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Sample records for explain high values

  1. Thermodynamic theory explains the temperature optima of soil microbial processes and high Q10 values at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Louis A; Hobbs, Joanne K; Rutledge, Susanna; Arcus, Vickery L

    2014-11-01

    Our current understanding of the temperature response of biological processes in soil is based on the Arrhenius equation. This predicts an exponential increase in rate as temperature rises, whereas in the laboratory and in the field, there is always a clearly identifiable temperature optimum for all microbial processes. In the laboratory, this has been explained by denaturation of enzymes at higher temperatures, and in the field, the availability of substrates and water is often cited as critical factors. Recently, we have shown that temperature optima for enzymes and microbial growth occur in the absence of denaturation and that this is a consequence of the unusual heat capacity changes associated with enzymes. We have called this macromolecular rate theory - MMRT (Hobbs et al., , ACS Chem. Biol. 8:2388). Here, we apply MMRT to a wide range of literature data on the response of soil microbial processes to temperature with a focus on respiration but also including different soil enzyme activities, nitrogen and methane cycling. Our theory agrees closely with a wide range of experimental data and predicts temperature optima for these microbial processes. MMRT also predicted high relative temperature sensitivity (as assessed by Q10 calculations) at low temperatures and that Q10 declined as temperature increases in agreement with data synthesis from the literature. Declining Q10 and temperature optima in soils are coherently explained by MMRT which is based on thermodynamics and heat capacity changes for enzyme-catalysed rates. MMRT also provides a new perspective, and makes new predictions, regarding the absolute temperature sensitivity of ecosystems - a fundamental component of models for climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Explaining Governance in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Sturgeon, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review the evolution and current status of global value chain (GVC) governance theory and take some initial steps toward a broader theory of governance through an exercise in ‘modular theory-building’. We focus on two GVC governance theories to which we previously contributed......: a theory of linking and a theory of conventions. The modular framework we propose is built on three scalar dimensions: (1) a micro level – determinants and dynamics of exchange at individual value chain nodes; (2) a meso level – how and to what extent these linkage characteristics ‘travel’ upstream...... and downstream in the value chain; and (3) a macro level – looking at ‘overall’ GVC governance. Given space limitations, we focus only on the issue of ‘polarity’ in governance at the macro level, distinguishing between unipolar, bipolar and multipolar governance forms. While we leave a more ambitious analysis...

  3. Cultural values: can they explain self-reported health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudijk, Bram; Donders, Rogier; Stalmeier, Peep

    2017-06-01

    Self-reported health (SRH) is a measure widely used in health research and population studies. Differences in SRH have been observed between countries and cultural values have been hypothesized to partly explain such differences. Cultural values can be operationalized by two cultural dimensions using the World Values Survey (WVS), namely the traditional/rational-secular and the survival/self-expression dimension. We investigate whether there is an association between the WVS cultural dimensions and SRH, both within and between countries. Data from 51 countries in the WVS is used and combined with macroeconomic data from the Worldbank database. The association between SRH and the WVS cultural dimensions is tested within each of the 51 countries and multilevel mixed models are used to test differences between these countries. Socio-demographic and macroeconomic variables are used to correct for non-cultural variables related to SRH. Within countries, the survival/self-expression dimension was positively associated with SRH, while in most countries there was a negative association for the traditional/rational-secular dimension. Values range between 4 and 17% within countries. Further analyses show that the associations within countries and between countries are similar. Controlling for macroeconomic and socio-demographic factors did not change our results. The WVS cultural dimensions predict SRH within and between countries. Contrary to our expectations, traditional/rational-secular values were negatively associated with SRH. As SRH is associated with cultural values between countries, cultural values could be considered when interpreting SRH between countries.

  4. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  5. Economic value added or earnings: What explains market value in Indian firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufazil Altaf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the claim made by Stern Stewart & Company that economic value added is a better metric that traditional earning based measures in explaining market value. For better exposition, a sample of 325 Indian firms has been divided into two parts- 170 firms belonging to Indian manufacturing companies and 155 companies belonging to the Indian service sector. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analyses, the results of the study reveal that the operating income has a strong linkage with market value added in both manufacturing and service sectors. For both the sectors, the economic value added shows weaker but positive relationship with the market value added.

  6. Value Chain Envy: Explaining New Entry and Vertical Integration in Popular Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.; Carroll, C.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of value creation, value capture, and value protection are employed to explain new entry and vertical integration. It is posited that if, at one stage of the value system, the share of value captured is disproportionally higher than the share of value created, value chain envy will

  7. Value chain envy : Explaining new entry and vertical integration in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.; Wijnberg, N.M.; Carroll, C.

    The concepts of value creation, value capture, and value protection are employed to explain new entry and vertical integration. It is posited that if, at one stage of the value system, the share of value captured is disproportionally higher than the share of value created, value chain envy will

  8. A model to explain high values of pH in an alkali sodic soil Modelo para explicar valores elevados de pH em um solo sódico alcalino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Alves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available For alkali sodic soils (pH>8.5, the "hydrolysis of exchangeable sodium" has been used as a possible explanation for the alkalinity production and rise in pH of these soils. As an alternative to this hypothesis, a model was developed to simulate and to explain that the alkalinity production and rise in pH is possible in a soil that accumulates alkaline sodium salts and CaCO3. Several simulations were performed by using different combinations of CO2 partial pressures (P, presence or absence of MgCO3, along with experimental values of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and ion concentrations in saturation extracts from an alkali sodic soil (named Pantanal. A hypothetical system with similar conditions to the Pantanal soil but with a Gapon selectivity coefficient (KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was also considered. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and predicted values for pH and ion concentrations in the soil solution when the model (without MgCO3 was applied to the Pantanal soil. However, KG values calculated for the Pantanal soil were generally higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2. Moreover, high pH values and elevated ionic strength were obtained when a KG of 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 was used at high ESP (similar to those found in the Pantanal soil. KG values obtained for the Pantanal soil and the results obtained in the simulation of the hypothetical system are suggesting that a value higher than 0.01475 (mmol L-1-1/2 should be used to adequately simulate the behavior of the Pantanal soil at low ionic strength and high ESP values.Em solos alcalino sódicos (pH>8,5, a "hidrólise de sódio trocável" tem sido usada como uma possível explicação para a produção de álcali e elevação do pH nestes solos. Como uma alternativa a essa hipótese, um modelo foi desenvolvido para simular e explicar que a produção de álcali e elevação do pH é possível num solo que acumula sais alcalinos de sódio e CaCO3. Várias simulações foram

  9. Explaining the level of credit spreads: Option-implied jump risk premia in a firm value model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, K.J.M.; Driessen, J.; Maenhout, P.

    2008-01-01

    We study whether option-implied jump risk premia can explain the high observed level of credit spreads. We use a structural jump-diffusion firm value model to assess the level of credit spreads generated by option-implied jump risk premia. Prices and returns of equity index and individual options

  10. Does Human Capital Theory Explain the Value of Higher Education? A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Alex

    2010-01-01

    A perennial debate in the economics of education is whether human capital or screening/signalling theories best explain the value of schooling and hence the private demand for, in particular, higher education. Human capital theory proposes that formal training such as that offered by higher education institutions improves the productive capacity…

  11. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using......In order to lower the cognitive burden of decision making, consumers may apply attribute cut-off values to simplify decision strategies. Products with attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or are greatly discounted. This study provides new...

  12. The role of attitudes about vaccine safety, efficacy, and value in explaining parents' reported vaccination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle

    2013-10-01

    To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors.

  13. Explaining the forgetting bias effect on value judgments: The influence of memory for a past test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew G; Witherby, Amber E; Castel, Alan D; Murayama, Kou

    2017-04-01

    People often feel that information that was forgotten is less important than remembered information. Prior work has shown that participants assign higher importance to remembered information while undervaluing forgotten information. The current study examined two possible accounts of this finding. In three experiments, participants studied lists of words in which each word was randomly assigned a point value denoting the value of remembering the word. Following the presentation of each list participants engaged in a free recall test. After the presentation of all lists participants were shown each of the words they had studied and asked to recall the point value that was initially paired with each word. Experiment 1 tested a fluency-based account by presenting items for value judgments in a low-fluency or high-fluency format. Experiment 2 examined whether value judgments reflect attributions based on the familiarity of an item when value judgments are made. Finally, in Experiment 3, we evaluated whether participants believe that forgotten words are less important by having them judge whether an item was initially recalled or forgotten prior to making a value judgment. Manipulating the fluency of an item presented for judgment had no influence on value ratings (Experiment 1) and familiarity exerted a limited influence on value judgments (Experiment 2). More importantly, participants' value judgments appeared to reflect a theory that remembered information is more valuable than forgotten information (Experiment 3). Overall, the present work suggests that individuals may apply a theory about remembering and forgetting to retrospectively assess the value of information.

  14. Should We Trust in Values? Explaining Public Support for Pro-Environmental Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are concerned with what explains public acceptance and support of environmental taxes. We examine findings in environmental psychology emphasizing that people’s (environmental value-orientation is the dominant driver determining individuals’ support for pro-environmental policy instruments. We introduce a complementary model, mainly drawing upon findings in political science, suggesting that people’s support for policy instruments is dependent on their level of political trust and their trust in other citizens. More specifically, we analyze whether political trust and inter-personal trust affect individuals’ support for an increased carbon dioxide tax in Sweden, while checking their value orientation, self-interest, and various socio-economic values. We make use of survey data obtained from a mail questionnaire sent out to a random sample of 3,000 individuals in 2009. We find that apart from people’s values, beliefs, and norms, both political trust and interpersonal trust have significant effects on people's attitudes toward an increased tax on carbon dioxide.

  15. STUDY ON THE EXPLAINABLE ABILITY BY USING AIRBORNE LIDAR IN STAND VALUE AND STAND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy structure is composed by the various species. Sun light is a main factor to affect the crown structures after tree competition. However, thinning operation is an appropriate way to control canopy density, which can adjust the competition conditions in the different crown structures. Recently, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, has been established as a standard technology for high precision three dimensional forest data acquisition; it could get stand characteristics with three-dimensional information that had develop potential for the structure characteristics of forest canopy. The 65 years old, different planting density of Cryptomeria japonica experiment area was selected for this study in Nanytou, Taiwan. Use the LiDAR image to estimate LiDAR characteristic values by constructed CHM, voxel-based LiDAR, mu0ltiple echoes, and assess the accuracy of stand characteristics with intensity values and field data. The competition index was calculated with field data, and estimate competition index of LiDAR via multiple linear regression. The results showed that the highest accuracy with stand characteristics was stand high which estimate by LiDAR, its average accuracy of 91.03%. LiDAR raster grid size was 20 m × 20 m for the correlation was the best, however, the higher canopy density will reduce the accuracy of the LiDAR characteristic values to estimate the stand characteristics. The significantly affect canopy thickness and the degree of competition in different planting distances.

  16. Value chain envy : explaining new entry and vertical integration in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Joeri M.; Wijnberg, Nachoem M.

    2002-01-01

    The desirability of establishing a value chain at a particular stage in a value system can be considered to depend on the relation between the value that can be created and the value that can be captured at that particular stage. Value chain envy motivates firms to invade the more desirable stages

  17. The Role of Attitudes about Vaccine Safety, Efficacy, and Value in Explaining Parents' Reported Vaccination Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. Method: A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years ("n" = 376) was…

  18. Shock Initiation of Explosives - High Temperature Hot Spots Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Will

    2017-06-01

    The pore-collapse mechanism for hot spot creation is currently one of the most intensely studied subjects in the initiation of energetic materials. In the present study, we use 1.5 - 3.5 km s-1 laser-driven flyer plates to impact microgram charges of both polymer-bound and pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) while recording the temperature and spatially-averaged emissivity with a high-speed optical pyrometer. The 32-color pyrometer has nanosecond time resolution and a high dynamic range with sensitivity to temperatures from 7000 to 2000 K. Hot spot temperatures of 4000 K at impact are observed in the polymer-bound explosive charges where an elastomeric binder is used to fill void spaces. In pure PETN and more heterogeneous polymer-bound charges, in which significant void space is present, hot spot temperatures of 6000 K are observed, similar to previous reports with significant porosity. We attribute these high temperatures to gas-phase products formed in-situ being compressed under the driving shock. Experiments performed under various gas environments (air, butane, etc.) showed a strong influence on observed temperature upon impact. Control experiments where the PETN in the polymer-bound charges were replaced with sucrose and silica reinforce the result that hot spots are a result of in-situ gas formation from decomposition of organic molecules. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards FA9550-14-1-0142 and FA9550-16-1-0042; US Army Research Office award W911NF-13-1-0217; Defense Threat Reduction Agency award HDTRA1-12-1-0011. In collaboration with: Belinda Pacheco and Dana Dlott, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.

  19. The Role of Technological Rarity and Environmental Uncertainty in Explaining Patent Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Lauto, Giancarlo

    explore how environmental uncertainty affects innovation value, and whether environmental uncertainty has a moderating effect on the relation between rarity and innovation value. We take as our empirical case hydrocracking, a mature technology widely applied in the oil industry. Innovations...... uncertainty has an inverted U-shaped curvilinear effect on innovation value, and that low environmental uncertainty moderates the relation between rarity and innovation value in such a way that the U-shaped relation between rarity and value becomes an inverted U-shape....... in hydrocracking are based on the combination of elementary technologies relative to three technology areas: feeds and products, catalyst preparation, and refinery processing.Using detailed patent information, we find that rarity has a curvilinear effect in an U-shape on innovation value, that environmental...

  20. Protein Biophysics Explains Why Highly Abundant Proteins Evolve Slowly

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    Adrian W.R. Serohijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The consistent observation across all kingdoms of life that highly abundant proteins evolve slowly demonstrates that cellular abundance is a key determinant of protein evolutionary rate. However, other empirical findings, such as the broad distribution of evolutionary rates, suggest that additional variables determine the rate of protein evolution. Here, we report that under the global selection against the cytotoxic effects of misfolded proteins, folding stability (ΔG, simultaneous with abundance, is a causal variable of evolutionary rate. Using both theoretical analysis and multiscale simulations, we demonstrate that the anticorrelation between the premutation ΔG and the arising mutational effect (ΔΔG, purely biophysical in origin, is a necessary requirement for abundance–evolutionary rate covariation. Additionally, we predict and demonstrate in bacteria that the strength of abundance–evolutionary rate correlation depends on the divergence time separating reference genomes. Altogether, these results highlight the intrinsic role of protein biophysics in the emerging universal patterns of molecular evolution.

  1. Portrait Value Questionnaire's (PVQ) usefulness in explaining quality food-related consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, C.; Krystallis, Athanasios; Pagiaslis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Schwartz's portrait value questionnaire (PVQ) has extensively been used in personal values research. The present paper aims to validate the 40-item PVQ typology, using a nationally representative sample of 997 consumers. The main objective of the survey was to investigate whether higher...... sample and were the clusters with the most dynamic quality food purchasing profile. Research limitations/implications - Despite the emergence of a clear relation between consumers' self-transcendence and security value similarity and higher-than-average frequency of quality food purchasing, quality food......-than-average regular purchasing of quality food products (i.e. organic and PDO labelled products) coincides with stronger identification with specific PVQ values. Design/methodology/approach - A questionnaire was distributed nationwide. Data were collected through personal interviews with 997 consumers. Confirmatory...

  2. What explains the difference between the futures' price and its "fair" value? : evidence from the european options exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berglund, T.; Kabir, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes systematic deviations of the observed futures price from the value predicted by the simple cost-of-carry relationship. A model to explain this deviation (the basis) is presented in Chen, Cuny, and Haugen (1995, henceforth CCH). According to CCH, the basis should be negatively

  3. Tinto's Theoretical Perspective and Expectancy-Value Paradigm: A confrontation to explain freshmen's academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Neuville

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, success in postsecondary education has preoccupied psychological and educational researchers. In this respect, Tinto's student integration model (1982, 1997 is one of the most frequently cited models. Tinto proposed that students' background characteristics, initial intentions and aspirations towards college influence their academic and social integration, which in turn affect their persistence. Unfortunately, although this model is an integrative one, it does not take motivational variables such as students' self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003 and students' subjective value of academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Neuville, 2004 into account although their impact on learning has been widely demonstrated (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, & Langley, 2004. The purpose of this study, conducted with 2637 first-year university students from all the Bachelor's degree programs of a Belgian university, is to compare, through structural equation models, the explanatory power of these two research traditions (students' integration, on the one hand, and a motivational paradigm, on the other hand in predicting students' academic performance.

  4. Critical Factors Explaining the Leadership Performance of High-Performing Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Disraeli M.

    2018-01-01

    The study explored critical factors that explain leadership performance of high-performing principals and examined the relationship between these factors based on the ratings of school constituents in the public school system. The principal component analysis with the use of Varimax Rotation revealed that four components explain 51.1% of the…

  5. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Schumacher, C. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  6. Microalgae biorefinery: High value products perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kit Wayne; Yap, Jing Ying; Show, Pau Loke; Suan, Ng Hui; Juan, Joon Ching; Ling, Tau Chuan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Microalgae have received much interest as a biofuel feedstock in response to the uprising energy crisis, climate change and depletion of natural sources. Development of microalgal biofuels from microalgae does not satisfy the economic feasibility of overwhelming capital investments and operations. Hence, high-value co-products have been produced through the extraction of a fraction of algae to improve the economics of a microalgae biorefinery. Examples of these high-value products are pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins and anti-oxidants, with applications in cosmetics, nutritional and pharmaceuticals industries. To promote the sustainability of this process, an innovative microalgae biorefinery structure is implemented through the production of multiple products in the form of high value products and biofuel. This review presents the current challenges in the extraction of high value products from microalgae and its integration in the biorefinery. The economic potential assessment of microalgae biorefinery was evaluated to highlight the feasibility of the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-value products from transgenic maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shaista; Ramessar, Koreen; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches and oils. Maize is now at the beginning of a new agricultural revolution, where the grains are used as factories to synthesize high-value molecules. In this article we look at the diversity of high-value products from maize, recent technological advances in the field and the emerging regulatory framework that governs how transgenic maize plants and their products are grown, used and traded. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PISA and High-Performing Education Systems: Explaining Singapore's Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi; Gopinathan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's remarkable performance in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has placed it among the world's high-performing education systems (HPES). In the literature on HPES, its "secret formula" for education success is explained in terms of teacher quality, school leadership, system characteristics and educational…

  9. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A.; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher–pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02–1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00–1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher–pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations

  10. Ethics and high-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew; Tilburt, Jon C

    2017-05-01

    High-value care (HVC) is en vogue, but the ethics of physicians' roles in the growing number of HVC recommendations demands further attention. In this brief report, we argue that, from the standpoint of individual physicians' primary commitments and duties to individual patients, not all HVC is ethically equal. Our analysis suggests that the ethical case for HVC may be both stronger and weaker than is ordinarily supposed. In some cases, HVC is not merely a 'good thing to do' but is actually ethically obligatory. In others, it is merely permissible-or even ethically suspect. More importantly, we suggest further that understanding HVC as ethically 'obligatory, permissible, or suspect' has implications for the design and implementation of strategies that promote HVC. For example, it questions the use of adherence to certain HVC recommendations as a physician performance metric, which may already be occurring in some contexts. Properly construed, ethics does not threaten HVC but can instead help shape HVC in ways that preserve the fundamental values of the medical profession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Protecting high value assets in transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennefoss, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the most daunting tasks facing a security manager is how to protect classified or high value assets such as nuclear materials in transit, especially when the shipment is to be handled by a commercial carrier. There are many opportunities for an adversary to gain access to cargo shipments en route, including situations in which the cargo must be held in storage for weeks or even months. Standard commercial alarm systems are not suitable for use in containers subject to vibration or high and low temperature extremes, or situations in which national assets might be used to gain surreptitious access to the container and to defeat the alarm system. A new alarm monitoring system has been developed to provide a secure auditing system for use in rail cars, Conex containers, and other transportable containers. The system, referred to as the PEL-100, electronically supervises intrusion detection sensors mounted on or within a container, and records all intrusion attempts in a secure, solid state memory storage device. The security archive can be withdrawn and reviewed after the container has completed its travels, and will provide a complete audit trail of intrusion attempts in transit. The PEL-100 includes one of the most comprehensive security tamper systems ever fielded, and is intended to operate reliably and securely in an environment subject to vibration, EMI/RFI emissions, electronic spoofing, and physical manipulation. The unit provides a clear and unambiguous indication of tampering and includes a comprehensive internal security system to detect insider tampering

  12. Are the High Hip Fracture Rates Among Norwegian Women Explained by Impaired Bone Material Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Vilaplana, Laila; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Wang-Fagerland, Morten; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; F Eriksen, Erik

    2015-10-01

    Hip fracture rates in Norway rank among the highest in the world, more than double that of Spanish women. Previous studies were unable to demonstrate significant differences between the two populations with respect to bone mass or calcium metabolism. In order to test whether the difference in fracture propensity between both populations could be explained by differences in bone material quality we assessed bone material strength using microindentation in 42 Norwegian and 46 Spanish women with normal BMD values, without clinical or morphometric vertebral fractures, no clinical or laboratory signs of secondary osteoporosis, and without use of drugs with known influence on bone metabolism. Bone material properties were assessed by microindentation of the thick cortex of the mid tibia following local anesthesia of the area using the Osteoprobe device (Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). Indentation distance was standardized against a calibration phantom of methylmethacrylate and results, as percentage of this reference value, expressed as bone material strength index units (BMSi). We found that the bone material properties reflected in the BMSi value of Norwegian women was significantly inferior when compared to Spanish women (77 ± 7.1 versus 80.7 ± 7.8, p material properties, higher bone mass, and were taller than Spanish women. The increased height will increase the impact on bone after falls, and impaired bone material properties may further enhance the risk fracture after such falls. These ethnic differences in bone material properties may partly explain the higher propensity for fracture in Norwegian women. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Does total tannin content explain the use value of spontaneous medicinal plants from the Brazilian semi-arid region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio M. Monteiro

    Full Text Available Due to the current predatory exploitation and consequent extinction of native medicinal plants around the world, strategies have been proposed aiming at the sustainable use of these resources. Accordingly, this study aims at verifying the differences in tannin compounds content in the bark of eleven species with high use value (UV and also relating the amounts of tannins with their therapeutic indications. To quantify the total phenolic content in the samples the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used, and for total tannins chemical casein precipitation was applied. The amount of tannins ranged intra-specifically and the greater variation was found for Anadenanthera colubrina(angico that displayed between 157.57 and 107.39 mg/g. The lowest variation occurred in Lafoensia replicata(mangabeira with values ranging between 76.55 and 68.96 mg/g. There were significant differences between several of the eleven species and according to the simple regression analysis, the quantities of tannins found failed to justify their UV. Thus, it was not possible to establish whether the amount of total tannins influenced to a greater or lesser degree in the accumulation of knowledge. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between the amount of total tannins and local botanical knowledge expressed by the UV.

  14. How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude-value linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    This article examines how and when personal values relate to social attitudes. Considering values as motivational orientations, we propose an attitude-value taxonomy based on Moral Foundation Theory (Haidt & Joseph, 2007) and Schwartz's (1992) basic human values theory allowing predictions of (a) how social attitudes are related to personal values, and (b) when macro-contextual factors have an impact on attitude-value links. In a meta-analysis based on the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1992) and the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001; k = 91, N = 30,357 from 31 countries), we found that self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values relate positively to fairness/proenvironmental and care/prosocial attitudes, and conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values relate to purity/religious and authority/political attitudes, whereas ingroup/identity attitudes are not consistently associated with value dimensions. Additionally, we hypothesize that the ecological, economic, and cultural context moderates the extent to which values guide social attitudes. Results of the multi-level meta-analysis show that ecological and cultural factors inhibit or foster attitude-value associations: Disease stress is associated with lower attitude-value associations for conservation (vs. openness-to-change) values; collectivism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for conservation values; individualism is associated with stronger attitude-value links for self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) values; and uncertainty avoidance is associated with stronger attitude-values links, particularly for conservation values. These findings challenge universalistic claims about context-independent attitude-value relations and contribute to refined future value and social attitude theories. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Principles for high-quality, high-value testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michael; Fell, Greg; Wright, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A survey of doctors working in two large NHS hospitals identified over 120 laboratory tests, imaging investigations and investigational procedures that they considered not to be overused. A common suggestion in this survey was that more training was required. And, this prompted the development of a list of core principles for high-quality, high-value testing. The list can be used as a framework for training and as a reference source. The core principles are: (1) Base testing practices on the best available evidence. (2) Apply the evidence on test performance with careful judgement. (3) Test efficiently. (4) Consider the value (and affordability) of a test before requesting it. (5) Be aware of the downsides and drivers of overdiagnosis. (6) Confront uncertainties. (7) Be patient-centred in your approach. (8) Consider ethical issues. (9) Be aware of normal cognitive limitations and biases when testing. (10) Follow the 'knowledge journey' when teaching and learning these core principles.

  16. Why Flies? Inexpensive Public Engagement Exercises to Explain the Value of Basic Biomedical Research on "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Stefan R.; Cognigni, Paola; Denholm, Barry; Fabre, Caroline; Gu, Wendy X. W.; Linneweber, Gerit; Prieto-Godino, Lucia; Urbancic, Vasja; Zwart, Maarten; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Invertebrate model organisms are powerful systems for uncovering conserved principles of animal biology. Despite widespread use in scientific communities, invertebrate research is often severely undervalued by laypeople. Here, we present a set of simple, inexpensive public outreach exercises aimed at explaining to the public why basic research on…

  17. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  18. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  19. In the Name of Democracy: The Value of Democracy Explains Leniency Towards Wrongdoings as a Function of Group Political Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, A.; Falomir-Pichastor, J.M.; Berent, J.; Staerklé, C.; Butera, F.

    2015-01-01

    According to the "democracy-as-value" hypothesis, democracy has become an ideological belief system providing social value to democratic individuals, groups and institutions, granting legitimacy to their actions (even if dishonest or violent), and protecting them from consecutive punishments. The

  20. Cheating does not explain selective differences at high and low relatedness in a social amoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queller David C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruism can be favored by high relatedness among interactants. We tested the effect of relatedness in experimental populations of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, where altruism occurs in a starvation-induced social stage when some amoebae die to form a stalk that lifts the fertile spores above the soil facilitating dispersal. The single cells that aggregate during the social stage can be genetically diverse, which can lead to conflict over spore and stalk allocation. We mixed eight genetically distinct wild isolates and maintained twelve replicated populations at a high and a low relatedness treatment. After one and ten social generations we assessed the strain composition of the populations. We expected that some strains would be out-competed in both treatments. In addition, we expected that low relatedness might allow the persistence of social cheaters as it provides opportunity to exploit other strains. Results We found that at high relatedness a single clone prevailed in all twelve populations. At low relatedness three clones predominated in all twelve populations. Interestingly, exploitation of some clones by others in the social stage did not explain the results. When we mixed each winner against the pool of five losers, the winner did not prevail in the spores because all contributed fairly to the stalk and spores. Furthermore, the dominant clone at high-relatedness was not cheated by the other two that persisted at low relatedness. A combination of high spore production and short unicellular stage most successfully explained the three successful clones at low relatedness, but not why one of them fared better at high relatedness. Differences in density did not account for the results, as the clones did not differ in vegetative growth rates nor did they change the growth rates over relevant densities. Conclusions These results suggest that social competition and something beyond solitary growth differences

  1. High mobility explains demand sharing and enforced cooperation in egalitarian hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hannah M; Vinicius, Lucio; Strods, Janis; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2014-12-16

    'Simple' hunter-gatherer populations adopt the social norm of 'demand sharing', an example of human hyper-cooperation whereby food brought into camps is claimed and divided by group members. Explaining how demand sharing evolved without punishment to free riders, who rarely hunt but receive resources from active hunters, has been a long-standing problem. Here we show through a simulation model that demand-sharing families that continuously move between camps in response to their energy income are able to survive in unpredictable environments typical of hunter-gatherers, while non-sharing families and sedentary families perish. Our model also predicts that non-producers (free riders, pre-adults and post-productive adults) can be sustained in relatively high numbers. As most of hominin pre-history evolved in hunter-gatherer settings, demand sharing may be an ancestral manifestation of hyper-cooperation and inequality aversion, allowing exploration of high-quality, hard-to-acquire resources, the evolution of fluid co-residence patterns and egalitarian resource distribution in the absence of punishment or warfare.

  2. High Carbon Use Efficiency is Not Explained by Production of Storage Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Paul; van Groenigen, Kees-Jan

    2015-04-01

    The efficiency with which microbes use substrate to make new microbial biomass (Carbon Use Efficiency or CUE; mol C / mol C) is an important variable in soil and ecosystem C cycling models. Estimates of CUE in soil microbial communities vary widely. It has been hypothesized that high values of CUE are associated with production of storage compounds following a sudden increases in substrate availability during CUE measurements. In that case, these high CUE values would not be representative for balanced microbial growth (i.e. the production of all compounds needed to make new microbial cells). To test this hypothesis, we added position-specific 13C-labeled glucose isotopomers in parallel incubations of a ponderosa pine and piñon-juniper soil. We compared the measured pattern of CO2 release for the six glucose C atoms with patterns of CO2 production expected for balanced growth with a low, medium, or high CUE, and with CO2 production patterns associated with production of storage compounds (glycogen, lipids, or polyhydroxybutyrate). The measured position-specific CO2 production did not match that for production of glycogen, lipids, or polyhydroxybutyrate, but agreed closely with that expected for balanced growth at high CUE and high pentose phosphate pathway activity. We conclude that soil microbial communities utilize glucose substrate for biomass growth with high CUE, and that addition of small amounts of 13C-labeled glucose tracers do not affect CUE or induce storage compounds production. We submit that the measurement of position-specific CO2 production offers a quick and easy way to test biochemically explicit hypotheses concerning microbial growth metabolism.

  3. Explaining computation of predictive values: 2 × 2 table versus frequency tree. A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN74278823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Jürgen

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involving patients in decision making on diagnostic procedures requires a basic level of statistical thinking. However, innumeracy is prevalent even among physicians. In medical teaching the 2 × 2 table is widely used as a visual help for computations whereas in psychology the frequency tree is favoured. We assumed that the 2 × 2 table is more suitable to support computations of predictive values. Methods 184 students without prior statistical training were randomised either to a step-by-step self-learning tutorial using the 2 × 2 table (n = 94 or the frequency tree (n = 90. During the training session students were instructed by two sample tasks and a total of five positive predictive values had to be computed. During a follow-up session 4 weeks later participants had to compute 5 different tasks of comparable degree of difficulty without having the tutorial instructions at their disposal. The primary outcome was the correct solution of the tasks. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. About 58% achieved correct solutions in 4–5 tasks following the training session and 26% in the follow-up examination. Conclusions These findings do not support the hypothesis that the 2 × 2 table is more valuable to facilitate the calculation of positive predictive values than the frequency tree.

  4. Explaining computation of predictive values: 2 x 2 table versus frequency tree. A randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN74278823].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelberg, Anke; Balgenorth, Andrea; Berger, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2004-08-10

    Involving patients in decision making on diagnostic procedures requires a basic level of statistical thinking. However, innumeracy is prevalent even among physicians. In medical teaching the 2 x 2 table is widely used as a visual help for computations whereas in psychology the frequency tree is favoured. We assumed that the 2 x 2 table is more suitable to support computations of predictive values. 184 students without prior statistical training were randomised either to a step-by-step self-learning tutorial using the 2 x 2 table (n = 94) or the frequency tree (n = 90). During the training session students were instructed by two sample tasks and a total of five positive predictive values had to be computed. During a follow-up session 4 weeks later participants had to compute 5 different tasks of comparable degree of difficulty without having the tutorial instructions at their disposal. The primary outcome was the correct solution of the tasks. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. About 58% achieved correct solutions in 4-5 tasks following the training session and 26% in the follow-up examination. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the 2 x 2 table is more valuable to facilitate the calculation of positive predictive values than the frequency tree.

  5. Exploring students' perceptions and performance on predict-observe-explain tasks in high school chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapally, Praveen

    This study sought to understand the impact of gender and reasoning level on students' perceptions and performances of Predict-Observe-Explain (POE) laboratory tasks in a high school chemistry laboratory. Several literature reviews have reported that students at all levels have not developed the specific knowledge and skills that were expected from their laboratory work. Studies conducted over the last several decades have found that boys tend to be more successful than girls in science and mathematics courses. However, some recent studies have suggested that girls may be reducing this gender gap. This gender difference is the focal point of this research study, which was conducted at a mid-western, rural high school. The participants were 24 boys and 25 girls enrolled in two physical science classes taught by the same teacher. In this mixed methods study, qualitative and quantitative methods were implemented simultaneously over the entire period of the study. MANOVA statistics revealed significant effects due to gender and level of reasoning on the outcome variables, which were POE performances and perceptions of the chemistry laboratory environment. There were no significant interactions between these effects. For the qualitative method, IRB-approved information was collected, coded, grouped, and analyzed. This method was used to derive themes from students' responses on questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Students with different levels of reasoning and gender were interviewed, and many of them expressed positive themes, which was a clear indication that they had enjoyed participating in the POE learning tasks and they had developed positive perceptions towards POE inquiry laboratory learning environment. When students are capable of formal reasoning, they can use an abstract scientific concept effectively and then relate it to the ideas they generate in their minds. Thus, instructors should factor the nature of students' thinking abilities into their

  6. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.

    2018-01-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that

  7. Attention! Can choices for low value food over high value food be trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W

    2018-05-01

    People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of High Value Cellulose from Tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R Eric; Dvaid, Keith; McGinley, W Mark; Meduri, Praveen; Clark, Ezra; Dayalan, Ethirajulu; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Sunkara, Mahendra; Colliver, Donald

    2011-06-15

    The Kentucky Rural Energy Supply Program was established in 2005 by a federal direct appropriation to benefit the citizens of the Commonwealth by creating a unified statewide consortium to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency in Kentucky. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Biomass Programs initially funded the consortium in 2005 with a $2 million operational grant. The Kentucky Rural Energy Consortium (KREC) was formed at the outset of the program to advance energy efficiency and comprehensive research on biomass and bioenergy of importance to Kentucky agriculture, rural communities, and related industries. In recognition of the successful efforts of the program, KREC received an additional $1.96 million federal appropriation in 2008 for renewal of the DOE grant. From the beginning, KREC understood the value of providing a statewide forum for the discussion of Kentucky's long term energy needs and economic development potential. The new funding allowed KREC to continue to serve as a clearinghouse and support new research and development and outreach programs for energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  9. Rapid sympatry explains greater color pattern divergence in high latitude birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2010-02-01

    Latitudinal variation in patterns of evolution has fascinated biologists for over a century, but our understanding of latitudinal differences in evolutionary processes-such as selection and drift-remains limited. Here, we test for, and find, accelerated evolution of color patterns in bird taxa that breed at higher latitudes compared with those breeding in the tropics, analyzing data from seven diverse avian families. Most important, we show that the extent of overlap of species' breeding ranges (degree of sympatry) explains the elevated rate of color pattern evolution at higher latitudes. We suggest that the dynamic shifts in breeding ranges that accompanied climatic changes during the last 3 million years (Milankovitch Oscillations) resulted in more rapid and more frequent secondary contact at high latitudes. We argue that sympatry among diverging clades causes greater divergence of color traits in birds at higher latitudes through sexual, social, or ecological character displacement that accelerate rates of evolution, and through the selective elimination of weakly differentiated lineages that hybridize and fuse in sympatry (differential fusion).

  10. High Spending on Maternity Care in India: What Are the Factors Explaining It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Moradhvaj; Rammohan, Anu; Shruti; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2016-01-01

    High maternity-related health care spending is often cited as an important barrier in utilizing quality health care during pregnancy and childbirth. This study has two objectives: (i) to measure the levels of expenditure on total maternity care in disaggregated components such as ANCs, PNCs, and Natal care expenditure; (ii) to quantify the extent of catastrophic maternity expenditure (CME) incurred by households and identify the factors responsible for it. Data from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey (2014) was used to estimate maternity expenditure and its predictors. CME was measured as a share of consumption expenditure by different cut-offs. The two-part model was used to identify the factors associated with maternity spending and CME. The findings show that household spending on maternity care (US$ 149 in constant price) is much higher than previous estimates (US$ 50 in constant price). A significant proportion of households in India (51%) are incurring CME. Along with economic and educational status, type of health care and place of residence emerged as significant factors in explaining CME. Findings from this study assume importance in the context of an emerging demand for higher maternity entitlements and government spending on public health care in India. To reduce CME, India needs to improve the availability and accessibility of better-quality public health services and increase maternity entitlements in line with maternity expenditure identified in this study.

  11. Facilitating High School Students' Use of Multiple Representations to Describe and Explain Simple Chemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the efficacy of a planned instructional program to facilitate understanding of the macroscopic, submicroscopic and symbolic representational systems when describing and explaining chemical reactions by sixty-five Grade 9 students in a Singapore secondary school. A two-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument…

  12. The Politics of Process Implementation: Explaining Variations Across Units in a High-Tech Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sune Dueholm

    In this PhD dissertation, I demonstrate how organizational politics helps explain process innovation outcomes, and I present key concepts and propositions for managing organizational politics in process innovation. Grounded in the literature on process and politics, and informed by theory...

  13. Can multistate dark matter annihilation explain the high-energy cosmic ray lepton anomalies?

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Multistate dark matter (DM) models with small mass splittings and couplings to light hidden sector bosons have been proposed as an explanation for the PAMELA/Fermi/H.E.S.S. high-energy lepton excesses. We investigate this proposal over a wide range of DM density profiles, in the framework of concrete models with doublet or triplet dark matter and a hidden SU(2) gauge sector that mixes with standard model hypercharge. The gauge coupling is bounded from below by the DM relic density, and the Sommerfeld enhancement factor is explicitly computable for given values of the DM and gauge boson masses M, mu and the (largest) dark matter mass splitting delta M_{12}. Sommerfeld enhancement is stronger at the galactic center than near the Sun because of the radial dependence of the DM velocity profile, which strengthens the inverse Compton (IC) gamma ray constraints relative to usual assumptions. We find that the PAMELA/Fermi/H.E.S.S. lepton excesses are marginally compatible with the model predictions, and with CMB and ...

  14. Consensus of the Millennium Conference on Teaching High Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare costs have spiraled out of control, yet students and residents may lack the knowledge and skills to provide high value care, which emphasizes the best possible care while reducing unnecessary costs. Mainly national campaigns are aimed at physicians to reconsider their test ordering behaviors, identify overused diagnostics, and disseminate innovative practices. These efforts will fall short if principles of high value care are not incorporated across the spectrum of training for the next generation of physicians. Consensus findings of an invitational conference of 7 medical school teams consisting of academic leaders included strategies for institutions to meaningfully incorporate high value care into their medical school, residency, and faculty development curricula.

  15. A general theory to explain the relatively high cost of environmental restoration at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Restoration costs for Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have been the subject of much scrutiny and concern for several years. General opinion is that DOE clean-up costs are as much as three times higher than costs for similar clean-up projects in the private sector. Consequently, DOE Environmental Restoration professionals are continually under pressure to do more with less, which, ironically, can lead to additional inefficiencies in the system. This paper proposes a general theory as to why DOE costs are higher, explains the reasons why current conditions will make it difficult to realize any pervasive or significant decreases in clean-up costs, and presents some general changes that need to take place in the DOE system in order to bring about conditions that will allow more efficient clean-up to occur. The theory is based on a simple economic model that describes the balance between the resources spent for risk avoidance and the corresponding changes in overall productivity as a function of risk. The elementary concepts illustrated with the economic model, when refined and specifically applied, have the potential to become the catalyst for significant change-change that is absolutely necessary if we truly intend to conduct environmental clean-up with the same efficiencies as private industry

  16. Dynamic receptor team formation can explain the high signal transduction gain in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Othmer, Hans G

    2004-05-01

    Evolution has provided many organisms with sophisticated sensory systems that enable them to respond to signals in their environment. The response frequently involves alteration in the pattern of movement, either by directed movement, a process called taxis, or by altering the speed or frequency of turning, which is called kinesis. Chemokinesis has been most thoroughly studied in the peritrichous bacterium Escherichia coli, which has four helical flagella distributed over the cell surface, and swims by rotating them. When rotated counterclockwise the flagella coalesce into a propulsive bundle, producing a relatively straight "run," and when rotated clockwise they fly apart, resulting in a "tumble" which reorients the cell with little translocation. A stochastic process generates the runs and tumbles, and in a chemoeffector gradient, runs that carry the cell in a favorable direction are extended. The cell senses spatial gradients as temporal changes in receptor occupancy and changes the probability of counterclockwise rotation (the bias) on a fast timescale, but adaptation returns the bias to baseline on a slow timescale, enabling the cell to detect and respond to further concentration changes. The overall structure of the signal transduction pathways is well characterized in E. coli, but important details are still not understood. Only recently has a source of gain in the signal transduction network been identified experimentally, and here we present a mathematical model based on dynamic assembly of receptor teams that can explain this observation.

  17. Novel charge sensitive preamplifier without high-value feedback resistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    A novel charge sensitive preamplifier is introduced. The method of removing the high value feedback resistor, the circuit design and analysis are described. A practical circuit and its measured performances are provided

  18. Explaining Gaps in Readiness for College-Level Math: The Role of High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice; Conger, Dylan

    2009-01-01

    Despite increased requirements for high school graduation, almost one-third of the nation's college freshmen are unprepared for college-level math. The need for remediation is particularly high among students who are low income, Hispanic, and black. Female students are also less likely than males to be ready for college-level math. This article…

  19. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  20. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  1. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested.

  2. High-grade internal rectal prolapse: Does it explain so-called "idiopathic" faecal incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendaal, A L A; Buchs, N C; Prapasrivorakul, S; Cunningham, C; Jones, O M; Hompes, R; Lindsey, I

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence is a multifactorial disorder, with multiple treatment options. The role of internal rectal prolapse in the aetiology of faecal incontinence is debated. Recent data has shown the importance of high-grade internal rectal prolapse in case of faecal incontinence. We aimed to determine the incidence and relevance of internal rectal prolapse in patients with faecal incontinence without an anal sphincter defect. Patient data, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, were assessed. All females with moderate to severe pure faecal incontinence, without obstructed defecation and sphincter muscle defects, were included. Data on defecation proctography, anorectal physiology and incontinence scores were analysed. Of 2082 females in the database, 174 fitted the inclusion criteria. High-grade internal rectal prolapse was found in 49% of patients and was associated predominantly with urge faecal incontinence. Passive faecal incontinence was more common in low-grade compared to high-grade internal rectal prolapse patients. Maximum resting pressure was lower in older patients and in patients with high-grade compared to low-grade internal rectal prolapse. Internal rectal prolapse grade was not significantly correlated with faecal incontinence severity score. High-grade internal rectal prolapse is common in female patients suffering particularly urge faecal incontinence, without anal sphincter lesions. Defecation proctography should be routine in the work up of faecal incontinence. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antisocial Behavior and Interpersonal Values in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molero Jurado, María Del Mar; Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Carrión Martínez, José J; Luque de la Rosa, Antonio; Garzón Fernández, Anabella; Martos Martínez, África; Simón Márquez, Maria Del Mar; Barragán Martín, Ana B; Gázquez Linares, José J

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the characteristics of antisocial behavior and interpersonal values of high school students ( Compulsory Secondary Education ) (CSE), the profile of students with high levels of antisocial behavior with regard to interpersonal values, and possible protection from antisocial behavior that interpersonal values could provide. The Interpersonal Values Questionnaire was used to assess interpersonal values, and the Antisocial-Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire was employed to assess antisocial behaviors. The sample was made up of 885 CSE students aged 14-17. The results revealed a greater prevalence of antisocial behaviors among males and fourth-year CSE students. Moreover, antisocial behaviors were more frequent among participants with high scores in Stimulation, Recognition, Independence, and Leadership and low scores in Conformity and Benevolence. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that low scores in Conformity and Benevolence and high scores in Independence predicted high scores in antisocial behavior. The possibility of identifying certain interpersonal values which could positively or negatively affect the appearance of antisocial behavior during adolescence is discussed.

  4. Explaining Variance in Comprehension for Students in a High-Poverty Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Kristin; Amendum, Steven J.; Liebfreund, Meghan D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of decoding, language, spelling, and motivation to the reading comprehension of elementary school readers in a high-poverty setting. Specifically, the research questions addressed whether and how the influences of word reading efficiency, semantic knowledge, reading self-concept, and spelling on reading…

  5. Can Ferroelectric Polarization Explain the High Performance of Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherkar, Tejas; Koster, L. Jan Anton

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells based on the use of hybrid halide perovskites, CH3NH3PbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I), now exceeds 20%. Recently, it was suggested that this high performance originates from the presence of ferroelectricity in the perovskite, which is hypothesized to lower

  6. Value innovation: the strategic logic of high growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Why are some companies able to sustain high growth in revenues and profits--and others are not? To answer that question, the authors, both of INSEAD, spent five years studying more than 30 companies around the world. They found that the difference between the high-growth companies and their less successful competitors was in each group's assumptions about strategy. Managers of the less successful companies followed conventional strategic logic. Managers of the high-growth companies followed what the authors call the logic of value innovation. Conventional strategic logic and value innovation differ along the basic dimensions of strategy. Many companies take their industry's conditions as given; value innovators don't. Many companies let competitors set the parameters of their strategic thinking; value innovators do not use rivals as benchmarks. Rather than focus on the differences among customers, value innovators look for what customers value in common. Rather than view opportunities through the lens of existing assets and capabilities, value innovators ask, What if we start anew? The authors tell the story of the French hotelier Accor, which discarded the notion of what a hotel is supposed to look like in order to offer what most customers want: a good night's sleep at a low price. And Virgin Atlantic challenged industry conventions by eliminating first-class service and channeling savings into innovations for business-class passengers. Those companies didn't set out to build advantages over the competition, but they ended up achieving the greatest competitive advantages.

  7. Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva

    2012-01-01

    Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…

  8. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kronebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use.

  9. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Use of High-Volume Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bradford H.; Schlesinger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are less likely to use higher-quality hospitals than whites. We propose that a higher level of information-related complexity in their local hospital environments compounds the effects of discrimination and more limited access to services, contributing to racial/ethnic disparities in hospital use. While minorities live closer than whites to high-volume hospitals, minorities also face greater choice complexity and live in neighborhoods with lower levels of medical experience. Our empirical results reveal that it is generally the overall context associated with proximity, choice complexity, and local experience, rather than differential sensitivity to these factors, that provides a partial explanation of the disparity gap in high-volume hospital use. PMID:25316717

  10. Multinomial logistic models explaining income changes of migrants to high-amenity counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Reichert, C; Rudzitis, G

    1992-01-01

    "A survey of residents of and migrants to 15 fast-growing wilderness counties [in the United States] showed that only 25 percent of the migrants increased their income, while almost 50 percent accepted income losses upon their moves to high-amenity counties. Concomitantly, amenities and quality of life were more important factors in the migration decision than was employment, for instance. We focused on migrants in the labor force and employed multinomial logistic regression to identify the impact of migrants' characteristics, their satisfaction/dissatisfaction with previous location (push), and the importance of destination features (pull) on income change." excerpt

  11. Heterozygote advantage fails to explain the high degree of polymorphism of the MHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, R.J.; Borghans, J.A.M.; Boven, M.

    2004-01-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules are encoded by extremely polymorphic genes and play a crucial role in vertebrate immunity. Natural selection favors MHC heterozygous hosts because individuals heterozygous at the MHC can present a larger diversity of peptides from infectious pathogens than...... homozygous individuals. Whether or not heterozygote advantage is sufficient to account for a high degree of polymorphism is controversial, however. Using mathematical models we studied the degree of MHC polymorphism arising when heterozygote advantage is the only selection pressure. We argue that existing...... models are misleading in that the fitness of heterozygotes is not related to the MHC alleles they harbor. To correct for this, we have developed novel models in which the genotypic fitness of a host directly reflects the fitness contributions of its MHC alleles. The mathematical analysis suggests...

  12. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  13. Dementia in a tribal landlocked elderly population at high altitude: What explains the lower prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies across the populations have suggested that dementia is differentially distributed with a lower prevalence in developing regions than the developed ones. A comparison in the prevalence of dementia across populations may provide an insight into its risk factors. Earlier, we reported on the prevalence of dementia in elderly population in migrant, urban, rural, and tribal populations. The present study was conducted with a view to estimating the prevalence of dementia in Tribal Landlocked Elderly Population at high altitude and therefore to draw some conclusions on the differential distribution of dementia across populations. Methods: A cross-sectional comprehensive two-phase survey of all residents aged 60 years and older was conducted. Phase 1 involved screening of all individuals aged 60 and above with the help of a cognitive screen specifically developed for the tribal population. Phase 2 involved clinical examination of individuals who were suspected of dementia as per the developed cognitive screening test. Results: The results revealed that six individuals out of a total of 481 studied above 60 years of age in the studied population scored between 17 and 23, thus qualifying as suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Importantly, none of the individuals above 60 years of age scored <17. Discussion: The current study is in conformity with our previous study conducted on urban, rural, and migrant areas of the state of Himachal Pradesh again emphasizing on dementia being rare in tribal populations and thereby pointing to the presence of some protective factors among tribal people.

  14. Valuing queer identity in Monster High doll fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mariel Austin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available According to Mattel, Monster High dolls topped $500 million in annual sales in 2014, quickly gaining on Barbie, whose $1.3 billion in annual revenue plummeted for the fourth quarter in a row. Monster High's recent ad campaign claims, "We are monsters. We are proud." Race, ethnicity, and disability are coded into the dolls as selling points. The allure of Monster High is, in part, that political identity and the celebration of difference become consumable. The female body, the racialized body, and the disabled body have long been coded as monstrous. Monster High reclaims this label, queering it. Using Jack Halberstam's work on children's culture and Richard Berger's and Rosalind Hanmer's work on fandom, this article explores the queer potential of Monster High. Fans rewrite the Mattel narrative through fan fiction, repainting the dolls, and embodying them through virtual avatars, makeup, and costume play. These fan practices both queer the dolls' identity politics and create communities of interest that act as safe spaces for expressing queer identity and generating fan activism. These fan practices have also influenced Mattel's branding of the dolls, specifically with the recent inclusion of activism campaigns such as WeStopHate and The Kind Campaign into the Monster High Webisodes and Web site. By exploring the queer politics of Monster High fandom, this paper explains how that queering generates social change.

  15. High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High drain amylase and lipase values predict post-operative pancreatitis for choledochal cyst. S Honda, T Okada, H Miyagi, M Minato, A Taketomi. Abstract. Background: Post-operative pancreatitis is a severe complication after cyst excision with hepaticoenterostomy (CEHE) for choledochal cysts. The aim of this study was ...

  16. Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137 Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137 Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137 Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)

  17. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  18. Engineering biosynthesis of high-value compounds in photosynthetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ellis C; Kelly, Steven

    2017-09-01

    The photosynthetic, autotrophic lifestyle of plants and algae position them as ideal platform organisms for sustainable production of biomolecules. However, their use in industrial biotechnology is limited in comparison to heterotrophic organisms, such as bacteria and yeast. This usage gap is in part due to the challenges in generating genetically modified plants and algae and in part due to the difficulty in the development of synthetic biology tools for manipulating gene expression in these systems. Plant and algal metabolism, pre-installed with multiple biosynthetic modules for precursor compounds, bypasses the requirement to install these pathways in conventional production organisms, and creates new opportunities for the industrial production of complex molecules. This review provides a broad overview of the successes, challenges and future prospects for genetic engineering in plants and algae for enhanced or de novo production of biomolecules. The toolbox of technologies and strategies that have been used to engineer metabolism are discussed, and the potential use of engineered plants for industrial manufacturing of large quantities of high-value compounds is explored. This review also discusses the routes that have been taken to modify the profiles of primary metabolites for increasing the nutritional quality of foods as well as the production of specialized metabolites, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. As the universe of high-value biosynthetic pathways continues to expand, and the tools to engineer these pathways continue to develop, it is likely plants and algae will become increasingly valuable for the biomanufacturing of high-value compounds.

  19. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  20. Microprocessor-controlled meter of high Q-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bun'kov, S.N.; Konstantinov, V.I.; Masalov, V.L.; Sevrukova, L.M.; Tokarev, A.D.; Usiv, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes the functional model of a high-precision microcomputer-controlled test facility for studying the electric and physical parameters of superconducting cavities. The basic unit of the test facility is high-stability retunable RF oscillator. It is designed following the scheme of the frequency phase tuning using standard equipment. The systematic error in measuring the loaded Q-value of reentrant cavities is not larger than 5%. A dedicated built-in microcomputer is used to control the measuring test facility and to make the commutations required. 2 refs.; 2 figs

  1. SPSS explained

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Perry R; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    SPSS Explained provides the student with all that they need to undertake statistical analysis using SPSS. It combines a step-by-step approach to each procedure with easy to follow screenshots at each stage of the process. A number of other helpful features are provided: regular advice boxes with tips specific to each test explanations divided into 'essential' and 'advanced' sections to suit readers at different levels frequently asked questions at the end of each chapter. The first edition of this popular book has been fully updated for IBM SPSS version 21 and also includes: chapters that expl

  2. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique was used to uniquely assign total angular momentum () values to high-lying even-parity energy levels of atomic samarium. Unique value assignment was done for seven energy levels in the energy region 34,800–36,200 cm-1 , recently observed and reported in ...

  3. Explaining high and low performers in complex intervention trials: a new model based on diffusion of innovations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Heather; Griffiths, Chris; Leber, Werner; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-05-31

    Complex intervention trials may require health care organisations to implement new service models. In a recent cluster randomised controlled trial, some participating organisations achieved high recruitment, whereas others found it difficult to assimilate the intervention and were low recruiters. We sought to explain this variation and develop a model to inform organisational participation in future complex intervention trials. The trial included 40 general practices in a London borough with high HIV prevalence. The intervention was offering a rapid HIV test as part of the New Patient Health Check. The primary outcome was mean CD4 cell count at diagnosis. The process evaluation consisted of several hundred hours of ethnographic observation, 21 semi-structured interviews and analysis of routine documents (e.g., patient leaflets, clinical protocols) and trial documents (e.g., inclusion criteria, recruitment statistics). Qualitative data were analysed thematically using--and, where necessary, extending--Greenhalgh et al.'s model of diffusion of innovations. Narrative synthesis was used to prepare case studies of four practices representing maximum variety in clinicians' interest in HIV (assessed by level of serological testing prior to the trial) and performance in the trial (high vs. low recruiters). High-recruiting practices were, in general though not invariably, also innovative practices. They were characterised by strong leadership, good managerial relations, readiness for change, a culture of staff training and available staff time ('slack resources'). Their front-line staff believed that patients might benefit from the rapid HIV test ('relative advantage'), were emotionally comfortable administering it ('compatibility'), skilled in performing it ('task issues') and made creative adaptations to embed the test in local working practices ('reinvention'). Early experience of a positive HIV test ('observability') appeared to reinforce staff commitment to recruiting

  4. Diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in the obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Dong Yuhai; Yin Jie; Lv Guoyi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of high strength MRCP in patients with obstructive jaundice. Methods: Routine MRI and MRCP examination on 161 patients with obstructive jaundice were carded out with 1.5T Siemens super-conductive magnetic resonance machine. Of them, 103 cases were benign lesions and 58 were malignant after surgical and ERCP pathological confirmation. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of MRCP was 100%, with the qualitative diagnostic accuracy at 90.2%. Conclusion: MRCP was the best method in diagnosing patients with obstructive jaundice, the concerned performances of MRCP could provide the dependable basis for surgical operation project. (authors)

  5. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  6. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  7. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  8. An improved oxygen diffusion model to explain the effect of low-temperature baking on high field losses in niobium superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) superconducting cavities made of high purity niobium are widely used to accelerate charged particle beams in particle accelerators. The major limitation to achieve RF field values approaching the theoretical limit for niobium is represented by ''anomalous'' losses which degrade the quality factor of the cavities starting at peak surface magnetic fields of about 100 mT, in absence of field emission. These high field losses are often referred to as ''Q-drop''. It has been observed that the Q-drop is drastically reduced by baking the cavities at 120 C for about 48 h under ultrahigh vacuum. An improved oxygen diffusion model for the niobium-oxide system is proposed to explain the benefit of the low-temperature baking on the Q-drop in niobium superconducting rf cavities. The model shows that baking at 120 C for 48 h allows oxygen to diffuse away from the surface, and therefore increasing the lower critical field towards the value for pure niobium.

  9. WAP explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) is a federal block grant program administered by all 50 states and the District of Columbia through community action agencies, state energy offices, local government, and other nonprofit organizations to provide weatherization services to eligible households. The WAP was established in 1976 to increase the energy efficiency, reduce the energy expenditures, and improve the health and safety of low-income households, especially those households that are particularly vulnerable such as families with children, persons with disabilities, and the elderly. The manner in which WAP funds have been allocated to states, however, has been a contentious issue since the inception of the program. Southern states have argued that too much of the federal funding goes to cold-climate and rural states. Northern states disagree. In 1990, Congress amended the Energy Conservation and Production Act and required the Department of Energy to develop a new funding formula. The Department of Energy currently uses a three-factor formula developed in 1995 in conjunction with a two-factor formula developed in 1977 and a hold-harmless provision to allocate WAP funding. The purpose of this paper is to explain the WAP allocation mechanism and the assumptions associated with the 1977 and the 1995 funding formula. The factors that compose each funding formula are critically assessed and various implementation issues are reviewed, including the selection of the trigger point and program capacity levels. It is not possible to define the need for weatherization assistance objectively and in a unique manner, and this ambiguity is the main reason why the WAP allocation mechanism is expected to remain a lively topic of debate and contention

  10. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    ) evaluation.  Appropriate medical treatment with antiplatelets, as indicated by the acute stroke guidelines, was started. The patient was not eligible for thrombolysis. Value-based care emphasizes the decreased usage in investigations or health care of options that do not contribute to the overall health and well-being of the patient. Given our patient's past medical history and the results of previous investigations, we questioned the value of ordering a hypercoagulable evaluation and TEE in our patient. The need for an evaluation of the hypercoagulable state in an elderly patient with ischemic stroke or TIA remains unknown. Our patient had a complete hypercoagulable evaluation done six years earlier. Repeating the hypercoagulable evaluation would not contribute to the treatment decisions and, as a result, would not satisfy the basic criteria for value-based care.The importance of a repeat TEE is uncertain in the evaluation of embolism for a known cause of stroke. Additionally, no change in management was anticipated regardless of the TEE findings, therefore, repeating TEE in our patient was an inappropriate use of resources. Being mindful of value-based care can reduce overall health care costs, maintain our role of being responsible stewards of our limited resources, and continue to provide high-value care for our patients.

  11. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  12. What explains high life satisfaction in men living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy? A preliminary study to inform psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher D; Rose, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    There are increasing numbers of men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mDMD). For those who struggle to live with the condition, psychological interventions may be helpful. However, it is unclear how these should be tailored for mDMD. To inform intervention, this study assessed whether 2 well-validated psychological models (Leventhal's Self-Regulatory Model; Psychological Flexibility Model) could explain variation in life satisfaction (LS). Sixteen mDMD, aged 18-43 years, completed an online survey comprised of questionnaire measures of LS, mood, and both psychological models: Illness Perceptions (Leventhal's Self-Regulatory Model); engagement in meaningful activity, and acceptance/awareness of difficult thoughts and feelings (Psychological Flexibility Model). A median split enabled comparison of high and low LS groups. Those with higher LS were characterized by the ability to undertake personally meaningful activity in acceptance of difficult thoughts and feelings. Results supported the Psychological Flexibility Model. However, methodological limitations mean that these findings should be considered preliminary. Muscle Nerve 56: 163-166, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. From low to high fertility in Sulawesi (Indonesia) during the colonial period: explaining the 'first fertility transition'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, David

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines the past transition from low to high fertility which, in Indonesia as elsewhere, preceded the return to lower birth rates. Data from two parts of the island of Sulawesi where fertility rose during the colonial period are used to explain both why it rose, and why it was originally low. Economic conditions, it is argued, were the most important factors, affecting fertility via the supply of income and the demand for labour. Two schematic models of the 'first fertility transition' are proposed. In areas with low population densities and area-extensive forms of agriculture responsive to commercial stimuli, birth rates rose as the growth of commerce raised levels of prosperity, facilitated marriage, and undermined institutions such as debt-slavery which had previously acted to restrict marital fertility. In densely populated areas with labour-intensive agriculture and heavy state taxation in labour, fertility rose in response to demands for women's (and possibly child) labour that did not necessarily lead to gains in income.

  14. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  15. A highly prevalent equine glycogen storage disease is explained by constitutive activation of a mutant glycogen synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, C A; Hingst, J R; Mahalingan, K K; O'Reilly, A O; Cleasby, M E; Mickelson, J R; McCue, M E; Anderson, S M; Hurley, T D; Wojtaszewski, J F P; Piercy, R J

    2017-01-01

    Equine type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM1) is associated with a missense mutation (R309H) in the glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene, enhanced glycogen synthase (GS) activity and excessive glycogen and amylopectate inclusions in muscle. Equine muscle biochemical and recombinant enzyme kinetic assays in vitro and homology modelling in silico, were used to investigate the hypothesis that higher GS activity in affected horse muscle is caused by higher GS expression, dysregulation, or constitutive activation via a conformational change. PSSM1-affected horse muscle had significantly higher glycogen content than control horse muscle despite no difference in GS expression. GS activity was significantly higher in muscle from homozygous mutants than from heterozygote and control horses, in the absence and presence of the allosteric regulator, glucose 6 phosphate (G6P). Muscle from homozygous mutant horses also had significantly increased GS phosphorylation at sites 2+2a and significantly higher AMPKα1 (an upstream kinase) expression than controls, likely reflecting a physiological attempt to reduce GS enzyme activity. Recombinant mutant GS was highly active with a considerably lower K m for UDP-glucose, in the presence and absence of G6P, when compared to wild type GS, and despite its phosphorylation. Elevated activity of the mutant enzyme is associated with ineffective regulation via phosphorylation rendering it constitutively active. Modelling suggested that the mutation disrupts a salt bridge that normally stabilises the basal state, shifting the equilibrium to the enzyme's active state. This study explains the gain of function pathogenesis in this highly prevalent polyglucosan myopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Added-values of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data in crop yield estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Anderson, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of crop yield before harvest is critical for food market and administrative planning. Remote sensing derived parameters have been used for estimating crop yield by using either empirical or crop growth models. The uses of remote sensing vegetation index (VI) in crop yield modeling have been typically evaluated at regional and country scales using coarse spatial resolution (a few hundred to kilo-meters) data or assessed over a small region at field level using moderate resolution spatial resolution data (10-100m). Both data sources have shown great potential in capturing spatial and temporal variability in crop yield. However, the added value of data with both high spatial and temporal resolution data has not been evaluated due to the lack of such data source with routine, global coverage. In recent years, more moderate resolution data have become freely available and data fusion approaches that combine data acquired from different spatial and temporal resolutions have been developed. These make the monitoring crop condition and estimating crop yield at field scale become possible. Here we investigate the added value of the high spatial and temporal VI for describing variability of crop yield. The explanatory ability of crop yield based on high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data was evaluated in a rain-fed agricultural area in the U.S. Corn Belt. Results show that the fused Landsat-MODIS (high spatial and temporal) VI explains yield variability better than single data source (Landsat or MODIS alone), with EVI2 performing slightly better than NDVI. The maximum VI describes yield variability better than cumulative VI. Even though VI is effective in explaining yield variability within season, the inter-annual variability is more complex and need additional information (e.g. weather, water use and management). Our findings augment the importance of high spatiotemporal remote sensing data and supports new moderate

  17. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  18. Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurement of total angular momentum values of high-lying even-parity atomic states of samarium by spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. A K PULHANI∗, M L SHAH, G P GUPTA and B M SURI. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,. Mumbai 400 085, India.

  19. Strategies for microbial synthesis of high-value phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sijin; Li, Yanran; Smolke, Christina D.

    2018-03-01

    Phytochemicals are of great pharmaceutical and agricultural importance, but often exhibit low abundance in nature. Recent demonstrations of industrial-scale production of phytochemicals in yeast have shown that microbial production of these high-value chemicals is a promising alternative to sourcing these molecules from native plant hosts. However, a number of challenges remain in the broader application of this approach, including the limited knowledge of plant secondary metabolism and the inefficient reconstitution of plant metabolic pathways in microbial hosts. In this Review, we discuss recent strategies to achieve microbial biosynthesis of complex phytochemicals, including strategies to: (1) reconstruct plant biosynthetic pathways that have not been fully elucidated by mining enzymes from native and non-native hosts or by enzyme engineering; (2) enhance plant enzyme activity, specifically cytochrome P450 activity, by improving efficiency, selectivity, expression or electron transfer; and (3) enhance overall reaction efficiency of multi-enzyme pathways by dynamic control, compartmentalization or optimization with the host's metabolism. We also highlight remaining challenges to — and future opportunities of — this approach.

  20. Examination of Factors Explaining Coaching Strategy and Training Methodology as Correlates of Potential Doping Behavior in High-Level Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liposek, Silvester; Zenic, Natasa; Saavedra, Jose M; Sekulic, Damir; Rodek, Jelena; Marinsek, Miha; Sajber, Dorica

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching is considered an important determinant of athletes’ potential doping behavior (PDB), there is an evident lack of studies that have examined coaching-strategy-and-training-methodology (CS&TM) in relation to PDB. This study was aimed to identify the specific associations that may exist between CS&TM -factors and other factors, and PDB in high-level swimming. The sample comprised 94 swimmers (35 females; 19.7 ± 2.3 years of age) and consisted of swimmers older than 18 years who participated in the 2017 National Championship. Variables were collected by previously validated questionnaires, with the addition of questions where athletes were asked about CS&TM to which they had been exposed. Multinomial logistic regression was applied for the criterion PDB (Negative PDB – Neutral PDB – Positive PDB). The higher risk for positive-PDB was found in males (OR: 6.58; 95%CI: 1.01-9.12); therefore, all regressions were adjusted for gender. Those swimmers who achieved better competitive result were less prone to neutral-PDB (0.41; 0.17-0.98). The positive-PDB was evidenced in those swimmers who perceived that their training was monotonous and lacked diversity (1.82; 1.41-5.11), and who were involved in training which was mostly oriented toward volume (1.76; 1.11-7.12). The lower likelihood of positive-PDB is found in those who replied that technique is practiced frequently (0.12; 0.01-0.81), those who replied that coach regularly provided the attention to explain the training aims (0.21; 0.04-0.81), and that coach frequently reviewed and discussed the quality of execution of specific tasks (0.41; 0.02-0.81). The findings on the relationships between the studied variables and PDB should be incorporated into targeted anti-doping efforts in swimming. Further studies examining sport-specific variables of CS&TM in younger swimmers and other sports are warranted. Key points The opinions about doping presence in swimming were not associated with athletes

  1. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  2. Why the Boys Are Missing: Using Social Capital to Explain Gender Differences in College Enrollment for Public High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevan, Sarah; Weinberg, Sharon L.; Middleton, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1960, over 60 % of bachelor degrees were awarded to men. However, the rate of women's college completion has steadily risen and, by 2004, women received nearly 60 % of bachelor degrees. Drawing on the theoretical contributions of James Coleman, this paper examines the ability of social capital to explain observed differences in college…

  3. Explaining suicide attempt with personality traits of aggression and impulsivity in a high risk tribal population of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyoosh Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates.The study group was comprised of 177 unrelated Idu Mishmi participants divided into two sets: 39 suicide attempters and 138 non-attempters. Data on demographic factors and details of suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a set of instruments for assessment of aggression and impulsivity traits.In the Idu Mishimi population we screened (n = 177, 22.03% of the individuals had attempted suicide, a high percentage. The suicide attempters also showed a significant sex difference: 35.9% were male and 64.10% were female (p = .002*. The suicide attempters (A scored significantly higher than non-attempters (NA on aggression (A = 23.93,NA = 18.46 and impulsivity (A = 75.53,NA = 71.59, with p value = 0.05. The trait impulsiveness showed a significantly higher difference (F (1, 117 = 7.274 in comparison to aggression (F (1, 117 = 2.647, suggesting a profound role of impulsiveness in suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population. Analysis of sub-traits of aggression and impulsivity revealed significant correlations between them. Using different models, multivariate logistic regression implied roles of gender (OR = 1.079 (0.05 and impulsiveness (OR = 3.355 (0.013 in suicide attempts.Results demonstrate that gender and impulsivity are strong risk factors for suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population.

  4. Explaining suicide attempt with personality traits of aggression and impulsivity in a high risk tribal population of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Piyoosh Kumar; Rao, V R

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a spectrum of behavior including suicide ideation and suicidal attempt and is undoubtedly the outcome of the interaction of several factors. The role of two main constructs of human nature, aggression and impulsivity, has been discussed broadly in relation to suicide, as endophenotypes or traits of personality, in research and in clinical practice across diagnoses. The objective of our study was to assess impulsive and aggressive behaviors among primitive people of the Idu Mishmi tribe, who are known for high suicide completer and attempter rates. The study group was comprised of 177 unrelated Idu Mishmi participants divided into two sets: 39 suicide attempters and 138 non-attempters. Data on demographic factors and details of suicide attempts were collected. Participants completed a set of instruments for assessment of aggression and impulsivity traits. In the Idu Mishimi population we screened (n = 177), 22.03% of the individuals had attempted suicide, a high percentage. The suicide attempters also showed a significant sex difference: 35.9% were male and 64.10% were female (p = .002*). The suicide attempters (A) scored significantly higher than non-attempters (NA) on aggression (A = 23.93,NA = 18.46) and impulsivity (A = 75.53,NA = 71.59, with p value = 0.05). The trait impulsiveness showed a significantly higher difference (F (1, 117) = 7.274) in comparison to aggression (F (1, 117) = 2.647), suggesting a profound role of impulsiveness in suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population. Analysis of sub-traits of aggression and impulsivity revealed significant correlations between them. Using different models, multivariate logistic regression implied roles of gender (OR = 1.079 (0.05)) and impulsiveness (OR = 3.355 (0.013)) in suicide attempts. Results demonstrate that gender and impulsivity are strong risk factors for suicide attempts in the Idu Mishmi population.

  5. Explaining the Number of Social Media Fans for North American and European Professional Sports Clubs with Determinants of Their Financial Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Scelles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the explanatory variables of the number of Facebook fans and Twitter followers for professional sports clubs based on the financial value literature. Such explanatory variables are related to local market conditions and on-field and off-field performance. Based upon a sample of North American major league clubs and the most valuable European soccer clubs as evaluated by Forbes over the 2011–2013 period (423 observations, our results indicate a range of variables with a significant positive impact on the number of social media fans: population, no competing team in the market, current sports performance, historical sports performance, facility age, attendance, operating income, expenses/league mean, and being an English football club. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of clubs’ social media presence is important for contemporary sport managers in terms of enhancing supporter communication, involvement, and accountability, as well as maximizing clubs’ revenue generation possibilities. Our findings could help sport managers to realize their clubs’ social media potential in pursuit of these objectives, specifically to understand which variables are under-exploited and why some clubs over-perform, which will allow managers to prioritize decisions to increase their number of social media fans and financial value.

  6. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2017-01-19

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  7. The Value of NJ School District Demographic Data in Explaining School District NJ ASK Grade 3 Language Arts and Mathematics Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnamian, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the strength and direction of the relationship between 2009 NJ ASK 3 Language Arts and Mathematics scores and district social and demographic data (i.e., lone-parent household, level of parental education, and household income levels) found in the extant literature to influence student achievement on high-stakes standardized…

  8. Technology for the detection of airborne intruders approaching the high-security high-value asset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greneker, Eugene F., III

    1995-05-01

    Security plans to protect high-value assets usually concentrate on stopping potential ground intruders before they reach the asset. Barriers, such as fences, are the first line of defense against the found intruder, providing a delay mechanism. The sight of 10 to 12 foot high fencing topped with razor wire, guard towers, and roving patrols also serves as a psychological deterrent to the potential ground intrusion sensors between an outer and an inner barrier. This visible 'hardness' of a high-value asset makes airborne penetration more attractive, even though the airborne intruder may require training in the use of an aircraft or other airborne conveyance system. Certain airborne intrusion scenarios allow an adversary to penetrate much deeper and faster through delay and defense systems designed to deter the ground intruder. Since an airborne intruder can quickly reach the high-value asset, early detection critical to asset defense. Early detection of the airborne intruder also ensures appropriate use of the deadly force doctrine because the guard force has time to coordinate the response.

  9. High-Stakes Testing in Education: Value, fairness and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Stobart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes educational testing is a global phenomenon which is increasing in both scale and importance. Assessments are high-stakes when there are serious consequences for one or more stakeholders. Historically, tests have largely been used for selection or for providing a ‘licence to practise’,

  10. Explaining the link among self-controlling and children parenting techniques and mental insurance of high school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhavati, E; Rahimian Boogar, M; Khodadost, M; Afkari, R; Atefeh, Raoufi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the wellness estimation axes of various communities are the mental well-being of the communities. Health means an attempt to Self-actualization and development that exhibit in the adaptation of person's skills and experiences. No doubt mental health plays a major role in assuring efficiency in any organization and can be affected via different parameters. Accordingly, the current research conducted by the purpose of illustrating the relationship among self-managing and kid parenting techniques and mental health amongst high school pupils of Abadeh Town. Methodology: In this sectional-correlation research, 375 pupils are taken and involved in the research in stage group sampling technique of Abadeh high schools. Tangney’s self-managing survey, Barry's kid parenting rate, Reef’s mental survey and a framework of demographic data utilized to obtain data. Information investigated utilizing software SPSS 19 or Pearson’s relationship coefficient analysis and stepwise multivariable regression investigation. Findings: Information investigation depicts self-managing parameter has a great and opposite predictability regarding mental health parameter (t =0.003, = β-0.158, P=2.99). Therefore self-managing has great and opposite predictability regarding 2 parts of mental health rate i.e. self-approval (P= 0.0001, t=4.87, β= - 0.181) and dominance on conditions (P= 0.0001, t=3.807, β= - 0.200). The decisions represent the proximity of a consequence relationship among predictability of kid parenting techniques regarding mental health (p=0.01, F=3.85, r2= 0.031, r=0.177). These sequences reveal great predictability of kid parenting styles in 2 various ways in 2 methods of grinding (P=0.035, t= 2.12, β=0.113) and standard (P=0.014, t=2.437, β= 0.434). The Severe method has a reversed important connection in maximum features of mental health. Furthermore, they note that "authoritative method" parameter just has prediction capacity 0.143 based on mental

  11. Explaining the link among self-controlling and children parenting techniques and mental insurance of high school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhavati, E; Rahimian Boogar, M; Khodadost, M; Afkari, R; Atefeh, Raoufi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the wellness estimation axes of various communities are the mental well-being of the communities. Health means an attempt to Self-actualization and development that exhibit in the adaptation of person's skills and experiences. No doubt mental health plays a major role in assuring efficiency in any organization and can be affected via different parameters. Accordingly, the current research conducted by the purpose of illustrating the relationship among self-managing and kid parenting techniques and mental health amongst high school pupils of Abadeh Town. Methodology: In this sectional-correlation research, 375 pupils are taken and involved in the research in stage group sampling technique of Abadeh high schools. Tangney's self-managing survey, Barry's kid parenting rate, Reef's mental survey and a framework of demographic data utilized to obtain data. Information investigated utilizing software SPSS 19 or Pearson's relationship coefficient analysis and stepwise multivariable regression investigation. Findings: Information investigation depicts self-managing parameter has a great and opposite predictability regarding mental health parameter (t =0.003, = β-0.158, P=2.99). Therefore self-managing has great and opposite predictability regarding 2 parts of mental health rate i.e. self-approval (P= 0.0001, t=4.87, β= - 0.181) and dominance on conditions (P= 0.0001, t=3.807, β= - 0.200). The decisions represent the proximity of a consequence relationship among predictability of kid parenting techniques regarding mental health (p=0.01, F=3.85, r2= 0.031, r=0.177). These sequences reveal great predictability of kid parenting styles in 2 various ways in 2 methods of grinding (P=0.035, t= 2.12, β=0.113) and standard (P=0.014, t=2.437, β= 0.434). The Severe method has a reversed important connection in maximum features of mental health. Furthermore, they note that "authoritative method" parameter just has prediction capacity 0.143 based on mental

  12. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  13. Highly Valued Degrees at California State University, Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) received the national award from the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) for Excellence and Innovation in Student Success and Completion, recognizing record high graduation rates with a diverse student population, significantly above comparable institutions.…

  14. Physiological parameter values in greyhounds before and after high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BL) and rectal temperature (RT) are relevant physiological parameters to determine the dogs response to effort. ... in greyhounds have reported the effect of high-intensity exercise on many physiological parameters immediately after completing different racing distances and recovery times.

  15. The high reutilization value potential of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater through microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Juan Gerardo Santoyo; Jung, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2015-10-01

    To provide an option for the reutilization of high-salinity anchovy fishmeal wastewater (FMW), generated during the anchovy fishmeal manufacturing processes, its potential for biodegradation was assessed in 1-l five-neck flasks using a halotolerant and proteolytic microbial consortium. During the first 41 h of biodegradation, the pH, DO, ORP, and dry-sludge weight decreased as the total cell number of the microbial consortium increased steadily; the COD(Cr)/TN ratios remained between 4.0 and 5.5, respectively, indicating the stable metabolic degradation of organic matter. The ORP tended to increase after 41 h, and the unpleasant fishy smell disappeared once positive ORP values were achieved. The removal percentages of COD(Cr) and TN were 59.0 and 54.4%, respectively, and the dry-sludge weight decreased from 115.5 to 68.0 g, with a degradation rate of 0.59 g h(-1), during the 80 h experiment. The supernatant from the culture of the anchovy FMW at 70 h (culture supernatant) was phytotoxin-free, and the level of total amino acids was 8.04 g 100 g(-1), comparable to that of commercial fertilizers. In hydroponic cultures containing red bean and barley, the culture supernatant demonstrated a good fertilizing ability. The culture supernatant also exhibited a high degree of antioxidant activity, with a 52.3% hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity and 0.16 reducing power (at OD 700 nm). Moreover, the culture supernatant inhibited DNA damage from hydroxyl radicals, enhancing the reutilization value of anchovy FMW. This report presents the first description of high-salinity anchovy FMW possessing a high reutilization value potential both for agriculture and medicine.

  16. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-06

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulko, J. B.

    2003-10-23

    The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

  18. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  19. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  20. Visuospatial Short-Term Memory Explains Deficits in Tower Task Planning in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinke, K.; Fries, E.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kirschbaum, C.; Dettenborn, L.; Kliegel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings on planning abilities in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFA) are inconsistent. Exploring possible reasons for these mixed findings, the current study investigated the involvement of memory in planning performance in 15 children with HFA and 17 typically

  1. Explaining the high voice superiority effect in polyphonic music: evidence from cortical evoked potentials and peripheral auditory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Marie, Céline; Bruce, Ian C; Bidelman, Gavin M

    2014-02-01

    Natural auditory environments contain multiple simultaneously-sounding objects and the auditory system must parse the incoming complex sound wave they collectively create into parts that represent each of these individual objects. Music often similarly requires processing of more than one voice or stream at the same time, and behavioral studies demonstrate that human listeners show a systematic perceptual bias in processing the highest voice in multi-voiced music. Here, we review studies utilizing event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which support the notions that (1) separate memory traces are formed for two simultaneous voices (even without conscious awareness) in auditory cortex and (2) adults show more robust encoding (i.e., larger ERP responses) to deviant pitches in the higher than in the lower voice, indicating better encoding of the former. Furthermore, infants also show this high-voice superiority effect, suggesting that the perceptual dominance observed across studies might result from neurophysiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system. Although musically untrained adults show smaller responses in general than musically trained adults, both groups similarly show a more robust cortical representation of the higher than of the lower voice. Finally, years of experience playing a bass-range instrument reduces but does not reverse the high voice superiority effect, indicating that although it can be modified, it is not highly neuroplastic. Results of new modeling experiments examined the possibility that characteristics of middle-ear filtering and cochlear dynamics (e.g., suppression) reflected in auditory nerve firing patterns might account for the higher-voice superiority effect. Simulations show that both place and temporal AN coding schemes well-predict a high-voice superiority across a wide range of interval spacings and registers. Collectively, we infer an innate, peripheral origin for the higher-voice superiority observed in human

  2. Value-based insurance design: consumers' views on paying more for high-cost, low-value care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Marjorie

    2010-11-01

    Value-based insurance designs frequently lower consumers' cost sharing to motivate healthy behavior, such as adhering to medication regimens. Few health care purchasers have followed the more controversial approach of using increased cost sharing to temper demand for high-cost, low-value medical care. Yet there is evidence that when health care's affordability is at stake, the public may be willing to compromise on coverage of certain medical problems and less effective treatments. Businesses should engage employees in discussions about if and how this type of value-based insurance design should apply to their own insurance coverage. A similar process could also be used for Medicare and other public-sector programs.

  3. Avoidance of toxic misfolding and protein stability do not explain the sequence constraints of highly expressed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Germán; Vitkup, Dennis

    2017-12-21

    The avoidance of cytotoxic effects associated with protein misfolding has been proposed as a dominant constraint on the sequence evolution and molecular clock of highly expressed proteins. Recently, Leuenberger et al. developed an elegant experimental approach to measure protein thermal stability at the proteome scale. The collected data allow us to rigorously test the predictions of the misfolding avoidance hypothesis that highly expressed proteins have evolved to be more stable, and that maintaining thermodynamic stability significantly constrains their evolution. Notably, careful re-analysis of the Leuenberger et al. data across four different organisms reveals no substantial correlation between protein stability and protein abundance. Therefore, the key predictions of the misfolding toxicity and related hypotheses are not supported by available empirical data. The data also suggest that, regardless of protein expression, protein stability does not substantially affect the protein molecular clock across organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The high prevalence of anemia in Cambodian children and women cannot be satisfactorily explained by nutritional deficiencies or hemoglobin disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Dahl, Miriam; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia is highly prevalent in Cambodian women and children, but data on causes of anemia are scarce. We performed a national micronutrient survey in children and women that was linked to the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey 2014 (CDHS-2014) to assess the prevalence of micronutrient...... for 1512 subjects (792 children and 720 women). RESULTS: Anemia was found in 43% of the women and 53% of the children. Hemoglobin disorders affected >50% of the population, with Hemoglobin-E the most prevalent disorder. Deficiencies of iron (ferritin ... and hemoglobinopathy were significantly associated with anemia in children, whereas in the women none of the factors was significantly associated with anemia. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was more prevalent in children

  5. High tolerance to salinity and herbivory stresses may explain the expansion of Ipomoea cairica to salt marshes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Invasive plants are often confronted with heterogeneous environments and various stress factors during their secondary phase of invasion into more stressful habitats. A high tolerance to stress factors may allow exotics to successfully invade stressful environments. Ipomoea cairica, a vigorous invader in South China, has recently been expanding into salt marshes.To examine why this liana species is able to invade a stressful saline environment, we utilized I. cairica and 3 non-invasive species for a greenhouse experiment. The plants were subjected to three levels of salinity (i.e., watered with 0, 4 and 8 g L(-1 NaCl solutions and simulated herbivory (0, 25 and 50% of the leaf area excised treatments. The relative growth rate (RGR of I. cairica was significantly higher than the RGR of non-invasive species under both stress treatments. The growth performance of I. cairica was not significantly affected by either stress factor, while that of the non-invasive species was significantly inhibited. The leaf condensed tannin content was generally lower in I. cairica than in the non-invasive I. triloba and Paederia foetida. Ipomoea cairica exhibited a relatively low resistance to herbivory, however, its tolerance to stress factors was significantly higher than either of the non-invasive species.This is the first study examining the expansion of I. cairica to salt marshes in its introduced range. Our results suggest that the high tolerance of I. cairica to key stress factors (e.g., salinity and herbivory contributes to its invasion into salt marshes. For I. cairica, a trade-off in resource reallocation may allow increased resources to be allocated to tolerance and growth. This may contribute to a secondary invasion into stressful habitats. Finally, we suggest that I. cairica could spread further and successfully occupy salt marshes, and countermeasures based on herbivory could be ineffective for controlling this invasion.

  6. A cohesion/tension mechanism explains the gating of water channels (aquaporins) in Chara internodes by high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Wiera, Boguslaw; Steudle, Ernst

    2004-02-01

    Isolated internodes of Chara corallina have been used to study the gating of aquaporins (water channels) in the presence of high concentrations of osmotic solutes of different size (molecular weight). Osmolytes were acetone and three glycol ethers: ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGMME), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGMME), and triethylene glycol monoethyl ether (TEGMEE). The 'osmotic efficiency' of osmolytes was quite different. Their reflection coefficients ranged between 0.15 (acetone), 0.59 (EGMME), 0.78 (DEGMME), and 0.80 (TEGMEE). Bulk water permeability (Lp) and diffusive permeabilities (Ps) of heavy water (HDO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acetone, and glycol ethers (EGMME, DEGMME, and TEGMEE) were measured using a cell pressure probe. Cells were treated with different concentrations of osmotic solutes of up to 800 mM ( approximately 2.0 MPa of osmotic pressure). Inhibition of aquaporin activity increased with both increasing concentration and size of solutes (reflection coefficients). As cell Lp decreased, Ps increased, indicating that water and solutes used different passages across the plasma membrane. Similar to earlier findings of an osmotic gating of ion channels, a cohesion/tension model of the gating of water channels in Chara internodes by high concentration is proposed. According to the model, tensions (negative pressures) within water channels affected the open/closed state by changing the free energy between states and favoured a distorted/collapsed rather than the open state. They should have differed depending on the concentration and size of solutes that are more or less excluded from aquaporins. The bigger the solute, the lower was the concentration required to induce a reversible closure of aquaporins, as predicted by the model.

  7. Environment or beekeeping management: What explains better the prevalence of honey bee colonies with high levels of Varroa destructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobino, Agostina; Pacini, Adriana; Molineri, Ana; Bulacio Cagnolo, N; Merke, J; Orellano, E; Bertozzi, E; Masciangelo, G; Pietronave, H; Signorini, M

    2017-06-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the major threats to honey bee colonies. The mite abundance in the colonies is affected by environmental conditions as well as by beekeeping management. The aim of this study was to recognize the main drivers associated with autumn V. destructor infestation in honey bee colonies when different regions from Argentina are compared. A total of 361 colonies distributed in five Argentinean eco-regions were examined to evaluate Varroa mite infestation rate during autumn and Nosema sp. presence. Regions were different regarding annual temperature, precipitation and especially vegetation landscape. In addition, beekeeping management practices were obtained from a checklist questionnaire answered by the beekeepers. The prevalence of colonies with high infestation level was lower in semi-arid Chaco followed by humid and transition Chaco regions. Also, colonies that were positive for Nosema sp. showed a higher Varroa infestation rate. The "environmental" effect was stronger compared with the influence of secondary drivers associated with beekeeping activities. As well, a significant association between V. destructor infestation rates and Nosema presence was identified. Under contrasting natural conditions, environment seems a predominant driver on Varroa destructor infestation level in honey bee colonies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DIRECT SOLUTIONS OF THE MAXWELL EQUATIONS EXPLAIN OPPOSITION PHENOMENA OBSERVED FOR HIGH-ALBEDO SOLAR SYSTEM OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Dlugach, Janna M.; Rosenbush, Vera K.; Kiselev, Nikolai N.; Shkuratov, Yuri G.

    2009-01-01

    Several spectacular backscattering effects observed for particulate planetary surfaces have been interpreted in terms of the effect of weak localization (WL) of electromagnetic waves. However, the interference concept of WL explicitly relies on the notion of phase of an electromagnetic wave and is strictly applicable only when particles forming the surface are widely separated. Therefore, one needs a definitive quantitative proof of the WL nature of specific optical effects observed for densely packed particulate media. We use numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations to simulate electromagnetic scattering by realistic models consisting of large numbers of randomly positioned, densely packed particles. By increasing the particle packing density from zero to ∼40%, we track the onset and evolution of the full suite of backscattering optical effects predicted by the low-density theory of WL, including the brightness and polarization opposition effects (BOE and POE). We find that all manifestations of WL, except the circular polarization ratio and POE, are remarkably immune to packing-density effects. Even POE can survive packing densities typical of planetary regolith surfaces. Our numerical data coupled with the results of unique observations at near-backscattering geometries demonstrate that the BOE and POE detected simultaneously for high-albedo solar system objects are caused by the effect of WL.

  9. β-Thalassemia in Abu Dhabi: consanguinity and tribal stratification are major factors explaining the high prevalence of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic, Srdjan; Aden, Bashir; Nagelkerke, Nico; Essa, Awad Al

    2013-01-01

    Tribalism and consanguineous marriages are common in parts of the world with a high prevalence of the β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations, and increase the risks of homozygosity for this and other recessive disorders. We explored the frequency of β-thal genes and β-thal carriers in 5672 subjects screened before marriage, of whom 2262 were couples. The mean coefficient of inbreeding (F) in the population was estimated from self-reported relationships to prospective spouses in 383 subjects. Overall frequency of β-thal mutations and β-thal carriers in the population were 1.16 and 2.3%, respectively. Among the 14 largest tribes, β-thal carrier frequencies varied from 0 to 13.6%. The estimated F in the population was 0.022. The expected number of couples needed to be screened to detect one couple who were both β-thal carriers in the non inbreeding (F = 0) and inbreeding (F = 0.022) population was 1858 and 646, respectively. However, among 2262 couples, 10 were both β-thal carriers, i.e., 1 in 226 couples, significantly (p = 0.02) more than expected by taking only inbreeding into account. Although β-thal mutations are relatively rare, the burden of β-thal disease is increased eight-fold by tribalism and consanguinity.

  10. Recent trends of high-latitude vegetation activity assessed and explained by contrasting modelling approaches with earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, M.; Carvalhais, N.; Reichstein, M.; Thonicke, K.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite observations of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) showed increasing trends in the arctic tundra and the boreal forests since the 1980s. This greening is related to an increase in photosynthetic activity and is driven by increasing temperatures and a prolongation of the growing season. However, NDVI experienced a decrease in large regions of the boreal forests since the mid-1990s. This browning is related to fire disturbances, temperature-induced summer drought and potentially to insect infestations and diseases. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) can be used to assess the impacts of these changes in vegetation productivity on the carbon and water cycles and on the climate system. In general, these models provide descriptions of ecosystem processes and states that are forced by and feedback to the climate system such as photosynthesis and transpiration, ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and water stocks and vegetation composition. The evaluation of TBMs against observations is a necessary step to assess their suitability to simulate such processes and dynamics. The increasing availability of long-term observations of vegetation activity enables us to evaluate the model ability to diagnose these vegetation greening and browning trends in arctic and boreal regions. The first aim of this study is to evaluate trends in vegetation activity in high-latitude regions as simulated by TBMs against observed trends in vegetation activity. The second aim is to identify potential drivers of these observed and simulated trends to evaluate the ability of models to reproduce the observed functional relations between climatic and environmental drivers and the vegetation trends. The trends in vegetation activity were estimated for a set of satellite-based remote sensing products: NDVI from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer), as well as FAPAR observations (Fraction of Observed Photosynthetically

  11. Smaller size of high metabolic rate organs explains lower resting energy expenditure in Asian-Indian Than Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L L T; Venkataraman, K; Gluckman, P; Chong, Y S; Chee, M-W L; Khoo, C M; Leow, M-Ks; Lee, Y S; Tai, E S; Khoo, E Y H

    2016-04-01

    In Singapore, the obesity prevalence is disproportionately higher in the Asian-Indians and Malays than the Chinese. Lower resting energy expenditure (REE) may be a contributory factor. We explored the association between ethnicity and REE in Chinese, Asian-Indian and Malay men living in Singapore and determined the influence of body composition, mass/volume of high metabolic rate organs, represented by brain volume and trunk fat-free mass (FFM), and physical activity on ethnic differences. Two hundred and forty-four men from Singapore (n=100 Chinese, 70 Asian-Indians and 74 Malays), aged 21-40 years and body mass index of 18.5-30.0 kg m(-2), were recruited in this cross-sectional study. REE was assessed by indirect calorimetry and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Brain volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Physical activity was assessed by the Singapore Prospective Study Program Physical Activity Questionnaire. REE was significantly lower in Asian-Indians compared with that in Chinese after adjusting for body weight. FFM (total, trunk and limb) and total fat mass were important predictors of REE across all ethnic groups. Brain volume was positively associated with REE only in Malays. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was positively associated with REE only in Asian-Indians and Malays. The difference in REE between Asian-Indians and Chinese was attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for total FFM (59±20 kcal per day), fat mass (67±20 kcal per day) and brain volume (54±22 kcal per day). The association between REE and ethnicity was no longer statistically significant after total FFM was replaced by trunk FFM (which includes heart, liver, kidney and spleen) but not when it was replaced by limb FFM (skeletal muscle). We have demonstrated a lower REE in Asian-Indians compared with Chinese who may contribute to the higher rates of obesity in the former. This difference could be accounted for

  12. Glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in gliomas and its prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Shi, Feina; Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao; Zhang, Jianmin

    2018-03-01

    Glioma cells may infiltrate beyond the tumor margins revealed on conventional structural images. To investigate whether the presence of a glioma infiltration sign on high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of gliomas. Retrospective cohort. Fifty-two patients with gliomas (14 WHO grade II; 13 WHO grade III; 25 WHO grade IV). 3.0T, including a T 1 -weighted contrast-enhanced (T 1 w-CE) sequence, contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair sequence, and a DWI sequence. T 1 w-CE images and contrast-enhanced T 2 -flair images were used for identifying the tumor region for enhancing and nonenhancing gliomas, respectively. The glioma infiltration sign was defined as the presence of a peritumoral abnormal high signal region on DWI map, which was adjacent to the tumor region and had higher signal than surrounding areas. This sign was assessed on a high b-value DWI map with b = 3000 s/mm 2 . For patients with glioma infiltration sign, DWI3000 max , DWI1000 max , ADC3000 min , and ADC1000 min were measured by drawing a region of interest over the peritumoral abnormal high signal region. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. Glioma infiltration sign was observed in 28 (53.8%) patients. The occurrence rate of this sign was 92.0% in grade IV gliomas, 30.8% in grade III gliomas, and 7.1% in grade II gliomas. The glioma infiltration sign could independently predict both the progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.58 [3.19-23.03], P sign, DWI3000 max (P = 0.005) and ADC3000 min (P = 0.008) were both independent predictors of overall survival after adjustment, while DWI1000 max and ADC1000 min were not. The glioma infiltration sign on high b-value DWI is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in glioma patients. High b-value DWI might be a convenient method to detect glioma infiltration. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for

  13. The Value of Writing "How-to" Books in High School World History and Geography Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn; Daisey, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a story about eighty-six ninth-grade World History and Geography students who authored a "how-to" book, while pretending that they were experts who lived in the past and had to explain how to do something relating to that time period. These students attended a large high school in the Midwest; the school's…

  14. Can contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine explain the high rates of terpene hydroperoxide allergy? - An epidemiological study based on consecutive patch test results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Niels Højsager; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to linalool hydroperoxides (Lin-OOHs) and limonene hydroperoxides (Lim-OOHs) is common. Similarly to what occurs with the terpene hydroperoxides, reactive intermediates formed from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) can cause oxidative modifications of tryptophan residues...... increased risk (OR 2.11, 95%CI:0.92-4.80) of a positive patch test reaction to Lin-OOHs. CONCLUSIONS: PPD sensitization cannot explain the high rates of sensitization to Lin-OOHs and/or Lim-OOHs. Contact allergy to oxidized linalool is more strongly associated with fragrance allergy than with PPD allergy....

  15. Training Physicians to Provide High-Value, Cost-Conscious Care A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stammen, L.A.; Stalmeijer, R.E.; Paternotte, E.; Pool, A.O.; Driessen, E.W.; Scheele, F.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Increasing health care expenditures are taxing the sustainability of the health care system. Physicians should be prepared to deliver high-value, cost-conscious care. Objective To understand the circumstances in which the delivery of high-value, cost-conscious care is learned, with a goal

  16. Phylogenetic relatedness explains highly interconnected and nested symbiotic networks of woody plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a Chinese subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yong; Gao, Cheng; Mi, Xiang-Cheng; Ma, Ke-Ping; Wubet, Tesfaye; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2017-05-01

    Elucidating symbiotic relationships between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plants contributes to a better understanding of their reciprocally dependent coexistence and community assembly. However, the main drivers of plant and AMF community assembly remain unclear. In this study, we examined AMF communities from 166 root samples of 17 woody plant species from 10 quadrats in a Chinese subtropical forest using 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rRNA gene to describe symbiotic AMF-plant association. Our results show the woody plant-AMF networks to be highly interconnected and nested, but in antimodular and antispecialized manners. The nonrandom pattern in the woody plant-AMF network was explained by plant and AMF phylogenies, with a tendency for a stronger phylogenetic signal by plant than AMF phylogeny. This study suggests that the phylogenetic niche conservatism in woody plants and their AMF symbionts could contribute to interdependent AMF and plant community assembly in this subtropical forest ecosystem. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. ENHANCEMENT OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ CONCEPT COMPREHENSION IN HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND ARCHIMEDES LAW CONCEPTS BY PREDICT-OBSERVE-EXPLAIN STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Berek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored effectiveness of Predict-Observe-Explain (POE strategy to enhance concept comprehension of junior high school students in hydrostatic pressure and Archimedes law concepts. Subjects of this study were 31 students of a private junior high school in East Flores in even semester year 2015/2016. By mixed-method design, this study concluded that (1 average score of concept comprehension was significantly increase (p = 0.000 from pre-test (36.77 to post-test (63.26 with strong category of effect size (1.62, and moderate category of N-gain (0.40; (2 learning was also succeed identifying some misconceptions and remedied it. Those misconceptions were: (a hydrostatic pressure was influenced by liquid volume and or the shape of the container, (b an object was floated for there was air within, (c a sunken object had no buoyant force, and (d the magnitude of buoyant force was equal to liquid volume; (3 some of common problems around the students in applying hydrostatics concept and buoyant force were as follow (a related to mathematical representation of hydrostatic force Ph = P0 + ρgh, most all students interpreted h as the depth measured from the bottom of the liquid column (not from the surface of the liquid as it should be, (b related to buoyant force, the problem depended on the context where the question given. In context of immovable objects in a certain fluid, almost all student was hard comparing buoyant force magnitude to the weight. In context of sliding object in liquid, almost all students failed to explain the object position to its buoyant force.

  18. High and ultra-high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Lipponer, Christine; Guberina, Nika; Olbricht, Tobias; Schenck, Marcus; Schlosser, Thomas W; Gratz, Marcel; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is routinely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of prostate cancer. However, the routine use of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2) is not clear up to present. Moreover, the complex diffusion behavior of malignant and benign prostate tissues hampers precise predictions of contrast in DWI images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To quantitatively analyze DWI with different b values in prostate cancer and to identify b values best suitable for cancer detection. Forty-one patients with histologically proven prostate cancer were examined with high resolution T2-weighted imaging and DWI at 3 Tesla. Five different b values (0, 800, 1000, 1500, 2000 s/mm(2)) were applied. ADC values of tumors and reference areas were measured on ADC maps derived from different pairs of b values. Furthermore, signal intensities of DW images of tumors and reference areas were measured. For analysis, contrast ratios of ADC values and signal intensities of DW images were calculated and compared. No significant differences were found between contrast ratios measured on ADC maps of all analyzed b value pairs (P = 0.43). Contrast ratios calculated from signal intensities of DW images were highest at b values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) and differed significantly from contrast ratios at b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2) (P values, contrast ratios of DW images are significantly higher at b-values of 1500 and 2000 s/mm(2) in comparison to b values of 800 and 1000 s/mm(2). Therefore, diagnostic performance of DWI in prostate cancer might be increased by application of b values higher than 1000 s/mm(2). © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  19. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Filial piety and traditional Chinese values: A study of high and mass cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, David Y F; Xie, Weizhen; Liang, Xin; Zeng, Li

    2012-06-01

    Two studies were conducted, using indigenous materials stemming from both high and mass culture to construct measures of filial piety and other traditional Chinese values. In Study 1, data were collected from a sample of 666 participants (334 men and 332 women) with a mean age of 31.2 years from Taiwan and Hong Kong. In Study 2, data were collected from university students at different times, based on two samples in Hong Kong and another two in mainland China. The major findings are: (a) Filial piety is rooted more firmly in the ideal values of high culture than in the folk values of mass culture; (b) traditional Chinese values tend to be negatively associated with socioeconomic status; (c) ideal values are held much more strongly than folk values; and (d) among university students, there has been a moderate decrease in folk values in Hong Kong; but a moderate increase in folk values and a fairly large increase in ideal values in mainland China. © 2012 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  2. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  3. Are trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care explained by changes in services provided in the emergency department? An observational study among US Medicare beneficiaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Wild, Robert C; Orav, E John; Hsia, Renee Y

    2018-01-01

    Objective There has been concern that an increase in billing for high-intensity emergency care is due to changes in coding practices facilitated by electronic health records. We sought to characterise the trends in billing for high-intensity emergency care among Medicare beneficiaries and to examine the degree to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient characteristics and services provided in the emergency department (ED). Design, setting and participants Observational study using traditional Medicare claims to identify ED visits at non-federal acute care hospitals for elderly beneficiaries in 2006, 2009 and 2012. Outcomes measures Billing intensity was defined by emergency physician evaluation and management (E&M) codes. We tested for overall trends in high-intensity billing (E&M codes 99285, 99291 and 99292) and in services provided over time using linear regression models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Additionally, we tested for time trends in rates of admission to the hospital and to the intensive care unit (ICU). Next, we classified outpatient visits into 39 diagnosis categories and analysed the change in proportion of high-intensity visits versus the change in number of services. Finally, we quantified the extent to which trends in high-intensity billing are explained by changes in patient demographics and services provided in the ED using multivariable modelling. Results High-intensity visits grew from 45.8% of 671 103 visits in 2006 to 57.8% of 629 010 visits in 2012 (2.0% absolute increase per year; 95% CI 1.97% to 2.03%) as did the mean number of services provided for admitted (1.28 to 1.41; +0.02 increase in procedures per year; 95% CI 0.018 to 0.021) and discharged ED patients (7.1 to 8.6; +0.25 increase in services per year; 95% CI 0.245 to 0.255). There was a reduction in hospital admission rate from 40.1% to 35.9% (−0.68% per year; 95% CI −0.71% to −0.65%; Pbilled as high intensity

  4. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassuni, W.; Asindi, A.A.; Mustafa, F.S.; Hassan, B.; Din, Z.S.; Kumar, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  5. Methodical foundations of the preparation of highly valued personnel for high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, Svetlana; Belyantseva, Oksana; Safonova, Nataliya; Vasilyeva, Olga

    2018-03-01

    When carrying out design and survey and construction and installation works for such an innovative type of activity as high-rise construction, the problem of personnel qualification becomes urgent. The article poses a research problem, identifies the main reasons for the need for training highly qualified specialists in construction, and suggests areas for improving training. The expediency of development of mentoring system was proved, the corresponding model of interaction between educational institutions and construction enterprises was offered, key interaction effects were evaluated.

  6. Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: Challenges in European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomba, A.; Guerra, C.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.P.; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of low intensity farming for the conservation of biodiversity throughout Europe was acknowledged early in the 1990s when the concept of ‘High Nature Value farmlands’ (HNVf) was devised. HNVf has subsequently been given high priority within the EU Rural Development Programme. This puts

  7. Attitudes, Values and Background of High School Journalists Compared with the Media Elite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sammye

    To compare attitudes, values, and background of high school journalists with those of the media elite (journalists already working in the media), a survey was administered to 132 public and private high school students attending the Trinity University Journalism Institute during June 5-9, 1983. These students were the editors of their newspapers,…

  8. System factors to explain 2009 pandemic H1N1 state vaccination rates for children and high-risk adults in US emergency response to pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Payan, Carlo; Swann, Julie; Wortley, Pascale M

    2014-01-03

    During the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, children and high-risk adults had priority for vaccination. Vaccine in short supply was allocated to states pro-rata by population, but vaccination rates as of January 2010 varied among states from 21.3% to 84.7% for children and 10.4% to 47.2% for high-risk adults. States had different campaign processes and decisions. To determine program and system factors associated with higher state pandemic vaccination coverage for children and high-risk adults during an emergency response with short supply of vaccine. Regression analysis of factors predicting state-specific H1N1 vaccination coverage in children and high-risk adults, including state campaign information, demographics, preventive or health-seeking behavior, preparedness funding, providers, state characteristics, and surveillance data. Our modeling explained variation in state-specific vaccination coverage with an adjusted R-squared of 0.82 for children and 0.78 for high-risk adults. We found that coverage of children was positively associated with programs focusing on school clinics and with a larger proportion of doses administered in public sites; negatively with the proportion of children in the population, and the proportion not visiting a doctor because of cost. The coverage for high-risk adults was positively associated with shipments of vaccine to "general access" locations, including pharmacy and retail, with the percentage of women with a Pap smear within the past 3 years and with past seasonal influenza vaccination. It was negatively associated with the expansion of vaccination to the general public by December 4, 2009. For children and high-risk adults, coverage was positively associated with the maximum number of ship-to-sites and negatively associated with the proportion of medically underserved population. Findings suggest that distribution and system decisions such as vaccination venues and providers targeted can positively impact vaccination rates for

  9. Hierarchy of values between religious high school students and secular ones in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiza García Anchorena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the hierarchy of values among high school students, according to type of school (religious and secular and sex. The sample was composed by 250 high school students (60.4% male, 52% religious school. The ages are in the range of 14 to 17 years (M = 15.47, SD = 0.63. The instrument used was the Portrait Value Questionnaire by Schwartz (2001, whose analysis of structure and internal consistency was satisfactory. To compare the hierarchy of values between the groups, top down correlations (rtd > were used. According to the results, greater association (similarity was found between the hierarchy of values depending on the type of school (rtd = .82 and, to a lesser degree by sex (rtd = .69. The comparative results show greater Benevolence, Self-Direction, Stimulation among women and Achievement among men. The implications of the comparative results are discussed.

  10. Are volcanic seismic b-values high, and if so when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2015-12-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter exponent b is a measure of the relative proportion of large and small earthquakes. It is commonly used to infer material properties such as heterogeneity, or mechanical properties such as the state of stress from earthquake populations. It is 'well known' that the b-value tends to be high or very high for volcanic earthquake populations relative to b = 1 for those of tectonic earthquakes, and that b varies significantly with time during periods of unrest. We first review the supporting evidence from 34 case studies, and identify weaknesses in this argument due predominantly to small sample size, the narrow bandwidth of magnitude scales available, variability in the methods used to assess the minimum or cutoff magnitude Mc, and to infer b. Informed by this, we use synthetic realisations to quantify the effect of choice of the cutoff magnitude on maximum likelihood estimates of b, and suggest a new work flow for this choice. We present the first quantitative estimate of the error in b introduced by uncertainties in estimating Mc, as a function of the number of events and the b-value itself. This error can significantly exceed the commonly-quoted statistical error in the estimated b-value, especially for the case that the underlying b-value is high. We apply the new methods to data sets from recent periods of unrest in El Hierro and Mount Etna. For El Hierro we confirm significantly high b-values of 1.5-2.5 prior to the 10 October 2011 eruption. For Mount Etna the b-values are indistinguishable from b = 1 within error, except during the flank eruptions at Mount Etna in 2001-2003, when 1.5 forecasting informed by b-value variability, in particular in assessing the significance of b-value variations identified by sample sizes with fewer than 200 events above the completeness threshold.

  11. Plagiarism explainer for students

    OpenAIRE

    Barba, Lorena A.

    2016-01-01

    A slide deck to serve as an explainer of plagiarism in academic settings, with a personal viewpoint. For my students.Also on SpeakerDeck:https://speakerdeck.com/labarba/plagiarism-explainer-for-students(The slide viewer on SpeakerDeck is much nicer.)

  12. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  13. High-energy gamma-ray and neutrino production in star-forming galaxies across cosmic time: Difficulties in explaining the IceCube data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudoh, Takahiro; Totani, Tomonori; Kawanaka, Norita

    2018-04-01

    We present new theoretical modeling to predict the luminosity and spectrum of gamma-ray and neutrino emission of a star-forming galaxy, from the star formation rate (ψ), gas mass (Mgas), stellar mass, and disk size, taking into account production, propagation, and interactions of cosmic rays. The model reproduces the observed gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies detected by Fermi better than the simple power-law models as a function of ψ or ψMgas. This model is then used to predict the cosmic background flux of gamma-rays and neutrinos from star-forming galaxies, by using a semi-analytical model of cosmological galaxy formation that reproduces many observed quantities of local and high-redshift galaxies. Calibration of the model using gamma-ray luminosities of nearby galaxies allows us to make a more reliable prediction than previous studies. In our baseline model, star-forming galaxies produce about 20% of the isotropic gamma-ray background unresolved by Fermi, and only 0.5% of IceCube neutrinos. Even with an extreme model assuming a hard injection cosmic-ray spectral index of 2.0 for all galaxies, at most 22% of IceCube neutrinos can be accounted for. These results indicate that it is difficult to explain most of the IceCube neutrinos by star-forming galaxies, without violating the gamma-ray constraints from nearby galaxies.

  14. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  15. Optimal high b-value for diffusion weighted MRI in diagnosing high risk prostate cancers in the peripheral zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harsh K; Mertan, Francesca V; Sankineni, Sandeep; Bernardo, Marcelino; Senegas, Julien; Keupp, Jochen; Daar, Dagane; Merino, Maria; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Choyke, Peter L; Turkbey, Baris

    2017-01-01

    To retrospectively determine the optimal b-value(s) of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) associated with intermediate-high risk cancer in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate. Forty-two consecutive patients underwent multi b-value (16 evenly spaced b-values between 0 and 2000 s/mm 2 ) DWI along with multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) of the prostate at 3 Tesla followed by trans-rectal ultrasound/MRI fusion guided targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions detected at MP-MRI. Computed DWI images up to a simulated b-value of 4000 s/mm 2 were also obtained using a pair of b-values (b = 133 and 400 or 667 or 933 s/mm 2 ) from the multi b-value DWI. The contrast ratio of average intensity of the targeted lesions and the background PZ was determined. Receiver operator characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUCs) were obtained for separating patients eligible for active surveillance with low risk prostate cancers from intermediate-high risk prostate cancers as per the cancer of the prostate risk assessment (CAPRA) scoring system. The AUC first increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching maximum at b = 1600 s/mm 2 (0.74) with no statistically significant different AUC of DWI with b-values 1067-2000 s/mm 2 . The AUC of computed DWI increased then decreased with the increase in b-values reaching a maximum of 0.75 around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . There was no statistically significant difference between the AUC of optimal acquired DWI and either of optimal computed DWI. The optimal b-value for acquired DWI in differentiating intermediate-high from low risk prostate cancers in the PZ is b = 1600 s/mm 2 . The computed DWI has similar performance as that of acquired DWI with the optimal performance around b = 2000 s/mm 2 . 4 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:125-131. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Value of improved lipid control in patients at high risk for adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Blumenthal, Daniel M; Stevens, Warren; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldman, Dana P

    2016-06-01

    Lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) is suboptimally used in patients with hyperlipidemia in the 2 highest statin benefit groups (SBGs), as categorized by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association. This study estimated the social value of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 50% for patients in SBGs 1 and 2 who have been treated with standard LLT but have not reached LDL-C goal, as well as the potential value of PCSK9 inhibitors for patients in these groups. Simulation model. We used National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and US Census data to project the population of SBGs 1 and 2 in the time period 2015 to 2035. We used insurance claims data to estimate incidence rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and NHANES with National Vital Statistics data to estimate cardiovascular disease mortality rates. Using established associations between LDL-C and MACE risk, we estimated the value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50%. We incorporated results from a meta-analysis to estimate the value of PSCK9 inhibitors. Among those treated with LLT with LDL-C > 70 mg/dL in SBGs 1 and 2, the cumulative value of reducing LDL-C levels by 50% would be $2.9 trillion from 2015 to 2035, resulting primarily from 1.6 million deaths averted. The cumulative value of PCSK9 inhibitors would range from $3.4 trillion to $5.1 trillion (1.9-2.8 million deaths averted), or $12,000 to $17,000 per patient-year of treatment. Lowering LDL-C in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia has enormous potential social value. For patients in these high-risk groups, PCSK9 inhibitors may have considerable net value depending on the final prices payers ultimately select.

  17. Virginia policymakers' views on the value of visual arts education at the high school level

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Daisy Wilson

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out from Virginia policymakers their feelings toward visual arts education as a required subject at the high school level by answering the following questions: (1) How do policymakers and gatekeepers see the value of visual arts education as a required subject on the high school level? (2) What is the attitude of Virginia policymakers and gatekeepers towards the importance of issues pertaining to the framing of a visual arts education p...

  18. High Added-Value Products from Industrial Crop Biomass: Uses in the Agro-Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ugolini, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the valorization of industrial crop biomasses into high-value products with different applications in the agro-food sector, in a full biorefinery approach. Defatted seed meals (DSMs), co-products of the oil extraction procedure, from industrial crops of high economic importance such as Brassicaceae (Rapeseed, Carinata et al.) and of Asteraceae (Sunflower et al.), were used, such as or after processing. Their biological active compound and protein content ...

  19. Reporting explained variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ron; Fletcher, Harold J.

    The importance of reporting explained variance (sometimes referred to as magnitude of effects) in ANOVA designs is discussed in this paper. Explained variance is an estimate of the strength of the relationship between treatment (or other factors such as sex, grade level, etc.) and dependent variables of interest to the researcher(s). Three methods that can be used to obtain estimates of explained variance in ANOVA designs are described and applied to 16 studies that were reported in recent volumes of this journal. The results show that, while in most studies the treatment accounts for a relatively small proportion of the variance in dependent variable scores., in., some studies the magnitude of the treatment effect is respectable. The authors recommend that researchers in science education report explained variance in addition to the commonly reported tests of significance, since the latter are inadequate as the sole basis for making decisions about the practical importance of factors of interest to science education researchers.

  20. Directionality of the Associations of High School Expectancy-Value, Aspirations, and Attainment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiesi; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Parker, Philip D.; Kaur, Gurvinder

    2015-01-01

    (This study examines the directionality of the associations among cognitive assets (IQ, academic achievement), motivational beliefs (academic self-concept, task values), and educational and occupational aspirations over time from late adolescence (Grade 10) into early adulthood (5 years post high school). Participants were from a nationally…

  1. High value co-products from wine byproducts (II): polyphenols and antioxidant activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femenia, A.; Gonzalez-Centeno, M. R.; Garau, M. C.; Sastre-Serrano, G.; Rosello, C.

    2009-07-01

    The by-products of the grape/wine industry have recently attracted considerable interest as important sources of high-value antioxidants. these can be extracted from stems, such as resveratrol,and from grape pomace which contains polyphenols, procyanidin and antrocyanins. (Author)

  2. Endophytes as in vitro production platforms of high value plant secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have been published on bioprospecting of endophytic fungi capable of producing high value bioactive molecules like, paclitaxel, vincristine, vinblastine, camptothecin and podophyllotoxin. However, commercial exploitation of endophytes for high value-low volume plant secondary metabolites remains elusive due to widely reported genomic instability of endophytes in the axenic culture. While most of the endophyte research focuses on screening endophytes for novel or existing high value biomolecules, very few reports seek to explore the possible mechanisms of production of host-plant associated or novel secondary metabolites in these organisms. With an overview of host-endophyte relationship and its possible impact on the secondary metabolite production potential of endophytes, the review highlights the evidence reported for and against the presence of host-independent biosynthetic machinery in endophytes. The review aims to address the question, why should and how can endophytes be exploited for large scale in vitro production of high value phytochemicals? In this regard, various bioprocess optimization strategies that have been applied to sustain and enhance the product yield from the endophytes have also been described in detail. Further, techniques like mixed fermentation/co-cultivation and use of epigenetic modifiers have also been discussed as potential strategies to activate cryptic gene clusters in endophytes, thereby aiding in novel metabolite discovery and overcoming the limitations associated with axenic culture of endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Harvesting Robots for High-value Crops: State-of-the-art Review and Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Henten, van E.; Hemming, J.; Edan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This review article analyzes state-of-the-art and future perspectives for harvesting robots in high-value crops. The objectives were to characterize the crop environment relevant for robotic harvesting, to perform a literature review on the state-of-the-art of harvesting robots using quantitative

  4. Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil CD64 has a high negative predictive value for exclusion of neonatal sepsis. M B Dhlamini, M S Suchard, T M Wiggill, O O Fadahun, D E Ballot. Department of Molecular Medicine and Haematology, National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

  5. Cultivating Cultural Education Values of Islam Nusantara in MA (Islamic Senior High School Ali Maksum Krapyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sembodo Ardi Widodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the cultural education values of Islam Nusantara atIslamic Senior High School of Ali Maksum Krapyak Yogyakarta and how those values are taught through education. This researchuses qualitative approach by usingdata collection technique through observation, interviews, and documentation. The process of analysis data used is qualitative. The results of this study show that Islam Nusantara is an Islamic style of Indonesia, a combination of Islamic theological values with the local traditions, culture and customs. There are three pillars in Islam Nusantara, there arethought, movement, and 'amaliyya (action and there are five signs of Islam Nusantara, namely reform (ishlahiyyah, tawazuniyyah, tathawwu'iyyah, akhlaqiyyah (politeness, and tasamuh;The cultural education values of Islam Nusantara in MA Ali Maksum is the value of nationalism, diversity (pluralism, and the value of NU (tasamuh, tawazun, tawasuth; The madrasah activities consist ofMuludan, grave pilgrimage, halal bi halal, Muharroman, haul of the founder (dies natalis, competitions reading kitab kuning(yellow books, etc., that those are the typical product of Islam Nusantara.

  6. Explaining Synthesized Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  7. Review: Bilirubin pKa studies; new models and theories indicate high pKa values in water, dimethylformamide and DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, a poorly-soluble, unstable substance, are essential for understanding its functions. Our prior solvent partition studies, of unlabeled and [14C] UCB, indicated pKa values above 8.0. These high values were attributed to effects of internal H-bonding in UCB. Many earlier and subsequent studies have reported lower pKa values, some even below 5.0, which are often used to describe the behavior of UCB. We here review 18 published studies that assessed aqueous pKa values of UCB, critically evaluating their methodologies in relation to essential preconditions for valid pKa measurements (short-duration experiments with purified UCB below saturation and accounting for self-association of UCB. Results These re-assessments identified major deficiencies that invalidate the results of all but our partition studies. New theoretical modeling of UCB titrations shows remarkable, unexpected effects of self-association, yielding falsely low pKa estimates, and provides some rationalization of the titration anomalies. The titration behavior reported for a soluble thioether conjugate of UCB at high aqueous concentrations is shown to be highly anomalous. Theoretical re-interpretations of data in DMSO and dimethylformamide show that those indirectly-derived aqueous pKa values are unacceptable, and indicate new, high average pKa values for UCB in non-aqueous media (>11 in DMSO and, probably, >10 in dimethylformamide. Conclusions No reliable aqueous pKa values of UCB are available for comparison with our partition-derived results. A companion paper shows that only the high pKa values can explain the pH-dependence of UCB binding to phospholipids, cyclodextrins, and alkyl-glycoside and bile salt micelles.

  8. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  9. Incorporation of Okara into Gluten-Free Cookies with High Quality and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. Ostermann-Porcel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy products are a source of protein relatively inexpensive and recognized for their high nutritional value and functional properties. Okara is a byproduct from soy milk production. Gluten-free cookies have been developed using okara and commercial manioc flour. Four formulations were developed with different proportions of okara: 50%; 30%; 15%; and 0%. Physicochemical, physical properties, sensory analysis, and nutritional studies were performed. The use of inulin as partial replacement of sugar was evaluated. The incorporation of okara increased protein and fiber content. Furthermore, the hardness of cookies increased while the index of whiteness decreased. From the sensory evaluation, it could be concluded that the cookies presented a great acceptability. The cookies developed in this study have functional characteristics, providing added value to a waste product; furthermore the products were suitable for celiacs with acceptable quality and improved nutrition value.

  10. Synthesization of high-capacity auto-associative memories using complex-valued neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Long, Hai-Xia; Yang, Xu-Hua

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel design procedure is proposed for synthesizing high-capacity auto-associative memories based on complex-valued neural networks with real-imaginary-type activation functions and constant delays. Stability criteria dependent on external inputs of neural networks are derived. The designed networks can retrieve the stored patterns by external inputs rather than initial conditions. The derivation can memorize the desired patterns with lower-dimensional neural networks than real-valued neural networks, and eliminate spurious equilibria of complex-valued neural networks. One numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness and superiority of the presented results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503338, 61573316, 61374152, and 11302195) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LQ15F030005).

  11. High-Performance Buildings – Value, Messaging, Financial and Policy Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Molly

    2011-02-22

    At the request of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, an in-depth analysis of the rapidly evolving state of real estate investments, high-performance building technology, and interest in efficiency was conducted by HaydenTanner, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program. The analysis objectives were • to evaluate the link between high-performance buildings and their market value • to identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to appropriately value and deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings • to summarize financial mechanisms that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a literature review of relevant writings, examination of existing and emergent financial and policy mechanisms, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implications through financial modeling. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Building Technologies Program on policy and program planning for the financing of high-performance new buildings and building retrofit projects.

  12. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  13. The values expectations of high school graduates at the choice of the faculty and future occupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nebojša B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many psychological references to professional orientation of pupils. However, mainly studied predictors were the role of school, peers, parents, socio-economics factors, and less the role of personality traits, goals, expectations, personal and social values. In this paper the focus is on personal goals and social values defined as specific objectives that are significant for a faculty choice, and therefore a future profession. We use two lists of goals - 18 personal and 18 social, applied to the sample of 497 high school pupils in fourth grade. The study was conducted in school settings. Preference and level of importance of the objectives of respondents have been expressed on the 5-point scale of Likert type, which allowed the statistical analysis of applied methods. The research results show significant differences in individual preferences of the goals and values, as well as the significantly connection of the goals with expectations to be fulfilled by faculty and future career choice. In addition, it was shown that the higher importance is given to personal than social values, which justified starting assumption of the authors, to examine personal and social values separately, since they were shown to have a different significance for professional orientation of young people.

  14. Rambutan Seed (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Optimization as Raw Material of High Nutrition Value Processed Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahini, M.; Miranti, M. G.; Lukitasari, F.; Novela, L.

    2018-02-01

    Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) is a plant that identical with Southeast Asian countries, in some areas of Indonesia no exception, but rambutan seed is considered as a waste. Therefore, it needs to be optimized into raw materials of food and processed with high nutritional value and has economic value. The purpose of this research were: 1) to find the best rambutan seed immersion formula; 2) to know the nutritional value of the best immersed rambutan seed; 3) to produce raw material and various processed of rambutan seed product. The research method was quasi experiment with 6 treatments and 2 factorial design, materials for immersion was NaCl and Ca(OH)2. The results showed that: 1) the best rambutan seed immersion formula was using Ca(OH)2; 2) the best rambutan seed contains 1,6 ash, 31,2 protein, 26,9 fat; 3) the best rambutan seed produce flour and processed of seasoned nuts. This research indicates that rambutan seed is very potential to be an alternative high-value raw materials.

  15. Inculcation Nation Character Values Through Islamic Religious Education Subject In Public Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustiani Yustiani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of cheating, promiscuity, making sordid video student in the classroom are the phenomena of decline in character education at the school. In this sense, character education is essential to emphasized. This research uses qualitative approach, by applying design research CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, and Product. In context of building the nation character values at the school will success on condition that it is accompanied with system and climate supported by each school. One of supporting system and climate is the headmaster's policies on the regulation that support the implementation of character education, and this policy should be supported by infrastructure of the school. The input aspect that determines inculcation of nation character values in these both schools is the quality of the school resources including headmaster, teachers, educational staffs, students, and education infrastructures. From the aspects of process, inculcation nation character values on these schools is implemented through the integration of the Islamic religious education subject and culture of the school. Syllabus and RPP on subjects of Islamic religious education in State Senior High School 1 Kudus and State Senior High School 1 Jepara have already been insightful with the education of nation character. The aspects of product from internalization of cultural values and nation character are embodied in attitudes and behaviors of the students at school and society.

  16. Economic Evaluations for the Carbon Dioxide-involved Production of High-value Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Jang, Se Gyu; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluation of the manufacturing technology of high-value chemicals through the carbonation reaction of carbon dioxide contained in the flue gas was performed, and analysis of the IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and whole profit along the production plan of the final product was conducted. Through a carbonation reaction with sodium hydroxide that is generated from electrolysis and by using carbon dioxide in the combustion gas that is generated in the power plant, it is possible to get a high value products such as sodium bicarbonate compound and also to reduce the carbon dioxide emission simultaneously. The IRR (Internal Rate of Return) and NPV (Net Present Value) methods were used for the economic evaluation of the process which could handle carbon dioxide of 100 tons per day in the period of the 20 years of plant operation. The results of economic evaluation showed that the IRR of baseline case of technology was 67.2% and the profit that obtained during the whole operation period (20 years) was 346,922 million won based on NPV value. When considering ETS due to the emissions trading enforcement that will be activated in 2015, the NPV was improved to a 6,000 million won. Based on this results, it could be concluded that this CO2 carbonation technology is an cost-effective technology option for the reduction of greenhouse gas

  17. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  18. Cyanobacteria as a Platform for the High-Value Chemicals Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarczyk, Artur Jacek

    Emerging problems like increasing global warming and depletion of fossil fuels bring serious concerns regarding production of food and various chemicals in the future. Clearly, there is a need for finding alternative and more sustainable ways of producing chemicals in order to satisfy increasing...... consumer demands of an ever growing population. Considering the ability to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into biomass, cyanobacteria and microalgae have potential for becoming such alternative in the future. Biosynthesis of a great number of plant high-value secondary metabolites requires...... and cheap fertilizer as a medium for the cultivation of engineered cyanobacterial strains is shown. Alternative strategy to engineer Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a universal platform for the sustainable production of diverse range high-value phenylpropanoids which find use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics...

  19. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-11-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  20. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value m...

  1. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  2. Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV) farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspec...... conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change....

  3. The Drift Diffusion Model can account for the accuracy and reaction time of value-based choices under high and low time pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Milosavljevic

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An important open problem is how values are compared to make simple choices. A natural hypothesis is that the brain carries out the computations associated with the value comparisons in a manner consistent with the Drift Diffusion Model (DDM, since this model has been able to account for a large amount of data in other domains. We investigated the ability of four different versions of the DDM to explain the data in a real binary food choice task under conditions of high and low time pressure. We found that a seven-parameter version of the DDM can account for the choice and reaction time data with high-accuracy, in both the high and low time pressure conditions. The changes associated with the introduction of time pressure could be traced to changes in two key model parameters: the barrier height and the noise in the slope of the drift process.

  4. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  5. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  6. Desserts with a high nutritional value in the industry employees nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Telegenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are considered questions of the sweet foods with a high nutritional value development. Evaluation of the organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of model jelly samples with jost and spirulina showed that the proposed formula and technology gives a product with high consumer properties. There is a theoretically substantiated expediency of a jost and spirulina jelly implementation in such restaurant enterprises as dining rooms in the industrial plants. Using the jost and spirulina nutritional supplements can expand the range of the preventive nutrition foods.

  7. Going beyond "highly-qualified personnel" to "value-added personnel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Fox, Bradley; Gelsthorpe, Leanne; Hamilton, Roxy; Marshall, Robert; Williamson, Guida

    2005-10-01

    Employers clamour for more "Highly-Qualified Personnel" (HQP) to hire, and photonics is no exception. The challenge facing all new graduates lies in what actually constitutes a Highly-Qualified Person. Yesterday, an HQP was often understood to be a graduate with a Bachelor's, Master's or Ph.D. degree. Today, industry is demanding that an HQP be either a university or college graduate with strong academic standing AND a sound business and communications skill set. In this paper, we introduce the concept of "Value-Added Personnel" (VAP), which marries both scientific and "soft-skills" aspects, and we present a new program in Ontario to produce VAPs.

  8. Proximate and The Calorific Value Analysis of Brown Coal for High-Calorie Hybrid Briquette Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaluddin Hasan, Erzam; Jahiding, Muhammad; Mashuni; Ilmawati, WOS; Wati, Wa; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    A study has been conducted about the quality of young coal (brown coal ) briquettes from North Kolaka to determine the effect of varied adhesive on the proximate characteristics and calorific value. The young coal briquettes were made by using adhesives of starch, cassava starch and Castor oil plant starch at a concentration of 5 to 15% of the total mass. The grain size of young coal and the adhesive used were 60 mesh and 100 mesh, respectively. The samples were molded in a cylindrical mold with a diameter of 2.5 cm and a high of 6 cm, and with a pressure of 100 kg/cm2. After having been compacted, the young coal samples were then analyzed proximately i.e. moisture content, volatile matter, ash content and fixed carbon, as well as their calorific values calculation. The results showed that the increase of the adhesive could tend to increased the water content and volatile matter, but reduced the ash content, and the fixed carbon tend to constant except coal briquettes using starch adhesive it were increased. The calorific value of the young coal briquettes increased for all kinds of adhesives when the adhesive increased. The calorific value per one gram ranged from 3162.7 cal/g to 4678.7 cal/g. The highest calorific value, 4678.7 cal/g, was observed at the adhesive of 15 % of starch. The characteristics of young coal can be used as a raw material for making high-calorie hybrid briquettes.

  9. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, patients referred from the general practitioner (GP) to the emergency department (ED) can be referred with either specific symptoms or with a presumptive diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy for various presumptive diagnoses made by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest and lowest sensitivities were seen for DVT (90%) and meningitis (36%), respectively; and the highest and lowest values for specificity were observed for meningitis (99%) and ACS (30%), respectively. The positive predictive value had a wide range with the lowest value for ACS (9%) and the highest for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had a high likelihood of having the disease in question. It is important not to discard any of the included presumptive diagnoses even if the GPs fail to suggest them on admission. none. none.

  10. Hypercellularity Components of Glioblastoma Identified by High b-Value Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramanik, Priyanka P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Parmar, Hemant A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Mammoser, Aaron G.; Junck, Larry R. [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Kim, Michelle M.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Use of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for target definition may expose glioblastomas (GB) to inadequate radiation dose coverage of the nonenhanced hypercellular subvolume. This study aimed to develop a technique to identify the hypercellular components of GB by using high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and to investigate its relationship with the prescribed 95% isodose volume (PDV) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with GB underwent chemoradiation therapy post-resection and biopsy. Radiation therapy (RT) treatment planning was based upon conventional MRI. Pre-RT DWIs were acquired in 3 orthogonal directions with b-values of 0, 1000, and 3000 s/mm{sup 2}. Hypercellularity volume (HCV) was defined on the high b-value (3000 s/mm{sup 2}) DWI by a threshold method. Nonenhanced signified regions not covered by the Gd-enhanced gross tumor volume (GTV-Gd) on T1-weighted images. The PDV was used to evaluate spatial coverage of the HCV by the dose plan. Association between HCV and PFS or other clinical covariates were assessed using univariate proportional hazards regression models. Results: HCVs and nonenhanced HCVs varied from 0.58 to 67 cm{sup 3} (median: 9.8 cm{sup 3}) and 0.15 to 60 cm{sup 3} (median: 2.5 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Fourteen patients had incomplete dose coverage of the HCV, 6 of whom had >1 cm{sup 3} HCV missed by the 95% PDV (range: 1.01-25.4 cm{sup 3}). Of the 15 patients who progressed, 5 progressed earlier, within 6 months post-RT, and 10 patients afterward. Pre-RT HCVs within recurrent GTVs-Gd were 78% (range: 65%-89%) for the 5 earliest progressions but lower, 53% (range: 0%-85%), for the later progressions. HCV and nonenhanced HCV were significant negative prognostic indicators for PFS (P<.002 and P<.01, respectively). The hypercellularity subvolume not covered by the 95% PDV was a significant negative predictor for PFS (P<.05). Conclusions: High b-value DWI

  11. Improving value assessment of high-risk, high-reward biotechnology research: the role of 'thick tails'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casault, Sébastien; Groen, Aard J; Linton, Jonathan D

    2014-03-25

    This paper presents work toward improving the efficacy of financial models that describe the unique nature of biotechnology firms. We show that using a 'thick tailed' power law distribution to describe the behavior of the value of biotechnology R&D used in a Real Options Pricing model is significantly more accurate than the traditionally used Gaussian approach. A study of 287 North-American biotechnology firms gives insights into common problems faced by investors, managers and other stakeholders when using traditional techniques to calculate the commercial value of R&D. This is important because specific quantitative tools to assess the value of high-risk, high-reward R&D do not currently exist. This often leads to an undervaluation of biotechnology R&D and R&D intensive biotechnology firms. For example, the widely used Net Present Value (NPV) method assumes a fixed risk ignoring management flexibility and the changing environment. However, Real Options Pricing models assume that commercial returns from R&D investments are described by a normal random walk. A normal random walk model eliminates the possibility of drastic changes to the marketplace resulting from the introduction of revolutionary products and/or services. It is possible to better understand and manage biotechnology research projects and portfolios using a model that more accurately considers large non-Gaussian price fluctuations with thick tails, which recognize the unusually large risks and opportunities associated with Biotechnology R&D. Our empirical data show that opportunity overcompensates for the downside risk making biotechnology R&D statistically more valuable than other Gaussian options investments, which may otherwise appear to offer a similar combination of risk and return. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression profiling-derived immunohistochemistry signature with high prognostic value in colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wenjun; Gao, Xianhua; Han, Yifang; Du, Yan; Liu, Qizhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Yu, Yongwei; Fan, Xinjuan; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Weiping; Wang, Jianping; Fu, Chuangang; Cao, Guangwen

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression profiling provides an opportunity to develop robust prognostic markers of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the markers have not been applied for clinical decision making. We aimed to develop an immunohistochemistry signature using microarray data for predicting CRC prognosis. We evaluated 25 CRC gene signatures in independent microarray datasets with prognosis information and constructed a subnetwork using signatures with high concordance and repeatable prognostic values. Tumours were examined immunohistochemically for the expression of network-centric and the top overlapping molecules. Prognostic values were assessed in 682 patients from Shanghai, China (training cohort) and validated in 343 patients from Guangzhou, China (validation cohort). Median follow-up duration was 58 months. All p values are two-sided. Five signatures were selected to construct a subnetwork. The expression of GRB2, PTPN11, ITGB1 and POSTN in cancer cells, each significantly associated with disease-free survival, were selected to construct an immunohistochemistry signature. Patients were dichotomised into high-risk and low-risk subgroups with an optimal risk score (1.55). Compared with low-risk patients, high-risk patients had shorter disease-specific survival (DSS) in the training (HR=6.62; 95% CI 3.70 to 11.85) and validation cohorts (HR=3.53; 95% CI 2.13 to 5.84) in multivariate Cox analyses. The signature better predicted DSS than did tumour-node-metastasis staging in both cohorts. In those who received postoperative chemotherapy, high-risk score predicted shorter DSS in the training (HR=6.35; 95% CI 3.55 to 11.36) and validation cohorts (HR=5.56; 95% CI 2.25 to 13.71). Our immunohistochemistry signature may be clinically practical for personalised prediction of CRC prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Normative reference values for high school-aged American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Miramonti, Amelia A; Gillen, Zachary M; Leutzinger, Todd J; Mendez, Alegra I; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the present report was to provide test- and position-specific normative reference values for combine test results based on a large, nationally-representative sample of high school-aged American football players in their freshman, sophomore, and junior classes. Cross-sectional anthropometric and performance data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines between March 7, 2015 and January 9, 2016 across the United States. Subjects included a sample (n=7,478) of high school-aged American football athletes in their junior (n=3,779), sophomore (n=2,514), and freshman (n=1,185) classes. The database included combine date, school state, position, class, height, weight, 40-yard dash (40YD), pro-agility (PA), 3-cone (3C), vertical jump (VJ), broad jump (BJ), and power push-up (PPU). Each player self-classified their American football positions as defensive back (DB), defensive end (DE), defensive linemen (DL), linebacker (LB), offensive linemen (OL), quarterback (QB), running back (RB), tight end (TE), or wide receiver (WR). Test- and position- specific normative values were generated by aggregating data from freshmen, sophomore, and junior classes. Mean differences were found among classes for all positions and all measurements (p≤0.05), except for TE weight (p>0.05). Greater difference for all variables were observed from freshmen to sophomore classes than from sophomore to junior classes. These normative reference values may provide realistic comparisons and evaluations in performance for young American football players, parents, and coaches with collegiate football aspirations. High school strength and conditioning professionals should use these norms to set attainable goals and reward accomplishments for young football players.

  14. Value-added probiotic development by high-solid fermentation of sweet potato with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carmen; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda K; Njiti, Victor; Xia, Qun; Chukwuma, Franklin

    2017-05-01

    Controlled fermentation of Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas ) var. Beauregard by yeast, Saccharomyces boulardii (MAY 796) to enhance the nutritional value of sweet potato was investigated. An average 8.00 × 10 10 Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g of viable cells were obtained over 5-day high-solid fermentation. Yeast cell viability did not change significantly over time at 4°C whereas the number of viable yeast cells reduced significantly at room temperature (25°C), which was approximately 40% in 12 months. Overall, the controlled fermentation of sweet potato by MAY 796 enhanced protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, amino acid, and fatty acid levels. Development of value-added sweet potato has a great potential in animal feed and human nutrition. S. boulardii - fermented sweet potato has great potential as probiotic-enriched animal feed and/or functional food for human nutrition.

  15. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  16. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  17. Interactions of microalgae and other microorganisms for enhanced production of high-value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzu, Giovanni Antonio; Turgut Dunford, Nurhan

    2018-03-01

    The cultivation of microalgae for the production of biomass and associated valuable compounds has gained increasing interest not only within the scientific community but also at the industrial level. Microalgae cells are capable of producing high-value compounds that are widely used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and aquaculture industries. For example, lipids produced by algae can be converted to biodiesel, other fuels and bio-products. Hence, high oil content algal biomass has been regarded as a potential alternative feedstock to replace terrestrial crops for sustainable production of bio-products. It has been reported that the interaction of microalgae and other microorganisms greatly enhances the efficiency of microalgal biomass production and its chemical composition. Microalgae-bacteria interaction with an emphasis on the nature of symbiotic relationship in mutualisitc and parasitic consortia has been extensively studied. For instance, it is well documented that production of vitamins or growth promoting factors by bacteria enhances the growth of microalgae. Little attention has been paid to the consortia formed by microalgae and other microorganisms such as other microalgae strains, cyanobacteria, fungi, and yeasts. Hence, the aim of this review is to investigate the impact of the microalgae-other microorganism interactions on the production of high value compounds.

  18. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Michael; Geier, Felicitas; Popp, Steffen; Singler, Katrin; Smolarsky, Alexander; Bertsch, Thomas; Müller, Christian; Greve, Yvonne

    2015-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic and predictive value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnThs) in patients with syncope. We performed an analysis of consecutive patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department. The primary end point was the accuracy to diagnose a cardiac syncope. In addition, the study explored the prognostic relevance of cTnThs in patients with cardiac and noncardiac syncope. A total of 360 patients were enrolled (median age, 70.5 years; male, 55.8%; 23.9% aged >80 years). Cardiac syncope was present in 22% of patients, reflex syncope was present in 40% of patients, syncope due to orthostatic hypotension was present in 20% of patients, and unexplained syncope was present in 17.5% of patients. A total of 148 patients (41%) had cTnThs levels above the 99% confidence interval (CI) (cutoff point). The diagnostic accuracy for cTnThs levels to determine the diagnosis of cardiac syncope was quantified by the area under the curve (0.77; CI, 0.72-0.83; P value of cTnThs levels within 30 days: Patients with increased cTnThs levels had a 52% likelihood for adverse events, patients with cTnThs levels below the cutoff point had a low risk (negative predictive value, 83.5%). Increased cTnThs levels indicate adverse prognosis in patients with noncardiac causes of syncope, but not in patients with cardiac syncope being a risk factor for adverse outcome by itself. Patients with syncope presenting to the emergency department have a high proportion of life-threatening conditions. cTnThs levels show a limited diagnostic and predictive accuracy for the identification of patients with syncope at high risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  1. Supply Networks and Value Creation in High Innovation and Strong Network Externalities Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Claro Tomaselli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developing product and service markets and developments in information technologies have accelerated growth in outsourcing of peripheral activities and critical business as well, enhancing the importance of network supply chain management. This paper analyzes the dynamics of supply chain management and the creation of value in an industry with strong network effects and constantly introduction of disruptive technologies, the videogame industry. This industry evolves at a high velocity, with a lifecycle of five to six years for consoles, which features a new generation of consoles, where new companies and technologies appear and disappear at each generation.

  2. Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high "sensation value" ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langleben, Daniel D; Loughead, James W; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Holloway, Matthew B; Strasser, Andrew A; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-05-15

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. "Message sensation value" (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the "dual processing" and "limited capacity" theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers' cognitive resources and suggest that the "attention-grabbing" high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and

  3. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  4. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  5. Surviving the Lead Reliability Engineer Role in High Unit Value Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Reinaldo J.

    2011-01-01

    A project with a very high unit value within a company is defined as a project where a) the project constitutes one of a kind (or two-of-a-kind) national asset type of project, b) very large cost, and c) a mission failure would be a very public event that will hurt the company's image. The Lead Reliability engineer in a high visibility project is by default involved in all phases of the project, from conceptual design to manufacture and testing. This paper explores a series of lessons learned, over a period of ten years of practical industrial experience by a Lead Reliability Engineer. We expand on the concepts outlined by these lessons learned via examples. The lessons learned are applicable to all industries.

  6. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  7. Development of aerated confectionery products of high nutritional value using triticale flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastries are very popular among the Russian population. Pastry are the most promising targets for the enrichment of their function ingredients.. One of the most promising feedstocks for the production of flour confectionery products is flour from grain crops ofspring triticale. The different varieties of triticale were studied in particular, triticale flour grade "Ukro" for use in technologies of shortbread-butter cookies with enhanced food value. The first in the history of our country varieties of spring triticale "Ukro" was included in the State Register of selection achievements since 2004. Triticale is characterized by high-protein content. Triticale, protein is higher than in wheat by amino acids lysine and tryptophan, minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, B vitamins. It was pointed the choice and ratio of prescription ingredients. Recipe shortbread-butter cookies based on the seeded triticale flour and flour from coarse whole meal grain, grade "Ukro", with high consumer properties was developed. Cake samples prepared on the basis of flour triticale exceed the reference sample of prime grade wheat flour. Biscuits have a high content of complete protein, vitamins, macro - and microelements, dietary fibers, high gustatory qualities. The influence of prescription components on organoleptic and physical-chemical properties of sandy butter cookies was studied. The nutritional and biological value was calculated. It was state the daily needs of the organism in these materials when using 100 g. As a result of the conducted studies proved the feasibility of the use of flour from grain triticale in the production of flour confectionery products of functional purpose.

  8. High-value compounds from microalgae with industrial exploitability - A review .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-06-01

      From the past several years, algal biotechnology has gained noticeable interests among research-based organizations and industrial sectors. Recent studies have provided considerable evidence that microalgae-derived bioactive compounds could play a vital role in bio- and non-bio sectors of the modern world. Microalgae-based industrial exploitability ranges from basic biomass-based food and feeds nutraceuticals to high-value pharmaceuticals, cosmeceuticals, ecological and biomedical applications. With ever increasing scientific knowledge, social and environmental awareness, bio-inspired synthesis of microalgae-based green products, and recent advancements in algal biotechnology will extend the utilization of microalgae into new areas. Microalgae offer high biodiversity with an enormous potential to produce structurally complex yet bioactive compounds which are either impossible or difficult to produce via synthetic routes. In this paper, a range of value-added bioactive compounds from microalgae with industrial potentialities has been reviewed. The contribution ended with a critical description of the main research gaps and envisioned with future considerations to progress further in this exciting era of research.

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  10. Testing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulesteix Anne-Laure

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high-dimensional molecular data such as microarray gene expression data have been used for disease outcome prediction or diagnosis purposes for about ten years in biomedical research, the question of the additional predictive value of such data given that classical predictors are already available has long been under-considered in the bioinformatics literature. Results We suggest an intuitive permutation-based testing procedure for assessing the additional predictive value of high-dimensional molecular data. Our method combines two well-known statistical tools: logistic regression and boosting regression. We give clear advice for the choice of the only method parameter (the number of boosting iterations. In simulations, our novel approach is found to have very good power in different settings, e.g. few strong predictors or many weak predictors. For illustrative purpose, it is applied to the two publicly available cancer data sets. Conclusions Our simple and computationally efficient approach can be used to globally assess the additional predictive power of a large number of candidate predictors given that a few clinical covariates or a known prognostic index are already available. It is implemented in the R package "globalboosttest" which is publicly available from R-forge and will be sent to the CRAN as soon as possible.

  11. Value of high-resolution MR in patients scheduled for cochlear implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.; Held, P. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology; Waldeck, A. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Otorhinolaryngology; Strotzer, M. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology; Voelk, J.; Strutz, J. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Otorhinolaryngology; Feuerbach, S. [Univ. Hospital, Regensburg (Germany). Dept of Diagnostic Radiology

    2001-11-01

    Objective: To determine sensitivity and specificity of high-resolution MR imaging and of high-resolution axial CT (HRCT) and to compare the two modalities in predicting the surgical and functional success of cochlear implantation. Material and Methods: The presurgical MR images (2D T2W TSE, 3D T2*W CISS, plain and contrast-enhanced 3D T1W MP-RAGE) and axial HRCT findings of 26 patients were evaluated with regard to the predictive value concerning the success of cochlear implantation. Results: We found a high correlation between MR and HRCT and the success of cochlear implantation. In all 26 patients, the MR-based predictions concerning the success of cochlear implantation were correct. In 10 patients, MR gave additional information to HRCT. In all patients, MR gave sufficient information about the status of the inner ear, inner auditory canal and cochlear nerve to aid the surgeon during the operation. Conclusion: A high-resolution MR protocol consisting of coronal 2D T2W TSE, 3D T2*W axial CISS, plain and contrast-enhanced sagittal T1W 3D MP-RAGE is recommended for the evaluation of candidates scheduled for cochlear implantation. It provides information which cannot be obtained by HRCT.

  12. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  13. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  15. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  16. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  17. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2013-10-15

    The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al(3+) soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioreactors for lignocellulose conversion into fermentable sugars for production of high added value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Rossana; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomasses derived from dedicated crops and agro-industrial residual materials are promising renewable resources for the production of fuels and other added value bioproducts. Due to the tolerance to a wide range of environments, the dedicated crops can be cultivated on marginal lands, avoiding conflict with food production and having beneficial effects on the environment. Besides, the agro-industrial residual materials represent an abundant, available, and cheap source of bioproducts that completely cut out the economical and environmental issues related to the cultivation of energy crops. Different processing steps like pretreatment, hydrolysis and microbial fermentation are needed to convert biomass into added value bioproducts. The reactor configuration, the operative conditions, and the operation mode of the conversion processes are crucial parameters for a high yield and productivity of the biomass bioconversion process. This review summarizes the last progresses in the bioreactor field, with main attention on the new configurations and the agitation systems, for conversion of dedicated energy crops (Arundo donax) and residual materials (corn stover, wheat straw, mesquite wood, agave bagasse, fruit and citrus peel wastes, sunflower seed hull, switchgrass, poplar sawdust, cogon grass, sugarcane bagasse, sunflower seed hull, and poplar wood) into sugars and ethanol. The main novelty of this review is its focus on reactor components and properties.

  19. Assessing Landscape Scale Wildfire Exposure for Highly Valued Resources in a Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J.; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km2 located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  20. Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

    2015-05-01

    We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs.

  1. Refining Our Understanding of Value-Based Insurance Design and High Cost Sharing on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P; Bachman, Sara S; Tan, Hui Ren

    2017-05-01

    There is significant concern about the financial burdens of new insurance plan designs on families, particularly families with children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). With value-based insurance design (VBID) plans growing in popularity, this study examined the implications of selected VBID cost-sharing features on children. We studied children's health care spending patterns in 2 data sets that include high deductible and narrow network plans among others. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2007 to 2013 on 22 392 children were used to study out-of-pocket (OOP) costs according to CYSHCN, family income, and spending. MarketScan large employer insurance claims data from 2007 to 2014 ( N = 4 263 452) were used to test for differences in mean total payments and OOP costs across various health plans. Across the data sets, we found that existing health plans place significant financial burdens on families, particularly lower income households and families with CYSHCN; individuals among the top 10% of OOP spending averaged more than $2000 per child. Although high deductible and consumer-driven plans impose substantial OOP costs on children, they do not significantly reduce spending, whereas health maintenance organizations that use network restrictions and tighter management do. Our results do not support the conclusion that high cost-sharing features that are common in VBID plans will significantly reduce health care spending on children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Extraction and purification of high-value metabolites from microalgae: essential lipids, astaxanthin and phycobiliproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Bermudez, Sara P; Aguilar-Hernandez, Iris; Cardenas-Chavez, Diana L; Ornelas-Soto, Nancy; Romero-Ogawa, Miguel A; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The marked trend and consumers growing interest in natural and healthy products have forced researches and industry to develop novel products with functional ingredients. Microalgae have been recognized as source of functional ingredients with positive health effects since these microorganisms produce polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, natural pigments, essential minerals, vitamins, enzymes and bioactive peptides. For this reason, the manuscript reviews two of the main high-value metabolites which can be obtained from microalgae: pigments and essential lipids. Therefore, the extraction and purification methods for polyunsaturated fatty acids, astaxanthin, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin are described. Also, the effect that environmental growth conditions have in the production of these metabolites is described. This review summarizes the existing methods to extract and purify such metabolites in order to develop a feasible and sustainable algae industry. PMID:25223877

  3. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  4. Features of working in fields with high values of exposure dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Features of working in fields with the exposure dose rate (EDR) ∼ 1000-7000 R/h are described. Data on the performed operations concerning initial decontamination of the Chernobyl-3 reactor roof during 10.07.86-03.10.86 are presented. It is marked that the methodical recommendations on working in fields with high values of EDR are absent in our country and abroad and it is necessary to develop them on the basis of obtained experience. Moreover, there are no protective means (protective clotting). Main principles of its creation are the protection of critical organ groups and comfort in working. Personnel should be specially trained and get phychologically ready. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Randomized Trial of High-Value Change Using Practice Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, LeAnn; Anastas, Tracy; Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Fagnan, Lyle; Dorr, David A

    2017-01-01

    To understand how focused versus general practice facilitation can impact goal setting, action planning, and team performance in primary care transformation. Practice transformation in primary care is a crucial part of health reform, but can fatigue teams, leading to variable results. Practice facilitation may reduce primary care fatigue to help teams reach challenging transformation goals, but may require a more focused approach than previous studies suggest. We performed a 12-month cluster randomized trial, during which 8 primary care clinics received practice facilitation. Four practices in the intervention arm received targeted facilitation to focus quality improvement (QI) goals on high-value elements (HVEs) intended to reduce cost and utilization, whereas 4 control practices received generalized QI facilitation. We investigated the impact of the targeted versus generalized approach on goal selection, action item selection and achievement, HVE attainment, and collaborative practice, using quantitative and qualitative methods. Intervention clinics selected an average of 7 goals and 29 action items, compared with 8 goals and 40 action items among controls. Eighty-three percent of intervention goals were related to HVEs, compared with 27% of goals among controls. Intervention clinics selected 101 HVE goals and met 68%, while controls selected 41 and met 61%. Analysis of pre-post practice surveys indicated greater improvement among intervention across 4 of 8 domains of collaborative practice. Targeted facilitation may be more effective than a generalized approach to support practices in reaching high-value change goals, as well as fostering improvement of team focus on goals, roles and responsibilities. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.

  8. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  9. Explaining gender segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Robert M; Browne, Jude; Brooks, Bradley; Jarman, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Occupational gender segregation--the tendency for women and men to work in different occupations--is an important feature of all societies, and particularly the wealthy industrialized ones. To understand this segregation, and to explain its significance, we need to distinguish between vertical segregation entailing inequality and horizontal segregation representing difference without inequality, with overall segregation being the resultant of these components. Three major theoretical approaches to understanding occupational gender segregation are examined: human capital/rational choice, patriarchy, and preference theories. All are found to be inadequate; they tend to confuse overall segregation with its vertical component, and each entails a number of other faults. It is generally assumed or implied that greater empowerment of women would reduce gender segregation. This is the reverse of what actually happens; in countries where the degree of women's empowerment is greater, the level of gender segregation is also greater. An alternative theoretical approach based on processes of social reproduction is shown to be more useful.

  10. How to Identify High-Risk APS Patients: Clinical Utility and Predictive Values of Validated Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Kenji; Amengual, Olga; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a clinical disorder characterised by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity in the persistence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies that are pathogenic and have pro-coagulant activities. Thrombosis in APS tends to recur and require prophylaxis; however, the stereotypical treatment for APS patients is inadequate and stratification of the thrombotic risks is important as aPL are prevalently observed in various diseases or elderly population. It is previously known that the multiple positive aPL or high titre aPL correlate to thrombotic events. To progress the stratification of thrombotic risks in APS patients and to quantitatively analyse those risks, antiphospholipid score (aPL-S) and the Global Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Score (GAPSS) were defined. These scores were raised from the large patient cohort data and either aPL profile classified in detail (aPL-S) or simplified aPL profile with classical thrombotic risk factors (GAPSS) was put into a scoring system. Both the aPL-S and GAPSS have shown a degree of accuracy in identifying high-risk APS patients, especially those at a high risk of thrombosis. However, there are several areas requiring improvement, or at least that clinicians should be aware of, before these instruments are applied in clinical practice. One such issue is standardisation of the aPL tests, including general testing of phosphatidylserine-dependent antiprothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT). Additionally, clinicians may need to be aware of the patient's medical history, particularly with respect to the incidence of SLE, which influences the cutoff value for identifying high-risk patients.

  11. TRANSFORMING RICE HUSK INTO A HIGH-ADDED VALUE PRODUCT: POTENTIAL FOR PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Amanda da Silva César

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the quality of particleboards made with different formulations, varying adhesive content and rice husk (Oryza sativa L. proportions added to Cunninghamia lanceolata wood. Three adhesive contents (6, 9 and 12% and three proportions of rice husk added to wood (25, 50 and 75% were combined resulting in 9 formulations of particleboards. In order to analyze the influence of each raw material in the final quality of the boards, their chemical composition was determined, including extractive, ash, lignin and holocellulose contents. Regarding the particleboards, the following physical and mechanical properties were evaluated: water absorption (WA, thickness swelling (TS, internal bonding (IB, parallel compression (PC, modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending. For both mechanical and physical properties, average values showed that lower rice husk proportions and higher adhesive contents induced to better performance. Low lignin and high ash contents found in rice husks negatively influenced particleboard quality. Among the formulations tested, the inclusion of 25% of rice husk and 9% urea-formaldehyde presented the best results. Particleboards produced in this work are potential alternatives for general applications in dry conditions that do not require high mechanical resistance. Nevertheless, the process and formulations need to be adjusted in order to reach the requirements for more demanding structural applications.

  12. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosonuma, Tomonori; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Ichiba, Noriatsu; Sakuma, Tohru; Hayashi, Daichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using low and high b-values to detect rectal cancer. The subjects were 15 patients diagnosed endoscopically with rectal cancer (m in 1 patient, sm in 0, mp in 3, ss in 7, se in 1, a in 3) and 20 patients diagnosed endoscopically with colon cancer and no other lesions (control group). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5T system. DWI was performed in the axial plane using echo planar imaging sequence (repetition time/echo time 1200/66, field of view 306 X 350 mm, reconstruction matrix 156 x 256, pixel size 2.0 x 1.4 x 8.0 mm) and acquired with 2 b-values (50 and 800 s/mm 2 ). Low and high b-value DW images were analyzed visually. A lesion was positive by detection of a focal area of high signal in the rectum in high b-value images. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of areas of high signal in high b-value images were calculated from the low and high b-value images. High b-value images enabled visualization of all 15 rectal cancers. In the control group, 13 cases were classified as negative and 7 cases as positive for rectal cancer. Sensitivity for detection of rectal cancer was 100% (15/15), and specificity was 65% (13/20). The mean ADC values in 7 patients with false-positive lesions and in 15 patients with rectal cancer were 1.374 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (standard deviation [SD]: 0.157) and 1.194 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (SD: 0.152), respectively (P=0.026). DWI with low and high b-values may be used to screen for rectal cancer. (author)

  14. Meeting the milestones. Strategies for including high-value care education in pulmonary and critical care fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Katherine R; Weinberger, Steven E; Wagner, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Physician decision making is partially responsible for the roughly 30% of U.S. healthcare expenditures that are wasted annually on low-value care. In response to both the widespread public demand for higher-quality care and the cost crisis, payers are transitioning toward value-based payment models whereby physicians are rewarded for high-value, cost-conscious care. Furthermore, to target physicians in training to practice with cost awareness, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has created both individual objective milestones and institutional requirements to incorporate quality improvement and cost awareness into fellowship training. Subsequently, some professional medical societies have initiated high-value care educational campaigns, but the overwhelming majority target either medical students or residents in training. Currently, there are few resources available to help guide subspecialty fellowship programs to successfully design durable high-value care curricula. The resource-intensive nature of pulmonary and critical care medicine offers unique opportunities for the specialty to lead in modeling and teaching high-value care. To ensure that fellows graduate with the capability to practice high-value care, we recommend that fellowship programs focus on four major educational domains. These include fostering a value-based culture, providing a robust didactic experience, engaging trainees in process improvement projects, and encouraging scholarship. In doing so, pulmonary and critical care educators can strive to train future physicians who are prepared to provide care that is both high quality and informed by cost awareness.

  15. The prognostic value of IDH mutations and MGMT promoter status in secondary high-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratli, T A; Kirsch, M; Geiger, K; Klink, B; Leipnitz, E; Pinzer, T; Soucek, S; Schrock, E; Schrok, E; Schackert, G; Krex, D

    2012-12-01

    Reports about the prognostic value of IDH mutations and the promoter region of the O6-Methyl-guanyl-methyl-transferase gene in secondary high-grade gliomas (sHGG) are few in number. We investigated the prognostic value of IDH mutations and methylation of the promoter region of the MGMT gene in 99 patients with sHGG and analyzed the clinical course of those tumors. Patients with sHGG were screened for IDH mutations by direct sequencing, and, for promoter status of MGMT gene, by the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 48 of 99 patients (48.5 %) had secondary anaplastic gliomas (Group 1), while 51 patients had secondary glioblastomas (Group 2). The median survival time after malignant progression of all patients with sHGG and with an IDH mutation was 4 years, which is significantly longer than in patients with wild-type IDH (1.2 years, p = 0.009). Patients' survival was not significantly influenced by the tumors' MGMT promoter status, both in Group 1- 9.7 years vs. 6.1 years, methylated vs. unmethylated promoter (p = 0.330)-as well as in Group 2-1.5 years vs. 1.6 years, methylated versus unmethylated promoter (p = 0.829). In our population, the IDH mutation status was not associated with increased PFS or median survival time in sGBM patients. However, patients with secondary anaplastic glioma and IDH mutation had a significantly improved outcome. In addition, IDH mutations are a more powerful prognostic marker concerning both PFS and MS than the MGMT promoter status in those patients.

  16. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system – combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardinael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia  ×  nigra and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil – leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation – and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha−1 yr−1 down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha−1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to

  17. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system - combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Guenet, Bertrand; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Dupraz, Christian; Cozzi, Thomas; Chenu, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC) inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia × nigra) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil - leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation - and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha-1 yr-1) down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha-1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to store large amounts of carbon, especially at depth. Deep

  18. Factors That Explain the Attitude towards Statistics in High-School Students: Empirical Evidence at Technological Study Center of the Sea in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Kramer, Carlos; Limón-Suárez, Enrique; Moreno-García, Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze attitude towards statistics in high-school students using the SATS scale designed by Auzmendi (1992). The sample was 200 students from the sixth semester of the afternoon shift, who were enrolled in technical careers from the Technological Study Center of the Sea (Centro de Estudios Tecnológicos del Mar 07…

  19. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  20. Endocytotic uptake of zoledronic acid by tubular cells may explain its renal effects in cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Verhulst

    Full Text Available Zoledronic acid, a highly potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate used for the treatment of pathological bone loss, is excreted unmetabolized via the kidney if not bound to the bone. In cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound renal excretion may be associated with acute tubular necrosis. The question of how zoledronic acid is internalized by renal tubular cells has not been answered until now. In the current work, using a primary human tubular cell culture system, the pathway of cellular uptake of zoledronic acid (fluorescently/radiolabeled and its cytotoxicity were investigated. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that this primary cell culture model consistently mimics the physiological characteristics of molecular uptake/transport of the epithelium in vivo. Zoledronic acid was found to be taken up by tubular cells via fluid-phase-endocytosis (from apical and basolateral side as evidenced by its co-localization with dextran. Cellular uptake and the resulting intracellular level was twice as high from the apical side compared to the basolateral side. Furthermore, the intracellular zoledronic acid level was found to be dependent on the administered concentration and not saturable. Cytotoxic effects however, were only seen at higher administration doses and/or after longer incubation times. Although zoledronic acid is taken up by tubular cells, no net tubular transport could be measured. It is concluded that fluid-phase-endocytosis of zoledronic acid and cellular accumulation at high doses may be responsible for the acute tubular necrosis observed in some cancer patients receiving high doses of the compound.

  1. Cardiac risk scores in high-risk Hispanics and the predictive value of BNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macabasco-O'Connell, Aurelia; Danwalder, Sara; Sinha, Karabi

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to calculate cardiac risk scores in Hispanic subjects and to determine the predictive value of adding B-type natriuretic peptide in identifying those with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction as a measure of cardiovascular disease. Hispanics have higher rates of cardiovascular risk factors leading to coronary heart disease, asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Assessing cardiac risk in these groups is important to identify those at high risk for future cardiovascular events. The use of biomarkers such as B-type natriuretic peptide may increase the accuracy of risk prediction. This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design to determine the utility of the standard risk assessment tools (Adult Treatment Panel III and the Framingham Risk Scores risk calculator) and the B-type natriuretic peptide biomarker to estimate coronary heart disease risk in low-income, Hispanic participants. A sample of 71 patients (age 52 SD 11, 69% female) with multiple cardiovascular risk factors seen at an ambulatory clinic at a county facility was enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic and medical history information were obtained. Two widely used risk calculators (Adult Treatment Panel III and Framingham Risk Scores) were used to estimate 10-year coronary heart disease risk in each subject. Baseline B-type natriuretic peptide measurement and echocardiography were performed with each subject to evaluate presence of asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Receiver operating curve analyses were performed to compare predictability, sensitivity and specificity of the traditional risk scores against the B-type natriuretic peptide level to detect asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Overall mean risk scores were 5% (SD 5%) (Adult Treatment Panel III) and 10% (SD 7%) (Framingham Risk Scores). Mean B-type natriuretic peptide levels were 108·5 (SD 191·5) pg/ml. Echocardiogram results revealed a high

  2. The Birthday Problem Explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a classroom problem of probability as follows: How many people do you need in a group to ensure that the probability of at least two of them having the same birthday is greater than one-half? Answer: 23. The probability principles needed are simple enough to be accessible to advanced high school students. (PVD)

  3. Alarmingly High Segregation Frequencies of Quinolone Resistance Alleles within Human and Animal Microbiomes Are Not Explained by Direct Clinical Antibiotic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Wesley; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to human health. It is therefore important to characterize the frequency of resistance within natural bacterial environments. Many studies have focused on characterizing the frequencies with which horizontally acquired resistance genes segregate within natural bacterial populations. Yet, very little is currently understood regarding the frequency of segregation of resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics. We surveyed a large number of metagenomic datasets extracted from a large variety of host-associated and non host-associated environments for such alleles conferring resistance to three groups of broad spectrum antibiotics: streptomycin, rifamycins, and quinolones. We find notable segregation frequencies of resistance alleles occurring within the target genes of each of the three antibiotics, with quinolone resistance alleles being the most frequent and rifamycin resistance alleles being the least frequent. Resistance allele frequencies varied greatly between different phyla and as a function of environment. The frequency of quinolone resistance alleles was especially high within host-associated environments, where it averaged an alarming ∼40%. Within host-associated environments, resistance to quinolones was most often conferred by a specific resistance allele. High frequencies of quinolone resistance alleles were also found within hosts that were not directly treated with antibiotics. Therefore, the high segregation frequency of quinolone resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics in host-associated environments does not seem to be the sole result of clinical antibiotic usage. PMID:26019163

  4. Revival of high street retailing – the added value of shopping apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Demko-Rihter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and constant development of technology and social media drive every-day changes in the retail sector, modifying behaviour and power of consumers, whereby traditional brick and mortar stores are facing the risk to become obsolete. E-commerce and m-commerce offer to customer a more convenient, faster and easier way of shopping and the possibility to customize products and services to the individual needs of customers. There are different business models and tools for enhancing the on-line retail industry, which causes changes in the business of the whole retail sector, as well as in the micro and macro social and economic environment. One of consequences of increasing value of the on-line retail industry is a dropping number of customers shopping for products in brick and mortar stores in high streets and city centers. Brick and mortar retailers are exploring new ways to reach these lost shoppers. In this study an innovative application is researched that tries to bridge online and in-store shopping with an online platform (website and a smart-phone app. The aim of this platform and app is to enhance the local shopping experience by making the physical city centre available for smart-phones and tablets.

  5. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  6. Microalgae as sources of high added-value compounds--a brief review of recent work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A Catarina; Amaro, Helena M; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae have found commercial applications as natural sources of valuable macromolecules, including carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and phycocolloids. As photoautotrophs, their simple growth requirements make them attractive for bioprocesses aimed at producing high added-value compounds that are in large demand by the pharmaceutical market. A few compounds synthesized by microalgae have indeed proven to possess anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, and antitumoral features; astaxanthin, a known antioxidant produced by Haematococcus pluvialis, is an illustrative example with important anti-inflammatory and antitumoral roles. From a chemical standpoint, several such compounds are polysaccharides or long chain fatty acids, where the latter can be either saturated or unsaturated. Additionally, their chemical structures are often atypical, whereas their concentrations can exceed those found in many other natural sources. The productivity and biochemical composition of microalgae depend strongly on the mode of cultivation, medium composition, and nutrient profile. Consequently, numerous efforts aimed at elucidating the practical impacts of the aforementioned parameters have been developed. This review accordingly covers the knowledge produced in the last two decades on the uses of microalgae to obtain physiologically active compounds, and on the optimization of the underlying production and purification processes. It also identifies major gaps and opportunities in this field that should be addressed or exploited in the near future. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  7. Investigating the added values of high frequency energy consumption data using data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ying; Engström, Christopher; Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Wallin, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we apply data-mining techniques to customer classification and clustering tasks on actual electricity consumption data from 350 Swedish households. For the classification task we classify households into different categories based on some statistical attributes of their energy consumption measurements. For the clustering task, we use average daily load diagrams to partition electricity-consuming households into distinct groups. The data contains electricity consumption measurements on each 10-minute time interval for each light source and electrical appliance. We perform the classification and clustering tasks using four variants of processed data sets corresponding to the 10-minute total electricity consumption aggregated from all electrical sources, the hourly total consumption aggregated over all 10-minute intervals during that clock hour, the total consumption over each four-hour intervals and finally the daily total consumption. The goal is to see if there are any differences in using data sets of various frequency levels. We present the comparison results and investigate the added value of the high-frequency measurements, for example 10-minute measurements, in terms of its influence on customer clustering and classification.

  8. Deformation of Cases in High Capacitance Value Wet Tantalum Capacitors under Environmental Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Internal gas pressure in hermetic wet tantalum capacitors is created by air, electrolyte vapor, and gas generated by electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. This pressure increases substantially with temperature and time of operation due to excessive leakage currents. Deformation of the case occurs when the internal pressure exceeds pressure of the environments and can raise significantly when a part operates in space. Contrary to the cylinder case wet tantalum capacitors that have external sealing by welding and internal sealing provided by the Teflon bushing and crimping of the case, no reliable internal sealing exists in the button case capacitors. Single seal design capacitors are used for high capacitance value wet tantalum capacitors manufactured per DLA L&M drawings #04003, 04005, and 10011, and require additional analysis to assure their reliable application in space systems. In this work, leakage currents and case deformation of button case capacitors were measured during different environmental test conditions. Recommendations for derating, screening and qualification testing are given. This work is a continuation of a series of NEPP reports related to quality and reliability of wet tantalum capacitors.

  9. DETERMINANTS OF SMALLHOLDERS’ PREFERENCE TO HYBRIDS – PROSPECT FOR UPGRADING TO HIGH-VALUE FOOD CHAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Ejigu Alemu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid coordination systems (marketing cooperatives and contracts are in place in agriculture to link smallholder farmers to the global agri-food value chains. With the framework of transaction cost economics, this study, however, is particularly designed to investigate the key determinants pushing dairy farmers to hybrids (marketing cooperatives and contracts, viz. spot market channels in the local food chains. A household survey of 415 smallholder dairy farmers was designed. Data collection was administered using trained enumerators. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to analyze data and to identify the signifi cant determinants. The results indicate that high transaction costs and resource constraints were found driving farmers to cooperative engagement and contracts, implying that hybrids were found to be a solution to farmers’ constraints of access to information and institutional absence, as well as resource constraints. Policy makers and development partners are advised to strengthen cooperative societies and contract enforcement mechanisms. Providing information and resources to increase smallholders’ capacity with resources appear to be interventions which will enable the agricultural marketing system to properly function by serving smallholders in linking to the global food chains.

  10. Toward high value sensing: monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles in multivariable gas and vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A

    2017-08-29

    For detection of gases and vapors in complex backgrounds, "classic" analytical instruments are an unavoidable alternative to existing sensors. Recently a new generation of sensors, known as multivariable sensors, emerged with a fundamentally different perspective for sensing to eliminate limitations of existing sensors. In multivariable sensors, a sensing material is designed to have diverse responses to different gases and vapors and is coupled to a multivariable transducer that provides independent outputs to recognize these diverse responses. Data analytics tools provide rejection of interferences and multi-analyte quantitation. This review critically analyses advances of multivariable sensors based on ligand-functionalized metal nanoparticles also known as monolayer-protected nanoparticles (MPNs). These MPN sensing materials distinctively stand out from other sensing materials for multivariable sensors due to their diversity of gas- and vapor-response mechanisms as provided by organic and biological ligands, applicability of these sensing materials for broad classes of gas-phase compounds such as condensable vapors and non-condensable gases, and for several principles of signal transduction in multivariable sensors that result in non-resonant and resonant electrical sensors as well as material- and structure-based photonic sensors. Such features should allow MPN multivariable sensors to be an attractive high value addition to existing analytical instrumentation.

  11. Production of High Commercial Value Xylooligosaccharides from Meranti Wood Sawdust Using Immobilised Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukri, Siti Sabrina Mohd; Mimi Sakinah, A M

    2018-01-01

    The present study explores the utilisation of a new raw material from lignocellulose biomass, Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) for high commercial value xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production using immobilised xylanase. The xylanase was immobilised by a combination of entrapment and covalent binding techniques. The hemicellulosic xylan from MWS was extracted using a standard chlorite delignification method. The production of total and derivatives of XOS from the degradation of the hemicellulosic xylan of MWS were compared to the production from the commercial xylan from Beechwood. The utilisation of the extracted xylan from MWS yielded 0.36 mg/mL of total XOS after 60 h of hydrolysis. During the hydrolysis reaction, the immobilised xylanase released a lower degree of polymerisation (DP) of XOS, mainly X2 and X3, which were the major products of xylan degradation by xylanase enzymes. The production of XOS with a lower DP from MWS demonstrated the biotechnological potential of the MWS in the future. The XOS production retained about 70% of its initial XOS production during the second cycle. This is also the first report on the utilisation of MWS wastes in enzymatic hydrolysis using immobilised xylanase for XOS production.

  12. Mini-review: In vitro Metabolic Engineering for Biomanufacturing of High-value Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the breakthroughs in biomolecular engineering and synthetic biology, many valuable biologically active compound and commodity chemicals have been successfully manufactured using cell-based approaches in the past decade. However, because of the high complexity of cell metabolism, the identification and optimization of rate-limiting metabolic pathways for improving the product yield is often difficult, which represents a significant and unavoidable barrier of traditional in vivo metabolic engineering. Recently, some in vitro engineering approaches were proposed as alternative strategies to solve this problem. In brief, by reconstituting a biosynthetic pathway in a cell-free environment with the supplement of cofactors and substrates, the performance of each biosynthetic pathway could be evaluated and optimized systematically. Several value-added products, including chemicals, nutraceuticals, and drug precursors, have been biosynthesized as proof-of-concept demonstrations of in vitro metabolic engineering. This mini-review summarizes the recent progresses on the emerging topic of in vitro metabolic engineering and comments on the potential application of cell-free technology to speed up the “design-build-test” cycles of biomanufacturing.

  13. Delivery and Measurement of High-Value Care in Standardized Patient Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer DeLuca; Cox, Jaclyn; Wu, Zhao Helen; Kenny, Anne; Angus, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Residencies have incorporated high-value care (HVC) training to contain health care expenditures. Assessment methods of HVC curricula are limited. In our clinical skills laboratory, we evaluated the effectiveness of HVC curricula using standardized patients (SPs) to determine if there is a correlation with performance in counseling, history and physical, HVC knowledge, and demographics. Through ambulatory cases, SPs evaluated postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents using checklists to determine if they obtained the chief complaint, medical and social history, focused physical examination, and conveyed information regarding patient management. Investigators scored knowledge-based questions on the need for imaging in low back pain, annual stress testing in coronary artery disease, and chest x-ray for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Univariate analysis was used to calculate percentage distribution of residents' ordering of inappropriate tests. All 56 PGY-2 residents participated in the study and completed at least 2 of 3 HVC cases. Analysis showed that 48% (27 of 56) ordered at least 1 inappropriate test. Residents who ordered unnecessary testing had similar performance in history and physical as well as knowledge of HVC. Inappropriate ordering was significantly associated with poorer performance in counseling (mean percentage counseling score of 68% versus 56% for those who ordered inappropriately, P ordered inappropriately, P ordering by demographics. Our evaluation of residents during SP encounters found a correlation between the use of inappropriate testing and lower counseling and communication skills.

  14. Distinct prediction errors in mesostriatal circuits of the human brain mediate learning about the values of both states and actions: evidence from high-resolution fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Jaron T; Pauli, Wolfgang M; Larsen, Tobias; Tyszka, J Michael; O'Doherty, John P

    2017-10-01

    Prediction-error signals consistent with formal models of "reinforcement learning" (RL) have repeatedly been found within dopaminergic nuclei of the midbrain and dopaminoceptive areas of the striatum. However, the precise form of the RL algorithms implemented in the human brain is not yet well determined. Here, we created a novel paradigm optimized to dissociate the subtypes of reward-prediction errors that function as the key computational signatures of two distinct classes of RL models-namely, "actor/critic" models and action-value-learning models (e.g., the Q-learning model). The state-value-prediction error (SVPE), which is independent of actions, is a hallmark of the actor/critic architecture, whereas the action-value-prediction error (AVPE) is the distinguishing feature of action-value-learning algorithms. To test for the presence of these prediction-error signals in the brain, we scanned human participants with a high-resolution functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol optimized to enable measurement of neural activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the striatal areas to which it projects. In keeping with the actor/critic model, the SVPE signal was detected in the substantia nigra. The SVPE was also clearly present in both the ventral striatum and the dorsal striatum. However, alongside these purely state-value-based computations we also found evidence for AVPE signals throughout the striatum. These high-resolution fMRI findings suggest that model-free aspects of reward learning in humans can be explained algorithmically with RL in terms of an actor/critic mechanism operating in parallel with a system for more direct action-value learning.

  15. Rainforest Pharmacopeia in Madagascar Provides High Value for Current Local and Prospective Global Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Christopher D.; Rasolofoniaina, B. J. Rodolph; Anjaranirina, E. J. Gasta; Nicolas, Lilien; Ravaoliny, Laurent; Kremen, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Botanical diversity provides value to humans through carbon sequestration, air and water purification, and the provisioning of wild foods and ethnomedicines. Here we calculate the value of botanical ethnomedicines in a rainforest region of Madagascar, the Makira Protected Area, using a substitution method that combines replacement costs and choice modeling. The Makira watershed may comprise approximately 0.8% of global botanical diversity and possesses enormous value both in its ability to pr...

  16. Highly Perturbed pKa Values in the Unfolded State of Hen Egg White Lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John; O'Meara, Fergal; Farrell, Damien; Nielsen, Jens Erik

    2012-01-01

    The majority of pKa values in protein unfolded states are close to the amino acid model pKa values, thus reflecting the weak intramolecular interactions present in the unfolded ensemble of most proteins. We have carried out thermal denaturation measurements on the WT and eight mutants of HEWL from pH 1.5 to pH 11.0 to examine the unfolded state pKa values and the pH dependence of protein stability for this enzyme. The availability of accurate pKa values for the folded state of HEWL and separa...

  17. Molecular Docking Explains Atomic Interaction between Plant-originated Ligands and Oncogenic E7 Protein of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. In the last few decades, various compounds from plant origin such as Curcumin, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, Jaceosidin, Resveratrol etc. have been used as anti cancer therapeutic agents. Different studies have shown these plant-originated compounds are able to suppress HPV infection. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV play a key role in HPV related cancers. In this study, we explored these ligands from plants origin against E7 oncoprotein of high risk HPV 16, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor pRb protein. A robust homology model of HPV 16 E7 was built to foresee the interaction mechanism of E7 oncoprotein with these ligands using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking studies demonstrate the interaction of these ligands with pRb binding site of E7 protein by residues Tyr52, Asn53, Val55, Phe57, Cys59, Ser63, Thr64, Thr72, Arg77, Glu80 and Asp81 and help restoration of pRb functioning. This in silico based atomic interaction between these ligands and E7 protein may assist in validating the plant-originated ligands as effective drugs against HPV.

  18. Explaining the mechanisms through which regional atmospheric circulation variability drives summer temperatures and glacial melt in western High Mountain Asia (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Li, Xiaofeng; Pritchard, David

    2017-04-01

    Comprehension of mechanisms by which atmospheric circulation influences sub-regional temperature and water resources variability in high-elevation mountainous catchments is of great scientific urgency due to the dependency of large downstream populations on the river flows these basins provide. In this work we quantify a regional atmospheric pattern, the Karakoram Zonal Shear (KZS), with a very pronounced annual cycle which we standardise into a dimensionless (seasonal) circulation metric the Karakoram Zonal Index (KZI). Going beyond previous regional circulation metrics such as the "middle-upper tropospheric temperature index" (MUTTI) or the Webster and Yang Monsoonal Index (WYMI) which have focused solely on the South Asian Summer Monsoon (June to September) season, the KZS/KZI provides an indicator which captures the influence and interactions of the westerly jet throughout the entire annual cycle. Use of the KZS and KZI have led us to identify a further regional atmospheric system, the Karakoram Vortex, which propagates "warm high" (anticyclonic postitive temperature anomaly) and "cold low" (cyclonic negative temperature anomaly) patterns across a very broad swath of Central and South Asia in winter but over a much more constrained area of western HMA in summer. The KV exerts this temperature influence through a combination of adiabatic effects and large-scale advection. Quantify KV influence, the KZI shows strong and statistically significantly near surface (2m) air temperatures both across western HMA both as observed through local meteorological stations and as estimated by an ensemble of global meteorological reanalyses. We show that this strong influence on temperature translates to important consequences for meltwater generation from highly glaciated Indus river tributaries which is logical given that previous studies have established the role of air temperature in modulating glacially-derived river flows in western HMA. By improving the understanding of

  19. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  20. Getting a head in hard soils: Convergent skull evolution and divergent allometric patterns explain shape variation in a highly diverse genus of pocket gophers (Thomomys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcy, Ariel E; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Sherratt, Emma; Garland, Kathleen; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-10-10

    High morphological diversity can occur in closely related animals when selection favors morphologies that are subject to intrinsic biological constraints. A good example is subterranean rodents of the genus Thomomys, one of the most taxonomically and morphologically diverse mammalian genera. Highly procumbent, tooth-digging rodent skull shapes are often geometric consequences of increased body size. Indeed, larger-bodied Thomomys species tend to inhabit harder soils. We used geometric morphometric analyses to investigate the interplay between soil hardness (the main extrinsic selection pressure on fossorial mammals) and allometry (i.e. shape change due to size change; generally considered the main intrinsic factor) on crania and humeri in this fast-evolving mammalian clade. Larger Thomomys species/subspecies tend to have more procumbent cranial shapes with some exceptions, including a small-bodied species inhabiting hard soils. Counter to earlier suggestions, cranial shape within Thomomys does not follow a genus-wide allometric pattern as even regional subpopulations differ in allometric slopes. In contrast, humeral shape varies less with body size and with soil hardness. Soft-soil taxa have larger humeral muscle attachment sites but retain an orthodont (non-procumbent) cranial morphology. In intermediate soils, two pairs of sister taxa diverge through differential modifications on either the humerus or the cranium. In the hardest soils, both humeral and cranial morphology are derived through large muscle attachment sites and a high degree of procumbency. Our results show that conflict between morphological function and intrinsic allometric patterning can quickly and differentially alter the rodent skeleton, especially the skull. In addition, we found a new case of convergent evolution of incisor procumbency among large-, medium-, and small-sized species inhabiting hard soils. This occurs through different combinations of allometric and non-allometric changes

  1. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup

  2. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  3. High and low value fish chains in the Mekong Delta: challenges for livelihoods and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vo Thi Thanh Loc,; Bush, S.R.; Xuan Sinh, Le; Nguyen Tri Khiem,

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure, function and wealth distribution within the Pangasius hypophthalmus and Henicorhynchus spp./Labiobarbus spp. value chains in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The analysis is driven by key questions relating to the form and function of value chains, their

  4. Measuring the attractiveness of Dutch landscapes: Identifying national hotspots of highly valued places using Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de S.; Buijs, A.E.; Langers, F.; Farjon, F.; Hinsberg, van A.; Sijtsma, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) or an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), determining the value that the general public attaches to a landscape is often problematic. To aid the inclusion of this social value in such analyses, a Google Maps-based tool, called the HotSpotMonitor (HSM), was

  5. High performance of histidine-rich protein 2 based rapid diagnostic tests in French Guiana are explained by the absence of pfhrp2 gene deletion in P. falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Trouvay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Care for malaria patients in endemic areas has been improved through the increasing use of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs. Most RDTs target the histidine-rich protein-2 antigen (PfHRP2 to detect P. falciparum, as it is abundant and shows great heat stability. However, their use in South America has been widely questioned following a recent publication that pinpoints the high prevalence of Peruvian field isolates lacking the gene encoding this protein. In the remote rural health centers of French Guiana, RDTs are the main diagnosis tools. Therefore, a study of PfHRP2 RDT performances and pfhrp2 genotyping was conducted to determine whether a replacement of the current pLDH-based kit could be considered. METHODS: The performance study compared the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit with the current gold standard diagnosis by microscopy. The prevalence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deletions were evaluated from 221 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 in French Guiana. RESULTS: Between January 2010 and August 2011, 960 suspected cases of malaria were analyzed using microscopy and RDTs. The sensitivity of the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® for detection of P. falciparum was 96.8% (95% CI: 90.9-99.3, and 86.0% (95% CI: 78.9-91.5 for the detection of P. vivax. No isolates (95% CI: 0-4.5 lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene were identified among the 221 P. falciparum isolates analyzed, but 7.4% (95% CI: 2.8-15.4 lacked the exon 2 part of the pfhrp3 gene. CONCLUSIONS: Field isolates lacking either exon of the pfhrp2 gene are absent in this western part of South America. Despite its sensibility to detect P. vivax, the SD Malaria Ag test P.f/Pan® kit is a satisfying alternative to microscopy in remote health centers, where it is difficult to provide highly skilled microscopists and to maintain the necessary equipment.

  6. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...

  7. Astaxanthin-producing green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: from single cell to high value commercial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahfuzur Rahman Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as super anti-oxidant. Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. Thanks to many researches it is now evident, that astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future. Thus, this comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide towards economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  8. Astaxanthin-Producing Green Microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: From Single Cell to High Value Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Md Mahfuzur R; Liang, Yuanmei; Cheng, Jay J; Daroch, Maurycy

    2016-01-01

    Many species of microalgae have been used as source of nutrient rich food, feed, and health promoting compounds. Among the commercially important microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis is the richest source of natural astaxanthin which is considered as "super anti-oxidant." Natural astaxanthin produced by H. pluvialis has significantly greater antioxidant capacity than the synthetic one. Astaxanthin has important applications in the nutraceuticals, cosmetics, food, and aquaculture industries. It is now evident that, astaxanthin can significantly reduce free radicals and oxidative stress and help human body maintain a healthy state. With extraordinary potency and increase in demand, astaxanthin is one of the high-value microalgal products of the future.This comprehensive review summarizes the most important aspects of the biology, biochemical composition, biosynthesis, and astaxanthin accumulation in the cells of H. pluvialis and its wide range of applications for humans and animals. In this paper, important and recent developments ranging from cultivation, harvest and postharvest bio-processing technologies to metabolic control and genetic engineering are reviewed in detail, focusing on biomass and astaxanthin production from this biotechnologically important microalga. Simultaneously, critical bottlenecks and major challenges in commercial scale production; current and prospective global market of H. pluvialis derived astaxanthin are also presented in a critical manner. A new biorefinery concept for H. pluvialis has been also suggested to guide toward economically sustainable approach for microalgae cultivation and processing. This report could serve as a useful guide to present current status of knowledge in the field and highlight key areas for future development of H. pluvialis astaxanthin technology and its large scale commercial implementation.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  10. Fretting and Corrosion Between a Metal Shell and Metal Liner May Explain the High Rate of Failure of R3 Modular Metal-on-Metal Hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Kevin C; Derby, Emma J; Whittaker, Robert K; Blunn, Gordon W; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2017-05-01

    The R3 acetabular system used with its metal liner has higher revision rates when compared to its ceramic and polyethylene liner. In June 2012, the medical and healthcare products regulatory agency issued an alert regarding the metal liner of the R3 acetabular system. Six retrieved R3 acetabular systems with metal liners underwent detailed visual analysis using macroscopic and microscopic techniques. Visual analysis discovered corrosion on the backside of the metal liners. There was a distinct border to the areas of corrosion that conformed to antirotation tab insertions on the inner surface of the acetabular shell, which are for the polyethylene liner. Scanning electron microscopy indicated evidence of crevice corrosion, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed corrosion debris rich in titanium. The high failure rate of the metal liner option of the R3 acetabular system may be attributed to corrosion on the backside of the liner which appear to result from geometry and design characteristics of the acetabular shell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a pathway for high-value, patient-centered total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Citters, Aricca D; Fahlman, Cheryl; Goldmann, Donald A; Lieberman, Jay R; Koenig, Karl M; DiGioia, Anthony M; O'Donnell, Beth; Martin, John; Federico, Frank A; Bankowitz, Richard A; Nelson, Eugene C; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-05-01

    level. We developed a multidisciplinary clinical care pathway for patients undergoing TJA based on principles of high-value care. The pathway is ready for clinical testing and context-specific adaptation. Level V, therapeutic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Prognostic value of high IMP3 expression in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen L

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Luyao Chen,1,2,* Yongpeng Xie,3,* Xintao Li,1 Liangyou Gu,1 Yu Gao,1 Lu Tang,1 Jianwen Chen,1 Xu Zhang1 1Department of Urology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang; 3School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Accumulated studies have investigated the prognostic role of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3 in various cancers, but inconsistent and controversial results were obtained. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the potential value of IMP3 in the prognostic prediction of human solid tumors. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search in the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library (updated to April 2016 was conducted to identify eligible studies. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for survival outcomes were calculated and gathered using STATA 12.0 software. Results: A total of 53 studies containing 8,937 patients with solid tumors were included in this meta-analysis. High IMP3 expression was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS of solid tumors (HR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.80–2.42, P<0.001. Similar results were observed in cancer-specific survival (CSS, disease-free survival (DFS, recurrence-free survival (RFS, progression-free survival (PFS, and metastasis-free survival (MFS. Further subgroup analysis stratified by tumor type showed that elevated IMP3 expression was associated with poor OS in renal cell carcinoma (RCC, lung cancer, oral cancer, urothelial carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that high IMP3 expression is associated with poor prognosis in most solid tumors. IMP3 is

  13. High predictive value of brain MRI imaging in primary mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaurepaire, Isaure; Grévent, David; Rio, Marlène; Desguerre, Isabelle; de Lonlay, Pascale; Levy, Raphaël; Dangouloff-Ros, Volodia; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Barcia, Giulia; Funalot, Benoit; Besmond, Claude; Metodiev, Metodi D; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Assouline, Zahra; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Boddaert, Nathalie

    2018-01-22

    Because the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) is ubiquitous, its deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom in any organ or tissue at any age with any mode of inheritance, owing to the twofold genetic origin of respiratory enzyme machinery, that is, nuclear and mitochondrial. Not all respiratory enzyme deficiencies are primary and secondary or artefactual deficiency is frequently observed, leading to a number of misleading conclusions and inappropriate investigations in clinical practice. This study is aimed at investigating the potential role of brain MRI in distinguishing primary RC deficiency from phenocopies and other aetiologies. Starting from a large series of 189 patients (median age: 3.5 years (8 days-56 years), 58% males) showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency, for whom both brain MRIs and disease-causing mutations were available, we retrospectively studied the positive predictive value (PPV) and the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of brain MRI imaging and its ability to discriminate between two groups: primary deficiency of the mitochondrial RC machinery and phenocopies. Detection of (1) brainstem hyperintensity with basal ganglia involvement (P≤0.001) and (2) lactate peak with either brainstem or basal ganglia hyperintensity was highly suggestive of primary RC deficiency (P≤0.01). Fourteen items had a PPV>95% and LR+ was greater than 9 for seven signs. Biallelic SLC19A3 mutations represented the main differential diagnosis. Non-significant differences between the two groups were found for cortical/subcortical atrophy, leucoencephalopathy and involvement of caudate nuclei, spinothalamic tract and corpus callosum. Based on these results and owing to invasiveness of skeletal muscle biopsies and cost of high-throughput DNA sequencing, we suggest giving consideration to brain MRI imaging as a diagnostic marker and an informative investigation to be performed in patients showing signs of RC enzyme deficiency. © Article author(s) (or their

  14. Value co-creation in high involvement services: the animal healthcare sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pyatt, A.Z.; Wright, G.; Walley, K.; Bleach, E.C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This paper investigates the significance of value c\\ud o-creation to the UK animal healthcare sector from \\ud the perspective of the key industry stakeholders: clients, veterinarians and paraprofessionals. \\ud Design \\ud Value co-creation constructs in the sector were identified and measured using a mixed methods approach comprised of qualitative NVivo thematic analysis of depth interviews (n=13) and quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis n=271). \\ud Findings \\ud Qualitative res...

  15. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  16. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF HIGH VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE AND MAJOR FACTORS OF ITS INCREASING: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş CIMPOIEŞ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The key-factors of competitiveness of high value added agriculture of the Republic of Moldova and their great importance in increasing the national wealth of the country are analyzed in this paper. The wealth of a country in terms of competitiveness represents the level in which the country, in conditions of the market economy, produces goods and services to satisfy the global market requirements, thus increasing the real income of the citizens of the country. In this context, factors which have an indispensable contribution in increasing the competitiveness of the high value agriculture are: exports, Foreign Direct Investments, innovations, the role of the state institutions, the business climate and others. By the fact how the state contributes by its agricultural policies to attract FDI, to increase exports, to apply innovations and high technologies in the process of obtaining high value agricultural products depends the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of the country

  17. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  18. Explaining Global Secularity: Existential Security or Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude M. J. Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available At the time of data analysis for this report there were 193 countries in the world. Various institutions – the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the CIA, the World Values Survey, Gallup, and many others – have performed sophisticated statistical analyses on cross-national data. The present investigation demonstrates that valid and reliable data concerning religiosity and secularity exist for most countries and that these data are comparable. Cross-national data relating to social, political, economic and cultural aspects of life were tested for correlation with religiosity/secularity. In contrast to the most widely accepted general account of secularity, the Existential Security Framework (ESF; Norris & Inglehart, 2004, secularity was not most highly related to material security, though these were highly related. Rather, secularity was most strongly related to the degree of formal education attained. Material security explained no significant variance beyond education. Thus, religion’s primary function in the world today is being replaced, not so much by the pseudo-materialistic supplication for better living conditions as posited by the ESF, but by contemporary education – extensive knowledge of contemporary cultures, philosophy, modes of thought or processes of reasoning.

  19. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Karnieli-Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values, using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  20. Mo- and V-catalyzed transformation of biomass into high-value chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Bo; Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society.......The possibility of converting biomass into higher-value chemicals has received increased attention over the last few years. If biomass could be converted into biofules or platform chemicals, then it could constitute a large source of renewable energy and economy for society....

  1. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  2. Demand Forecasting: DLA’S Aviation Supply Chain High Value Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    5 B. ABC INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION...SUMMARY OF FY2010 TO FY2013 AVIATION SUPPLY CHAIN ......20 D. INVENTORY CLASSIFICATION: ABC CLASSIFICATION METHOD...of discussions include: A. Service level, fill rate, and conditional value at risk B. ABC inventory classification C. Statistical-analysis

  3. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  4. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal...... contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy....

  5. A biorefinery for Nannochloropsis: Induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Elvis T; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have been studied as biofactories for almost four decades. Yet, even until today, many aspects of microalgae farming and processing are still considered exploratory because of the uniqueness of each microalgal species. Thus, it is important to develop the entire process of microalgae farming: from culturing to harvesting, and down to extracting the desired high-value products. Based on its rapid growth and high oil productivities, Nannochloropsis sp. is of particular interest to many industries for the production of high-value oil containing omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but also several other products. This review compares the various techniques for induction, harvesting, and extraction of EPA-rich oil and high-value protein explored by academia and industry to develop a multi-product Nannochloropsis biorefinery. Knowledge gaps and opportunities are discussed for culturing and inducing fatty acid biosynthesis, biomass harvesting, and extracting EPA-rich oil and high-value protein from the biomass of Nannochloropsis sp. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  7. Formulation of gluten-free flour culinary products of high nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Dombrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the production of gluten-free foods that are necessary for people suffering from this disease as celiac disease. The article reveals the relevance of developing recipes for gluten-free foods, which are not inferior to traditional in many respects. Classic recipes gluten-free bakery products, mainly based on rice, buckwheat, corn flour, which have little nutritional value. In this regard, the current development of technologies and formulations pastry dishes with use of nonconventional vegetable raw materials rich in dietary fibers, proteins and other beneficial substances that improve the biological and nutritional value of these products. The paper describes the formulation of gluten-free muffins, was based on the recipe of the cake "Capital". The main raw material for the new compositions of selected rice flour, and as enriching additives – flax flour and flour from the eggshell. Was conducted baking tests on the basis of which was chosen percentage of the input substances and the assessment of quality of semifinished and finished products. The quality of semi-finished products was evaluated by such indicators as humidity and the microstructure of the test. The quality of finished products was assessed using organoleptic and physical-chemical parameters, the results presented in the tables. Investigated the antioxidant activity of products. Produced sensometrical evaluation of aroma of control and experimental samples. Calculated chemical composition. The content of protein, vitamins, mineral substances in the experimental sample is significantly increased compared to control. Making flour egg shell has achieved the ratio of Ca-Mg-P as close to a perfect 1:0,39:1,53 Replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed and rice flour and the introduction of egg shell improve the amino acid composition of the product. The biological value increased by 2.3%.

  8. One-dimensional mean computed tomography value evaluation of ground-glass opacity on high-resolution images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitami, Akihiko; Kamio, Yoshito; Hayashi, Shoko; Suzuki, Kosuke; Uematsu, Shugo; Gen, Ryozo; Suzuki, Takashi; Kadokura, Mitsutaka

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), and invasive carcinoma on computed tomography (CT) is useful for determining ''follow-up or resection'' strategies for lesions displaying ground-glass opacity (GGO). The purpose of this study is to evaluate one-dimensional quantitative CT values of GGO on high-resolution CT (HRCT) images using computer-aided diagnosis. Between April 2001 and March 2010, a total of 44 nodules in 42 patients with pure or mixed GGOs ≤2 cm were retrospectively evaluated. Maximum diameter and one-dimensional mean CT (m-CT) value of the diameter were measured using a computer graphics support system (HOPE/DrABLE-EX, Fujitsu, Tokyo, Japan) that displays a CT density profile across the tumor. m-CT values were -682±64 hounsfield unit (HU) (range) for AAH lesions, -544±179 (range) for Type A lesions, -496±147 (range) for Type B lesions, and -371±142 (range) for invasive lesions. AAH lesions had a significantly lower m-CT value than Type B lesions. AAH, Type A, and Type B lesions had significantly lower m-CT values than invasive lesions (p 1 cm and m-CT value >-600 HU were invasive lesions. Observation may be indicated for GGO lesions with a maximum diameter ≤1 cm and m-CT value ≤-600 HU. (author)

  9. High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godi, Claudia; De Vita, Enrico; Davagnanam, Indran; Tombetti, Enrico; Haddow, Lewis; Jaeger, Hans Rolf

    2017-01-01

    An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm 2 (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm 2 (b1000). We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI. The rim and core of each PML lesion and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were outlined on trace-weighted DWI. Signal intensities, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and volumes were measured and compared between b1000 and b3000. Nine lesions from seven patients were analysed. The rim and core were better visualised on b3000, with higher signal of the rim and lower signal of the core compared to NAWM. The hyperintense rim had non-restricted average ADCs, but included foci of low ADC on both b3000 and b1000. Despite similar total lesion volumes, b3000 displayed significantly larger core and smaller rim volumes than b1000. b3000 improves visualisation of this important PML hallmark. Moreover, b3000 partly reclassifies tissue from rim into core, and might provide potentially more accurate biomarkers of PML activity and prognosis. (orig.)

  10. High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godi, Claudia [San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Neuroradiology Department, Milan (Italy); The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); De Vita, Enrico; Davagnanam, Indran [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Tombetti, Enrico [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); Haddow, Lewis [University College London, Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, Research Department of Infection and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Jaeger, Hans Rolf [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); University College Hospital, Centre of Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    An ill-defined hyperintense edge and hypointense core on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is typical of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). We aimed to investigate whether a b-value of 3,000 s/mm{sup 2} (b3000) can improve visualisation of PML, or provide different structural information compared to 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} (b1000). We retrospectively identified HIV-positive patients with confirmed PML studied under a clinical protocol including both b1000 and b3000 DWI. The rim and core of each PML lesion and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) were outlined on trace-weighted DWI. Signal intensities, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and volumes were measured and compared between b1000 and b3000. Nine lesions from seven patients were analysed. The rim and core were better visualised on b3000, with higher signal of the rim and lower signal of the core compared to NAWM. The hyperintense rim had non-restricted average ADCs, but included foci of low ADC on both b3000 and b1000. Despite similar total lesion volumes, b3000 displayed significantly larger core and smaller rim volumes than b1000. b3000 improves visualisation of this important PML hallmark. Moreover, b3000 partly reclassifies tissue from rim into core, and might provide potentially more accurate biomarkers of PML activity and prognosis. (orig.)

  11. Pharmaceutical high profits: the value of R&D, or oligopolistic rents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Janet; Wickham, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical firms attribute high prices and high profits to costs associated with researching and developing the next generation of life-saving drugs. Using data from annual reports, this article tests the validity of this claim. We find that while pharmaceutical firms do invest in R&D, they also enjoy strong rents; between 1988 and 2009, pharmaceuticals enjoyed profits of 3 to 37 times the all-industry average, depending on the years, while investing proportionately less in R&D than other high-R&D firms. Costs of pharmaceutical drugs have successfully flown below the radar in much of the current health care debate, with producers managing to obstruct alternative sourcing as well as payment cuts. While health care is examined for savings in other areas, sustained high pharmaceutical profits suggest that as a new health care policy develops in the U.S., the pharmaceutical industry should not be excluded from examination for significant savings in health care costs.

  12. Converting biowaste corncob residue into high value added porous carbon for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-Hui; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, An-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Li, Wen-Cui

    2015-08-01

    In this report, corncob residue, the main by-product in the furfural industry, is used as a precursor to prepare porous carbon by a simple and direct thermal treatment: one-step activation without pre-carbonization. As a consequence, the corncob residue derived porous carbon achieves a high surface area of 1210 m(2) g(-1) after ash-removal. The carbon material has the advantages of low cost and low environmental impact, with a superior electrochemical performance compared to those polymer-based synthetic carbons as electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon electrode exhibits a high capacitance of 314 F g(-1) in 6M KOH electrolyte. The corresponding sample also shows a superb cycling stability. Almost no capacitance decay was observed after 100,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance is due to the combination of a high specific surface area with a fraction of mesopores and highly stable structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced.

  14. Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, M.A. (Miguel Angel); Sorli, J.V. (José Vicente); Basora, J. (Josep); Pinto, X. (Xavier); Serra-Majem, L. (Lluis); Aros, F. (Fernando); Fito, M. (Montserrat); Santos, J.M. (José Manuel); Fiol, M. (Miquel); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Corella, D. (Dolores); Salas-Salvado, J. (Jordi); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Estruch, R. (Ramón); Mejia-Lancheros, C. (Cilia)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional study, embedded within the PREDIMED clinical trial, of 5954 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular...

  15. High Technology Service Value Maximization through an MCDM-Based Innovative e-Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yo; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung; Ho, Wen-Rong; Chuang, Hsiu-Tyan; Lue, Yeou-Feng

    The emergence of the Internet has changed the high technology marketing channels thoroughly in the past decade while E-commerce has already become one of the most efficient channels which high technology firms may skip the intermediaries and reach end customers directly. However, defining appropriate e-business models for commercializing new high technology products or services through Internet are not that easy. To overcome the above mentioned problems, a novel analytic framework based on the concept of high technology customers’ competence set expansion by leveraging high technology service firms’ capabilities and resources as well as novel multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques, will be proposed in order to define an appropriate e-business model. An empirical example study of a silicon intellectual property (SIP) commercialization e-business model based on MCDM techniques will be provided for verifying the effectiveness of this novel analytic framework. The analysis successful assisted a Taiwanese IC design service firm to define an e-business model for maximizing its customer’s SIP transactions. In the future, the novel MCDM framework can be applied successful to novel business model definitions in the high technology industry.

  16. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C; Nahil, MA; Miskolczi, N; Huang, J; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-refo...

  17. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah; Akram Khalili; Mohamad Tajuddin Mohamad Rasdi

    2015-01-01

    The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD) housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim...

  18. Agricultural practices, ecosystem services and sustainability in High Nature Value farmland: Unraveling the perceptions of farmers and nonfarmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernués, Alberto; Tello-García, Elena; Rodríguez-Ortega, Tamara; Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Casasús, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the perceptions of farmers and nonfarmers regarding the relationships between agriculture and the environment in High Nature Value (HNV) farmland. We performed content analysis of information obtained from five focus groups to derive key items (recording units such as words,

  19. Biological potential of microalgae in China for biorefinery-based production of biofuels and high value compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Jay J; Mos, Michal; Daroch, Maurycy

    2015-12-25

    Microalgae abundance and diversity in China shows promise for identifying suitable strains for developing algal biorefinery. Numerous strains of microalgae have already been assessed as feedstocks for bioethanol and biodiesel production, but commercial scale algal biofuel production is yet to be demonstrated, most likely due to huge energy costs associated with algae cultivation, harvesting and processing. Biorefining, integrated processes for the conversion of biomass into a variety of products, can improve the prospects of microalgal biofuels by combining them with the production of high value co-products. Numerous microalgal strains in China have been identified as producers of various high value by-products with wide application in the medicine, food, and cosmetics industries. This paper reviews microalgae resources in China and their potential in producing liquid biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and high value products in an integrated biorefinery approach. Implementation of a 'high value product first' principle should make the integrated process of fuels and chemicals production economically feasible and will ensure that public and private interest in the development of microalgal biotechnology is maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Critical success factors for smallholder inclusion in high value-adding supply chains by food & agribusiness multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjauw-Koen-Fa, August R.; Blok, Vincent; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Food and Agribusiness Multinational Enterprises (F&A MNEs) increasingly wish to source from smallholders to secure and stabilize the supply of agricultural commodities in high value-adding supply chains, while contributing positively to smallholder livelihood. In the literature we found that

  1. Value of digital high-speed endoscopy in addition to videofluoroscopic imaging of the neoglottis in tracheoesophageal speech.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, C.J. van; Coul, B.M.R. op de; Eysholdt, U.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the clinical value of using the relatively new evaluation tool digital high-speed endoscopy in addition to the widely used method of videofluoroscopy for imaging of the neoglottis in tracheoesophageal speech after total laryngectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anatomical

  2. Nutritive value of high and low tanin content of sorghum high moisture silage for horses - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.10575

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Carolina de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There were used eight castrated male horses, crosbred. It was used randomized completely design.  The objective was to evaluate the nutritive value of high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low (SLT and high (SHT tannin in the feeding equine. The treatments consisted of two test-diets containing SLT or SHT, replacing 30% of dry matter (DM of the reference-diet, constitued by only hay. The values of digestibility coefficients (DC of nutrients SLT and SHT had differences for DCDM, DCOM, DCCE, DCCP and DCStarch, whose means values were 79.53, 84.54, 79.36, 76.11 and 100% to SLT e 60.29, 64.47, 59.38, 44.63 and 97.06% to SHT, respectively. It was concluded that high-moisture grains silage of sorghum with low tannin should be used in equine nutrition, this is an alternative feed.  

  3. Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e±niα. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.

  4. Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Alekseev, E. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin–overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = − 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric “torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators” by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e ±niα . The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A 1 and A 2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.

  5. High diagnostic value of general practitioners' presumptive diagnosis for pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sriskandarajah, Srishamanthi; Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Frydkjær-Olsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    by the GP in a population acutely referred to an ED. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all registered acute referrals for admission to Kolding ED in 2010. Eight presumptive diagnoses were selected for further studies: meningitis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), pulmonary embolism, pneumonia......, pancreatitis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pyelonephritis and intestinal obstruction. The presumptive diagnoses were compared with the final diagnosis on discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 8,841 patients were enrolled. The highest...... for pneumonia (59%). For pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis, the likelihood ratio of a positive test was above 10. The likelihood ratio of a negative test was above 0.1 for all diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred with the presumptive diagnoses pyelonephritis, meningitis and pancreatitis had...

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. RESULTS: A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise...... intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...

  7. Learning Where to Look for High Value Improves Decision Making Asymmetrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaron T. Colas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value. Eye movements leading up to choices demonstrated rapidly induced biases in the selective allocation of visual fixation and attention that were accompanied by both faster and more accurate choices of desired goods as implicit learning occurred. However, for the control condition with its spatially balanced reward environment, these subjects exhibited preexisting lateralized biases for eye and hand movements (i.e., leftward and rightward, respectively that could act in opposition not only to each other but also to the orienting biases elicited by the experimental manipulation, producing an asymmetry between the left and right hemifields with respect to performance. Potentially owing at least in part to learned cultural conventions (e.g., reading from left to right, the findings herein particularly revealed an intrinsic leftward bias underlying initial saccades in the midst of more immediate feedback-directed processes for which spatial biases can be learned flexibly to optimize oculomotor and manual control in value-based decision making. The present study thus replicates general findings of learned attentional biases in a novel context with inherently rewarding stimuli and goes on to further elucidate the interactions between endogenous and exogenous biases.

  8. Association between small heat shock protein B11 and the prognostic value of MGMT promoter methylation in patients with high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Li, Mingyang; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Chuanbao; Cai, Jinquan; Wang, Kuanyu; Wu, Anhua

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT This study investigated the role and prognostic value of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in glioma. METHODS Data from 3 large databases of glioma samples (Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas, Repository for Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data, and GSE16011), which contained whole-genome messenger RNA microarray expression data and patients' clinical data, were analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to validate protein expression in another set of 50 glioma specimens. RESULTS Of 28 HSPs, 11 were overexpressed in high-grade glioma (HGG) compared with low-grade glioma. A univariate Cox analysis revealed that HSPB11 has significant prognostic value for each glioma grade, which was validated by a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. HSPB11 expression was associated with poor prognosis and was independently correlated with overall survival (OS) in HGG. This study further explored the combined role of HSPB11 and other molecular markers in HGG, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. HSPB11 expression was able to refine the prognostic value of IDH1 mutation in patients with HGG. However, when combined with MGMT promoter methylation status, among patients with a methylated MGMT promoter, those with lower levels of HSPB11 expression had longer OS and progression-free survival than patients with higher levels of HSPB11 expression or with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Moreover, within the MGMT promoter methylation group, patients with low levels of HSPB11 expression were more sensitive to combined radiochemotherapy than those with high levels of HSPB11 expression, which may explain why some patients with HGG with a methylated MGMT promoter show tolerance to radiochemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS HSPB11 was identified as a novel prognostic marker in patients with HGG. Together with MGMT promoter methylation status, HSPB11 expression can predict outcome for patients with HGG and identify those who

  9. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  10. Reducing non value adding aluminium alloy in production of parts through high pressure die casting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available alloy able to withstand high temperature process conditions without the welding problems experienced by standard die construction materials, such as H13, was examined in an extensive series of casting trials. The importance of operating dies at elevated...

  11. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  12. Teaching Free Speech Values to High School Students: Keys to Persevering Despite the Obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas

    To examine why citizens today do not understand the U.S. Constitution and its provisions, a survey was conducted among 153 high school social studies, journalism, and English teachers to examine, among other things, how they taught about constitutional rights and how they rated their students' knowledge of the subject compared to students'…

  13. The value of high-field MRI (3 T) in the assessment of sellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker, K. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Wolfsberger, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Mlynarik, V. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Knosp, E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@univie.ac.at

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the normal sellar anatomy in vitro and in vivo with high-field MRI and its application in the diagnosis of sellar pathologies in comparison to standard MRI. All high-field MR images were obtained using a 3 T Bruker Medspec 30/80 Scanner with a head birdcage transmit/receive coil and an actively shielded gradient system with a maximum gradient strength of 45 mT/m. Firstly an in vitro study of the sella turcica was performed to depict normal pituitary and sellar anatomy at high field. After a pilot-study this sequence-protocol was established: A RARE sequence (TR/TE = 7790/19 ms; matrix size, 512 x 512; RARE factor = 8, FOV, 200 mm) was used for T2-weighted coronal, axial and sagittal images. A 3D gradient echo sequence with magnetization-preparation (MP-RAGE, TR/TE/TI 33.5/7.6/800 ms, matrix size, 512 x 512; FOV, 200 mm, effective slice thickness, 1.88 mm; 3 averages) was used for acquisition of T1-weighted pre- and post-contrast images. Between January 2002 and March 200458 patients were enrolled in this study. Seven patients were examined for suspected microadenoma and in 51 patients 3T MRI was used to obtain additional information about the sellar lesion already known to be present from standard MRI. In 21 cases the accuracy of the imaging findings was assessed afterwards by comparison with intraoperative findings. The infiltration of the medial cavernous sinus wall was suspected on standard MRI on 15 sides (47%), on high-field MRI on 9 sides (28%) and could be verified by intraoperative findings on 6 sides (19%). Accordingly, sensitivity to infiltration was 83% for 3 T and 67% for standard MRI. Specificity was 84% for 3 T and 58% for standard MRI. Moreover, high-field MRI revealed microadenomas in 7 patients with a median diameter of 4 mm (range 2-9 mm). The segments of the cranial nerves were seen as mean 4 hypointense spots (range 2-5 spots) on high-field MRI in contrast to 3 spots (range 0-4 spots) on standard MRI

  14. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual ... to allow for inflation with air while CT images are being taken. If you’re scheduled for ...

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript ... by a special camera and computer to create images of the inside of your body. If you’ ...

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

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    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji ...

  17. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Medical Imaging Costs Radiology and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/ ... Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hi, I’m Dr. Elliot ...

  18. Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography

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    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains CT Colonography (Virtual colonoscopy) ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and You Take our survey Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome ... Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Test Medical Imaging Costs Video: Abdominal Ultrasound Video: Pelvic Ultrasound Radiology and You ...

  20. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  2. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  4. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  5. Fungal Enzymes and Yeasts for Conversion of Plant Biomass to Bioenergy and High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Fungi and fungal enzymes play important roles in the new bioeconomy. Enzymes from filamentous fungi can unlock the potential of recalcitrant lignocellulose structures of plant cell walls as a new resource, and fungi such as yeast can produce bioethanol from the sugars released after enzyme treatment. Such processes reflect inherent characteristics of the fungal way of life, namely, that fungi as heterotrophic organisms must break down complex carbon structures of organic materials to satisfy their need for carbon and nitrogen for growth and reproduction. This chapter describes major steps in the conversion of plant biomass to value-added products. These products provide a basis for substituting fossil-derived fuels, chemicals, and materials, as well as unlocking the biomass potential of the agricultural harvest to yield more food and feed. This article focuses on the mycological basis for the fungal contribution to biorefinery processes, which are instrumental for improved resource efficiency and central to the new bioeconomy. Which types of processes, inherent to fungal physiology and activities in nature, are exploited in the new industrial processes? Which families of the fungal kingdom and which types of fungal habitats and ecological specializations are hot spots for fungal biomass conversion? How can the best fungal enzymes be found and optimized for industrial use? How can they be produced most efficiently-in fungal expression hosts? How have industrial biotechnology and biomass conversion research contributed to mycology and environmental research? Future perspectives and approaches are listed, highlighting the importance of fungi in development of the bioeconomy.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Cyanobacteria and microalgae for enhanced production of biofuels and high-value products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, M A; Al-Haj, L; Abed, R M M

    2016-10-01

    A lot of research has been performed on Cyanobacteria and microalgae with the aim to produce numerous biotechnological products. However, native strains have a few shortcomings, like limitations in cultivation, harvesting and product extraction, which prevents reaching optimal production value at lowest costs. Such limitations require the intervention of genetic engineering to produce strains with superior properties. Promising advancements in the cultivation of Cyanobacteria and microalgae have been achieved by improving photosynthetic efficiency through increasing RuBisCO activity and truncation of light-harvesting antennae. Genetic engineering has also contributed to final product extraction by inducing autolysis and product secretory systems, to enable direct product recovery without going through costly extraction steps. In this review, we summarize the different enzymes and pathways that have been targeted thus far for improving cultivation aspects, harvesting and product extraction in Cyanobacteria and microalgae. With synthetic biology advancements, genetically engineered strains can be generated to resolve demanding process issues and achieve economic practicality. This comprehensive overview of gene modifications will be useful to researchers in the field to employ on their strains to increase their yields and improve the economic feasibility of the production process. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Identifying added value in high-resolution climate simulations over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephania; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Sobolowski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution data are needed in order to assess potential impacts of extreme events on infrastructure in the mid-latitudes. Dynamical downscaling offers one way to obtain this information. However, prior to implementation in any impacts assessment scheme, model output must be validated......-based station observations. In addition to the canonical variables of daily precipitation and temperature, winds were also investigated. The models exhibit systematic cold and wet biases on seasonal time scales (−1 K and +50–100%, respectively). However, frequency-based skill scores for daily precipitation...... and temperature are high, indicating that the distributions of these variables are generally well captured. Wind speeds over the North and Norwegian Seas were simulated more realistically in the models than in the ERA interim reanalysis. However, most importantly, for impacts assessments, the models should...

  8. Characteristics and value of machine learning for imaging in high content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenk, Juergen A

    2007-01-01

    Requirements for a flexible image analysis package for high content screening (HCS) are discussed. An overview of tools and techniques for image analysis and machine learning is given. Machine learning for classification and segmentation, the two fundamental elements of image analysis, is discussed. Next generation image analysis packages for HCS are reviewed. Recommendations for the development of image analysis solutions for advanced assays are given.

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps obtained from high b value diffusion-weighted imaging in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas at 3T: comparison with standard b value diffusion-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Ling, Chenhan; Zhang, Jianmin [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Dong, Fei; Jiang, Biao [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Shi, Feina [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-12-15

    To assess whether ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI were more valuable in preoperatively evaluating the grade, Ki-67 index and outcome of gliomas. Sixty-three patients with gliomas, who underwent preoperative multi b value DWI at 3 T, were enrolled. The ADC{sub 1000}, ADC{sub 2000} and ADC{sub 3000} maps were generated. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were conducted to determine the area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG). Pearson correlation coefficients (R value) were calculated to investigate the correlation between parameters with the Ki-67 proliferation index. Survival analysis was conducted by using Cox regression. The AUC of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (0.820) was lower than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (0.847) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (0.875) in differentiating HGG from LGG. The R value of the mean ADC{sub 1000} value (-0.499) was less negative than that of the mean ADC{sub 2000} value (-0.530) and mean ADC{sub 3000} value (-0.567). The mean ADC{sub 3000} value was an independent prognosis factor for gliomas (p = 0.008), while the mean ADC{sub 1000} and ADC{sub 2000} values were not. ADC maps obtained from high b value DWI might be a better imaging biomarker in the preoperative evaluation of gliomas. (orig.)

  10. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhris, Saoussan; Athmouni, Khaled; Hamza-Mnif, Ibtissem; Siala-Elleuch, Rayda; Ayadi, Habib; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-01-01

    Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41%) represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%). Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica). These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28612024

  11. The Potential of a Brown Microalga Cultivated in High Salt Medium for the Production of High-Value Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussan Boukhris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphora sp. was isolated from the Sfax Solar Saltern and cultivated under hypersaline conditions. It contains moderate rates of proteins, lipids, sugars, and minerals and a prominent content of bioactive compounds: polyphenols, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, and fatty acids. The analysis of fatty acids with GC/MS showed that the C16 series accounted for about 75% of Amphora sp. lipids. Saturated fatty acids whose palmitic acid was the most important (27.41% represented 41.31%. Amphora sp. was found to be rich in monounsaturated fatty acids with dominance of palmitoleic acid. It also contains a significant percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (2.36%. Among the various solvents used, ethanol at 80% extracted the highest amounts of phenols and flavonoids that were 38.27 mg gallic acid equivalent and 17.69 mg catechin equivalent g−1 of dried extract, respectively. Using various in vitro assays including DPPH and ABTS radicals methods, reducing power assay, and β-carotene bleaching assay, the 80% ethanolic extract showed high antioxidant activity. A strong antibacterial activity was checked against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. These results are in favor of Amphora sp. valorization in aquaculture and food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  13. Protein-bound toxins: added value in their removal with high convective volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; Reque, Javier Eduardo; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. In recent years, protein-bound toxins have become more important due to their association with increased morbidity and mortality, characterised by inadequate clearance during dialysis. The purpose of this study is to assess the influence of high convective volumes on postdilution online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on the removal of medium-sized molecules, small molecules and protein-bound molecules. In forty postdilutional OL-HDF sessions, the reduction rates of toxins of different molecular weights were measured in 13 patients, including protein-bound molecules such as p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine. Total convective volume was 28.3 (5.1) litres (range 16.3-38.0 litres). Mean reduction rate of protein-bound molecules was 44.4% (15.7%), 48.7% (14.1%) and 58.6% (8.8%) for p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and homocysteine, respectively. Moreover, a statistically significant direct association was found between the reduction rates of all three molecules, the replacement volume and the Kt/V. High convective volumes during postdilution OL-HDF are associated with increased removal of protein-bound uraemic toxins. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sakurai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV, not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV.

  15. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  16. Interactions of unconjugated bilirubin with vesicles, cyclodextrins and micelles: New modeling and the role of high pKa values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J Donald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB is an unstable substance with very low aqueous solubility. Its aqueous pKa values affect many of its interactions, particularly their pH-dependence. A companion paper shows that only our prior solvent partition studies, leading to pKa values of 8.12 and 8.44, met all essential requirements for valid pKa determinations. Other published values, generally lower, some below 5.0, were shown to be invalid. The present work was designed to derive suitable models for interpreting published data on the pH-dependent binding of UCB with four agents, mentioned below, chosen because they are not, themselves, sensitive to changes in the pH range 4-10, and the data, mainly spectrometric, were of reasonable quality. Results These analyses indicated that the high pKa values, dianion dimerization constant and solubilities of UCB at various pH values, derived from our partition studies, along with literature-derived pH- and time-dependent supersaturation effects, were essential for constructing useful models that showed good qualitative, and sometimes quantitative, fits with the data. In contrast, published pKa values below 5.0 were highly incompatible with the data for all systems considered. The primary species of bound UCB in our models were: undissociated diacid for phosphatidylcholine, dianion for dodecyl maltoside micelles and cyclodextrins, and both monoanions and dianion for sodium taurocholate. The resulting binding versus pH profiles differed strikingly from each other. Conclusions The insights derived from these analyses should be helpful to explore and interpret UCB binding to more complex, pH-sensitive, physiological moieties, such as proteins or membranes, in order to understand its functions.

  17. High Accuracy Spline Explicit Group (SEG Approximation for Two Dimensional Elliptic Boundary Value Problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Goh

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, cubic splines have been widely used to approximate differential equations due to their ability to produce highly accurate solutions. In this paper, the numerical solution of a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation is treated by a specific cubic spline approximation in the x-direction and finite difference in the y-direction. A four point explicit group (EG iterative scheme with an acceleration tool is then applied to the obtained system. The formulation and implementation of the method for solving physical problems are presented in detail. The complexity of computational is also discussed and the comparative results are tabulated to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Diagnostic value of high-resolution CT and MR compared with standard procedures in meniscal tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, M.; Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Muench, O.; Siuda, S.; Hahn, D.; Lissner, J.

    1987-04-01

    The knees of 20 patients with evidence of meniscal tears were examined via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 10 of these were studied by MRI. The HRCT study was performed directly after double-contrast arthrography (AG). For comparison with HRCT, slice orientation for MRI examination was in transverse view; gradient echo sequences using the FISP technique were applied instead of spin echo sequences. All results were correlated to the arthroscopy (AS) findings. In 95% of the cases AG and AS results agreed, HRCT/AS in 85% and MRI/AS in 70%. In certain cases HRCT provided additional information which influenced appropriate surgical treament. MRI is a noninvasive nonionising method but gives a less exact documentation of the lesion than AG and HRCT. The gradient echo mode is superior to the SE mode in respect of outlining meniscal structures, at least in transverse view.

  19. Diagnostic value of high-resolution CT and MR compared with standard procedures in meniscal tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, M.; Naegele, M.; Lienemann, A.; Muench, O.; Siuda, S.; Hahn, D.; Lissner, J.; Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen

    1987-01-01

    The knees of 20 patients with evidence of meniscal tears were examined via high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 10 of these were studied by MRI. The HRCT study was performed directly after double-contrast arthrography (AG). For comparison with HRCT, slice orientation for MRI examination was in transverse view; gradient echo sequences using the FISP technique were applied instead of spin echo sequences. All results were correlated to the arthroscopy (AS) findings. In 95% of the cases AG and AS results agreed, HRCT/AS in 85% and MRI/AS in 70%. In certain cases HRCT provided additional information which influenced appropriate surgical treament. MRI is a noninvasive nonionising method but gives a less exact documentation of the lesion than AG and HRCT. The gradient echo mode is superior to the SE mode in respect of outlining meniscal structures, at least in transverse view. (orig.) [de

  20. Extracellular fungal polyol lipids: A new class of potential high value lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Xu, Jian; Teh, Hui Ean; German, J Bruce; Pan, Zhongli; Dungan, Stephanie R; Block, David E; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    Extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have attracted attention because productivities can be high, cheap substrates can be used, the molecules are secreted into the medium and the downstream processing is relatively simple. Three classes of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have provided most of the scientific advances in this area, namely sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobioselipids. Polyol lipids, a fourth class of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants, comprise two groups of molecules: liamocins produced by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and polyol esters of fatty acids, produced by some Rhodotorula yeast species. Both are amphiphilic, surface active molecules with potential for commercial development as surfactants for industrial and household applications. The current knowledge of polyol lipids highlights an emerging group of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants and provides a perspective of what next steps are needed to harness the benefits and applications of this novel group of molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lukasiewicz-Moisil Many-Valued Logic Algebra of Highly-Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Glazebrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamentals of Lukasiewicz-Moisil logic algebras and their applications to complex genetic network dynamics and highly complex systems are presented in the context of a categorical ontology theory of levels, Medical Bioinformatics and self-organizing, highly complex systems. Quantum Automata were defined in refs.[2] and [3] as generalized, probabilistic automata with quantum state spaces [1]. Their next-state functions operate through transitions between quantum states defined by the quantum equations of motions in the SchrÄodinger representation, with both initial and boundary conditions in space-time. A new theorem is proven which states that the category of quantum automata and automata-homomorphisms has both limits and colimits. Therefore, both categories of quantum automata and classical automata (sequential machines are bicomplete. A second new theorem establishes that the standard automata category is a subcategory of the quantum automata category. The quantum automata category has a faithful representation in the category of Generalized (M,R-Systems which are open, dynamic biosystem networks [4] with de¯ned biological relations that represent physiological functions of primordial(s, single cells and the simpler organisms. A new category of quantum computers is also defined in terms of reversible quantum automata with quantum state spaces represented by topological groupoids that admit a local characterization through unique, quantum Lie algebroids. On the other hand, the category of n-Lukasiewicz algebras has a subcategory of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras (as proven in ref. [2] which can be employed to design and construct subcategories of quantum automata based on n-Lukasiewicz diagrams of existing VLSI. Furthermore, as shown in ref. [2] the category of centered n-Lukasiewicz algebras and the category of Boolean algebras are naturally equivalent. A `no-go' conjecture is also proposed which states that Generalized (M

  2. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye; Liu, Mengqi [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sanya (China); Zhou, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Lv, Bin [Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT, Beijing (China); Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Gui, Qiuping [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Pathology, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. (orig.)

  3. The diagnostic value of high-frequency power-based diffusion-weighted imaging in prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Zhou, Peng; Lv, Bin; Liu, Mengqi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Lou, Xin; Gui, Qiuping; He, Huiguang; Ma, Lin

    2017-12-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency power (HFP) compared with the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient (MinADC) in the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data were acquired on 115 patients by a 3.0-T MRI system, which included b0 images and b1000 images over the whole brain in each patient. The HFP values and MinADC values were calculated by an in-house script written on the MATLAB platform. There was a significant difference among each group excluding grade I (G1) vs. grade II (G2) (P = 0.309) for HFP and among each group for MinADC. ROC analysis showed a higher discriminative accuracy between low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) for HFP with area under the curve (AUC) value 1 compared with that for MinADC with AUC 0.83 ± 0.04 and also demonstrated a higher discriminative ability among the G1-grade IV (G4) group for HFP compared with that for MinADC except G1 vs. G2. HFP could provide a simple and effective optimal tool for the prediction of neuroepithelial tumour grading based on diffusion-weighted images in routine clinical practice. • HFP shows positive correlation with neuroepithelial tumour grading. • HFP presents a good diagnostic efficacy for LGG and HGG. • HFP is helpful in the selection of brain tumour boundary.

  4. Simultaneous Production of Triacylglycerol and High-Value Carotenoids by the Astaxanthin-Producing Oleaginous Green Microalga Chlorella zofingiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89 mg g-1 dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3 mg L-1 day-1, respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga.

  5. Nutritional value of high moisture corn silage in the diet of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Persichetti Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five Holstein cows were distributed in a 5x5 latin square design to assess the effect of replacement levels of dry ground corn grain (DGCG by high moisture corn silage (HMCS on intake, total nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, according to the following treatments: 1 100% DGCG; 2 75% DGCG and 25% HMCS; 3 50% DGCG and 50% HMCS; 4 25% DGCG and 75% HMCS; 5 100% HMCS. The experiment lasted 70 days, divided into five phases of 14 days each. The digestibility was obtained using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the indicator. Fecal samples were collected twice daily and blood samples were collected on the last day of each period before the first meal (0h and 2h, 4h, 6h and 12h after the meal. There was no effect (P>0.05 on the intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch. The total apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF were not affected (P>0.05 by the treatments, as well as the plasma glucose concentration. However, there was a decreased linear effect (P<0.05 for the protein intake and increased linear effect (P<0.05 for starch digestibility, as the level of HMCS was increased in the diets.

  6. Refining by-products as a source of compounds of high-added value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondioli, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a complete review of by-products coming from the olive oil refining process is reported. By-products from both chemical and physical refining are discussed, along with their compositional properties. Also the technological aspects of by-product valorisation are discussed in comparison with the competitors coming from other oils and fats. The only olive oil by-products having unique composition are the ones containing squalene in high concentration.El trabajo hace una revisión completa de los subproductos obtenidos de la refinación del aceite de oliva. Se comentan tanto los subproductos procedentes de la refinación química como de la física. Igualmente, se comparan los aspectos tecnológicos de la valorización de estos subproductos con respecto a los procedentes de otros aceites o grasas. Los únicos subproductos procedentes del aceite de oliva que tienen composición específica son aquellos que contienen alta concentración de escualeno.

  7. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  8. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  9. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  10. Microstructure-Sensitive Extreme Value Probabilities for High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Base Superalloy IN100 (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    transition fatigue regimes; however, microplasticity (i.e., heterogeneous plasticity at the scale of microstructure) is relevant to understanding fatigue...and Socie [57] considered the affect of microplastic 14 Microstructure-Sensitive Extreme Value Probabilities for High Cycle Fatigue of Ni-Base...considers the local stress state as affected by intergranular interactions and microplasticity . For the calculations given below, the volumes over which

  11. Design Considerations and Validation of Tenth Value Layer Used for a Medical Linear Accelerator Bunker Using High Density Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, Deborah; Horton, Patrick; Jones, Matthew; Ramsdale, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    A bunker for the containment and medical use of 10 MV and 6 MV X-rays from a linear accelerator was designed to be added on to four existing bunkers. Space was limited and the walls of the bunker were built using Magnadense, a high density aggregate mined in Sweden and imported into the UK by Minelco Minerals Ltd. The density was specified by the user to be a minimum of 3800 kg/m 3 . This reduced the thickness of primary and secondary shielding over that required using standard concrete. Standard concrete (density 2350 kg/m 3 ) was used for the roof of the bunker. No published data for the tenth value layer (T.V.L.) of the high density concrete were available and values of T.V.L. were derived from those for standard concrete using the ratio of density. Calculations of wall thickness along established principles using normal assumptions and dose constraints resulted in a design with minimum primary wall barriers of 1500 mm and secondary barriers of between 800 mm and 1000 mm of high density concrete. Following construction, measurements were made of the dose rates outside the shielding thereby allowing estimates of the T.V.L. of the material for 6 and 10 MV X-rays. The instantaneous dose rates outside the primary barrier walls were calculated to be less than 6 x 10 -6 Sv/hr but on measurement were found to be more than a factor of 4 times lower than this. Calculations were reviewed and the T.V.L. was found to be 12% greater than that required to achieve the measured dose rate. On the roof, the instantaneous dose rate at the primary barrier was measured to be within 3% of that predicted using the published values of T.V.L. for standard concrete. Sample cubes of standard and high density concrete poured during construction showed that the density of the standard concrete in the roof was close to that used in the design whereas the physical density of Magnadense concrete was on average 5% higher than that specified. In conclusion, values of T.V.L. for the high density

  12. High-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) value with 90 days mortality in patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyamsiah; Hasan, R.

    2018-03-01

    Hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity that during treatment and post-treatment. Despite the various therapies available today, mortality and re-hospitalization rates within 60 to 90 days post-hospitalization are still quite high. This period is known as the vulnerable phase. With the prognostic evaluation tools in patients with heart failure are expected to help identify high-risk individuals, then more rigorous monitoring and interventions can be undertaken. To determine whether hs-CRP have an impact on mortality within 90 days in hospitalized patients with heart failure, an observational cohort study was conducted in 39 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized due to worsening chronic heart failure. Patients were followed for up to 90 days after initial evaluation with the primary endpoint is death. Hs-CRP value >4.25 mg/L we found 70% was dead and hs-CRP value values between in patients with heart failure who died and survival within 90 days.

  13. Development of high efficiency micropropagation protocol for tamarix nilotica ehrenb with valued medicinal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F. A.; Nadeem, M.; Khan, S.; Tarroum, M.; Alansi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tamarix nilotica is an important medicinal plant grows throughout the Kingdom, except in mountains on high altitude. Propagation of T. nilotica through cuttings and seeds are limited. To supplement harvesting of active ingredient from plants, alternative method for the purpose has been developed. Stem node cuttings were subjected to in vitro culture under the influence of various cytokinin to induce shoot proliferation. Maximum shoot stimulation was found on MS medium comprising 1.0 micro M TDZ followed by 2.5 micro M BA, Kn and 2ip. The number of shoots declined as the concentration of cytokinin increased. A lower shoots obtained on 5.0 and 10.0 micro M concentration of all the four cytokinins tested. After fair multiplication, individual shoots were subjected to different concentration of auxins IBA, NAA, 2,4-D and AA 2.5-10.0 micro M for root induction. Initial screening did not result desired rooting on MS medium. Therefore, pulse treatment of 100 micro M IBA was given to the isolated shoots for 5, 10 and 15 days time. Incubation for 10 days on MS medium supplied with 100.0 micro M resulted in maximum rooting when transferred on MS medium alone. Well rooted microshoots were exposed to four types of soil mixtures for acclimatization of plants. Among these soils, sand and FYM gave 100 percentage survival under controlled green house conditions. This protocol would be helpful in regeneration and conservation of this plant species; and provide an alternative source of biomass for pharmaceutical active ingredients. (author)

  14. Assessing the importance of High Nature Value farmlands for the conservation of Lesser Kestrels Falco naumanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galanaki Antonia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas, such as cereal cultivations, that support species of European and/or national conservation concern are considered as ‘High Nature Value’ farmlands (HNVf and are very important for the preservation of biodiversity in Europe. The lesser kestrel Falco naumanni is a migratory falcon breeding largely in the HNVf of the Mediterranean basin. The main cause of its decline in Europe has been habitat loss and degradation as a result of agricultural intensification driven largely by the EU Common Agricultural Policies (CAP. In Greece, its population dropped by about 50% since the 1970s and its preferred habitats have shrunk. The aim of this study was to assess habitat preferences of breeding Lesser Kestrels in agro-ecosystems of Greece and relate these habitats to HNVf for conservation purposes. The study area is located in the plain of Thessaly, Central Greece, holding the main lesser kestrel breeding populations in the country, where dry cereal crops have been significantly depleted over the past decades. Species distribution models were developed with generalised additive models for the analyses. Predicted probability of lesser kestrel occurrence was found to be positively associated with farmed landscapes of dry cereal cultivations. Other important predictors were cultivated irrigated farmland and landscape heterogeneity. Main results of the statistical models agree with the findings of other habitatbased studies that highlight the importance of low-input farming systems, that is, HNVf, for safeguarding vital Lesser Kestrels habitats in their breeding grounds in the Mediterranean. A key conservation priority for conserving species dependant on HNVf is the maintenance of those low-input farming systems and the implementation of a greener CAP that would promote environmental-friendly farming practices to preserve and enhance biodiversity in the agro-ecosystems of Europe.

  15. The effective Q values inferred from the high-frequency decay parameter for the sediments in Taipei basin, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Wey; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chang, Chi-Ling; Liu, Sheu-Yien

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the high-frequency decay parameter κ, proposed by Anderson and Hough (1984), are measured from the seismograms recorded by stations, which installed in the Taipei basin. The spectral amplitudes decay exponentially with frequency, f, which can be formulated as A(f)=A_0e-πκf, for f > fe, where A(f) is the spectral amplitude, and A0 depends on the earthquake source and epicenter distance, and the value of κ is independent of frequency, unit in second. The time windows applied to seismograms are suggested to be shear waves that are transformed to spectra by the technique of Fourier transform. The seismograms from the downhole array in Taipei Basin by Academia Sinica since 1992, provide a good opportunity to estimate the attenuation factor of the sedimentary strata over the Tertiary base rock beneath the Taipei basin (Wang et al., 2004). The seismograms of 23 earthquakes with magnitude ranges of 5.1-7.1 over the period of 2003-2010 at 9 downhole array stations are taken into calculation of the κ values for the shear waves. The results show that the κ values vary with depth and are in the range of 0.009-0.095 sec. The averaged Δκ values from observations range +/- 0.02 seconds respective to Δκ values at surface of each of station. The effective Q values for the sedimentary layers are inferred from the varied Δκ at each downhole stations following the evaluation method of 1-D analytical transfer function (Safak, 1995).

  16. Can Marxism Explain America's Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    1980-01-01

    The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)

  17. Journalism and Explaining News Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albæk, E.; Skovsgaard, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Nussbaum, J.F.

    Three models are presented to explain variation in news content. In the first model the explanation is based on the individual journalist, in the second model on the professional journalist, and in the third model on the organized journalist. The individual journalist model focuses on how the

  18. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  20. Value of TIRADS, BSRTC and FNA-BRAF V600E mutation analysis in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-zhi; Xu, Ting; Cui, Dai; Li, Xiao; Yao, Qing; Gong, Hai-yan; Liu, Xiao-yun; Chen, Huan-huan; Jiang, Lin; Ye, Xin-hua; Zhang, Zhi-hong; Shen, Mei-ping; Duan, Yu; Yang, Tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-24

    The thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TIRADS) and Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology (BSRTC) have been used for interpretation of ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results of thyroid nodules. BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis is a molecular tool in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma. Our objective was to compare the diagnostic value of these methods in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. Total 220 patients with high-risk thyroid nodules were recruited in this prospective study. They all underwent ultrasound, FNAC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of TIRADS were 73.1% and 88.4%. BSRTC had higher specificity (97.7%) and similar sensitivity (77.6%) compared with TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity of BRAF(V600E) mutation (85.1%, 100%) were the highest. The combination of BSRTC and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis significantly increased the efficiency, with 97.8% sensitivity, 97.7% specificity. In patients with BSRTC I-III, the mutation rate of BRAF(V600E) was 64.5% in nodules with TIRADS 4B compared with 8.4% in nodules with TIRADS 3 or 4A (P value in differentiating high-risk thyroid nodules. The TIRADS is useful in selecting high-risk patients for FNAB and patients with BSRTC I-III for BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis.

  1. Mineralogical and Microstructural Controls on High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) Aggregates from a Mixed Metasedimentary and Volcanoclastic Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unitt, Richard; Meere, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    High Polished Stone Value (hPSV) aggregates are a valuable resource in the manufacture of skid-resistant surfaces (pavements). Previous studies have tried to define the essential properties required within a specific rock type that makes it suitable as hPSV aggregate. There are also quantitative tests that can assign a standardised value to the polishing resistance of each aggregate (PSV or Werner-Schulze (WS) methods). It is widely assumed that particular rock-types are more suitable as hPSV aggregate, including greywacke, basalt and sandstone. These rock types are usually suitable due their durability, strength and a mineralogy that allows the removal of grains from the wear surface, enabling the microtexture to 'refresh' itself periodically. This project has examined a mixed group of low-grade (sub-greenschist) metasediments and volcaniclastics from a single source that all yield similar hPSV values (59-66). Samples were measured in terms of mechanical, petrographical and metrological properties from freshly crushed aggregate, mechanically polished aggregate and 'in-situ' road samples to follow the development of surface microtexture under different conditions. The study has shown that the development of microtexture within a mixed group of rocks can be controlled by microstructural factors (in addition to mineralogical factors) thus providing a new criteria for the exploration of high PSV sources.

  2. Preventing the link between SES and high-risk behaviors: "value-added" education, drug use and delinquency in high-risk, urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.

  3. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  4. The slipping slipper sign: a simple test with high specificity and positive predictive value for peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal A.T. Gayle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of the slipping slipper sign (defined as unknowingly losing a slipper while walking to identify diabetic neuropathy in Jamaican patients. A single question was used to ascertain the presence of the slipping slipper sign (SSS among 69 patients attending a diabetes clinic. Nurses assessed pain, vibration and pressure perception among the same patients in order to detect diabetic neuropathy. The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value for the SSS were calculated. Eight participants (men=5, women=3 reported positive SSS. The SSS had a sensitivity of 28.6%, specificity of 100% and positive predictive value (PPV 100% for neuropathy on at least one of the three tests. These findings indicate that the SSS has high specificity and PPV for diabetic neuropathy but the sensitivity is low. The sign may be a useful adjuvant to conventional methods of screening for severe neuropathy

  5. Diagnostic value of high N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) uptake in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Tahara, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Kato, Akira; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Sho; Tsuji, Takehisa; Tabuchi, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    The diagnostic value of high N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) uptake in histologically proven intracranial tumors was evaluated in 54 patients with both early (15-35 min after injection) and delayed (4 hours) SPECT before treatment. Higher uptake in the tumor compared with normal cerebral cortex was observed in early scans in all of the five patients with primary intracranial malignant lymphoma, in two of 16 meningiomas, two of seven astrocytomas, one of three pituitary adenomas, and one central neurocytoma. Among these 11 cases, all the malignant lymphomas showed persistent high uptake in delayed scans, whereas other tumors showed decreased uptake in delayed scans. This persistent high 123 I-IMP uptake was characteristic of primary intracranial malignant lymphomas and was useful in the diagnosis of intracranial malignant lymphoma. (author)

  6. Does a High Sugar High Fat Dietary Pattern Explain the Unequal Burden in Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multi-Ethnic Population in The Netherlands? The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  7. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? The HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke B.; Nicolaou, Mary N.; Valkengoed, Van Irene G.M.

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in ethnic minorities in Europe is higher in comparison with their European host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (HSHF dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for T2D. Information on

  8. Does a high sugar high fat dietary pattern explain the unequal burden in prevalence of type 2 diabetes in a multi-ethnic population in the Netherlands? : The Helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Merel; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Vermeulen, Esther; Muilwijk, Mirthe; Snijder, Marieke; Nicolaou, Mary; Van Valkengoed, Irene

    2018-01-01

    The risk for type 2 diabetes (t2d) in ethnic minorities in europe is higher in comparison with their european host populations. The western dietary pattern, characterized by high amounts of sugar and saturated fat (hshf dietary pattern), has been associated with a higher risk for t2d. Information on

  9. Incremental prognostic value of coronary computed tomographic angiography high-risk plaque characteristics in newly symptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Baber, Usman; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Hecht, Harvey; Stone, Gregg W; Narula, Jagat

    2016-06-01

    The incremental prognostic value of the plaque features in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has not been well assessed. This study was designed to determine whether CTA high-risk plaques have prognostic value incremental to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the severity of luminal obstruction. A total of 628 newly symptomatic patients without known coronary artery disease underwent CTA. They were followed for a median of 677 days during which there were 26 cardiac events, including cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for unstable angina. Incremental prognostic value of adding plaque characteristics to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS was evaluated using 3 Cox models and net reclassification indexes. The discrimination index was significantly increased by adding the number of diseased vessels to the FRS (change in c-statistic from 65.8% to 78.6%, p=0.028) but not significantly by further adding plaque characteristics (change in c-statistic from 78.6% to 80.0%, p=0.812). However, improved model-fitting by adding plaque characteristics into the linear combination with risk score and the number of diseased vessels (p=0.007 from likelihood ratio test) and the lowest value of Akaike's information criteria of that model indicated that plaque characteristics improved both predictive accuracy and discrimination perspective. More subjects reclassified by plaque characteristics were moved to directions consistent with their subsequent cardiac event status than in an inconsistent direction. Evaluation of CTA plaque characteristics may provide incremental prognostic value to the number of diseased vessels and the FRS. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A new Ellipsoidal Gravimetric-Satellite Altimetry Boundary Value Problem; Case study: High Resolution Geoid of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, A.; Safari, A.; Grafarend, E.

    2003-04-01

    A new ellipsoidal gravimetric-satellite altimetry boundary value problem has been developed and successfully tested. This boundary value problem has been constructed for gravity observables of the type (i) gravity potential (ii) gravity intensity (iii) deflection of vertical and (iv) satellite altimetry data. The developed boundary value problem is enjoying the ellipsoidal nature and as such can take advantage of high precision GPS observations in the set-up of the problem. The highlights of the solution are as follows: begin{itemize} Application of ellipsoidal harmonic expansion up to degree/order and ellipsoidal centrifugal field for the reduction of global gravity and isostasy effects from the gravity observable at the surface of the Earth. Application of ellipsoidal Newton integral on the equal area map projection surface for the reduction of residual mass effects within a radius of 55 km around the computational point. Ellipsoidal harmonic downward continuation of the residual observables from the surface of the earth down to the surface of reference ellipsoid using the ellipsoidal height of the observation points derived from GPS. Restore of the removed effects at the application points on the surface of reference ellipsoid. Conversion of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies into potential. Combination of the downward continued gravity information with the potential equivalent of the satellite altimetry derived heights of the water bodies. Application of ellipsoidal Bruns formula for converting the potential values on the surface of the reference ellipsoid into the geoidal heights (i.e. ellipsoidal heights of the geoid) with respect to the reference ellipsoid. Computation of the high-resolution geoid of Iran has successfully tested this new methodology!

  11. The changes of individual carotid artery wall layer by aging and carotid intima-media thickness value for high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jang-Ho; Kim, Wuon-Shik; Lee, Moo-Sik; Kim, Kee-Sik; Park, Jeong Bae; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Chang-Gyu; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Jang-Young; Jeong, Jin-Won; Park, Jong Chun; Lim, Do-Sun; Kim, Moo Hyun; Woo, Jeong Taek

    2016-12-01

    It is still unclear which layer (intima or media) is mainly involved in increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by aging and also unclear regarding CIMT value suggesting high cardiovascular risk, although 75th percentile value of CIMT is known as a high risk in asymptomatic adults. We sought to find the changes of carotid intima thickness (CIT) and carotid media thickness (CMT) by aging and the 75th percentile value of CIMT in asymptomatic Korean adults. This is an observational cohort study. Carotid ultrasound findings (n=2204 from 12 hospitals) were prospectively collected. The carotid images were sent to Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science for analysis using specialized software which can measure intima and media wall also. Mean age was 58.1±13.5 years old (52% of men). Pearson's correlation coefficient between age and right CIMT (r=.489, Pvalue was 0.778 and 0.771 mm, respectively. Mean right CIT was 0.311±0.069 and 0.303±0.064 mm (P=.009), and mean right CMT was 0.391±0.124 and 0.388±0.131 mm (P=.694) in male and female, respectively. Left carotid ultrasound findings showed similar to the right one. An increased CIMT by aging was mainly due to increased CMT rather than CIT in asymptomatic adults. The 75th percentile values of right CIMT were 0.778 and 0.771 mm in asymptomatic Korean male and female adults, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  13. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.

  14. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  15. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  17. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  18. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  19. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  20. Synthesis and properties of a bio-based epoxy resin with high epoxy value and low viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Songqi; Liu, Xiaoqing; Fan, Libo; Jiang, Yanhua; Cao, Lijun; Tang, Zhaobin; Zhu, Jin

    2014-02-01

    A bio-based epoxy resin (denoted TEIA) with high epoxy value (1.16) and low viscosity (0.92 Pa s, 258C) was synthesized from itaconic acid and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its curing reaction with poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether) (D230) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) was investigated. For comparison, the commonly used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was also cured with the same curing agents. The results demonstrated that TEIA showed higher curing reactivity towards D230/MHHPA and lower viscosity compared with DGEBA, resulting in the better processability. Owing to its high epoxy value and unique structure, comparable or better glass transition temperature as well as mechanical properties could be obtained for the TEIA-based network relative to the DGEBA-based network. The results indicated that itaconic acid is a promising renewable feedstock for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resin with high performance.

  1. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhuan Song

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy after extubation in patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A single-center, prospective, randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2013 and December 2014. Sixty enrolled patients were randomized immediately after extubation into either a high-flow nasal cannula group (n=30 or an air entrainment mask group (n=30 at a fixed inspired oxygen fraction (40%. The success rate of oxygen therapy, respiratory and hemodynamic parameters and subjective discomfort (using a visual analogue scale were assessed at 24h after extubation. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable at extubation. A total of 46 patients were successfully treated including 27 patients in the high-flow nasal cannula group and 19 patients in the air entrainment mask group. Compared to the air entrainment mask group, the success rate of oxygen therapy and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen were significantly higher and the respiratory rate was lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group. In addition, less discomfort related to interface displacement and airway dryness was observed in the high-flow nasal cannula group than in the air entrainment mask group. CONCLUSIONS: At a fixed inspired oxygen fraction, the application of a high-flow nasal cannula after extubation achieves a higher success rate of oxygen therapy and less discomfort at 24h than an air entrainment mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  3. The Value Chains of High-Technology Products as Factor of formation the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Safronova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the value chain of high-tech products in Asia and the role of this phenomenon in the further consolidation of trade blocs and alliances in the region. The presence of these chains and their gradual transition from a vertically integrated model to a system of horizontal linkages and interdependence leads to the formation of mechanisms of economic de-facto integration (so-called regionalization process. The East Asian region has demonstrated unprecedented high rates of economic growth in recent decades. The countries are actively developing mechanisms of multilateral cooperation, involving partners from across the Asia-Pacific region. Particular features of a new regional architecture of economic relations are becoming more tangible, and the essential element of this architecture is the intra-regional integration. The author presents an assessment of further developments of the Regional comprehensive economic partnership (RCEP using the structural-functional approach and analytical instruments of the international political economy, The creation of this trade block will help less advanced countries of ASEAN to accelerate economic growth and improve the conditions for integration into global value chains. For advanced economies, participation in the RCEP seems controversial, because production chains have well-established formats within the framework of ASEAN +. The political standoff between Washington and Beijing has an impact on dynamics of regional integration. The split among the East Asian countries was galvanized by the Trans-Pacific Partnership Project (TTP, because TPP has objectives that are very similar to those of RCEP (trade liberalization and economic integration. The author concludes that the extension of this partnership in the ASEAN countries can seriously complicate the operation RVEP and enhance the impact of political factors on economic cooperation. In this case, the value of production and supply chains

  4. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  5. Role of uterine artery Doppler in interpreting low PAPP-A values in first-trimester screening for Down syndrome in pregnancies at high risk of impaired placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, I; López-Jiménez, E A; García-Burguillo, A; Nieto, O; Villar, O P; Escribano, D; Galindo, A

    2009-05-01

    Low maternal serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) are associated with both increased risk of aneuploidies and impaired trophoblastic invasion, while high uterine artery (UtA) resistance is associated with impaired trophoblastic invasion but not with an increased risk of aneuploidies. The aim of this study was to determine whether high UtA resistance plays a role in explaining low PAPP-A levels in the absence of aneuploidies. This was a prospective study of 116 singleton pregnancies at high risk for impaired placentation (having at least one major risk factor: prior history of pre-eclampsia, pregestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, chronic kidney disease, body mass index >30, autoimmune disorder, thrombophilia or recurrent pregnancy loss), booked for routine assessment of risk for aneuploidies by means of the first-trimester combined screening test (nuchal translucency thickness (NT) + PAPP-A + beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG)). Measurement of NT and the mean UtA pulsatility index (PI) were carried out at the 11 to 13 + 6-week scan. All values were calculated in multiples of the median (MoM) adjusted for gestational age. A cut-off risk of 1/270 at time of sampling was adopted to differentiate high- from low-risk groups for trisomy 21. There were 108 patients deemed to be at low risk for trisomy 21 and eight at high risk. None had chromosomal defects, giving a false-positive rate for trisomy 21 of 6.9%. The greatest differences between patients at low risk and those at high risk for trisomy 21 were found in their PAPP-A (0.98 vs. 0.38 MoM, P UtA-PI (1.05 vs. 0.96 MoM) were recorded in the high-risk group, although the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.19 and 0.40, respectively). After log-transformation there were no significant correlations between mean UtA-PI and NT and between mean UtA-PI and beta-hCG. There was a significant negative linear correlation between mean UtA-PI and PAPP-A (r

  6. Fragility estimation for seismically isolated nuclear structures by high confidence low probability of failure values and bi-linear regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carausu, A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the fragility estimation of seismically isolated nuclear power plant structure is proposed. The relationship between the ground motion intensity parameter (e.g. peak ground velocity or peak ground acceleration) and the response of isolated structures is expressed in terms of a bi-linear regression line, whose coefficients are estimated by the least-square method in terms of available data on seismic input and structural response. The notion of high confidence low probability of failure (HCLPF) value is also used for deriving compound fragility curves for coupled subsystems. (orig.)

  7. Determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes by means of fixed pH value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jifu; Duan Shirong; Wu Xi; Yu Xueren

    1991-01-01

    For the determination of free acid in high level liquid wastes, 8% potassium oxalate solution with pH 6.50 as a complex agent of hydrolizable ion is added to 1 AW and the solution is titrated with standard sodium hydroxide to reach the original pH value. The quantity of free acid is calculated by standard sodium hydroxide consumed. This method is simple, rapid and accurate. The relative error of analysis is less than ±4%. The average percentage of recovery is 99.6-101.0%

  8. Systems metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the heterologous production of high value molecules-a veteran at new shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    For more than fifty years, Escherichia coli has represented a remarkable success story in industrial biotechnology. Traditionally known as a producer of l-amino acids, E. coli has also entered the precious market of high-value molecules and is becoming a flexible, efficient production platform for various therapeutics, pre-biotics, nutraceuticals and pigments. This tremendous progress is enabled by systems metabolic engineering concepts that integrate systems biology and synthetic biology into the design and engineering of powerful E. coli cell factories. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  10. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  11. High-value chemicals obtained from selective photo-oxidation of glucose in the presence of nanostructured titanium photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Juan C; Magdziarz, Agnieszka; Bielejewska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    Glucose was oxidized in the presence of powdered TiO(2) photocatalysts synthesized by an ultrasound-promoted sol-gel method. The catalysts were more selective towards glucaric acid, gluconic acid and arabitol (total selectivity approx. 70%) than the most popular photocatalyst, Degussa P-25. The photocatalytic systems worked at mild reaction conditions: 30°C, atmospheric pressure and very short reaction time (e.g. 5 min). Such relatively good selectivity towards high-valued molecules are attributed to the physico-chemical properties (e.g. high specific surface area, nanostructured anatase phase, and visible light absorption) of novel TiO(2) materials and the reaction conditions. The TiO(2) photocatalysts have potential for water purification and energy production and for use in the pharmaceutical, food, perfume and fuel industries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial inequalities explained - Evidence from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Gräb; Michael Grimm

    2008-01-01

    The literature shows that regional disparities in growth and poverty are often relatively high, that these regional disparities do not necessarily disappear as the economies grow and develop and that these disparities are itself in many cases an important driver of the overall performance of an economy. In this paper we make use of the advantage of a multilevel random coefficient model to explain spatial disparities in incomes among Burkinab`e households. Our findings show that it is not a ge...

  13. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Laprise, Rene [Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQAM), Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Atmosphere, PK-6530, Succ. Centre-ville, B.P. 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); De Elia, Ramon [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Ouranos Consortium, Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions. (orig.)

  15. Inpatient Glucose Values: Determining the Nondiabetic Range and Use in Identifying Patients at High Risk for Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Mary K; Safo, Sandra E; Jackson, Sandra L; Xue, Wenqiong; Olson, Darin E; Long, Qi; Barb, Diana; Haw, J Sonya; Tomolo, Anne M; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2018-04-01

    Many individuals with diabetes remain undiagnosed, leading to delays in treatment and higher risk for subsequent diabetes complications. Despite recommendations for diabetes screening in high-risk groups, the optimal approach is not known. We evaluated the utility of inpatient glucose levels as an opportunistic screening tool for identifying patients at high risk for diabetes. We retrospectively examined 462,421 patients in the US Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system, hospitalized on medical/surgical services in 2000-2010, for ≥3 days, with ≥2 inpatient random plasma glucose (RPG) measurements. All had continuity of care: ≥1 primary care visit and ≥1 glucose measurement within 2 years before hospitalization and yearly for ≥3 years after discharge. Glucose levels during hospitalization and incidence of diabetes within 3 years after discharge in patients without diabetes were evaluated. Patients had a mean age of 65.0 years, body mass index of 29.9 kg/m 2 , and were 96% male, 71% white, and 18% black. Pre-existing diabetes was present in 39.4%, 1.3% were diagnosed during hospitalization, 8.1% were diagnosed 5 years after discharge, and 51.3% were never diagnosed (NonDM). The NonDM group had the lowest mean hospital RPG value (112 mg/dL [6.2 mmol/L]). Having at least 2 RPG values >140 mg/dL (>7.8 mmol/L), the 95th percentile of NonDM hospital glucose, provided 81% specificity for identifying incident diabetes within 3 years after discharge. Screening for diabetes could be considered in patients with at least 2 hospital glucose values at/above the 95th percentile of the nondiabetic range (141 mg/dL [7.8 mmol/L]). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Potential for added value in precipitation simulated by high-resolution nested Regional Climate Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Luca, Alejandro; de Elía, Ramón; Laprise, René

    2012-03-01

    Regional Climate Models (RCMs) constitute the most often used method to perform affordable high-resolution regional climate simulations. The key issue in the evaluation of nested regional models is to determine whether RCM simulations improve the representation of climatic statistics compared to the driving data, that is, whether RCMs add value. In this study we examine a necessary condition that some climate statistics derived from the precipitation field must satisfy in order that the RCM technique can generate some added value: we focus on whether the climate statistics of interest contain some fine spatial-scale variability that would be absent on a coarser grid. The presence and magnitude of fine-scale precipitation variance required to adequately describe a given climate statistics will then be used to quantify the potential added value (PAV) of RCMs. Our results show that the PAV of RCMs is much higher for short temporal scales (e.g., 3-hourly data) than for long temporal scales (16-day average data) due to the filtering resulting from the time-averaging process. PAV is higher in warm season compared to cold season due to the higher proportion of precipitation falling from small-scale weather systems in the warm season. In regions of complex topography, the orographic forcing induces an extra component of PAV, no matter the season or the temporal scale considered. The PAV is also estimated using high-resolution datasets based on observations allowing the evaluation of the sensitivity of changing resolution in the real climate system. The results show that RCMs tend to reproduce relatively well the PAV compared to observations although showing an overestimation of the PAV in warm season and mountainous regions.

  17. Simultaneous production of triacylglycerol and high-value carotenoids by the astaxanthin-producing oleaginous green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Mao, Xuemei; Zhou, Wenguang; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    The production of lipids and astaxanthin, a high-value carotenoid, by Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated under different culture conditions. Comparative analysis revealed a good correlation between triacylglycerol (TAG) and astaxanthin accumulation in C. zofingiensis. Stress conditions promoted cell size and weight and induced the accumulation of neutral lipids, especially TAG and astaxanthin, with a concomitant decrease in membrane lipids. The highest contents of TAG and astaxanthin achieved were 387 and 4.89mgg(-1) dry weight, respectively. A semi-continuous culture strategy was developed to optimize the TAG and astaxanthin productivities, which reached 297 and 3.3mgL(-1)day(-1), respectively. Additionally, astaxanthin accumulation was enhanced by inhibiting de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. In summary, our study represents a pioneering work of utilizing Chlorella for the integrated production of lipids and high-value products and C. zofingiensis has great potential to be a promising production strain and serve as an emerging oleaginous model alga. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1:15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 °C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.

  19. Summarized Costs, Placement Of Quality Stars, And Other Online Displays Can Help Consumers Select High-Value Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2016-04-01

    Starting in 2017, all state and federal health insurance exchanges will present quality data on health plans in addition to cost information. We analyzed variations in the current design of information on state exchanges to identify presentation approaches that encourage consumers to take quality as well as cost into account when selecting a health plan. Using an online sample of 1,025 adults, we randomly assigned participants to view the same comparative information on health plans, displayed in different ways. We found that consumers were much more likely to select a high-value plan when cost information was summarized instead of detailed, when quality stars were displayed adjacent to cost information, when consumers understood that quality stars signified the quality of medical care, and when high-value plans were highlighted with a check mark or blue ribbon. These approaches, which were equally effective for participants with higher and lower numeracy, can inform the development of future displays of plan information in the exchanges. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Experimental RBE values of high LET radiations at low doses and the implications for quality factor assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    RBE determinations of special relevance to the quality factor assigned for radiation protection purposes are those relating to the effects of special importance at low doses, namely carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. Measurements of RBE that enable the maximum value of RBE, namely RBEsub(M), to be determined at low doses require data points as low as 0.1 Gy or even 0.01 Gy or high LET radiation. Corresponding data points as low as 0.5 Gy to 0.25 Gy or less of low LET radiation are also needed. Relatively few such measurements have been made, but many more are available now than formerly. A review of recent RBEs for tumour induction, life shortening, transformation, cytogenetics and genetic endpoints, which updated an earlier review, indicates a broad range of results. The principle findings are that X rays are more effective than hard γ rays at low doses by a factor of about 2, and that fission neutrons, alpha particles and heavy ions may be 30-50 times more effective, on the average, (some endpoints give higher, some lower values) than hard γ rays. The data would seem to indicate that in order to provide approximately equal protection against the risks at low doses from all radiations, adjustments upward in the quality factors for high LET radiations need to be considered. (author)

  1. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  2. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky......, 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  3. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PROBLEM BASED INSTRUCTION DENGAN PENDEKATAN PREDICT-OBSERVE-EXPLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Dwi Listiowati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of Problem Based Instruction learning model with Predict-Observe-Explain approach on chemistry learning outcomes. The population is XI grader Sciences of Senior High School in Brebes for academic year 2011/2012. Initial data analysis showed that the population are normally distributed and homogeneous, so the sampling technique which used is cluster random sampling. From this sampling, XI Science-5 used as a control class (Problem Based Instruction learning model without Predict-Observe-Explain approach and XI Science-1 as an experiment class (Problem Based Instruction with Predict Observe Explain approach. Final data analysis showed that learning outcomes for both classes are normally distributed and have equal variances. In the correlation test, obtained 0.433 of r b value, which showed a middle correlation, so Problem Based Instruction with Predict-ObserveExplain approach has middle effect on chemistry learning outcomes in solubility and solubility product. This learning contributes to student learning outcomes is 19%. The average value of affective and psychomotor in experimental class is better than the control class. Based on this  research, we can conclude that Problem Based Instruction with Predict-Observe-Explain approach has a positive effect on chemistry learning product in Senior High School students.Key Words: Problem Based Instruction Learning 

  4. Using extreme value theory approaches to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangpeng Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza is a contagious disease with high transmissibility to spread around the world with considerable morbidity and mortality and presents an enormous burden on worldwide public health. Few mathematical models can be used because influenza incidence data are generally not normally distributed. We developed a mathematical model using Extreme Value Theory (EVT to forecast the probability of outbreak of highly pathogenic influenza.The incidence data of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang province from April 2009 to November 2013 were retrieved from the website of Health and Family Planning Commission of Zhejiang Province. MATLAB "VIEM" toolbox was used to analyze data and modelling. In the present work, we used the Peak Over Threshold (POT model, assuming the frequency as a Poisson process and the intensity to be Pareto distributed, to characterize the temporal variability of the long-term extreme incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang, China.The skewness and kurtosis of the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza in Zhejiang between April 2009 and November 2013 were 4.49 and 21.12, which indicated a "fat tail" distribution. A QQ plot and a mean excess plot were used to further validate the features of the distribution. After determining the threshold, we modeled the extremes and estimated the shape parameter and scale parameter by the maximum likelihood method. The results showed that months in which the incidence of highly pathogenic influenza is about 4462/2286/1311/487 are predicted to occur once every five/three/two/one year, respectively.Despite the simplicity, the present study successfully offers the sound modeling strategy and a methodological avenue to implement forecasting of an epidemic in the midst of its course.

  5. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  6. Does high-resolution CT has diagnostic value in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, Sofieke C.; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Raphael, Martine F.; Beek, Frederik J.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be complicated by a variety of live-threatening infectious and non-infectious pulmonary complications. The management of these complications is critically dependent on the most probable diagnosis, which is in part based on imaging work-up. Methods: Systematic review of the literature related to the diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients who underwent SCT and developed respiratory symptoms. Results: Literature review did not reveal systematic cohort studies that included patients with respiratory symptoms post-SCT who underwent HRCT and had a well-defined outcome. Most studies selected participants based on their final diagnosis instead of the indication for diagnostic testing in practice. Nevertheless, several papers clearly indicated a potential role for HRCT when complications after SCT occur. A variety of articles described the role of certain HRCT findings in the diagnosis of specific infectious complications, but less data were available for non-infectious complications. Conclusion: We believe more diagnostic studies are needed to determine the value of HRCT for a specific diagnosis in SCT-recipients who present with respiratory symptoms at the transplant clinic. Currently, radiologists should be cautious since HRCT interpretation in these patients is not unambiguous.

  7. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-06-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)-(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized.

  8. High accuracy of predicting hybrid performance of Fusarium head blight resistance by mid-parent values in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedaner, Thomas; Schulthess, Albert W; Gowda, Manje; Reif, Jochen C; Longin, C Friedrich H

    2017-02-01

    Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means. We re-analyzed phenotypic data of a large population comprising 1604 hybrids and their 120 female and 15 male parental lines evaluated in inoculation trials across seven environments. Mid-parent heterosis of FHB severity averaged -9%, with a range from -36 to +35%. Mean better parent heterosis was 2% and 78 of the hybrids significantly (P hybrids (r = 0.09, P hybrid performance of FHB severity based on mid-parent values and on GCA effects was high (r = 0.70 and 0.86, respectively; P hybrids are an attractive alternative variety type to improve FHB resistance.

  9. How high-performance work systems drive health care value: an examination of leading process improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Julie; Garman, Andrew N; Song, Paula H; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2012-01-01

    As hospitals focus on increasing health care value, process improvement strategies have proliferated, seemingly faster than the evidence base supporting them. Yet, most process improvement strategies are associated with work practices for which solid evidence does exist. Evaluating improvement strategies in the context of evidence-based work practices can provide guidance about which strategies would work best for a given health care organization. We combined a literature review with analysis of key informant interview data collected from 5 case studies of high-performance work practices (HPWPs) in health care organizations. We explored the link between an evidence-based framework for HPWP use and 3 process improvement strategies: Hardwiring Excellence, Lean/Six Sigma, and Baldrige. We found that each of these process improvement strategies has not only strengths but also important gaps with respect to incorporating HPWPs involving engaging staff, aligning leaders, acquiring and developing talent, and empowering the front line. Given differences among these strategies, our analyses suggest that some may work better than others for individual health care organizations, depending on the organizations' current management systems. In practice, most organizations implementing improvement strategies would benefit from including evidence-based HPWPs to maximize the potential for process improvement strategies to increase value in health care.

  10. Recent progress in the development of solid catalysts for biomass conversion into high value-added chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Michikazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Kamata, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the substitution of non-renewable fossil resources by renewable biomass as a sustainable feedstock has been extensively investigated for the manufacture of high value-added products such as biofuels, commodity chemicals, and new bio-based materials such as bioplastics. Numerous solid catalyst systems for the effective conversion of biomass feedstocks into value-added chemicals and fuels have been developed. Solid catalysts are classified into four main groups with respect to their structures and substrate activation properties: (a) micro- and mesoporous materials, (b) metal oxides, (c) supported metal catalysts, and (d) sulfonated polymers. This review article focuses on the activation of substrates and/or reagents on the basis of groups (a)–(d), and the corresponding reaction mechanisms. In addition, recent progress in chemocatalytic processes for the production of five industrially important products (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, lactic acid, glyceraldehyde, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone, and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) as bio-based plastic monomers and their intermediates is comprehensively summarized. (focus issue review)

  11. Non-Cooperative Target Recognition by Means of Singular Value Decomposition Applied to Radar High Resolution Range Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia López-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profiles are widely used among the target recognition community for the detection and identification of flying targets. In this paper, singular value decomposition is applied to extract the relevant information and to model each aircraft as a subspace. The identification algorithm is based on angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. In order to have a wide database of radar signatures and evaluate the performance, simulated range profiles are used as the recognition database while the test samples comprise data of actual range profiles collected in a measurement campaign. Thanks to the modeling of aircraft as subspaces only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. Thus, one of the main advantages of using singular value decomposition, is that it helps to overcome the notable dissimilarities found in the shape and signal-to-noise ratio between actual and simulated profiles due to their difference in nature. Despite these differences, the recognition rates obtained with the algorithm are quite promising.

  12. Static and dynamic analysis of high-rise building with consideration of two different values of subsoil stiffness coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivankova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of 21-storeyed cast in-situ reinforced concrete high-rise building. Two different 3D models were created, because of two considered values of subsoil stiffness coefficient -fixed structure (alt. 1 and the structure supported by elastic soil (alt. 2. For both alternatives of foundation of structure, required analyses (static and dynamic were done and obtained results were compared in this paper. Short description of the structure, applied loads and other input parameters are also mentioned here. The main purpose of this analysis was to provide more information to planning engineers about the behaviour of structure exposed the wind load or seismic load when different soil conditions were considered.

  13. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC: A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose has been produced by commercial enzymes while the residual solids are converted into NFC via sonification. Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.

  14. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  15. Investigation of the added value of high-energy electrons in intensity-modulated radiotherapy: four clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korevaar, Erik W.; Huizenga, Henk; Loef, Johan; Stroom, Joep C.; Leer, Jan Willem H.; Brahme, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with photon beams is currently pursued in many clinics. Theoretically, inclusion of intensity- and energy-modulated high-energy electron beams (15-50 MeV) offers additional possibilities to improve radiotherapy treatments of deep-seated tumors. In this study the added value of high-energy electron beams in IMRT treatments was investigated. Methods and Materials: In a comparative treatment planning study, conventional treatment plans and various types of IMRT plans were constructed for four clinical cases (cancer of the bladder, pancreas, chordoma of the sacrum, and breast). The conventional plans were used for the actual treatment of the patients. The IMRT plans were optimized using the Orbit optimization code (Loef et al., 2000) with a radiobiologic objective function. The IMRT plans were either photon or combined electron and photon beam plans, with or without dose homogeneity constraints assuming standard or increased radiosensitivities of organs at risk. Results: Large improvements in expected treatment outcome are found using IMRT plans compared to conventional plans, but differences in tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) values between IMRT plans with and without electrons are small. However, the use of electrons improves the dose-volume histograms for organs at risk, especially at lower dose levels (e.g., 0-40 Gy). Conclusions: This preliminary study indicates that addition of higher energy electrons to IMRT can only marginally improve treatment outcome for the selected cases. The dose-volume histograms of organs at risk show improvements for IMRT with higher energy electrons, which may reduce tumor induction but does not substantially reduce NTCP

  16. Differentiating low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors using a continuous-time random-walk diffusion model at high b-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, M Muge; Sui, Yi; Wang, He; Magin, Richard L; Li, Yuhua; Zhou, Xiaohong Joe

    2016-10-01

    To demonstrate that a continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) diffusion model can improve diagnostic accuracy of differentiating low- and high-grade pediatric brain tumors. Fifty-four children with histopathologically confirmed brain tumors underwent diffusion MRI scans at 3Twith 12 b-values (0-4000 s/mm(2) ). The diffusion imageswere fit to a simplified CTRW model to extract anomalous diffusion coefficient, Dm , and temporal and spatial heterogeneity parameters, α and β, respectively. Using histopathology results as reference, a k-means clustering algorithm and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were employed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the CTRW parameters in differentiating tumor grades. Significant differences between the low- and high-grade tumors were observed in the CTRW parameters (p-valuesCTRW parameters produced higher diagnostic accuracy (85% vs. 75%) and specificity (83% vs. 54%) than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from a mono-exponential model. The ROC analysis revealed that any combination of the CTRW parameters gave a larger area under the curve (0.90-0.96) than using ADC (0.80). With its sensitivity to intravoxel heterogeneity, the simplified CTRW model is useful for non-invasive grading of pediatric brain tumors, particularly when surgical biopsy is not feasible. Magn Reson Med 76:1149-1157, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  18. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. [Nurses are not into personal marketing: do history explain why?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Rosana Chami

    2009-01-01

    Reflection on the nurse's personal marketing based on beliefs and values explained by the history of the main characters that care for patients. It brings to the surface reflections on the ambiguity between the social image of nursing and scientific, technological and humanistic knowledge developed over the time. It recognizes that there is still a fixation on the attributes relating to attitude and moral of the professionals to the detriment of having high regard for the technical and scientific knowledge. It verifies that the History of Nursing allows understanding that the fight against prejudice in the collective imagination lends weight to the social acceptance and recognition of this profession through the promotion of Nursing Science and the demonstration of its application in the professional practice.

  20. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  1. Production of an acetone-butanol-ethanol mixture from Clostridium acetobutylicum and its conversion to high-value biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumar, Sanil; Baer, Zachary C; Pazhamalai, Anbarasan; Gunbas, Gorkem; Grippo, Adam; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum is a bacterial species that ferments sugar to a mixture of organic solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol). This protocol delineates a methodology to combine solventogenic clostridial fermentation and chemical catalysis via extractive fermentation for the production of biofuel blendstocks. Extractive fermentation of C. acetobutylicum is operated in fed-batch mode with a concentrated feed solution (500 grams per liter glucose and 50 grams per liter yeast extract) for 60 h, producing in excess of 40 g of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) between the completely immiscible extractant and aqueous phases of the bioreactor. After distillation of the extractant phase, the acetone, butanol and ethanol mixture is upgraded to long-chain ketones over a palladium-hydrotalcite (Pd-HT) catalyst. This reaction is generally carried out in batch with a high-pressure Q-tube for 20 h at 250 °C. Following this protocol enables the production of ∼0.5 g of high-value biofuel precursors from a 1.7-g portion of fermentation solvents.

  2. Pyrolysis-catalysis of waste plastic using a nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst for high-value carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeshui; Nahil, Mohamad A; Wu, Chunfei; Williams, Paul T

    2017-11-01

    A stainless-steel mesh loaded with nickel catalyst was produced and used for the pyrolysis-catalysis of waste high-density polyethylene with the aim of producing high-value carbon products, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The catalysis temperature and plastic-to-catalyst ratio were investigated to determine the influence on the formation of different types of carbon deposited on the nickel-stainless-steel mesh catalyst. Increasing temperature from 700 to 900°C resulted in an increase in the carbon deposited on the nickel-loaded stainless-steel mesh catalyst from 32.5 to 38.0 wt%. The increase in sample-to-catalyst ratio reduced the amount of carbon deposited on the mesh catalyst in terms of g carbon g -1 plastic. The carbons were found to be largely composed of filamentous carbons, with negligible disordered (amorphous) carbons. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the filamentous carbons revealed them to be composed of a large proportion (estimated at ∼40%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The optimum process conditions for CNT production, in terms of yield and graphitic nature, determined by Raman spectroscopy, was catalysis temperature of 800°C and plastic-to-catalyst ratio of 1:2, where a mass of 334 mg of filamentous/MWCNTs g -1 plastic was produced.

  3. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  4. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin Added to Simvastatin/Ezetimibe on Glucose and Insulin Values in AIM-HIGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ronald B; Bittner, Vera A; Dunbar, Richard L; Fleg, Jerome L; Grunberger, George; Guyton, John R; Leiter, Lawrence A; McBride, Ruth; Robinson, Jennifer G; Simmons, Debra L; Wysham, Carol; Xu, Ping; Boden, William E

    2016-07-01

    Niacin is an antidyslipidemic agent that may cause blood sugar elevation in patients with diabetes, but its effects on glucose and insulin values in nondiabetic statin-treated subjects with cardiovascular disease and at high risk for diabetes are less well known. This was a prespecified, intent-to-treat analysis of the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low high-density lipoprotein/high triglycerides: Impact on Global Health outcomes trial which randomized 3,414 participants at 92 centers in the US and Canada to extended-release niacin (ERN) plus simvastatin/ezetimibe (ERN) or simvastatin/ezetimibe plus placebo (Placebo). Baseline and annual fasting glucose and insulin values were measured. Those experiencing an adverse event indicative of diabetes or starting medications for diabetes were considered to have confirmed diabetes. In addition, nondiabetic subjects with 2 annual follow-up glucose measurements were categorized into normal, impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes (presumed or confirmed) states. Compared with placebo, ERN increased annual fasting glucose from baseline to 1 year in both those with normal (7.9 ± 15.8 vs 4.3 ± 10.3 mg/dL; P < .001) and impaired fasting glucose (4.1 ± 18.7 vs 1.4 ± 14.9; P < .02) and increased insulin levels. Both effects waned over the next 2 years. There were less consistent effects in those with baseline diabetes. There was an increased risk of progressing from normal to presumed or confirmed impaired fasting glucose (ERN 197/336) cases (58.6%) vs placebo 135/325 cases (41.5%; P < .001) over time, but no difference in diabetes development in the 2 treatment groups except in those with normal fasting glucose at baseline. The addition of ERN to simvastatin/ezetimibe had marginal effects on glycemia in those with diabetes at baseline, and there was a trend toward increased development of new-onset diabetes. In addition, ERN increased the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose, which

  5. Assessing Changes in High School Students' Conceptual Understanding through Concept Maps before and after the Computer-Based Predict-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) Tasks on Acid-Base Chemistry at the Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Fatma; Ayas, Alipasa

    2015-01-01

    Although concept maps have been used as alternative assessment methods in education, there has been an ongoing debate on how to evaluate students' concept maps. This study discusses how to evaluate students' concept maps as an assessment tool before and after 15 computer-based Predict-Observe-Explain (CB-POE) tasks related to acid-base chemistry.…

  6. Using the Expectancy-Value Theory of Motivation to Predict Behavioral and Emotional Risk among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Bridget V.

    2016-01-01

    Within the expectancy-value framework, much work has been done linking expectancies and task values to academic outcomes such as performance, persistence, and choice. Research on the associations between student motivation (including efficacy and task values) and behavioral and emotional problems, however, is nascent. The present study examined a…

  7. Explain bioinformatics to your grandmother!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What are you working on? You have certainly been asked that question many times, whether it be at a Saturday night party, during a discussion with your neighbors, or at a family gathering. Communicating with a lay audience about scientific subjects and making them attractive is a difficult task. But difficult or not, you will have to do it for many years, not only with your family and friends, but also with your colleagues and collaborators. So, better learn now! Although not usually taught, the ability to explain your work to others is an essential skill in science, where communication plays a key role. Using some examples of the French Regional Student Group activities, we discuss here (i why it is important to have such communication skills, (ii how you can get involved in these activities by using existing resources or working with people who have previous experience, and (iii what you get out of this amazing experience. We aim to motivate you and provide you with tips and ideas to get involved in promoting scientific activities while getting all the benefits.

  8. Assessing the economic value of co-optimized grid-scale energy storage investments in supporting high renewable portfolio standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Roderick S.; Munoz, Francisco D.; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a MILP to co-optimize generation, transmission, and storage investments. • We find significant value in co-optimized storage via investment deferrals. • Operational savings from bulk services are small relative to investment deferrals. • Co-optimized energy storage significantly reduces prices associated with RPS. - Abstract: Worldwide, environmental regulations such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are being broadly adopted to promote renewable energy investments. With corresponding increases in renewable energy deployments, there is growing interest in grid-scale energy storage systems (ESS) to provide the flexibility needed to efficiently deliver renewable power to consumers. Our contribution in this paper is to introduce a unified generation, transmission, and bulk ESS expansion planning model subject to an RPS constraint, formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear program (MILP) optimization model, which we then use to study the impact of co-optimization and evaluate the economic interaction between investments in these three asset classes in achieving high renewable penetrations. We present numerical case studies using the 24-bus IEEE RTS-96 test system considering wind and solar as available renewable energy resources, and demonstrate that up to $180 million/yr in total cost savings can result from the co-optimization of all three assets, relative to a situation in which no ESS investment options are available. Surprisingly, we find that co-optimized bulk ESS investments provide significant economic value through investment deferrals in transmission and generation capacity, but very little savings in operational cost. Finally, we observe that planning transmission and generation infrastructure first and later optimizing ESS investments—as is common in industry—captures at most 1.7% ($3 million/yr) of the savings that result from co-optimizing all assets simultaneously.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN FRACTIONS IN THE BLOOD OF THE HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE FISH FARMED SPECIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. PATRICHE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, as in any other sector where work is carried out on live bodies, to get a high production yield depends upon maintenance and monitoring of an unaltered health condition of the biological material. To monitor the health condition of the biological material in a fish farm allows us to establish the preventive measures required to stop the spread of disease and the treatment to be applied in case a mass disease occurs. For this reason to know the value of the total protein and the protein fractions in serum enables us to differentiate the normal physiological condition of the fish material under research, from the eventual pathological modifications having occurred due to the defence reaction of the body. The most part of diseases have but a little influence on the concentration of the total protein in the blood, but some influence on certain protein fractions, and they alter the ratio between albumins and globulins. The level of the total protein in serum is, first of all, a synthetic indicator of the nutritional condition of the body, presenting, at the same time, ample qualitative and quantitative variations depending on species, age, sex, stage of sexual maturity, water temperature and especially in correlation with the health condition of fish. Alterations of the ratio albumins/globulins or of the ratio between different protein fractions have important pathological implications, especially concerning the immunity capacity of fish, a decrease below 0.3 in value of the ratio albumins/globulins in serum being significant for the health condition of fish.

  10. Prognostic Value of High-sensitivity Troponin T After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Braun, Siegmund; Cassese, Salvatore; Mayer, Katharina; Lohaus, Raphaela; Lahmann, Anna L; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    The prognostic value of high-sensitivity troponin T after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable coronary artery disease is unclear. We investigated this clinically relevant question in 3463 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This study included patients with stable coronary artery disease and baseline high-sensitivity troponin T below the 99th percentile upper reference limit (0.014μg/L). High-sensitivity troponin T was measured before and at 6, 12 and 24hours after the procedure. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients were divided into a group with peak postprocedural troponin T≤99th percentile (n=742), a group with peak postprocedural troponin T>99th to 5×99th percentile (n=1928), and a group with peak postprocedural troponin T>5×99th percentile upper reference limit (n=793). Advanced age, smaller body mass index, baseline troponin level, complex lesions, bifurcation lesions and stented length were independently associated with elevated troponin T levels after the procedure. The median follow-up was 15.5 months. There were 56 deaths: 5 deaths (1.7%) among patients with peak postprocedural troponin T≤99th percentile, 35 deaths (4.5%) among patients with peak postprocedural troponin T>99th to 5×99th percentile and 16 deaths (4.3%) among patients with peak postprocedural troponin T>5×99th percentile upper reference limit (hazard ratio=1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-2.25; P=.047). After adjustment, peak postprocedural troponin T level was not independently associated with mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (P=.094). In patients with stable coronary artery disease and without elevated baseline high-sensitivity troponin T, elevated high-sensitivity troponin T level after percutaneous coronary intervention was not associated with postprocedural mortality. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  12. Value Creation and Value Capture at Manufacturing Firms : Importance of Non-functional Value

    OpenAIRE

    Nobeoka, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    Most large Japanese manufacturers are good at creating value utilizing their engineering capabilities but poor at capturing value in terms of creating profit and added value. This paper discusses conditions to capture value, after explaining a distinction between value creation and value capture. In order to capture value, manufacturers have to (1) link manufacturing excellence with uniqueness and differentiation from competitors, and (2) create customer value, enticing customers to pay premi...

  13. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    of conditional convergence helps to both better describe and explain the phenomenon. By applying error correction models, we examine conditional convergence of various types of social expenditure in 21 OECD countries between 1980 and 2005. Our empirical findings go beyond the existing literature in two respects....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...

  14. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...... rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  15. Vacuum properties of high quality value tuning fork in high magnetic field up to 8 Tesla and at mK temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Človečko, M.; Kupka, M.; Skyba, P.; Vavrek, F.

    2014-12-01

    Tuning forks are very popular experimental tools widely applied in low and ultra low temperature physics as mechanical resonators and cantilevers in the study of quantum liquids, STM and AFM techniques, etc. As an added benefit, these forks being cooled, have very high Q-value, typically 106 and their properties seems to be magnetic field independent. We present preliminary vacuum measurements of a commercial tuning fork oscillating at frequency 32 kHz conducted in magnetic fields up to 8 T and at temperature ~ 10 mK. We found an additional weak damping of the tuning fork motion depending on magnetic field magnitude and we discuss physical nature of the observed phenomena.

  16. New formulae for the high-order derivatives of some Jacobi polynomials: an application to some high-order boundary value problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W M

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with deriving some new formulae expressing explicitly the high-order derivatives of Jacobi polynomials whose parameters difference is one or two of any degree and of any order in terms of their corresponding Jacobi polynomials. The derivatives formulae for Chebyshev polynomials of third and fourth kinds of any degree and of any order in terms of their corresponding Chebyshev polynomials are deduced as special cases. Some new reduction formulae for summing some terminating hypergeometric functions of unit argument are also deduced. As an application, and with the aid of the new introduced derivatives formulae, an algorithm for solving special sixth-order boundary value problems are implemented with the aid of applying Galerkin method. A numerical example is presented hoping to ascertain the validity and the applicability of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Effects of Extended Release Niacin added to Simvastatin/Ezetemibe on Glucose and Insulin values in AIM HIGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ronald B.; Bittner, Vera A.; Dunbar, Richard L.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Grunberger, George; Guyton, John R.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; McBride, Ruth; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Simmons, Debra L.; Wysham, Carol; Xu, Ping; Boden, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Niacin is an anti-dyslipidemic agent that may cause blood sugar elevation in patients with diabetes, but its effects on glucose and insulin values in non-diabetic statin-treated subjects with cardiovascular disease and at high risk for diabetes are less well known. Methods This was a pre-specified, intent-to-treat analysis of 3414 participants in the Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic syndrome with low HDL/high triglycerides: Impact on Global Health outcomes trial randomized at 92 centers in the United States and Canada to ERN plus simvastatin/ezetimibe (ERN) or simvastatin/ezetimibe plus placebo (Placebo). Baseline and annual fasting glucose and insulin values were measured. Those experiencing an adverse event indicative of diabetes or starting medications for diabetes were considered to have confirmed diabetes. In addition, non-diabetic subjects with 2 annual follow up glucose measurements were categorized into normal, impaired fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes (presumed or confirmed) states. Results Compared to placebo, ERN increased annual fasting glucose from baseline to 1 year in both those with normal (7.9±15.8 vs 4.3±10.3 mg/dl; p<0.001) and impaired fasting glucose (4.1±18.7 vs 1.4±14.9 p<0.02) and increased insulin levels. Both effects waned over the next 2 years. There were less consistent effects in those with baseline diabetes. There was an increased risk of progressing from normal to presumed or confirmed impaired fasting glucose (ERN 197/336 cases (58.6%) versus placebo 135/325 cases (41.5%) p<0.001) over time, but no difference in diabetes development in the two treatment groups except in those with normal fasting glucose at baseline. Conclusions The addition of ERN to simvastatin/ezetemibe had marginal effects on glycemia in those with diabetes at baseline, and there was a trend toward increased development of new onset diabetes. In addition ERN increased the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose which may

  18. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species.

  19. Prognostic value of preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI perfusion parameters for high-grade glioma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyte, Agne [Vilnius University, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius (Lithuania); Katsaros, Vasileios K. [General Anticancer and Oncological Hospital ' ' St. Savvas' ' , Department of Advanced Imaging Modalities - CT and MRI, Athens (Greece); University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); Liouta, Evangelia; Stranjalis, Georgios [University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); Boskos, Christos [University of Athens, Department of Neurosurgery, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (Greece); General Anticancer and Oncological Hospital ' ' St. Savvas' ' , Department of Radiation Oncology, Athens (Greece); Papanikolaou, Nickolas [Champalimaud Foundation, Department of Radiology, Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon (Portugal); Usinskiene, Jurgita [National Cancer Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania); Affidea Lietuva, Vilnius (Lithuania); Bisdas, Sotirios [University College London Hospitals, Department of Neuroradiology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    The prognostic value of the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI perfusion and its histogram analysis-derived metrics is not well established for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate DCE perfusion transfer coefficient (K{sup trans}), vascular plasma volume fraction (v{sub p}), extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}), reverse transfer constant (k{sub ep}), and initial area under gadolinium concentration time curve (IAUGC) as predictors of progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG patients. Sixty-nine patients with suspected anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma underwent preoperative DCE-MRI scans. DCE perfusion whole tumor region histogram parameters, clinical details, and PFS and OS data were obtained. Univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were conducted. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to identify perfusion parameters with the best differentiation performance. On univariate analysis, v{sub e} and skewness of v{sub p} had significant negative impacts, while k{sub ep} had significant positive impact on OS (P < 0.05). v{sub e} was also a negative predictor of PFS (P < 0.05). Patients with lower v{sub e} and IAUGC had longer median PFS and OS on Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.05). K{sup trans} and v{sub e} could also differentiate grade III from IV gliomas (area under the curve 0.819 and 0.791, respectively). High v{sub e} is a consistent predictor of worse PFS and OS in HGG glioma patients. v{sub p} skewness and k{sub ep} are also predictive for OS. K{sup trans} and v{sub e} demonstrated the best diagnostic performance for differentiating grade III from IV gliomas. (orig.)

  20. A biotechnological process efficiently co-produces two high value-added products, glucose and xylooligosaccharides, from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian-Long; Zhao, Shuai; Liang, Rui-Ming; Yin, Xin; Jiang, Sui-Xin; Su, Lin-Hui; Yang, Qi; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Liang; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a co-production of two high value-added products, glucose and xylooligosaccharides (XOS), was investigated by utilizing sugarcane bagasse (SB) within a multi-product bio-refinery framework optimized by Box-Behnken design-based response surface methodology. The developed process resulted in a maximum cellulose conversion of xylan-removed SB, 98.69±1.30%, and a maximum extracted SB xylan conversion into XOS (xylobiose and xylotriose) of 57.36±0.79% that was the highest SB xylan conversion reported in the literature, employing cellulase from Penicillium oxalicum EU2106 and recombinant endo-β-1,4-xylanase in Pichia pastoris. Consequently, a mass balance analysis showed that the maximum yields of glucose and XOS were 34.43±0.32g and 5.96±0.09 g per 100 g raw SB. Overall, this described process may be a preferred option for the comprehensive utilization of SB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahib, Najla Gooda; Anwar, Farooq; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2013-10-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Teaching High-Value Care in Pediatrics: A National Survey of Current Practices and Guide for Future Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchou, Michael J; Walz, Alice; Burgener, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Alan; Blankenburg, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Health care expenditures in the United States are increasing at an unsustainable pace. There have been calls to incorporate education on resource stewardship into medical training, yet the perceived need for and current use of high-value care (HVC) curricula in pediatrics residency programs is unknown. We described the current national landscape of HVC curricula in pediatrics residencies, including characterization of current programs, barriers to the practice of HVC, and clarification of preferred curricula types. Using a cross-sectional study design, we conducted a national, anonymous, web-based survey of pediatrics residency program directors and pediatrics chief residents in fall 2014. We received responses from 85 of 199 (43%) pediatrics program directors and 74 of 199 (37%) pediatrics chief residents. Only 10% (8 of 80) of program directors and 12% (8 of 65) of chief residents reported having a formal curriculum on HVC. Respondents identified the largest barriers to HVC as a lack of cost transparency (program directors) and attending physicians having the final say in treatment decisions (chief residents). The majority of respondents (83%, 121 of 146) agreed their program needs a HVC curriculum, and 90% (131 of 145) reported they would use a curriculum if it was available. Respondents significantly preferred a case-based conference discussion format over other approaches. Most pediatrics residency programs responding to a survey lacked formal HVC curricula. There is a desire nationally for HVC education in pediatrics, particularly in a case-based discussion format.

  3. High-value alcohols and higher-oxidation-state compounds by catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Khan, R. Kashif M.; Torker, Sebastian; Yu, Miao; Mikus, Malte S.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis catalysts provide access to molecules that are indispensable to physicians and researchers in the life sciences. A persisting problem, however, is the dearth of chemical transformations that directly generate acyclic Z allylic alcohols, including products that contain a hindered neighbouring substituent or reactive functional units such as a phenol, an aldehyde, or a carboxylic acid. Here we present an electronically modified ruthenium-disulfide catalyst that is effective in generating such high-value compounds by cross-metathesis. The ruthenium complex is prepared from a commercially available precursor and an easily generated air-stable zinc catechothiolate. Transformations typically proceed with 5.0 mole per cent of the complex and an inexpensive reaction partner in 4-8 hours under ambient conditions; products are obtained in up to 80 per cent yield and 98:2 Z:E diastereoselectivity. The use of this catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of the naturally occurring anti-tumour agent neopeltolide and in a single-step stereoselective gram-scale conversion of a renewable feedstock (oleic acid) to an anti-fungal agent. In this conversion, the new catalyst promotes cross-metathesis more efficiently than the commonly used dichloro-ruthenium complexes, indicating that its utility may extend beyond Z-selective processes.

  4. Optimization of the recovery of high-value compounds from pitaya fruit by-products using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Grosso, Clara; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Mota, Ana T; Andrade, Paula B

    2017-09-01

    A green microwave-assisted extraction of high value-added compounds from exotic fruits' peels was optimized by Box-Behnken design using 3 factors: solid/solvent ratio, X 1 , temperature, X 2 , and extraction time, X 3 . By using Derringer's desirability function, optimum extraction yields are obtained with X 1 =1/149.95g/mL, X 2 =72.27°C and X 3 =39.39min (white-fleshed red pitaya) and X 1 =1/148.96g/mL, X 2 =72.56°C and X 3 =5.02min (yellow pitaya) and a maximum betacyanin content is achieved with X 1 =1/150g/mL, X 2 =49.33°C and X 3 =5min. None of the factors influenced the extraction of phenolic compounds. Eighteen cinnamoyl derivatives, 17 flavonoid derivatives and 4 betacyanins were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS n , 23 and 15 new compounds being described in yellow and white-fleshed red pitayas, respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to reuse these by-products to recover compounds for food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional Value and Utilization of Yams (Dioscorea steriscus by Residents of Bindura Town High Density Suburbs, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Washaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess utilization levels, availability, nutritional value, and magnitude of sales by vendors of Dioscorea steriscus by residents of Bindura. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select respondents. Data were subjected to Chi-square, logistic regression, and correlation to determine the effects of demographic determinants on utilization of D. steriscus. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that education status and period of stay significantly affect the consumption of D. steriscus (P<0.05. It was also observed that consumption is frequent between lunch and supper (47% compared to breakfast. D. steriscus has high iron (6.8%, ash (2.06%, and CF (16.8% contents but it is low in protein (0.83%. Irrespective of gender of respondent, suburb of residence, size of family, period of stay, education level, employment status, and source of income, respondents will grow D. steriscus for use as food supplement (odds ratio = 0.475. The period of stay (r=0.08 and education level (r=0.08 positively affect the growing of D. steriscus. D. steriscus can be used as source of energy and can also be used possibly for medicinal purposes. Further study is required on possibility of phytochemicals and cytotoxic components to justify its use.

  6. Secondary Analysis of Existing Datasets for Dementia and Palliative Care Research: High-Value Applications and Key Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lauren J; Lee, See J; Harrison, Krista L; Smith, Alexander K

    2018-02-01

    To provide a guide to researchers selecting a dataset pertinent to the study of palliative care for people with dementia and to aid readers who seek to critically evaluate a secondary analysis study in this domain. The impact of dementia at end-of-life is large and growing. Secondary dataset analysis can play a critical role in advancing research on palliative care for people with dementia. We conducted a broad search of a variety of resources to: 1. identity datasets that include information germane to dementia and palliative care research; 2. review relevant applications of secondary dataset analysis in the published literature; and 3. explore potential validity and reliability concerns. We synthesize findings regarding: 1. Methodological approaches for determining the presence of dementia; 2. Inclusion and measurement of key palliative care items as they relate to people with dementia; and 3. Sampling and study design issues, including the role and implications of proxy-respondents. We describe and compare a selection of high-value existing datasets relevant to palliative care and dementia research. While secondary analysis of existing datasets requires consideration of key limitations, it can be a powerful tool for efficiently enhancing knowledge of palliative care needs among people with dementia.

  7. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  8. Identification and mapping the high nature value farmland by the comparison of a combined and species approaches in Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Lazzerini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-intensity farming systems play a crucial role in nature conservation by preserving 50% of habitats, flora and fauna occurring in Europe. For this reason the identification, classification and mapping of high nature value farmlands (HNVfs is becoming an overriding concern. In this study, two different approaches, namely combined approach and species-based approach, were used to spatially identify HNVfs (type 1, 2 and 3 across Tuscany region (Italy. The first approach calculated different indicators (extensive practices indicator, crop diversity indicator, landscape element indicator at 1×1 km grid cell spatial resolution using pre-existent spatial datasets integrated within a global information system environment. Whilst, the speciesbased approach relied on a pre-existent regional naturalistic inventory. All indicators and the resulting HNVfs derived from the two approaches were aggregated at municipality level. Despite some difference, the two adopted approaches intercepted spatially the same HNVfs areas, accounting for 35% of the total utilised agricultural area of the region. Just 16% of HNVfs resulted located inside protected areas, thus under current conservation and protection management actions. Finally, HNVfs of the Tuscany region were spatially aggregated in four relevant agro-ecosystems by taking into consideration the cropping systems and the landscape elements’ characteristics peculiar in the region.

  9. Demonstration of Parallel Algal Processing: Production of Renewable Diesel Blendstock and a High-Value Chemical Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoshaug, Eric P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mohagheghi, Ali [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagle, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stickel, Jonathan J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dong, Tao [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Karp, Eric M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruger, Jacob S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandner, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Manker, Lorenz [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rorrer, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hyman, Deborah A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Co-production of high-value chemicals such as succinic acid from algal sugars is a promising route to enabling conversion of algal lipids to a renewable diesel blendstock. Biomass from the green alga Scenedesmus acutus was acid pretreated and the resulting slurry separated into its solid and liquor components using charged polyamide induced flocculation and vacuum filtration. Over the course of a subsequent 756 hours continuous fermentation of the algal liquor with Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z, we achieved maximum productivity, process conversion yield, and titer of 1.1 g L-1 h-1, 0.7 g g-1 total sugars, and 30.5 g L-1 respectively. Succinic acid was recovered from fermentation media with a yield of 60% at 98.4% purity while lipids were recovered from the flocculated cake at 83% yield with subsequent conversion through deoxygenation and hydroisomerization to a renewable diesel blendstock. This work is a first-of-its-kind demonstration of a novel integrated conversion process for algal biomass to produce fuel and chemical products of sufficient quality to be blend-ready feedstocks for further processing.

  10. Normal values for solid-state esophageal high-resolution manometry in a European population; an overview of all current metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Kessing, B. F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) allows accurate evaluation of esophageal motility. Normal values for HRM were established in the United States and several new parameters were introduced since. We aimed to provide a complete set of normal values for HRM obtained in a European population,

  11. Modelling for an improved integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system for the production of highly valued marine species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Granada

    2014-05-01

    spallanzanii (capacity to filter, accumulate and remove particles and bacterial groups co-cultured with the highly valued marine fish Diplodus sargus is assessed. This study includes to development of a model to mathematically describe the proposed IMTA system. The main focus of this model is optimize species combinations and yields from each trophic level. Such a mathematical description of the system also opens the possibility of developing simulators to study the purposed system, comparing it under different conditions.

  12. Chelomei`s pendulum explained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Tcherniak, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    Chelomei´s pendulum has a sliding disc on its rod, and is mounted on a support that vibrates vertically with small amplitude and high frequency. In 1982, V. N. Chelomei demonstrated experimentally that a configuration can be stable where the pendulum points against gravity, and the disc ´floats...

  13. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  14. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  15. Evaluation of purity with its uncertainty value in high purity lead stick by conventional and electro-gravimetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Singh, Niranjan; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Soni, Daya; Singh, Khem; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2013-06-26

    A conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry study has been carried out for the precise and accurate purity determination of lead (Pb) in high purity lead stick and for preparation of reference standard. Reference materials are standards containing a known amount of an analyte and provide a reference value to determine unknown concentrations or to calibrate analytical instruments. A stock solution of approximate 2 kg has been prepared after dissolving approximate 2 g of Pb stick in 5% ultra pure nitric acid. From the stock solution five replicates of approximate 50 g have been taken for determination of purity by each method. The Pb has been determined as PbSO4 by conventional gravimetry, as PbO2 by electro gravimetry. The percentage purity of the metallic Pb was calculated accordingly from PbSO4 and PbO2. On the basis of experimental observations it has been concluded that by conventional gravimetry and electro-gravimetry the purity of Pb was found to be 99.98 ± 0.24 and 99.97 ± 0.27 g/100 g and on the basis of Pb purity the concentration of reference standard solutions were found to be 1000.88 ± 2.44 and 1000.81 ± 2.68 mg kg-1 respectively with 95% confidence level (k = 2). The uncertainty evaluation has also been carried out in Pb determination following EURACHEM/GUM guidelines. The final analytical results quantifying uncertainty fulfills this requirement and gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. Gravimetry is the most reliable technique in comparison to titremetry and instrumental method and the results of gravimetry are directly traceable to SI unit. Gravimetric analysis, if methods are followed carefully, provides for exceedingly precise analysis. In classical gravimetry the major uncertainties are due to repeatability but in electro-gravimetry several other factors also affect the final results.

  16. The Perceived Value of Passive Animal Health Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Phan, T D; Dao, D C; Nguyen, T T; Truong, B D; Nguyen, X N T; Vu, T D; Nguyen, K V; Le, H T; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2016-03-01

    Economic evaluations are critical for the assessment of the efficiency and sustainability of animal health surveillance systems and the improvement of their efficiency. Methods identifying and quantifying costs and benefits incurred by public and private actors of passive surveillance systems (i.e. actors of veterinary authorities and private actors who may report clinical signs) are needed. This study presents the evaluation of perceived costs and benefits of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) passive surveillance in Vietnam. Surveys based on participatory epidemiology methods were conducted in three provinces in Vietnam to collect data on costs and benefits resulting from the reporting of HPAI suspicions to veterinary authorities. A quantitative tool based on stated preference methods and participatory techniques was developed and applied to assess the non-monetary costs and benefits. The study showed that poultry farmers are facing several options regarding the management of HPAI suspicions, besides reporting the following: treatment, sale or destruction of animals. The option of reporting was associated with uncertain outcome and transaction costs. Besides, actors anticipated the release of health information to cause a drop of markets prices. This cost was relevant at all levels, including farmers, veterinary authorities and private actors of the upstream sector (feed, chicks and medicine supply). One benefit associated with passive surveillance was the intervention of public services to clean farms and the environment to limit the disease spread. Private actors of the poultry sector valued information on HPAI suspicions (perceived as a non-monetary benefit) which was mainly obtained from other private actors and media. © 2015 The Authors. Zoonoses and Public Health Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A blended approach to analyze staple and high-value crops using remote sensing with radiative transfer and crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, A. W. D.; Winter, J.; McDonald, K. C.; Escobar, V. M.; Steiner, N.

    2017-12-01

    The monitoring of staple and high-value crops is important for maintaining food security. The recent launch of numerous remote sensing satellites has created the ability to monitor vast amounts of crop lands, continuously and in a timely manner. This monitoring provides users with a wealth of information on various crop types over different regions of the world. However, a challenge still remains on how to best quantify and interpret the crop and surface characteristics that are measured by visible, near-infrared, and active and passive microwave radar. Currently, two NASA funded projects are examining the ability to monitor different types of crops in California with different remote sensing platforms. The goal of both projects is to develop a cost-effective monitoring tool for use by vineyard and crop managers. The first project is designed to examine the capability to monitor vineyard water management and soil moisture in Sonoma County using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Sentinel-1A and -2, and Landsat-8. The combined mission products create thorough and robust measurements of surface and vineyard characteristics that can potentially improve the ability to monitor vineyard health. Incorporating the Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS), a radiative transfer model, enables us to better understand surface and vineyard features that influence radar measurements from Sentinel-1A. The second project is a blended approach to analyze corn, rice, and wheat growth using Sentinel-1A products with Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) and MIMICS models. This project aims to characterize the crop structures that influence Sentinel-1A radar measurements. Preliminary results have revealed the corn, rice, and wheat structures that influence radar measurements during a growing season. The potential of this monitoring tool can be used for maintaining food security. This includes supporting sustainable irrigation practices, identifying crop

  18. Towards an economic sustainable, high yielding and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values; Paa vaeg mot ett ekonomiskt haallbart, hoegproducerande och klimatsmart jordbruk med hoega landskapsvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, Karl-Ivar

    2013-07-15

    In 1995-97, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency carried out a futures study with the aim of identifying ways to achieve environmentally friendly, sustainable Swedish agriculture by 2021. The results indicated that major environmental improvements were possible, while also improving profitability and increasing production of food and bioenergy. At a time half way between 1995 and 2021, the trends predicted in that study were compared against actual developments in agriculture. The analysis showed that most objectives regarding environmental quality were on the way to being achieved relatively well. However, profitability continued to be weak, while food production had decreased and bioenergy production was far below the predicted level. The latter means that agriculture was far from achieving the target of compensating for its emissions of greenhouse gases through bioenergy production substituting for fossil energy. This analysis showed that weak profitability and insufficient production capacity at current prices are the greatest sustainability problems in Swedish agriculture. If profitability cannot be improved, agriculture will decline and its positive effects on the landscape will decrease. If production does not increase, there will have to be continued or increased food imports, which are often less favourable from an environmental perspective than food produced in Sweden. If bioenergy production in agriculture does not drastically increase, it will be difficult to realise the vision of a Sweden without net emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The present report updates the futures study. In the evaluation, great emphasis is placed on identifying paths to economically sustainable, high producing and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values. It is assumed that the current agricultural support system is replaced with environmental payment based on landscape and climate benefits. The views expressed in this report are those of its author and

  19. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  20. Calculations of Q values in single- and double-charge-transfer collisions of highly charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Lin, C.D.; Toshima, N.

    1994-01-01

    Close-coupling calculations are carried out for the Q values for electron capture processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms over a broad range of energies. For single-capture processes the results for N 7+ +He and O 8+ +He collisions are in good agreement with the experimental data of Wu et al. [preceding paper, Phys. Rev. A 50, 502 (1994)]. To compare with the experimental Q values for the transfer ionization (TI) and the true double-capture (TDC) processes, an independent-electron model was used to calculate double-electron-capture cross sections. By combining with the calculated average fluorescence yields, the theoretical Q values for TI and TDC processes are also found to be in fair agreement with the experimental data. We also compared the Q values calculated by the close-coupling method and by the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method

  1. Pruning high-value Douglas-fir can reduce dwarf mistletoe severity and increase longevity in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Helen M; Filip, Gregory M; Gruelke, Nancy E; Oblinger, Brent W; Margolis, Ellis; Chadwick, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Mid- to very large-sized Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzieseii var. menziesii) that were lightly- to moderately-infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) were analyzed over a 14-year period to evaluate whether mechanical pruning could eradicate mistletoe (or at least delay the onset of severe infection) without significantly affecting tree vitality and by inference, longevity. Immediate and longterm pruning effects on mistletoe infection severity were assessed by comparing pruned trees (n = 173) to unpruned trees (n = 55) with respect to: (1) percentage of trees with no visible infections 14 years post-pruning, (2) Broom Volume Rating (BVR), and (3) rate of BVR increase 14 years postpruning. Vitality/longevity (compared with unpruned trees) was assessed using six indicators: (1) tree survival, (2) the development of severe infections, (3) the development of dead tops, (4) tree-ring width indices, (5) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery, and (6) live-crown ratio (LCR) and increment. Twenty-four percent of the pruned trees remained free of mistletoe 14 years post-pruning. Pruning is most likely to successfully eradicate mistletoe in lightly infected trees (BVR 1 or 2) without infected neighbors. Pruning significantly decreased mean BVR in the pruned versus the unpruned trees. However, the subsequent average rate of intensification (1.3–1.5 BVR per decade) was not affected, implying that a single pruning provides ~14 years respite in the progression of infection levels. Post-pruning infection intensification was slower on dominant and co-dominants than on intermediate or suppressed trees. The success of mistletoe eradication via pruning and need for follow-up pruning should be evaluated no sooner than 14 years after pruning to allow for the development of detectable brooms. Based on six indicators, foliage from witches brooms contribute little to long-term tree vitality since removal appears to have

  2. The predictive value of endorectal 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in patients with low, intermediate and high risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somford, D M; Hamoen, E H; Fütterer, J J; van Basten, J P; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C A; Vreuls, W; van Oort, I M; Vergunst, H; Kiemeney, L A; Barentsz, J O; Witjes, J A

    2013-11-01

    We determined the positive and negative predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy for different prostate cancer risk groups. We evaluated a cohort of 183 patients who underwent 3 Tesla multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, including T2-weighted, diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast enhanced sequences, with an endorectal coil before radical prostatectomy. Pathological stage at radical prostatectomy was used as standard reference for extraprostatic extension. The cohort was classified into low, intermediate and high risk groups according to the D'Amico criteria. We recorded prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy and determined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension in each group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. The overall prevalence of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy was 49.7% ranging from 24.7% to 77.1% between low and high risk categories. Overall staging accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was 73.8%, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 58.2%, 89.1%, 84.1% and 68.3%, respectively. Positive predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension was best in the high risk cohort with 88.8%. Negative predictive value was highest in the low risk cohort with 87.7%. With an odds ratio of 10.3 multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is by far the best preoperative predictor of extraprostatic extension at radical prostatectomy. For adequate patient counseling, knowledge of predictive values of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for extraprostatic extension is

  3. Analysis on the Bullying Tendencies and Value Preferences of High School Students According to Level of Receiving Physical Education and Sports Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savucu, Yüksel; Kanat, Metin; Karadag, Mustafa; Sezer, Süreyya. Y.; Yücel, Ali S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bullying tendencies and value preferences of high school students according to the level of taking physical education and sports course. The research population of the study was composed of high school students studying in Yesilyurt and Battalgazi districts of Malatya province during 2013-2014 academic…

  4. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their

  5. The Effects of a Consumer Chemistry Intervention on Urban At-Risk High School Students' Performance, Utility Value, and Intentions to Pursue STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, Lisa C.; Starling, Michael P.; Day, Martha M.; Cribbs, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the degree to which a three-week intervention in an urban high-needs high school science classroom would influence students' (n = 51) interest, utility value, content knowledge, and intentions for future study in chemistry. The intervention consisted of an authentic, inquiry-based…

  6. Nutritional value of high fiber co-products from the copra, palm kernel, and rice industries in diets fed to pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Hans Henrik; Casas, Gloria Amparo; Abelilla, Jerubella Jerusalem; Liu, Yanhong; Sulabo, Rommel Casilda

    2015-01-01

    High fiber co-products from the copra and palm kernel industries are by-products of the production of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. The co-products include copra meal, copra expellers, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel expellers. All 4 ingredients are very high in fiber and the energy value is relatively low when fed to pigs. The protein concentration is between 14 and 22?% and the protein has a low biological value and a very high Arg:Lys ratio. Digestibility of most amino acids is less t...

  7. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while

  8. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  9. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Assessing Significance in High-Throughput Experiments by Sequential Goodness of Fit and q-Value Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Rodriguez, Antonio; de Uña-Alvarez, Jacobo

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new multiple hypothesis testing adjustment called SGoF+ implemented as a sequential goodness of fit metatest which is a modification of a previous algorithm, SGoF, taking advantage of the information of the distribution of p-values in order to fix the rejection region. The new method uses a discriminant rule based on the maximum distance between the uniform distribution of p-values and the observed one, to set the null for a binomial test. This new approach shows a better power/pFDR ratio than SGoF. In fact SGoF+ automatically sets the threshold leading to the maximum power and the minimum false non-discovery rate inside the SGoF' family of algorithms. Additionally, we suggest combining the information provided by SGoF+ with the estimate of the FDR that has been committed when rejecting a given set of nulls. We study different positive false discovery rate, pFDR, estimation methods to combine q-value estimates jointly with the information provided by the SGoF+ method. Simulations suggest that the combination of SGoF+ metatest with the q-value information is an interesting strategy to deal with multiple testing issues. These techniques are provided in the latest version of the SGoF+ software freely available at http://webs.uvigo.es/acraaj/SGoF.htm. PMID:21931819

  11. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  12. The effect of addition high rape cake and phytase on nutritive value of diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high rape cake content and phytase added to phosphorus and calcium deficient diets on the nutritive value for broiler chickens. Two experiments were performed: a growth experiment on four groups of one-day-old broilers Ross 308, 30 birds per group (6 replications x 5 birds and a digestibility experiment on 60 chickens divided into four groups of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds. The digestibility of the starter diets were evaluated on chickens at 7 days of age and of grower diets at 28 days of age. The diets used in the digestibility tests were the same for the growth trial. In the growth experiment four diets were prepared for the due periods: starters (1-21 day and growers (22-49 day of chicken life. The control diet (SBM did not contain rape cake, while experimental diets contained 15% (starters and 20% (growers rape cake of Lirajet cultivar. The experimental diet denoted RC HP had P and Ca contents equal the control diet (phosphorus about 7.5 g and calcium about 10 g.kg-1, while the diet denoted as RC LP contained less P and Ca (5.8 g and 6.8 g.kg-1 respectively than the control and RC HP diets. The diet denoted RC LP+ Phy was supplemented with an enzyme preparation containing phytase at a quantity of 875 FYT.kg-1. Application of 15% of rape cake into starter and 20% into grower diets (RC HP allowed for similar body weights and feed conversion ratio as the control group, whereas reduction of phosphorus and calcium content in the starter diet (RC LP significantly decreased body weight at day 21. The addition of phytase to the starter diet with low level of phosphorus and calcium showed the tendency to improve body weight in this period. Application of rape cake into starter and grower diets had poor effects on fat digestibility in all groups, whereas supplementation of grower diets with a low level of phytase phosphorus and calcium improved the digestibility of total phosphorus in

  13. Explainable expert systems: A research program in information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Cecile L.

    1993-01-01

    Our work in Explainable Expert Systems (EES) had two goals: to extend and enhance the range of explanations that expert systems can offer, and to ease their maintenance and evolution. As suggested in our proposal, these goals are complementary because they place similar demands on the underlying architecture of the expert system: they both require the knowledge contained in a system to be explicitly represented, in a high-level declarative language and in a modular fashion. With these two goals in mind, the Explainable Expert Systems (EES) framework was designed to remedy limitations to explainability and evolvability that stem from related fundamental flaws in the underlying architecture of current expert systems.

  14. Advantages of high b-value diffusion-weighted imaging to diagnose pseudo-responses in patients with recurrent glioma after bevacizumab treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Aoki, Tomokazu [Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto 612-8555 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masami [Department of Neurosurgery, Otagawa Hospital, Hiroshima 732-0009 (Japan); Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Akiyama, Yuji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko, E-mail: sugiyama-hma@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Background: The diagnosis of pseudo-responses after bevacizumab treatment is difficult. Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is associated with cell density, it may facilitate the differentiation between true- and pseudo-responses. Furthermore, as high b-value DWI is even more sensitive to diffusion, it has been reported to be diagnostically useful in various clinical settings. Materials and methods: Between September 2008 and May 2011, 10 patients (5 males, 5 females; age range 6–65 years) with recurrent glioma were treated with bevacizumab. All underwent pre- and post-treatment MRI including T2- or FLAIR imaging, post-gadolinium contrast T1-weighted imaging, and DWI with b-1000 and b-4000. Response rates were evaluated by MacDonald- and by response assessment in neuro-oncology working group (RANO) criteria. We also assessed the response rate by calculating the size of high intensity areas using high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria. Prognostic factors were evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival curves (log-rank test). Results: It was easier to identify pseudo-responses with RANO- than MacDonald criteria, however the reduction of edema by bevacizumab rendered the early diagnosis of tumor progression difficult by RANO criteria. In some patients with recurrent glioma treated with bevacizumab, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria did, while MacDonald- and RANO criteria did not identify pseudo-responses at an early point after the start of therapy. Discussion and conclusion: High b-value DWI reflects cell density more accurately than regular b-value DWI. Our findings suggest that in patients with recurrent glioma, high b-value diffusion-weighted criteria are useful for the differentiation between pseudo- and true responses to treatment with bevacizumab.

  15. Positive predictive value of device-detected atrial high-rate episodes at different rates and durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, Elizabeth S; Israel, Carsten W; Nair, Girish M

    2012-01-01

    of oral anticoagulation, it is crucial to understand the relationship between AHREs and true AT/AF. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positive predictive value of AHREs for electrogram-confirmed AT/AF for various atrial rates and episode durations. METHODS: By using data from 2580 patients who participated...... in the ASymptomatic atrial fibrillation and Stroke Evaluation in pacemaker patients and the AF Reduction atrial pacing Trial, all AHREs >6 minutes and >190 beats/min with available electrograms were reviewed to determine whether they represented true AT/AF. The positive predictive value of these AHREs was assessed...... for episode durations of 6 minutes, 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours at atrial rates of 190 and 250 beats/min. RESULTS: Of 5769 AHREs >6 minutes and >190 beats/min, 82.7% were true AT/AF and 17.3% were false positives (predominantly due to repetitive non-re-entrant ventriculoatrial synchrony). False...

  16. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie

    2012-10-17

    In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables

  17. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  18. Symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women is acceptable and has high negative predictive value for active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Gupte, Nikhil; Patil, Sandesh; Bhosale, Ramesh; Sambarey, Pradeep; Ghorpade, Shivahari; Nayak, Uma; Garda, Laila; Sastry, Jayagowri; Bharadwaj, Renu; Bollinger, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated tuberculosis (TB) screening among 799 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women in India. Eleven (1.4%) had active TB. The negative predictive value of screening using cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss was 99.3%. Tuberculin skin test and targeted chest radiography provided no substantial benefit. TB symptom screening, as recommended by the World Health Organization, is effective for ruling out TB in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  19. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  20. Optical In-Situ Measurement of the pH-Value During High Pressure Treatment of Fluid Food

    OpenAIRE

    Stippl, Volker Michael

    2006-01-01

    In addition to heat treatment of food used to enhance shelf life, the relevance of the application of hydrostatic pressures is increasing. With treatment of several 100 MPa many food-spoiling microorganisms can be completely eliminated, while valuable properties such as vitamins, colouring, smell and taste are mostly preserved. Equilibrium constants change with pressure. Consequently, both the pH-value of a solution and the behaviour of pH-sensitive reactions change, e.g. the pH-optimum of an...

  1. ANALYZING SHORT (100 METERS AND MIDDLE DISTANCE (800 - 1200 METERS RUNNING AND COORDINATION VALUES ACCORDING TO SPORTS BRANCHES OF STUDENTS WHO TAKE ENTRANCE EXAMS TO SPORTS HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yılmaz ALBAYRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, t h e p u r p o s e was to determine the changes in accordance with running and coordination values of children who took the entrance examinations of sports high scholl in the 5 year period and assess them according to the branches as 100 and 800 meters running for female, 100 and 1200 meters running for men. In accordance with this aim, test values of total 1306 students (m = 1061, f = 245, average age = 14 who participated in entrance examinations in a 5 years duration including 2008, 2 009, 2010, 2011, 2012 years in the region of Antalya for sports high school were analyzed. As an statistical analyze, One way ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (which are LSD, Least Significant Difference tests were used. As a result of statistical anal yses, although the candidates who took the tests in the region of Antalya, change along 5 years duration, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in the running values of male children (p0,05. Likewise, while obtaining a statistically significant difference in 100 meters running values of female children (p0,05. In addition there was no any statistically significant difference in 100, 800 meters running values and coordination values of female children according to branches (p>0,05. Consequently, it can be suggested that there were no changes in speed times of both male and female children in along 5 years duration in region of Antalya. It can be inferred that while there is a significant change in values of running and coordination of males, the reason why female children were not able to show c hanges in their values should be because they show less imrovement in sports branches. In addition, male students in track and field branch gained the highest degrees both in 100 m and coordination tracks. Thus, it can be said that someone having good spee d has good coordination too.

  2. Relationships between Post-materialistic Values and Religiousness, Attitudes towards Nationalism, and Attitudes towards Gender Roles among High School Students in the City of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sinovčić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Inglehart's modernisation theory, socio-economic growth leads to changes in values. Following a longer period of economic growth, a gradual change from materialistic to post-materialistic values is established. The main goal of this study, which is based on Inglehart's theory, was to assess the relationship between post-materialistic values on one side and religiousness, attitudes towards nationalism, and attitudes towards gender roles on the other among high school students in the city of Split. The research was conducted on a convenience sample of 427 high school students from Split (there were 269 female students and 158 male students with the average age of 17 years. The results indicated that the students from the sample had mixed materialistic and post-materialistic values. Statistically significant differences were found between male and female students in all measured variables. For this reason, analyses were conducted separately by gender. Using multiple regression analysis, it was established that the model with post-materialistic values as the outcome was statistically significant regardless of gender. Discriminative analysis additionally showed that the measured attitudes discriminated groups of students with different levels of post-materialistic values (most prominently, attitudes towards gender roles and religiousness among female students, and attitudes towards nationalism and gender roles among male students. The main finding of the study was that of a difference between male and female students in terms of measured religiousness and two sets of attitudes, as well as gender differences in the relationship between the measured religiousness and the measured attitudes on one side and post-materialistic values on the other. Higher post-materialistic values were associated with lower religiousness among female students and lower acceptance of nationalism among male students.

  3. High virulence differences among phylogenetically distinct isolates of the fish rhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus are not explained by variability of the surface glycoprotein G or the non-virion protein Nv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Harmache, Abdallah; Biacchesi, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is an important viral pathogen in European rainbow trout farming. Isolates from wild marine fish and freshwater trout farms show highly different virulence profiles: isolates from marine fish species cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout following...... experimental waterborne challenge, whilst challenge with rainbow trout isolates results in high levels of mortality. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the highly virulent trout-derived isolates from freshwater farms have evolved from VHSV isolates from marine fish host species over the past 60 years....... Recent isolates from rainbow trout reared in marine zones show intermediate virulence. The present study aimed to identify molecular virulence markers that could be used to classify VHSV isolates according to their ability to cause disease in rainbow trout. By a reverse genetics approach using a VHSV...

  4. An overview of the impact of electrotechnologies for the recovery of oil and high-value compounds from vegetable oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puértolas, Eduardo; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oil recovery from oilseeds and fruits is one of the food processes where efficiency is the key to ensure profitability. Wastes and by-products generated during oil production process are, on the other hand, a great source of high-added value compounds that could be recovered in turn at a later...

  5. GLA:D to have a high-value option for patients with knee and hip arthritis across four continents: Good Life with osteoArthritis from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M; Barton, Christian J; Davis, Aileen M

    2018-01-01

    in the toolbox for clinicians who manage middle-aged and older people with painful knees and hips. The programme is a not-for-profit initiative hosted by the University of Southern Denmark, and has a registered trademark to help maintain programme quality. GLA:D provides an effective, high-value alternative...

  6. Smallholder participation in high value agro-export chains in Peru. A study of the co-evolution of technology and institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.J. Helmsing (Bert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstract[Introduction] In essence poverty is not only about lack of resources but also about the lack of opportunities. High value, tradable crops may provide opportunities to escape from what Dorward et al (2005) call a ‘low level equilibrium trap’ but as they observe there are important

  7. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina Simonèiè; Thomas A. Spies; Robert L. Deal; Andrej Bonèina

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal...

  8. The use of the psychological contract to explain turnover intentions in the hospitality industry : A research study on the impact of age categories and gender on turnover intentions of highly educated employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.; Rheede, van A.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the psychological contract approach to the employment relationship within the hospitality industry with special reference to highly educated employees. The purpose was to research the differences in the psychological contract and its relation to the intention to leave

  9. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest...

  10. Value-added Synthesis of Graphene: Recycling Industrial Carbon Waste into Electrodes for High-Performance Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Sik; Park, Chibeom; Xu, Wentao; Baek, Kangkyun; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Kimoon; Choi, Hee Cheul; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a simple, scalable, transfer-free, ecologically sustainable, value-added method to convert inexpensive coal tar pitch to patterned graphene films directly on device substrates. The method, which does not require an additional transfer process, enables direct growth of graphene films on device substrates in large area. To demonstrate the practical applications of the graphene films, we used the patterned graphene grown on a dielectric substrate directly as electrodes of bottom-contact pentacene field-effect transistors (max. field effect mobility ~0.36 cm2·V-1·s-1), without using any physical transfer process. This use of a chemical waste product as a solid carbon source instead of commonly used explosive hydrocarbon gas sources for graphene synthesis has the dual benefits of converting the waste to a valuable product, and reducing pollution.

  11. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  12. Cranial CT in high-risk and premature children: Its diagnostic value for prognoses of early infantile development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, H.

    1983-01-01

    CT examinations were carried out in 75 high-risk and premature children: 40% of these were re-examined at a later stage in infancy. All children were also examined under the aspect of developmental neurology. The small number of cases made it impossible to make a reliable prognosis of the later development of perinatal high-risk patients, especially as the follow-up examinations were discontinued after infancy. Still, the findings have been validated by experience in the meantime. (orig.) [de

  13. Phonon renormalization at small q values in the high-temperature phase of CsCuCl sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Foerster, U; Schotte, U; Stuhr, U

    1997-01-01

    The hexagonal perovskite CsCuCl sub 3 exhibits a structural phase transition from a dynamically disordered high-temperature phase to an ordered low-temperature phase due to the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect. The lattice dynamics of the high-temperature phase has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The investigations concentrated on small wave vectors q, where for the first time renormalized phonons at q=0.02-0.05 A sup - sup 1 could be observed. The measurements confirm the predictions of a theoretical approach based on the coupling between dynamic reorientation processes and acoustic lattice waves (pseudo-spin phonon coupling). (author)

  14. High virulence differences among phylogenetically distinct isolates of the fish rhabdovirus viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus are not explained by variability of the surface glycoprotein G or the non-virion protein Nv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Harmache, Abdallah; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Bremont, Michel; Stegmann, Anders; Lorenzen, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is an important viral pathogen in European rainbow trout farming. Isolates from wild marine fish and freshwater trout farms show highly different virulence profiles: isolates from marine fish species cause little or no mortality in rainbow trout following experimental waterborne challenge, whilst challenge with rainbow trout isolates results in high levels of mortality. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the highly virulent trout-derived isolates from freshwater farms have evolved from VHSV isolates from marine fish host species over the past 60 years. Recent isolates from rainbow trout reared in marine zones show intermediate virulence. The present study aimed to identify molecular virulence markers that could be used to classify VHSV isolates according to their ability to cause disease in rainbow trout. By a reverse genetics approach using a VHSV-related novirhabdovirus [infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV)], four chimaeric IHNV-VHSV recombinant viruses were generated. These chimaeric viruses included substitution of the IHNV glyco- (G) or non-structural (Nv) protein with their counterparts from either a trout-derived or a marine VHSV strain. Comparative challenge experiments in rainbow trout fingerlings revealed similar levels of survival induced by the recombinant (r)IHNV-VHSV chimaeric viruses regardless of whether the G or Nv genes originated from VHSV isolated from a marine fish species or from rainbow trout. Interestingly, recombinant IHNV gained higher virulence following substitution of the G gene with those of the VHSV strains, whilst the opposite was the case following substitution of the Nv genes.

  15. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Troponin T in Chronic Heart Failure: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimo, Alberto; Januzzi, James L; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Ripoli, Andrea; Latini, Roberto; Masson, Serge; Magnoli, Michela; Anand, Inder S; Cohn, Jay N; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tognoni, Gianni; Gravning, Jørgen; Ueland, Thor; Nymo, Ståle H; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Lupón, Josep; de Boer, Rudolf A; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Egstrup, Michael; Gustafsson, Ida; Gaggin, Hanna K; Eggers, Kai M; Huber, Kurt; Tentzeris, Ioannis; Tang, Wai H W; Grodin, Justin; Passino, Claudio; Emdin, Michele

    2018-01-16

    Most patients with chronic heart failure have detectable troponin concentrations when evaluated by high-sensitivity assays. The prognostic relevance of this finding has not been clearly established so far. We aimed to assess high-sensitivity troponin assay for risk stratification in chronic heart failure through a meta-analysis approach. Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched in April 2017 by 2 independent authors. The terms were "troponin" AND "heart failure" OR "cardiac failure" OR "cardiac dysfunction" OR "cardiac insufficiency" OR "left ventricular dysfunction." Inclusion criteria were English language, clinical stability, use of a high-sensitivity troponin assay, follow-up studies, and availability of individual patient data after request to authors. Data retrieved from articles and provided by authors were used in agreement with the PRISMA statement. The end points were all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for cardiovascular cause. Ten studies were included, reporting data on 11 cohorts and 9289 patients (age 66±12 years, 77% men, 60% ischemic heart failure, 85% with left ventricular ejection fraction failure, high-sensitivity troponin T is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and of hospitalization for cardiovascular causes, as well. This biomarker then represents an additional tool for prognostic stratification. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The value of crossdating to retain high-frequency variability, climate signals, and extreme events in environmental proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan A. Black; Daniel Griffin; Peter van der Sleen; Alan D. Wanamaker; James H. Speer; David C. Frank; David W. Stahle; Neil Pederson; Carolyn A. Copenheaver; Valerie Trouet; Shelly Griffin; Bronwyn M. Gillanders

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution biogenic and geologic proxies in which one increment or layer is formed per year are crucial to describing natural ranges of environmental variability in Earth's physical and biological systems. However, dating controls are necessary to ensure temporal precision and accuracy; simple counts cannot ensure that all layers are placed correctly in time...

  17. Optimal cutoff values for high-risk waist circumference in older adults based on related health outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heim, N.; Snijder, M.B.; Heijmans, M.W.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Seidell, J.C.; Visser, M.

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to explore optimal cutoffs for high-risk waist circumference (WC) in older adults to assess the health risks of obesity. Prospective data from 4,996 measurements in 2,232 participants aged ≥70 years were collected during 5 triennial measurement cycles (1992/1993-2005/2006) of a

  18. Wertigkeit und Frequenz in der Lexis hochspezialisierter medizinischer Texte (Value and Frequency in the Lexicon of Highly Specialized Medical Texts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Norbert

    1977-01-01

    A statistical study produced a list of 350 highly "learnworthy" words from the specialized medical vocabulary of German, for the benefit of English-, French-, and Spanish-speaking students. The words are ranked and listed according to frequency, range, and difficulty of learning. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  19. Time-Valued-Technology: A Light-Emitting Diode Case Study for Determining Replacement Strategy for High Technology Infrastructure Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    viii I. Introduction .....................................................................................................................1...DIODE CASE STUDY FOR DETERMINING REPLACEMENT STRATEGY FOR HIGH TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE ITEMS I. Introduction In an effort to support cost... MCDM Models, Algorithms, Theory, and Applications. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Norwell, Ma. GE Commercial Lighting Products. Retrieved 11/2/2011

  20. Origin of Cl{sup -} and high δ{sup 37}Cl values in radiocarbon dated-fracture groundwaters at the Tournemire URL (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matray, Jean-Michel; Dauzeres, Alexandre [IRSN, BP17 - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    Fracture groundwaters collected from the indurated Toarcian/Domerian clay rock in the IRSN Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Tournemire (south of France) are rare and limited in volume. The present study aims at resolving an apparent contradiction observed for these groundwaters: how can these groundwaters in transmissive fractures contain indicators of both geologically young and old residence times? Young residence times on the order of a few thousand years are indicated by the presence of {sup 14}C, and old residence times appear to be indicated by the extraordinarily positive δ{sup 37}Cl values, between 5 and 80/00 vs SMOC. These highly enriched δ{sup 37}Cl values might be attributed to a long diffusive transport (on the order of tens of million years) between the semi-permeable clay rock sequence and its surrounding aquifers, as estimated by modeling in a companion paper. Knowledge of the geometry of the fractures and the diffusion parameters in the intact clay rock allowed us to propose a 2D modeling for the transport of chloride and its stable isotopes using the Hytec code. Simulations applied to borehole M3 data show that the measured Cl values in the fracture groundwater are consistent with a diffusive exchange between the unaltered argillite pore water and meteoric waters that infiltrated in the fracture about 26 ka ago and have become isolated since then. This result is in good agreement with previously estimated maximum {sup 14}C residence times for these fracture groundwaters. The modeled δ{sup 37}Cl value at 26 ka would be enriched by only 0.020/00 with respect to the initial imposed value for the argillite, which remains in the analytical uncertainty of ±0.20/00. These simulations provide evidence that the aqueous chloride and high δ{sup 37}Cl values may reflect values of the unaltered argillite pore water. (authors)