors.

  20. Lifestyle and physical activity of the physical education professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. Maia

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was: 1 to identify the physical activity habits in daily life of the professors at the Physical Education Department of UNIMONTES; 2 to verify the lifestyles of these individuals in terms of five well-being-related items (nutrition, physical activity, preventative behavior, social relationships, and stress control. Twenty Physical Education professors (5 women and 15 men, 27 to 53 years of age were evaluated. Three instruments were employed to obtain the required information: 1 PAR-Q, 2 Physical Activity Survey, and 3 Life Style Profi le using the Well Being Pentagram. It was verifi ed that 74% of the males were apparently fi t enough to initiate a physical exercise program. On the other hand, this number decreased to 40% in the female group. Concerning the physical activity questionnaire, 75% of the male group were active or very active, and only 40% of the female group were active. Regarding the lifestyle profi les (Well Being Pentagram, females did not report desirable healthy behavior, since their mean score was 1.4 points. In the male group, the mean score was 2.0 points, which indicates a healthy lifestyle, as well as an attitude more favorable to preventative health. We concluded that women require more attention than men, relating to the aspects mentioned above, and that men should not forget to keep on having healthy habits. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivos: a identifi car os hábitos de atividades físicas no cotidiano dos professores de Educação Física da UNIMONTES; b verifi car o perfi l do estilo de vida considerando cinco fatores (nutrição, atividade física, comportamento preventivo, relacionamento social e controle do stress individuais relacionados ao bem-estar. Foram avaliados 20 (vinte professores de Educação Física, sendo cinco mulheres (25% e quinze homens (75%, na faixa etária de 27 a 53 anos de idade. Para coleta das informações, utilizou-se três instrumentos: a PAR-Q; Physical

  1. Can We Make Time for Physical Activity? Simulating Effects of Daily Physical Activity on Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Geoff Rowe; Tremblay, Mark S.; Douglas G. Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The link between physical activity and health outcomes is well established, yet levels of physical activity remain low. This study quantifies effects on mortality of the substitution of low activity episodes by higher activity alternatives using time-use data. Methods. Sample time profiles are representative of the Canadian population (n=19,597). Activity time and mortality are linked using metabolic equivalents(METs). Mortality risk is determined by peak daily METs and hours sp...

  2. Do physical activity facilities near schools affect physical activity in high school girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R

    2011-03-01

    To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 p.m. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls' physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with schools with ≥5 facilities reported ∼12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with schools with ≥5 vs. school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  4. Nutrition and Physical Activity in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions.

  5. Occupational physical activity, but not leisure-time physical activity increases the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skielboe, Ane K; Marott, Jacob L; Dixen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous findings regarding physical activity and risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) are controversial, focusing on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and without distinguishing it from occupational physical activity (OPA). Our aim was to study the association between physical...... activity and risk of AF, with special attention to the possible divergent effects of OPA and LTPA. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective, observational cohort study, 17,196 subjects were included from the Copenhagen Population Register. All participants had a physical examination, a 12-lead...... electrocardiogram (ECG), and answered a questionnaire regarding health and physical activity. Participants without previously diagnosed AF who answered adequately regarding OPA and LTPA were included. LTPA and OPA were each graded into four levels. Follow-up were carried out between 1981-1983, 1991-1994, and 2001...

  6. The effect of physical activity homework on physical activity among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David; Wells, Gayle M

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the effect of using physical activity homework on physical activity levels of college students. Students in randomly assigned sections of a university health course were assigned 30 minutes of physical activity homework 3 days a week or no homework for 12 weeks. Participants completed self-reports of physical activity before the homework intervention and again at the conclusion of the 12 weeks of physical activity homework. Participants in all course sections reported significant increases in the number of days per week of moderate and vigorous physical activity. Participants in homework sections additionally showed significant increases in the days they engaged in muscular strength/endurance training and activities to manage weight. Participants in sections without homework showed a significant increase in the number of days engaged in flexibility training. Comparison of gain scores showed statistically significant increases by the homework group in the days they participated in activities designed to manage weight. Physical activity homework was deemed to be an effective method of increasing college students' levels of physical activity.

  7. Ambulatory feedback at daily physical activity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Evering, R.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are characterized with persistent fatigue which disturbs activities of daily life. CFS is a symptom-based diagnosis that is made without findings of distinguished physical examination or laboratory tests. CFS can be diagnosed if the fatigue lasts for at least six months, is of new onset, is not the result of persistent physical exertion, does not improve considerably by taking rest, and has resulted in substantial loss in professional, social or pe...

  8. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  9. Adolescent Self-Reported Physical Activity and Autonomy: A Case for Constrained and Structured Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachele, Jerome N; Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy L; Cuddihy, Thomas F; McPhail, Steven M

    2015-09-01

    The provision of autonomy supportive environments that promote physical activity engagement have become popular in contemporary youth settings. However, questions remain about whether adolescent perceptions of their autonomy have implications for physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between adolescents' self-reported physical activity and their perceived autonomy. Participants (n = 384 adolescents) aged between 12 and 15 years were recruited from six secondary schools in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia. Self-reported measures of physical activity and autonomy were obtained. Logistic regression with inverse probability weights were used to examine the association between autonomy and the odds of meeting youth physical activity guidelines. Autonomy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76) and gender (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83) were negatively associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. However, the model explained only a small amount of the variation in whether youth in this sample met physical activity guidelines (R(2) = 0.023). For every 1 unit decrease in autonomy (on an index from 1 to 5), participants were 1.64 times more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. The findings, which are at odds with several previous studies, suggest that interventions designed to facilitate youth physical activity should limit opportunities for youth to make independent decisions about their engagement. However, the small amount of variation explained by the predictors in the model is a caveat, and should be considered prior to applying such suggestions in practical settings. Future research should continue to examine a larger age range, longitudinal observational or intervention studies to examine assertions of causality, as well as objective measurement of physical activity. Key pointsAutonomy was negatively associated with meeting physical activity recommendationsThe findings suggest that more structured environments would

  10. What is the relation between fear of falling and physical activity in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Victoria; Brach, Jennifer S; Wert, David M; Hile, Elizabeth; Studenski, Stephanie; Vanswearingen, Jessie M

    2013-12-01

    To describe the association between fear of falling (FOF) and total daily activity in older adults. Cross-sectional observational study. Ambulatory clinical research training center. Community-dwelling older adults aged ≥64 years (N=78), who were independent in ambulation with or without an assistive device. Not applicable. FOF was defined by self-reported fear ratings using the Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly and self-reported fear status determined by response to the following question: Are you afraid of falling? Physical function was assessed using the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument. Physical activity was recorded using an accelerometer worn on the waist for 7 consecutive days, and mean daily counts of activity per minute were averaged over the 7-day period. Fear ratings were related to total daily activity (r=-.26, P=.02). The relation was not as strong as the relation of function and physical activity (r=.45, P<.001). When stratified by exercise status or functional status, fear was no longer related to total daily activity. Physical function explained 19% of the variance in physical activity, whereas the addition of fear status did not add to the explained variance in physical activity. FOF is related to total daily physical activity; however, FOF was not independently associated with physical activity when accounting for physical function. Some FOF may be reported as a limitation in function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-02-25

    The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  12. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  13. Explaining the entrepreneurial activity rate of women: a macro-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe present study aims at explaining female entrepreneurship from a country perspective. Explanatory variables are derived from three streams of literature, including the literature on the determinants of entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation, and on

  14. Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, and Fitness-The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, J.H. van der; Koster, A.; Berg, J.D. van der; Sep, S.J.; Kallen, C.J. van der; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schram, M.T.; Henry, R.M.; Eussen, S.J.; Dongen, M.C. van; Stehouwer, C.D.; Schaper, N.C.; Savelberg, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study examined the mutual independent associations of sedentary behavior, lower intensity physical activity (LPA) and higher intensity physical activity HPA (an approximation of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF).

  15. Mobile computer application for promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready∼Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Effect of physical activities on obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roberto Adriano Prati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in body fat levels associated with the decrease in physical activities in adolescents has been the concern of recent researches because there is a strong correlation between the growing number of early-age obesity cases and the appearance of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, behavior problems and even death when not treated in time. So this study aimed to analyze through a bibliographical investigation some of the factors that cause obesity in adolescents and propose alternative physical activities to help in the treatment and minimize the problem. The analysis showed that programmed, controlled and adequate physical activities, associated with changes in behavior and lifestyle, may revert obesity condition and improve life quality of these adolescents.

  17. Injuries during physical activity in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Gunilla; Saartok, Tönu; Engström, Lars-Magnus; Renström, Per

    2005-10-01

    During the spring of 2001, 1975 children, from grades 3, 6 and 9 participated in a nationwide, multidisciplinary collaboration study. The students came from randomly selected classes throughout Sweden, representing different geographical and socio-economic areas. The aim of this study was to collect and evaluate self-reported injuries and associated factors during various physical activities as recalled retrospectively for 3 months by the students. Every sixth student (n=299 or 16%) reported 306 injuries. Twice as many girls than boys were injured during physical education class. Ninth-grade students reported relatively more injuries during organized sports than during physical education class and leisure activities. There were no age or gender differences in incidence rate during leisure activities. Most injuries were minor, as 70% were back in physical activity within a week. Half of the students (50%) reported that they previously had injured the same body part. Primary care of the injured student was, with the exception of a family member, most often carried out by the physical education teacher or coach, which accentuates the importance of continuous sports medicine first aid education for this group.

  18. Physical Activity Recognition from Smartphone Embedded Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudêncio, João; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of smartphones has motivated efforts to use the embedded sensors to detect various aspects of user context to transparently provide personalized and contextualized services to the user. One relevant piece of context is the physical activity of the smartphone user. In this paper, we...... propose a novel set of features for distinguishing five physical activities using only sensors embedded in the smartphone. Specifically, we introduce features that are normalized using the orientation sensor such that horizontal and vertical movements are explicitly computed. We evaluate a neural network...

  19. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-ESTEEM, AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Suttiwong, Jattuporn; Sullivan, Patricia E; Nilanthi, Deepika L H K

    2016-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve health and quality of life (QOL) of healthy people. However, the association between PA and QOL among people with physical disability (PWPD) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between factors including intensity of PA, activitiy in daily living (ADL), stress, and self-esteem that influences self-reported QOL among PWPD. The relationships were further explored using the in-depth interview method to find out whether the intensity of PA, stress, and self-esteem are related to QOL perception in PWPD. One hundred sixty PWPD aged 18-48 years who studied at a vocational school were enrolled. A mixed method case study was conducted: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview. Five questionnaires, including the Barthel Index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were distributed. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL_BREF. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors for QOL prediction. For in-depth interview, ten persons from each group (poor-to-fair and good QOL) volunteered to explore further about life satisfaction related to physical disability. One hundred forty-six (91%) subjects completed all questionnaires. One hundred fourteen (77%) reported poor-to-fair QOL. QOL was explained by self-esteem and ADL (adjusted R² 34.7%, p < 0.001) after adjusted for age, stress, and PA. Although PA could not explain QOL in PWPD, good QOL reported high activities (28.40 ± 30.20 MET hour/day) compared to poor and fair QOL (17.94 ± 22.06 and 21.70 ± 17.75 MET hour/day). Those who had good QOL reported that they were proud to be independent and did not feel inferior. PA participation among people with disabilities should therefore be encouraged.

  20. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA of children with physical disabilities (PD in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class and at home (before dinner during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9–56.0% (p < 0.01 of the variance predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA after controlling for demographic variables. Prompts to be active were positively associated with MVPA at school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  1. Recommendations for sufficient physical activity at work : promoting physical activity in low intensity static jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Douwes, M.; Schoenmaker, N.; Korte, E.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Many contemporary work tasks are characterised by little or no physical activity. This pertains to the whole body as well as specific areas such as neck and shoulders. Too little whole body physical activity is generally known to increase the risk of chronic diseases like vascular disorders and

  2. A New "Principal Principle" (#14) of Physical Activity Education Is Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    2011-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that a new "principal principle" of physical activity education is emerging. In this article, the author talks about the new "principal principle"(#14) of physical education. Revisiting a historical milestone in the field's history to explain the origin of the term "principal principle," Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus,…

  3. Applying Transtheoretical Model to Promote Physical Activities Among Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat

    2015-01-01

    .... Inadequate regular physical activities among women, the importance of education in promoting the physical activities, and lack of studies on the women using transtheoretical model, persuaded us...

  4. [Gender and leisure-time physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles-Costa, Rosana; Heilborn, Maria Luiza; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Faerstein, Eduardo; Lopes, Claudia S

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between gender and the social construction of the body, specifically focusing on physical exercise during leisure time. The Pró-Saúde Project is a prospective study consisting of 4,030 employees of a university in Rio de Janeiro, in which we analyzed the answers on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by 3,740 participants. The results show a prevalence of males in LTPA. Age, schooling, and per capita family income were directly associated with exercise among women, as compared to per capita family among men. Men were more frequently involved in group sports and physical activities that required more strength than women, including football, tennis, volleyball, martial arts, jogging, and weight lifting. Women performed more individual physical activities and those demanding less strength, like walking, dance, gymnastics, and hydrogym. The results suggest that LTPA is a domain of daily life that is organized according to certain conventions, amongst which gender-related conceptions concerning the ideal body, where men and women display distinct behaviors in relation to physical exercise.

  5. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  6. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    to Annerstedt’s (2008) analysis of PE, it seems crucial that if physical activities in schools should contribute to at least well-being and learning, the teaching content (the doing) and strategies must prioritize and engaging pupils in the inherent qualities of physical education (Kretchmar, 2000). References...... are not the end but reduced to means. From a child perspective children are viewed as becomings instead of beings (James, Jenks & Prout, 1998). Instead of focusing on the now, the focus is pointing against the future. Method and discussion Based on short-term ethnographical fieldwork and pedagogical literature (e...... to be crucial to keep the pedagogical practice in mind. Like pedagogical literature on play have mentioned, play can be a useful pedagogical tool as long as the essence of play or the nerve of play is maintained. The same issue seems to be relevant for physical activity. Results and conclusions In contrast...

  7. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V

    2013-01-01

    -administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were...... combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39......,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals...

  8. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among those who have it.8–12 In other words, physical activity is relevant .... ture sensitivity. A higher score (out of a maximum score of 13 points) indicates more self-reported neuropathic symptoms.36 Though there are 15 items in this section, only 13 of the items are used in scoring. .... Are your feet too sensitive to touch?

  9. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  10. Relationship between physical activity, body fatness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are strong health predictors associated with excessive fatness. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in South African adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a ...

  11. Heart disease, family history and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Millar, W J

    2001-08-01

    This article examines the association of family history of heart disease and leisure-time physical activity with incident heart disease. The data are from the 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99 longitudinal household components of Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey. This study is based on information provided by 9,255 respondents aged 20 or older who reported that, in 1994/95, they were free of diagnosed heart disease and in good health. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the association of family history and physical activity with a new diagnosis of heart disease, while controlling for age, sex, educational attainment, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and body mass index. When family history and other risk factors were taken into account, people who, in 1994/95, engaged in regular physical activity at a moderate level or beyond had lower odds of receiving a new diagnosis of heart disease than did sedentary individuals. People with a family history of heart disease who regularly participated in at least moderate physical activity had lower odds of developing heart disease than did their sedentary counterparts.

  12. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. REPRESENTATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOMAINS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autor

    aim of this study was to evaluate the representation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours ... A review of the literature has shown that a lack of PA and high amount of Sedentary. Behaviour (SB) are ..... occurring during adolescence, especially for the girls (Kwan et al., 2012), it is particularly important to avoid ...

  14. Habitual Physical Activity as a Promising Moderator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Psychosocial Stress Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Habitual Physical Activity as a Promising Moderator. Adeniyi, A.F., Ogwumike, O.O., Kolawole, E.B., Fasanmade, A.A.. 1. 1. 1. 2. Department of Physiotherapy, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1. Department of Medicine, University College ...

  15. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  16. Physical activity impairment in depressed COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Repossi, Alice C; Pellegrino, Giulia M; Veronelli, Anna; Santus, Pierachille; Pontiroli, Antonio E; Centanni, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Limited exercise tolerance is a cardinal clinical feature in COPD. Depression and COPD share some clinical features, such as reduced physical activity and impaired nutritional status. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maximum and daily physical activities and the nutritional status of COPD patients affected or not by depression. In 70 COPD out-patients, daily and maximum physical activities were assessed by multisensor accelerometer armband, 6-min walk test, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Mental status, metabolic/muscular status, and systemic inflammation were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and with regard to fibrinogen/C-reactive protein, respectively. Depressed subjects (27% of the sample) showed a similar level of respiratory functional impairment but a higher level of shortness of breath and a worse quality of life compared to non-depressed subjects (P physical activity impairment consisting of a reduced number of steps per day, a lower peak of oxygen consumption, an early anaerobic threshold, and a reduced distance in the 6-min walk test (P daily number of steps. Our study found that depressed COPD patients have a reduced daily and maximum exercise capacity compared to non-depressed patients. This further suggests the potential utility of screening for depression in COPD.

  17. Ambulatory feedback at daily physical activity patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evering, R.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are characterized with persistent fatigue which disturbs activities of daily life. CFS is a symptom-based diagnosis that is made without findings of distinguished physical examination or laboratory tests. CFS can be diagnosed if the fatigue lasts for at

  18. Exploring the relationship between physical activity, psychological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hockey players perceived themselves as having more positive relations with others and sport competence than either health club members or runners. The relevance of these findings and further implications for health and sport psychological research and interventions were discussed. Keywords: physical activity ...

  19. Perceived competence and physical activity involvement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined if the factor structure of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) suggested by Harter (1978; 1988) would fit a sample of youths from Botswana and whether perceived competence would predict patterns of involvement in sport and physical activity among the youths. Participants were ...

  20. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    1971) replicated several of these results in their research. Further, short term memory improved with physical activity in another study (Davey, 1973...PF, EYSENCK PERSONALITY Ni (1970)A INVENTORY, AAICL (AINIETY) I1O NIUYA (1977)C SELF-CONCEPT FOURTH GRAMR NO (4 EKS, PIERS- HRRIS CHILDREN’S O DAI 30

  1. The Intricacies of Children’s Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Brusseau Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physical activity patterns of youth is an essential step in preparing programming and interventions needed to change behavior. To date, little is known about the intricacies of youth physical activity across various physical activity segments (i.e. in school, out of school, recess, classroom physical activity, physical education, weekends, etc.). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the physical activity patterns of elementary school children across various seg...

  2. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health

  3. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  4. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  5. 1988 active Army physical fitness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J S; Bahrke, M S; Tetu, R G

    1990-12-01

    The U.S. Army Physical Fitness School (USAPFS) at Ft. Benjamin Harrison, IN was tasked with measuring the physical fitness of the active Army. Performance on the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) was used to determine fitness levels. Data were collected at 14 U.S. Army installations CONUS-wide between October 1 and November 30, 1988. Five thousand three hundred forty-six male and 676 female active Army soldiers (N = 6.022) between the ages of 17-52 and in 60 military occupational specialties (MOSs) participated in the study. Generally, the results were favorable. Senior age groups performed well overall, especially females. Improvement in muscular strength and endurance conditioning since 1984 was also observed. However, concern was raised about poor performance in the youngest age group (17-21), where 16.6% of the males failed the 2-mile run event and 29.0% failed overall. Likewise, for females in the 17-21 year age group, 28.8% failed the 2-mile run and 36.0% failed overall. Several reasons are suggested for the poor performance of the younger age groups, including inadequate leadership in fitness training and low levels of self-motivation. This study suggest that many soldiers, especially young soldiers, may not possess sufficient levels of physical fitness to meet the physical demands of war.

  6. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  7. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  8. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  9. Differences in neurohormonal activity partially explain the obesity paradox in patients with heart failure: The role of sympathetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Núria; Aranyó, Júlia; Enjuanes, Cristina; Verdú-Rotellar, José María; Ruiz, Sonia; Gonzalez-Robledo, Gina; Meroño, Oona; de Ramon, Marta; Moliner, Pedro; Bruguera, Jordi; Comin-Colet, Josep

    2015-02-15

    Obese patients with chronic Heart Failure (HF) have better outcome than their lean counterparts, although little is known about the pathophysiology of this obesity paradox. Our aim was to evaluate the hypothesis that patients with chronic HF and obesity (defined as body mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2)), may have an attenuated neurohormonal activation in comparison with non-obese patients. The present study is the post-hoc analysis of a cohort of 742 chronic HF patients from a single-center study evaluating sympathetic activation by measuring baseline levels of norepinephrine (NE). Obesity was present in 33% of patients. Higher BMI and obesity were significantly associated with lower NE levels in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for covariates (p70th percentile) carrying out a separate analysis in obese and non-obese patients we found that in both groups NE remained a significant independent predictor of poorer outcomes, despite the lower NE levels in patients with chronic HF and obesity: all-cause mortality hazard ratio=2.37 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.94) and hazard ratio=1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.4) in obese and non-obese respectively; and cardiovascular mortality hazard ratio=3.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.01) in obese patients and hazard ratio=2.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.05) in non-obese patients. Patients with chronic HF and obesity have significantly lower sympathetic activation. This finding may partially explain the obesity paradox described in chronic HF patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  12. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  13. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  14. Personal and environmental correlates of active travel and physical activity in a deprived urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutrie Nanette

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental characteristics may be associated with patterns of physical activity in general or with particular types of physical activity such as active travel (walking or cycling for transport. However, most studies in this field have been conducted in North America and Australia, and hypotheses about putative correlates should be tested in a wider range of sociospatial contexts. We therefore examined the contribution of putative personal and environmental correlates of active travel and overall physical activity in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Glasgow, Scotland as part of the baseline for a longitudinal study of the effects of opening a new urban motorway (freeway. Methods We conducted a postal survey of a random sample of residents (n = 1322, collecting data on socioeconomic status, perceptions of the local environment, travel behaviour, physical activity and general health and wellbeing using a new 14-item neighbourhood rating scale, a travel diary, the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and the SF-8. We analysed the correlates of active travel and overall physical activity using multivariate logistic regression, first building models using personal (individual and household explanatory variables and then adding environmental variables. Results Active travel was associated with being younger, living in owner-occupied accommodation, not having to travel a long distance to work and not having access to a car, whereas overall physical activity was associated with living in social rented accommodation and not being overweight. After adjusting for personal characteristics, neither perceptions of the local environment nor the objective proximity of respondents' homes to motorway or major road infrastructure explained much of the variance in active travel or overall physical activity, although we did identify a significant positive association between active travel and perceived proximity

  15. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion.

  16. Physical activity and aging: a life-long story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charansonney, Olivier L

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of physical activity in preventing premature mortality have been established by a large set of epidemiological studies. These benefits have been shown both in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Furthermore, the reduction of acute events such as myocardial infarction observed with higher levels of physical activity together with the increase in disease-free life expectancy among the most active individuals supports physical activity's anti-aging effect. This review highlights two models supporting this effect. The first model describes the path to frailty and the second explains that immobilization is a stressor which triggers stress-responses responsible for many chronic diseases. Aging reduces the physiological reserve and can lead to frailty when this reserve cannot allow an appropriate adaptation of the aging body to environmental challenges. The components of this physiological reserve can easily be measured by cardiorespiratory testing. Among them are heart rate reserve and VO(2max), the maximal body oxygen consumption. The opposite effects of exercise training and aging on the physiological reserve are detailed. Underlying mechanisms of both exercise training and aging are described. Sedentary lifestyle accelerates the effects of aging in susceptible individuals. Sedentary lifestyle induces mechanisms which lead to risk factors of chronic diseases and, eventually, to premature death. These pathological mechanisms and their consequences constitute the sedentary lifestyle syndrome.

  17. Physical Activity and Enjoyment: Measurement, Evaluation, and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Childhood engagement in physical activity improves health and contributes to the sustainment of physical activity in adulthood. My dissertation research broadens scholarship by disentangling the effects of sports- vs. non-sports-focused summer camps on children’s physical activity and identifying modifiable activity characteristics contributing to physical activity enjoyment, an important predictor of physical activity sustainment. My work also challenges current discourse by presenting the a...

  18. Physical activity and mental health: relationships between depressiveness, psychological disorders and physical activity level in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kull

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with an objective to study relationships between physical activity and emotional wellbeing of women. The study involved 659 women aged 18–45. The following questionnaires were used: General Health Questionnaire, Health Questionnaire for Adults, Beck Depression Inventory. Physically active women experienced less stress disorders (P<0.05 and less depressiveness (P<0.05. Results showed that even a low level of physical activity (1-2 times per week can account for positive impact on women’s mental health (depressive feelings and psychological disorders.

  19. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self - reported physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, Timo; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents’ perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. Design This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical compete...

  20. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    ... on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom...

  1. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  2. Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: Findings from the Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Physical activity, if there are no medical caveats, is beneficial to all people including pregnant women. This study examined the level of physical activity in a group of pregnant Nigerian women. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of 453 pregnant women. The mean age of ...

  3. ASSESMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...

  4. Muscle torque preservation and physical activity in individuals with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Janice J; Lomaglio, Melanie J; Macintyre, Donna L

    2009-07-01

    A greater percent loss of concentric versus eccentric muscle torque (i.e., relative eccentric muscle torque preservation) has been reported in the paretic limb of individuals with stroke and has been attributed to hypertonia and/or cocontractions. Stroke provides a unique condition for examining mechanisms underlying eccentric muscle preservation because both limbs experience similar amounts of general physical activity, but the paretic side is impaired directly by the brain lesion. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) whether eccentric preservation also exists in the nonparetic limb and 2) the relationship of eccentric or concentric torque preservation with physical activity in stroke. We hypothesized that the nonparetic muscles would demonstrate eccentric muscle preservation, which would suggest that nonneural mechanisms may also contribute to its relative preservation. Eighteen patients who had stroke and 18 healthy control subjects (age- and sex-matched) completed a physical activity questionnaire. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric joint torques of the ankle, knee, and hip flexors and extensors were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 30 degrees x s(-1) for the paretic and nonparetic muscles. Relative concentric and eccentric peak torque preservations were expressed as a percentage of control subject torque. Relative eccentric torque was higher (more preserved) than relative concentric torque for paretic and nonparetic muscles. Physical activity correlated with paretic (r = 0.640, P = 0.001) and nonparetic concentric torque preservation (r = 0.508, P = 0.009) but not with eccentric torque preservation for either leg. The relative preservation of eccentric torque in the nonparetic muscles suggest a role of nonneural mechanisms and could also explain the preservation observed in other chronic health conditions. Loss of concentric, but not eccentric, muscle torque was related to physical inactivity in stroke.

  5. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  6. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  7. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  8. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  9. Physical Activity and Health: Does Physical Education Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; McIver, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Physical education has been an institution in American schools since the late 19th century, and today almost all American children are exposed to physical education classes. It has often been claimed that physical education provides important benefits to public health. The purpose of this paper is to determine if physical education increases…

  10. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...... were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who...

  11. Physical activity and determinants of physical activity in obese and non-obese children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S G Trost; L M Kerr; D S Ward; R R Pate

    2001-01-01

      OBJECTIVE:: To compare the physical activity (PA) patterns and the hypothesized psychosocial and environmental determinants of PA in an ethnically diverse sample of obese and non-obese middle school children. DESIGN...

  12. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  13. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  14. The more physically active, the healthier? The relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life in adolescents: the MoMo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Sarah; Woll, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents. The purpose of this study was 1) to quantify the predictive power of greater physical activity on higher HRQOL in adolescents and 2) to analyze whether the prediction is better for the sports club setting than for the leisure time setting. Within the framework of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents and the "Motorik-Modul," 1828 German adolescents aged 11-17 years completed a questionnaire concerning the amount of weekly physical activity at school, in sports clubs, and during leisure time. The KINDL-R questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the effects of physical activity on HRQOL. In regression analyses controlling for sociostructural variables, greater general physical activity was a significant predictor of higher HRQOL (P < .001). While greater physical activity in sports clubs significantly predicted higher HRQOL, greater physical activity during leisure time predicted higher HRQOL only to a certain level. Overall, the level of explained variance was low. Being physically active especially in sports clubs is positively linked to higher HRQOL of adolescents.

  15. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  16. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Amy Z; Ham, Sandra A; Muppidi, Shravani Reddy; Mokdad, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA;...

  17. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  18. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  19. Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional study of 203 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.

  20. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between......PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  1. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  2. Common Problems and Solutions for Being Physically Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home • What is Cardiac Rehab? • How Will I Benefit? • Am I Eligible? • Addressing My Concerns • What Can I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a ...

  3. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  4. Sport participation and the social and physical environment: Explaining differences between urban and rural areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, R.H.A.; Breedveld, K.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the intensity of sport participation in the Netherlands comparing urban and rural areas. Using a socio-ecological theoretical model, we focussed on the extent to which the rural–urban divide in sport participation is explained by micro-level (socio-demographics),

  5. Physical activity in former elite cricketers and strategies for promoting physical activity after retirement from cricket: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Nicholas; Jones, Mary E; Arden, Nigel K

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of professional sport dissipate after retirement unless an active lifestyle is adopted, yet reasons for adopting an active or inactive lifestyle after retirement from sport are poorly understood. Elite cricket is all-encompassing, requiring a high volume of activity and unique physical demands. We aimed to identify influences on physical activity behaviours in active and insufficiently active former elite cricketers and provide practical strategies for promoting physical activity after cricket retirement. Design 18 audio-recorded semistructured telephone interviews were performed. An inductive thematic approach was used and coding was iterative and data-driven facilitated by NVivo software. Themes were compared between sufficiently active and insufficiently active participants. Setting All participants formerly played professional cricket in the UK. Participants Participants were male, mean age 57±11 (range 34–77) years, participated in professional cricket for 12±7 seasons and retired on average 23±9 years previously. Ten participants (56%) were classified as sufficiently active according to the UK Physical Activity Guidelines (moderate-intensity activity ≥150 min per week or vigorous-intensity activity ≥75 min per week). Eight participants did not meet these guidelines and were classified as insufficiently active. Results Key physical activity influences were time constraints, habit formation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, physical activity preferences, pain/physical impairment and cricket coaching. Recommendations for optimising physical activity across the lifespan after cricket retirement included; prioritise physical activity, establish a physical activity plan prior to cricket retirement and don’t take a break from physical activity, evaluate sources of physical activity motivation and incorporate into a physical activity plan, find multiple forms of satisfying physical activity that can be adapted to

  6. perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AND HEALTH AMONG A GROUP OF ADULT WOMEN IN URBAN. GHANA: A PILOT STUDY ... Health and the Centre for Human Nutrition, 2Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg. School of Public Health, Baltimore, ... programming. Keywords: physical activity, Ghana, women, facilita- tors, barriers.

  7. Perceptions of physical activity, activity preferences and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity and other lifestyle-related chronic diseases impact urban West African women at high rates. Physical activity (PA) can improve these health outcomes, but there is little published data on the associated psychosocial predictors in this population. Objectives: We aimed to explore preliminary associations ...

  8. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  9. Physical Activity Among Nurses in Kanombe Military Hospital | Lela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher job-related physical activity (84%) and lower leisure-time physical activity (5%) were reported among nurses. Age (P=0.033), marital status (P=0.001) and working experience (P=0.026) of nurses were significantly associated with physical activity, but not with low back pain. There is a need for leisure-time physical ...

  10. Labour Force Activity after 65: What Explain Recent Trends in Denmark, Germany and Sweden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark is rather small in this age group. While the increase in Germany mainly seems to be a result of policy reforms, the increase in Sweden appear to be a result of a combination of policy changes and an increasing educational level. Financial incentives seem most important in Germany and only of minor......In most OECD member countries labour force attachment has increased in recent years in the age groups 60-64 years in particular, but also among people 65 years and older. Focus in this paper is on the trend in older workers’ labour force participation in Denmark, Germany and Sweden since 2004. Main...... emphasis is given to people aged 65-69 years eligible for social security retirement programs from age 65. The gender aspect is included to accommodate different trends for women and men. To explain country differences in trends, the importance of changes in retirement policies of relevance for this age...

  11. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  12. Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Physical Activity in T1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Valderi Abreu; Mascarenhas, Luis Paulo Gomes; Decimo, Juliana Pereira; de Souza, William Cordeiro; Monteiro, Anna Louise Stellfeld; Lahart, Ian; França, Suzana Nesi; Leite, Neiva

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in comparison with healthy scholar participants. Total of 154 teenagers (T1D = 45 and CON = 109). Height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and the level of physical activity by the Bouchard's Physical Activity Record were measured, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in T1D. The VO2max was lower in the T1D (38.38 ± 7.54) in comparison with the CON (42.44 ± 4.65; p < .05). The VO2max had correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r = .63; p = .0001) and an inverse correlation with sedentary activities (r= -0.46; p = .006). In the T1D the levels of HbA1c had an inverse correlation with the amount of time of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (r= -0.34; p = .041) and correlation with the BMI z-score (r = .43; p = .017). Only 37,8% of the participants in the T1D reached the adequate amount of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, in the CON 81,7% reached the WHO's recommendation. T1D had less cardiorespiratory capacity then healthy controls, the teenagers of T1D with lower BMI z-score and that dedicated a greater time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity demonstrated a better glycemic control.

  13. Transformational teaching and physical activity engagement among adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Morton, Katie L

    2011-01-01

    The integrative hypothesis presented in this paper is that transformational leadership, as displayed by school physical education teachers, leads to improved engagement in physical activity behaviors among adolescents...

  14. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  15. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  16. Predictors of leisure physical activity in a spanish university population

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ponce-de-León Elizondo; Eva Sanz Arazuri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine some predictors of leisure-time physical activity in the Spanish university environment. Participants: A total of 1340 participants (48% men), with an average age of 22 years. Variables: leisure-time physical activity practice; gender; civil status; place of residence; amount of leisuretime; leisure-time occupation; desire to perform physical activity; satisfaction with the use of leisure-time; leisure-time physical activity practice in the past; and years of physical...

  17. Motivation and physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Farholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2017 There is increasing evidence for physical activity having a positive impact on physical and mental health, as well as on illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers related to physical activity that makes it difficult for them to take advantage of the benefits associated with physical activity. One barrier consistently reported to impede physical activity i...

  18. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physic...

  19. Habits predict physical activity on days when intentions are weak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Amanda L; Elavsky, Steriani; Maher, Jaclyn P; Doerksen, Shawna E; Conroy, David E

    2014-04-01

    Physical activity is regulated by controlled processes, such as intentions, and automatic processes, such as habits. Intentions relate to physical activity more strongly for people with weak habits than for people with strong habits, but people's intentions vary day by day. Physical activity may be regulated by habits unless daily physical activity intentions are strong. University students (N = 128) self-reported their physical activity habit strength and subsequently self-reported daily physical activity intentions and wore an accelerometer for 14 days. On days when people had intentions that were weaker than typical for them, habit strength was positively related to physical activity, but on days when people had typical or stronger intentions than was typical for them, habit strength was unrelated to daily physical activity. Efforts to promote physical activity may need to account for habits and the dynamics of intentions.

  20. Assessing physical activity and function in the Filipino older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Dalusung-Angosta, Alona; Magday-Asselstine, Richelle T; Castillo, Marilyn A; Pagano, Ian S; Li, Dongmei; Wooton, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe: the physical activity and function of 47 Filipinos (N = 47), 65+ years old living in Honolulu; and the relationship between these two variables. Data collected included an interview on demographics, health history, physical activity and function. Performance based physical function tests included handgrip, chair stands, balance, ten foot and six minutes walk. For physical activity, most of the participants engaged in sedentary lifestyle. However, they did not have difficulty performing activities of daily living (ADL) and generally had no difficulty with the performance-based physical function tests. Physical function, handgrip, was significantly related to heavy physical activity.

  1. Adherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Alkerwi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France and Wallonia (Belgium, by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001. The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity.

  2. Physical, Psychological and Emotional Benefits of Green Physical Activity: An Ecological Dynamics Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, HP; Stone, JA; Churchill, SM; Wheat, JS; Brymer, E; Davids, K

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland Increasing evidence supports the multiple benefits to physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of green physical activity, a topic of increasing interest in the past decade. Research has revealed a synergistic benefit of green physical activity, which includes all aspects of exercise and physical activity in the presence of nature. Our theoretical analysis suggests there are three distinct levels of engagement in green physical activ...

  3. Relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk in youths from Muzambinho's study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Basso, Luciano; Seabra, André; Prista, Antonio; Tani, Go; Maia, José António Ribeiro; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia De Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Negative associations between physical activity (PA), physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk factors (MMRF) in youths from populations with low PA are reported. The persistence of this association in moderately-to highly active populations is not, however, well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association in a Brazilian city with high frequency of active youths. We assessed 122 subjects (9.9 ± 1.3 years) from Muzambinho city. Body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Maximal handgrip strength and one-mile walk/run test were used. Leisure time PA was assessed by interview. Poisson regression was used in the analysis. The model explained 11% of the total variance. Only relative muscular strength and one-mile walk/run were statistically significant (p run test had an increased in metabolic risk of 11%, and those with greater strength reduced the risk by about 82%. In conclusion, children and youths from an active population who need less time to cover the one-mile walk/run test or who had greater muscular strength showed a reduced metabolic risk. These results suggest that even in children and youths with high leisure time PA, a greater aerobic fitness and strength might help to further reduce their MMRF.

  4. Physical, policy, and sociocultural characteristics of the primary school environment are positively associated with children's physical activity during class time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; Bremner, Alexandra; Salmon, Jo; Rosenberg, Michael; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a multidomain model to identify key characteristics of the primary school environment associated with children's physical activity (PA) during class-time. Accelerometers were used to calculate time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class-time (CMVPA) of 408 sixth-grade children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 0.43 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth Western Australia. Child and staff self-report instruments and a school physical environment scan administered by the research team were used to collect data about children and the class and school environments. Hierarchical modeling identified key variables associated with CMVPA. The final multilevel model explained 49% of CMVPA. A physically active physical education (PE) coordinator, fitness sessions incorporated into PE sessions and either a trained PE specialist, classroom teacher or nobody coordinating PE in the school, rather than the deputy principal, were associated with higher CMVPA. The amount of grassed area per student and sporting apparatus on grass were also associated with higher CMVPA. These results highlight the relevance of the school's sociocultural, policy and physical environments in supporting class-based PA. Interventions testing optimization of the school physical, sociocultural and policy environments to support physical activity are warranted.

  5. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan S. Buchan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.

  6. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Sit, Cindy Hui-Ping; Yu, Jane Jie; Sum, Raymond Kim-Wai; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Cheng, Kenneth Chik-Chi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys) were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health: Evaluation System) at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class) and at home (before dinner) during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9-56.0% (p school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  7. Effects of physical activity on sclerostin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Małgorzata; Stuss, Michał; Michalska-Kasiczak, Marta; Jegier, Anna; Sewerynek, Ewa

    2018-02-21

    Osteoporosis is a serious medical and socioeconomic problem of the 21st century. Mechanical load is a key regulator which controls bone formation and remodelling, with participation of osteocytes. Sclerostin is produced and released by mature osteocytes into bone surface, where it inhibits the conveyance of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation activating signals from mesenchymal cells, thus suppressing new bone formation. The goal of the study was an evaluation of the effects of a 12-week physical training programme on the levels of bone turnover markers [Sclerostin, Osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX)] in blood serum of women with osteopenia. The study included 50 women of the Regional Menopause and Osteoporosis Centre of the WAM Teaching Hospital, at the age of 50-75 years with the diagnosis of osteopenia, obtained on the basis of hip and/or lumbar spine densitometry (T-score from -1.0 to -2.5 SD). During the initial 12 weeks (between point 1 and 2), the patients maintained their previous, normal level of physical activity. During subsequent 12 weeks (between point 2 and 3), a programme of exercise was implemented. The programme included the interval training on a bicycle ergometer, three times a week for 36 minutes. During the entire study duration, all the patients received a supplementation of calcium (500 mg) and vit. D3 (1800 IU) once daily. Serum levels of OC, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), β-CTX and sclerostin were assayed at 3 time points. After the course of the exercise cycle, the OC concentration was increased, sclerostin levels decreased, while no statistical differences were observed in β-CTX levels vs. the period of physical inactivity. No correlations were found between sclerostin level changes and osteocalcin level changes during the training time, because of too small groups. Neither statistically significant were the differences in alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus levels. The obtained results

  8. Pedometer-determined physical activity and active transport in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Grant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the risk of insufficient physical activity is greater in girls than in boys, especially during the adolescent years. The promotion of active transport (AT to and from school has been posited as a practical and convenient solution for increasing girls' total daily activity. However, there is limited information describing the associations between AT choices and girls' physical activity across a range of age, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. The objectives of this study were to (1 investigate physical activity patterns in a large multiethnic sample of female children and adolescents, and to (2 estimate the physical activity associated with AT to and from school. Methods A total of 1,513 girls aged 5–16 years wore sealed multiday memory (MDM pedometers for three weekdays and two weekend days. The ethnic composition of this sample was 637 European (42.1%, 272 Pacific Island (18.0%, 207 East Asian (13.7%, 179 Maori (11.8%, 142 South Asian (9.4%, and 76 from other ethnic groups (5%. Pedometer compliance and school-related AT were assessed by questionnaire. Results Mean weekday step counts (12,597 ± 3,630 were higher and less variable than mean weekend steps (9,528 ± 4,407. A consistent decline in daily step counts was observed with age: after adjustment for ethnicity and SES, girls in school years 9–10 achieved 2,469 (weekday and 4,011 (weekend fewer steps than girls in years 1–2. Daily step counts also varied by ethnicity, with Maori girls the most active and South Asian girls the least active. Overall, 44.9% of participants used AT for school-related travel. Girls who used AT to and from school averaged 1,052 more weekday steps than those who did not use AT. However, the increases in steps associated with AT were significant only in older girls (school years 5–10 and in those of Maori or European descent. Conclusion Our data suggest that adolescent-aged girls and girls of Asian descent are

  9. Multisensor data fusion for physical activity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert X; John, Dinesh; Staudenmayer, John W; Freedson, Patty S

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion method for assessing physical activity (PA) of human subjects, based on support vector machines (SVMs). Specifically, acceleration and ventilation measured by a wearable multisensor device on 50 test subjects performing 13 types of activities of varying intensities are analyzed, from which activity type and energy expenditure are derived. The results show that the method correctly recognized the 13 activity types 88.1% of the time, which is 12.3% higher than using a hip accelerometer alone. Also, the method predicted energy expenditure with a root mean square error of 0.42 METs, 22.2% lower than using a hip accelerometer alone. Furthermore, the fusion method was effective in reducing the subject-to-subject variability (standard deviation of recognition accuracies across subjects) in activity recognition, especially when data from the ventilation sensor were added to the fusion model. These results demonstrate that the multisensor fusion technique presented is more effective in identifying activity type and energy expenditure than the traditional accelerometer-alone-based methods.

  10. Relation between physical activity and academic performance in 3rd-year secondary education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; García-Masso, Xavier; Gomis, Manuel; González, Luis-Millán

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the amount of physical activity and academic performance in 3rd-year secondary education students. The sample was taken from three secondary schools in the area of Barcelona. 284 students (158 girls, 126 boys) with an average age of 14.7 yr. participated. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used by students to self-report their amount of physical activity. Students' academic records were obtained for comparisons. Results showed that there was a linear relationship between academic performance and physical activity; nevertheless, there was a trend to stronger correlation when modeling the relationship between these variables with a quadratic equation. Further research should focus on whether academic performance and physical activity might be better explained with a second-order equation.

  11. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  12. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals.

  13. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  14. Daily physical activity patterns in cancer survivors: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Josien; Kurvers, R.; Bloo, H.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    In cancer survivors physical activity levels are measured primarily with questionnaires. As a result, insight in actual physical activity patterns of cancer survivors is lacking. Activity monitoring with accelerometers revealed that cancer survivors have lower levels of physical activity in the

  15. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care: Overcoming the barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk.

  16. Relationship between physical activity and general mental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Yoon Soo; Allegrante, John P; Marks, Ray; Ok, Haean; Ok Cho, Kang; Garber, Carol Ewing

    2012-01-01

    .... Demographic and physical health factors related to poorer mental health were examined. The optimal range of physical activity associated with poorer mental health was examined by age, gender, and physical health...

  17. A Gendered Lifestyle-Routine Activity Approach to Explaining Stalking Victimization in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Bradford W; Henson, Billy; Fisher, Bonnie S; Fox, Kathleen A; Nobles, Matt R

    2016-05-01

    Research into stalking victimization has proliferated over the last two decades, but several research questions related to victimization risk remain unanswered. Accordingly, the present study utilized a lifestyle-routine activity theoretical perspective to identify risk factors for victimization. Gender-based theoretical models also were estimated to assess the possible moderating effects of gender on the relationship between lifestyle-routine activity concepts and victimization risk. Based on an analysis of a representative sample of more than 15,000 residents of Canada from the Canadian General Social Survey (GSS), results suggested conditional support for lifestyle-routine activity theory and for the hypothesis that predictors of stalking victimization may be gender based. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  19. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; David E Conroy

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  20. Chronotype, Physical Activity, and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Weydahl, Andi

    2017-05-11

    Many variables related to sport have been shown to have circadian rhythms. Chronotype is the expression of circadian rhythmicity in an individual, and three categories of chronotype are defined: morning types (M-types), evening types (E-types), and neither types (N-types). M-types show earlier peaks of several psychophysiological variables during the day than E-types. The effect of chronotype on athletic performance has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present review was to study the effect of chronotype on athletic performance and the psychophysiological responses to physical activity. The present review adheres to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science for scientific papers using the keywords "chronotype", "circadian typology", "morningness", and "eveningness" in combination with each of the words "sport", "performance", and "athletic." Relevant reference lists were inspected. We limited the search results to peer-reviewed papers published in English from 1985 to 2015. Ten papers met our inclusion criteria. Rating of perceived exertion and fatigue scores in relation to athletic performances are influenced by chronotype: M-types perceived less effort when performing a submaximal physical task in the morning than did N- and E-types. In addition, M-types generally showed better athletic performances, as measured by race times, in the morning than did N- and E-types. Other results concerning chronotype effect on physiological responses to physical activity were not always consistent: heterogeneous samples and different kinds of physical activity could partially explain these discrepancies. Sports trainers and coaches should take into account the influence of both the time of day and chronotype effect when scheduling training sessions into specific time periods.

  1. Neutrino physics and the mirror world: how exact parity symmetry explains the solar neutrino deficit, the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and the LSND experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    Evidence for {nu}-bar{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}-bar{sub e} oscillations has been reported at LAMPF using the LSND detector. Further evidence for neutrino mixing comes from the solar neutrino deficit and the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. All of these anomalies require new physics. It is shown that all of these anomalies can be explained if the standard model is enlarged so that an unbroken parity symmetry can be defined. This explanation holds independently of the actual model for neutrino masses. Thus, it is argued that parity symmetry is not only a beautiful candidate for a symmetry beyond the standard model, but it can also explain the known neutrino physics anomalies. 41 refs.

  2. Explaining prosocial intentions : Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda; de Groot, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines factors influencing prosocial intentions. On the basis of the norm activation model (NAM), we propose that four variables influence prosocial intentions or behaviours: ( I) personal norms (PN), reflecting feelings of moral obligation to engage in prosocial behaviour, (2)

  3. Adolescent Self-Reported Physical Activity and Autonomy: A Case for Constrained and Structured Environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome N. Rachele, Timo Jaakkola, Tracy L. Washington, Thomas F. Cuddihy, Steven M. McPhail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision of autonomy supportive environments that promote physical activity engagement have become popular in contemporary youth settings. However, questions remain about whether adolescent perceptions of their autonomy have implications for physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between adolescents’ self-reported physical activity and their perceived autonomy. Participants (n = 384 adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years were recruited from six secondary schools in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia. Self-reported measures of physical activity and autonomy were obtained. Logistic regression with inverse probability weights were used to examine the association between autonomy and the odds of meeting youth physical activity guidelines. Autonomy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76 and gender (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83 were negatively associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. However, the model explained only a small amount of the variation in whether youth in this sample met physical activity guidelines (R2 = 0.023. For every 1 unit decrease in autonomy (on an index from 1 to 5, participants were 1.64 times more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. The findings, which are at odds with several previous studies, suggest that interventions designed to facilitate youth physical activity should limit opportunities for youth to make independent decisions about their engagement. However, the small amount of variation explained by the predictors in the model is a caveat, and should be considered prior to applying such suggestions in practical settings. Future research should continue to examine a larger age range, longitudinal observational or intervention studies to examine assertions of causality, as well as objective measurement of physical activity.

  4. Testosterone boosts physical activity in male mice via dopaminergic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí, Ferran; Laurent, Michaël R; Kim, Nari; Khalil, Rougin; De Bundel, Dimitri; Van Eeckhaut, Ann; Van Helleputte, Lawrence; Deboel, Ludo; Dubois, Vanessa; Schollaert, Dieter; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Van den Bosch, Ludo; D'Hooge, Rudi; Claessens, Frank; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2018-01-17

    Low testosterone (T) in men, especially its free fraction, has been associated with loss of energy. In accordance, orchidectomy (ORX) in rodents results in decreased physical activity. Still, the mechanisms through which T stimulates activity remain mostly obscure. Here, we studied voluntary wheel running behavior in three different mouse models of androgen deficiency: ORX, androgen receptor (AR) knock-out (ARKO) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-transgenic mice, a novel mouse model of "low free T". Our results clearly show a fast and dramatic action of T stimulating wheel running, which is not explained by its action on muscle, as evidenced by neuromuscular studies and in a muscle-specific conditional ARKO mouse model. The action of T occurs via its free fraction, as shown by the results in SHBG-transgenic mice, and it implies both androgenic and estrogenic pathways. Both gene expression and functional studies indicate that T modulates the in vivo sensitivity to dopamine (DA) agonists. Furthermore, the restoration of wheel running by T is inhibited by treatment with DA antagonists. These findings reveal that the free fraction of T, both via AR and indirectly through aromatization into estrogens, stimulates physical activity behavior in male mice by acting on central DA pathways.

  5. Aerobic fitness and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Neil

    2013-11-01

    In Volume 1 of Pediatric Exercise Science (PES), a paper by Fenster et al. (25) investigated the relationship between peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and physical activity (PA) in 6- to 8-year-old children. They used both questionnaires and large-scale integrated activity monitors (LSIs) to estimate daily PA and determined peak VO2 using an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They concluded that peak VO2 correlated well with PA as measured by LSIs but commented that questionnaire data were only weakly and nonsignificantly associated with LSI and peak VO2 data. Peak VO2 and PA are the most researched and reported variables in the 25-year history of PES. Yet, the assessment and interpretation of young people's aerobic fitness and PA remain problematic and any meaningful relationship between them during childhood and adolescence is shrouded with controversy. The present paper uses Fenster et al.'s (25) report as an indicator of where we were 25 years ago, outlines how far we have advanced since then, and suggests future directions of research in the study of aerobic fitness and PA. In the first volume of PES, Fenster, Freedson, Washburn, and Ellison (25) investigated the relationship between 6- to 8-year-old children's peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) and physical activity (PA). Five boys and 13 girls participated in the study and their data were pooled for analysis. Peak VO2 was determined during an incremental treadmill test to voluntary exhaustion and PA was estimated using both questionnaires and large-scale integrated activity monitors (LSIs). On the basis of a significant interclass correlation coefficient of r = .59 between peak VO2 and the log of LSI average counts per hour Fenster et al. (25) concluded that "aerobic capacity, as measured by peak VO2 correlated well with physical activity as measured by LSI" (p.134). They also commented that questionnaire data were only weakly and nonsignificantly associated with LSI and peak VO2 data. Young people

  6. A cluster randomized controlled trial of strategies to increase adolescents' physical activity and motivation in physical education: results of the Motivating Active Learning in Physical Education (MALP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Sanders, Taren; Peralta, Louisa R; Bennie, Andrew; Jackson, Ben; Taylor, Ian M; Lubans, David R

    2013-11-01

    Physical education (PE) programs aim to promote physical activity (PA) and reach most school-aged youth. However, PA levels within PE lessons are often low. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of three self-determination theory-based motivational strategies on PA and sedentary behavior, as well as their hypothesized antecedents during PE lessons. Data were collected in Sydney, Australia (October-December 2011). After baseline testing, teachers (n=16) and their classes (n=288 students; M=13.6 years, 50.4% male) were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategy conditions: (1) explaining relevance; (2) providing choice; (3) complete free choice; or (4) usual practice. Teachers then delivered the assigned strategy. Primary outcomes were accelerometer-assessed PA and student motivation during lessons. Secondary outcomes included sedentary behavior, perceptions of teachers' support and psychological needs satisfaction. The 'free choice' intervention increased PA (pPE lessons. © 2013.

  7. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  8. Initial Free Recall Data Characterized and Explained By Activation Theory of Short Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Dr. Eugen

    2011-01-01

    The initial recall distribution in a free recall experiment is shown to be predictably different from the overall free recall distribution including an offset which can cause the least remembered items to be almost completely absent from the first recall. Using the overall free recall distribution as input and a single parameter describing the probability of simultaneous reactivated items per number of items in the presented list, activation theory not only qualitatively but quantitatively d...

  9. Body Size, Rather Than Male Eye Allometry, Explains Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Activity in Low Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J L; Palermo, N A; Theobald, J C; Wells, J D

    2015-01-01

    Male Chrysomya megacephala (F.) blow fly compound eyes contain an unusual area of enlarged dorsal facets believed to allow for increased light capture. This region is absent in females and has been hypothesized to aid in mate tracking in low light conditions or at greater distances. Many traits used in the attraction and capture of mates are allometric, growing at different rates relative to body size. Previous reports concerning C. megacephala eye properties did not include measurements of body size, making the relationship between the specialized eye region and body size unclear. We examined different morphological features of the eye among individuals of varying sizes. We found total eye size scaled proportionately to body size, but the number of enlarged dorsal facets increased as body size increased. This demonstrated that larger males have an eye that is morphologically different than smaller males. On the basis of external morphology, we hypothesized that since larger males have larger and a greater number of dorsally enlarged facets, and these facets are believed to allow for increased light capture, larger males would be active in lower light levels than smaller males and females of equal size. In a laboratory setting, larger males were observed to become active earlier in the morning than smaller males, although they did not remain active later in the evening. However, females followed the same pattern at similar light levels suggesting that overall body size rather than specialized male eye morphology is responsible for increased activity under low light conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Do Physical and Relational Aggression Explain Adolescents' Friendship Selection? The Competing Roles of Network Characteristics, Gender, and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while

  11. Can Norm Theory Explain the Effects of Victim Age and Level of Physical Maturity on Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…

  12. A theoretical model for explaining the effect of physical manipulation on nitrate uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    terSteege, MW; Stulen, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito) plants in which net nitrate uptake rate (NNUR) and nitrate influx and efflux were measured showed that handling the plants affected the results considerably. Both nitrate influx and efflux changed after physical manipulation of the plants,

  13. Explaining the Links between Workload, Distress, and Work-Family Conflict among School Employees: Physical, Cognitive, and Emotional Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, Remus; Huth, Megan; Ryan, Ann Marie; Dimotakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the intraindividual relationships among workload and affective distress; cognitive, physical, and emotional fatigue; and work-family conflict among school employees. Using a repeated-measure, within-person research design, the authors found that work demands and affective distress, as well as cognitive, emotional, and physical…

  14. Relief of autoinhibition by conformational switch explains enzyme activation by a catalytically dead paralog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Oleg A.; Kinch, Lisa; Ariagno, Carson; Deng, Xiaoyi; Zhong, Shihua; Grishin, Nick; Tomchick, Diana R.; Chen, Zhe; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2016-12-15

    Catalytically inactive enzyme paralogs occur in many genomes. Some regulate their active counterparts but the structural principles of this regulation remain largely unknown. We report X-ray structures ofTrypanosoma brucei S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase alone and in functional complex with its catalytically dead paralogous partner, prozyme. We show monomericTbAdoMetDC is inactive because of autoinhibition by its N-terminal sequence. Heterodimerization with prozyme displaces this sequence from the active site through a complex mechanism involving acis-to-transproline isomerization, reorganization of a β-sheet, and insertion of the N-terminal α-helix into the heterodimer interface, leading to enzyme activation. We propose that the evolution of this intricate regulatory mechanism was facilitated by the acquisition of the dimerization domain, a single step that can in principle account for the divergence of regulatory schemes in the AdoMetDC enzyme family. These studies elucidate an allosteric mechanism in an enzyme and a plausible scheme by which such complex cooperativity evolved.

  15. Retinal Ligand Mobility Explains Internal Hydration and Reconciles Active Rhodopsin Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leioatts, Nicholas; Mertz, Blake; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Romo, Tod D.; Pitman, Michael C.; Feller, Scott E.; Grossfield, Alan; Brown, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the mammalian dim-light receptor, is one of the best-characterized G-protein-coupled receptors, a pharmaceutically important class of membrane proteins that has garnered a great deal of attention because of the recent availability of structural information. Yet the mechanism of rhodopsin activation is not fully understood. Here, we use microsecond-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, validated by solid-state 2H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to understand the transition between the dark and metarhodopsin I (Meta I) states. Our analysis of these simulations reveals striking differences in ligand flexibility between the two states. Retinal is much more dynamic in Meta I, adopting an elongated conformation similar to that seen in the recent activelike crystal structures. Surprisingly, this elongation corresponds to both a dramatic influx of bulk water into the hydrophobic core of the protein and a concerted transition in the highly conserved Trp2656.48 residue. In addition, enhanced ligand flexibility upon light activation provides an explanation for the different retinal orientations observed in X-ray crystal structures of active rhodopsin. PMID:24328554

  16. Physical activity and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bones play an important structural role in the organism. They provide mobility, support, and protect the body, and the place where the storage essential minerals. Healthy bones have a crucial impact on the overall health of a person, and activities that promote health and preventive influence on the formation of bone disease are crucial in maintaining a strong and healthy skeletal system. Physical inactivity affects the decrease in function of bone, and the most common disease of bone osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder that results in low bone density and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, that results in less bone density, and may lead to fracture. Physical activity is essential for bone health and prevention of osteoporosis. Based on available information, the best effect to maintain and stimulate the formation of bone mineral density is a combination of dynamic exercises with resistance training that engage multiple joints, large muscle groups, and have influence on the spine and hips. The results suggest that exercises with axial loading, such as running, jumping, and power exercise, promote the positive gains in bone mineral density. Therefore, training should focus on the adaptation of specific parts of the body that is most susceptible to injury, and should be sufficiently intense that exceeds the normal loads.

  17. Effect of Gene and Physical Activity Interaction on Trunk Fat Percentage Among the Newfoundland Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of FTO gene and physical activity interaction on trunk fat percentage. Design and Methods Subjects are 3,004 individuals from Newfoundland and Labrador whose trunk fat percentage and physical activity were recorded, and who were genotyped for 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FTO gene. Subjects were stratified by gender. Multiple tests and multiple regressions were used to analyze the effects of physical activity, variants of FTO , age, and their interactions on trunk fat percentage. Dietary information and other environmental factors were not considered. Results Higher levels of physical activity tend to reduce trunk fat percentage in all individuals. Furthermore, in males, rs9939609 and rs1421085 were significant (α = 0.05 in explaining central body fat, but no SNPs were significant in females. For highly active males, trunk fat percentage varied significantly between variants of rs9939609 and rs1421085, but there is no significant effect among individuals with low activity. The other SNPs examined were not significant in explaining trunk fat percentage. Conclusions Homozygous male carriers of non-obesity risk alleles at rs9939609 and rs1421085 will have significant reduction in central body fat from physical activity in contrast to homozygous males of the obesity-risk alleles. The additive effect of these SNPs is found in males with high physical activity only.

  18. Engaging Others in Recognizing the Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Graham, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Recent research that examines the relationship between physical activity and academic performance provides physical educators with multiple opportunities to engage others in recognizing the benefits of physical activity and high quality physical education programs. Local schools and community provide the greatest opportunity to educate and…

  19. Correlates of physical activity participation among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... health benefits of physical activity, having a friend to exercise with, having parent(s) who encourage them to exercise, and taking a physical education class in school, whereas the benefits of physical activity: were to stay in shape, increase energy level, improve self-esteem and become more physically attractive to others.

  20. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…